The survival of lactic acid bacteria in rumen fluid

Department of Bacteriology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA
Journal of Applied Microbiology (Impact Factor: 2.48). 05/2003; 94(6):1066 - 1071. DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-2672.2003.01942.x


Aims: To determine whether lactic acid bacteria (LAB) used in inoculants for silage can survive in rumen fluid (RF), and to identify those that survive best.
Methods and Results: Twelve commercial silage inoculants were added at 107 CFU ml−1 to strained RF (SRF) taken from dairy cows, with and without 5 g l−1 glucose and incubated in vitro at 39°C. Changes in pH, LAB numbers and fermentation products were monitored for 72 h. In the inoculated RF with glucose, the pH decreased and numbers of LAB increased. The inoculants varied with regard to their effect on pH change and growth. In the SRF, both with and without glucose, the pH values of the inoculated samples were generally higher than those of the uninoculated controls throughout most of the incubation period. This may suggest a positive effect on the rumen environment.
Conclusions: LAB used in silage inoculants can survive in RF in vitro.
Significance and Impact of the Study: This is the first step in studying the probiotic potential of silage LAB inoculants for dairy cattle. The survival of these LAB in RF may enable them to interact with rumen microorganisms and to affect rumen functionality.

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    • "Furthermore, changes in rumen bacterial composition, increased activities of lactate-utilizing bacteria and greater lactate consumption also affect ruminal pH [13, 20, 21]. A stable ruminal pH may result from decreased fermentation by LAB and other carbohydrate fermenters, which inhabit low-pH environments [39]. Nocek et al. [27] reported that cows fed fewer probiotic maintained a greater pH than cows fed high concentration without probiotic, and they suggested that a probiotic consisting of LAB produced sufficient acid to stimulate acid utilizers. "
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    ABSTRACT: Twelve ruminally cannulated Holstein calves (age, 12 ± 3 weeks) were used to identify the effect of a probiotic comprised of Lactobacillus plantarum, Enterococcus faecium and Clostridium butyricum, on ruminal components. The calves were adapted to a diet containing a 50% high-concentrate (standard diet) for 1 week, and then the probiotic was given once daily for 5 days (day 1-5) at 1.5 or 3.0 g/100 kg body weight to groups of four calves each. Four additional calves fed the standard diet without probiotic served as the corresponding control. Ruminal pH was measured continuously throughout the 15-day experimental period. Ruminal fluid was collected via a fistula at a defined time predose and on days 7 and 14 to assess volatile fatty acid (VFA), lactic acid, and ammonia-nitrogen concentrations, as well as the bacterial community. The probiotic at either dose improved the reduced 24-hr mean ruminal pH in calves. The circadian patterns of the 1 hr mean ruminal pH were identical between the probiotic doses. In both probiotic groups, ruminal lactic acid concentrations remained significantly lower than that of the control. Probiotic did not affect ruminal VFA concentrations. L. plantarum and C. butyricum were not detected in the rumen of calves given the high-dose probiotic, whereas Enterococcus spp. remained unchanged. These results suggest that calves given a probiotic had stable ruminal pH levels (6.6-6.8), presumably due to the effects of the probiotic on stabilizing rumen-predominant bacteria, which consume greater lactate in the rumen.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
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    • "The effect of LAB on the rumen environment has been studied in a number of experiments. Lactic acid bacteria can survive during in vitro ruminal incubation and potentially affect volatile fatty acids (VFA) composition (Weinberg et al., 2003, 2004). Muck et al. (2007) demonstrated that microbial silage inoculants had an effect on in vitro ruminal gas and VFA production, but effects differed by inoculant. "
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    ABSTRACT: In four parallel experiments, herbage [three harvests of alfalfa (308 to 379 g dry matter (DM)/kg), one of whole-plant corn (331 g DM/kg)] was ensiled with three different treatments: no inoculant (control), Lactobacillus plantarum (LP) or formic acid (FA), in 1-L mini-silos and fermented for 60 d at room temperature (22 °C). Mini-silos were opened and analyzed for fermentation characteristics and soluble N fractions. A subsample of wet silage from each mini-silo was ground to 4 mm and stored at −20 °C. Silages were thawed and subjected to 9 h ruminal in vitro incubations to measure gas production and volatile fatty acid (VFA) production as well as microbial biomass yield (MBY) and microbial non-ammonia N (MNAN) formation using 15N as a marker. In all four experiments, silage fermentation products and pH indicated good preservation across all treatments. Analysis of data showed that FA- and LP-treated silages had lower concentrations of ammonia-N and free amino acids N than control. The FA treatment was lower in soluble N, but higher in peptide-N, than control. Silage pH was lowest in FA (4.25), followed by LP (4.28), and control (4.38). Ruminal in vitro gas production and VFA concentrations were not different among treatments (P>0.05). Compared to control, FA- and LP-treated silage yielded greater MNAN and MBY. These findings suggested that L. plantarum preserved more true protein during silage fermentation than control, which in turn increased in vitro ruminal microbial growth.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2013 · Animal Feed Science and Technology
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    • "When the silo is opened, the anaerobic environment is changed to an aerobic one and microorganisms which remain dormant in the absence of air multiply, resulting in a deterioration of silages, especially in warm climates (Woolford, 1990; Ashbell et al., 2002). Many workers have found that aerobic deterioration resulted from the activity of aerobic bacteria, yeast and mold utilizing residue WSC and lactic acid producing a rising pH and energy loss and even the possibility of producing harmful by products (Honig et al., 1980; MuDonald et al., 1991; Weinberg et al., 2003). Therefore, less pH change indicates good aerobic stability of silage. "
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    ABSTRACT: The changes in yields and nutritive composition of whole crop wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) during maturation and effects of maturity stage and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) inoculants on the fermentation quality and aerobic stability were investigated under laboratory conditions. Whole crop wheat harvested at three maturation stages: flowering stage, milk stage and dough stage. Two strains of LAB (Lactobacillus plantarum: LAB1, Lactobacillus parafarraqinis: LAB2) were inoculated for wheat ensiling at 1.0×10(5) colony forming units per gram of fresh forage. The results indicated that wheat had higher dry matter yields at the milk and dough stages. The highest water-soluble carbohydrates content, crude protein yields and relative feed value of wheat were obtained at the milk stage, while contents of crude fiber, neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber were the lowest, compared to the flowering and dough stages. Lactic acid contents of wheat silage significantly decreased with maturity. Inoculating homofermentative LAB1 markedly reduced pH values and ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N) content (p<0.05) of silages at three maturity stages compared with their corresponding controls. Inoculating heterofermentative LAB2 did not significantly influence pH values, whereas it notably lowered lactic acid and NH3-N content (p<0.05) and effectively improved the aerobic stability of silages. In conclusion, considering both yields and nutritive value, whole crop wheat as forage should be harvested at the milk stage. Inoculating LAB1 improved the fermentation quality, while inoculating LAB2 enhanced the aerobic stability of wheat silages at different maturity stages.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2012 · Asian Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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