Article

Klink CA, Machado RB.. Conservation of the Brazilian Cerrado. Conserv Biol 19: 707-713

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Abstract

The Cerrado is one of the world's biodiversity hotspots. In the last 35 years, more than 50% of its approximately 2 million km² has been transformed into pasture and agricultural lands planted in cash crops. The Cerrado has the richest flora among the world's savannas (>7000 species) and high levels of endemism. Species richness of birds, fishes, reptiles, amphibians, and insects is equally high, whereas mammal diversity is relatively low. Deforestation rates have been higher in the Cerrado than in the Amazon rainforest, and conservation efforts have been modest: only 2.2% of its area is under legal protection. Numerous animal and plant species are threatened with extinction, and an estimated 20% of threatened and endemic species do not occur in protected areas. Soil erosion, the degradation of the diverse Cerrado vegetation formations, and the spread of exotic grasses are widespread and major threats. The use of fire for clearing land and to encourage new growth for pasture has also caused damage, even though the Cerrado is a fire-adapted ecosystem. Ecosystem experiments and modeling show that change in land cover is altering the hydrology and affecting carbon stocks and fluxes. Cerrado agriculture is lucrative, and agricultural expansion is expected to continue, requiring improvements in and extension of the transportation infrastructure, which will affect not only the Cerrado but also the Amazon forest. Large-scale landscape modification and threats to numerous species have led to renewed interest from various sectors in promoting the conservation of the Cerrado, particularly through strengthening and enlarging the system of protected areas and improving farming practices and thus the livelihoods of local communities.

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... In Brazil, the CUs are of Integral Protection (IP) or Sustainable Use (SU). Klink and Machado (2005) pointed out that the Cerrado had 2.2% as IP conservation unit, 1.9% in SU, and 4.1% in Indigenous Lands (IL), summing up 8.2% of a protected area. Arruda et al. (2008) state that the Cerrado had 2.5% of protected areas (PA) in Conservation Units, but including Indigenous Lands (IL), this value rose to 6.5%. ...
... The destruction of Cerrado's ecosystems continues at an accelerated rate (Klink and Machado, 2005) due to central Brazil's economic expansion, which began in the 1970 s (Dias, 1990). In the early 1990 s, almost 40% of the cerrado had already been replaced, mainly by plantations of soybeans, beans, corn, eucalyptus, pasture, and by the removal of charcoal used by the steel industries without any measure to ensure sustainable production use in cerrado areas (Felfili and Silva, 1993). ...
... However, this project has no deforestation assessment for cerrado enclaves in Caatinga and Atlantic Forest. Klink and Machado (2005) state that the annual deforestation rate average was 40,000 km 2 between 1970and 1975. Between 1985, the average was 30,000 km 2 /year, and between 1993 and 2002, the average was 13,500 km 2 /year (Machado et al., 2004). ...
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The Cerrado contains a wide variety of vegetation types, and it is known for its high biodiversity but is highly threatened. We review the changes through time of geographical limits, studies on flora distribution patterns, and conservation status of Cerrado. Even with advances in technology, only the first government official map of Cerrado in 1993 included disjunct cerrado vegetations, that is, cerrado enclaves in other phytogeographic domains. The lack of cerrado enclaves delimiting and changes of geographical limits of Cerrado affects the land regulations because Brazilian government programs, or even laws, can be specific to a phytogeographic domain. Cerrado flora distribution presented a consistent pattern among studies along time, in which different regions show high similarity in their floristic composition, namely Biogeographic Districts (BD). We need conservation actions in each BD, since protected areas and deforestation rates are uneven among the BDs. Today, only 8.36% of cerrado are in Conservations Units (CU), far from the goal of 17% by 2020. Only 6.51% of cerrado are Indigenous Lands (IL). Both protected areas (CU and IL) have practically not increased since 2009. Discounting area overlapped, only 14.41% of Cerrado territory is in Protected Areas. The clear-cut deforested area reached 49.9% of Cerrado in 2019. From 2016 to 2019, the average annual deforestation rate is proportionally 78% higher than in Amazon. In recent years, the higher deforestation rates are in the states of North and Northeast of Brazil. We need strategic plans to conserve areas in all Biogeographic Districts, including disjunct cerrado areas, and think out how to reduce deforestation rates and promote sustainability actions.
... The species were identified following Patton et al. (2015) for Rodentia, Rylands et al. (2012) for Primates and Wilson and Reeder (2005), and Paglia et al. (2012) for other taxa; tracks were identified using specialized literature (Becker and Dalponte, 1991;Emmons and Feer 1997). Species nomenclature followed the most recent The Cerrado is the most biodiversity-rich savannah in the world, and the second-largest Brazilian biome (Klink and Machado, 2005). It is considered one of the world's hotspots for biodiversity conservations due to its high number of endemic species and increasing anthropogenic pressure (Myers et al., 2000). ...
... It is considered one of the world's hotspots for biodiversity conservations due to its high number of endemic species and increasing anthropogenic pressure (Myers et al., 2000). Even though more than half of the Cerrado has been converted to pastures or other anthropogenic land uses (Klink and Machado, 2005), it still has a high diversity of mammal species with more than 251 recorded, of which 32 are considered endemic (Paglia et al., 2012;ICMBIO, 2018). However, according to the Brazilian Red List of Threatened Species (ICMBIO, 2018) and the Red List of Threatened Species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN, 2020), at least 41 mammal species are listed as threatened in the Cerrado (Gutiérrez and Marinho-Filho, 2017;ICMBIO, 2018). ...
... In this context, an effective strategy for protecting biodiversity, ecosystem services, historical and cultural values are the Protected Areas (PAs). However, the Cerrado has less than 10% of its entire extension formally protected by PAs, which are not fully effective in protecting threatened species and ecosystems (Fonseca et al., 2010;Klink and Machado, 2005). Therefore, only 3% of these PAs are categorized as strict protection, while more than 5% fall into sustainable use categories, including private protected areas (PPAs), known in Brazil as "Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural (RPPN)", covering about 0,07% of the Cerrado domain (Françoso et al., 2015). ...
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Brazil is the world's richest country in biodiversity, including mammal species. In the Brazilian Cerrado biome, mammalian diversity is vast, with about 251 species, 32 of them are endemic and 22 listed as threatened species. In this work, we investigated species diversity of medium- and large-sized mammals in the private protected area RPPN Pontal do Jaburu (RPPN-PJ) and its surroundings, which is a flooded area located in an important biological corridor in the Cerrado-Amazon ecotone zone, a priority area for biodiversity conservation in Brazil. We used camera-trapping, active search (night and day), and track survey during dry season (Apr – Aug 2016). We recorded 29 mammal species, being the Carnivora order the most representative with 11 species. Regarding threat status, 35.7% of the recorded species were listed as threatened in Brazil and 32.1% worldwide. We highlight the high relative frequency of threatened species records such as Tapirus terrestris, Panthera onca, Blastocerus dichotomus, Pteronura brasiliensis, Priodontes maximus, and other, as well as the presence of the newly described aquatic mammal species Inia araguaiaensis. We stress the importance of RPPN-PJ and its surroundings for mammal conservation, which include complex habitats (wetlands) located in an important ecotone zone.
... It is the second largest biome in the country (CASTRO et al., 2016) Approximately half of the areas destined to agriculture and cattle farming in Brazil are in the Cerrado, which experienced high rates of deforestation in recent years (IBAMA, 2015;SPERA et al., 2016). The high levels of vegetation conversion are associated with other threats to the Cerrado's biodiversity, such as soil erosion and compaction, the siltation of rivers and groundwater contamination (Klink &Machado, 2005 andCunha et al., 2008), which may generate serious consequences to the environment. ...
... It is the second largest biome in the country (CASTRO et al., 2016) Approximately half of the areas destined to agriculture and cattle farming in Brazil are in the Cerrado, which experienced high rates of deforestation in recent years (IBAMA, 2015;SPERA et al., 2016). The high levels of vegetation conversion are associated with other threats to the Cerrado's biodiversity, such as soil erosion and compaction, the siltation of rivers and groundwater contamination (Klink &Machado, 2005 andCunha et al., 2008), which may generate serious consequences to the environment. ...
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The Brazilian Cerrado is the second largest biome in Brazil, occupying approximately 25% of the national territory. It is characterized by an expressive biodiversity of fauna and flora, and it is considered the richest savanna in the world. Despite its environmental importance, it is considerably endangered and still undervalued in terms of conservation. Due to its flat lands, agricultural activities are largely developed in the Cerrado. Thus, more detailed studies in this region are necessary to help define mitigation measures against degradation, as well as conservation plans. This paper sets out to represent the geomorphology of the Cerrado based on geomorphometric parameters, using a semi-automatic relief classification method. Four metric parameters were considered for defining and characterizing the relief units: available relief, slope, orientation and shapes of the slopes. Representing geomorphological models with these parameters enables more reliable descriptions of real conditions. The geomorphological mapping of the Cerrado via mathematical modelling allows describing its key geomorphometric archetypes through six metric relief-classes that represent their actual conditions.
... Despite their high levels of diversity and endemism, the savannas and grasslands of South America have received little attention from a conservation point of view, compared to tropical forests (Overbeck & Pfadenhauer, 2007), because they were seen as degraded lands produced by both natural and human disturbances Bond & Parr, 2010;Silveira et al., 2020). For example, the Cerrado (savanna) is the second largest biome in South America, and it has a high level of endemic species ranging from 35% trees to 70% herbaceous and shrubby plants (Klink & Machado, 2005;Pennington et al., 2006;Ratter et al., 2006). However, this biome has lost more than half of its original vegetation in the last 35 years and at present, only 2. 2% of the Cerrado area is under protection (Klink & Machado, 2005). ...
... For example, the Cerrado (savanna) is the second largest biome in South America, and it has a high level of endemic species ranging from 35% trees to 70% herbaceous and shrubby plants (Klink & Machado, 2005;Pennington et al., 2006;Ratter et al., 2006). However, this biome has lost more than half of its original vegetation in the last 35 years and at present, only 2. 2% of the Cerrado area is under protection (Klink & Machado, 2005). Currently, there is great concern about the loss of biodiversity due to the destruction and modification of natural habitats caused by human activity (IPBES, 2019). ...
Article
Areas of endemism are a standard unit of biogeography and are commonly used for analytical biogeographic analyses as a criterion to identify areas for conservation. Galianthe is a genus of 56 species of mainly herbaceous plants from the family Rubiaceae found in the Neotropics, occurring in campos rupestres (quartzitic rock outcrops), cerrado (savanna), lowland grasslands, campos de altitude (highland grasslands), sasonally dry tropical forests (caatinga vegetation), and savanna hillsides. Currently, the conservation status assessment is only known for eleven species of Galianthe, and there have been no previous attempts to identify areas of endemism for the genus. In view of this, we used the NDM/VNDM software to analyze the distribution of the 56 species of Galianthe to identify areas of endemism and to recognize which species define each area. We also evaluated the conservation status of forty-five species for first time, according to the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) guidelines. Our finding identified 12 areas of endemism with three cell sizes, mainly in the eastern part of Paraguay and southern Brazil. Illustrating the general biodiversity crisis, 41% of the Galianthe species (23 spp.), were evaluated as Endangered due to their degree of endemism and destruction of their habitat, while 31 species were evaluated as not threatened and two species had Insufficient Data. In turn, only five threatened species were found within or on the periphery of protected areas. We consider that although protected areas are designed to protect biodiversity, in recent decades they have experienced different degrees of threat. Due to the high risk of many species of the genus, it is necessary to consider restoration (as a complement to conservation) of the processes that maintain grasslands to conserve unique, endemic and threatened species. Key words: areas of endemism, conservation assessment, Neotropics, rare plants, Rubiaceae, threatened species
... org). Erosion, intensive use of fertilizers and deforestation of riparian vegetation are synergic factors that have led to the rapid destruction of this biome (Klink and Machado 2005;Hunke et al. 2015). Additionally, invasive species such as African insects and domestic dogs, mineral prospection and the relentless construction of hydroelectric dams further complicate Cerrado conservation (Klink and Machado 2005). ...
... Erosion, intensive use of fertilizers and deforestation of riparian vegetation are synergic factors that have led to the rapid destruction of this biome (Klink and Machado 2005;Hunke et al. 2015). Additionally, invasive species such as African insects and domestic dogs, mineral prospection and the relentless construction of hydroelectric dams further complicate Cerrado conservation (Klink and Machado 2005). Furthermore, artificial fire suppression and induction are agricultural techniques widely used by local farmers in Cerrado and constitute not only a safety hazard for humans and their properties, but also disrupt the natural wildfire cycles occurring in the region, profoundly affecting the ecological dynamics of the local flora and fauna (Moreira 2000). ...
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Conservation genetics provides wildlife managers powerful tools to assist conservation planning, being recognized as an important biodiversity component. Nevertheless, communication between wildlife conservation actors is still not effective. Furthermore, wildlife conservation funds are often allocated to conservation actions incompatible with thorough long-term genetic research. In the Neotropics, the political organization of the territory, the complex socio-economic context, and the environmental heterogeneity impose additional challenges to the use of genetics for wildlife conservation. Here we present an assessment of the state-of-the-art on the conservation genetics of the giant anteater, as a study case. We use this species to discuss key wildlife threats and challenges along nine major Neotropical biomes. We review the main scientific research on the species, comprising and analyzing genetic data, and focusing on each biome and its region-specific threats. Our genetic meta-analysis reveals low levels of genetic diversity for the species, signs of population differentiation and dissimilar demographic trends per biome. Large-scale investigations are needed to disclose between hypotheses of panmixia, population structure and local adaptation, and to better assess the species demography. The limited information available for a known Vulnerable species perfectly illustrates the need for greater and internationally concerted investment in genetic/genomic research in the Neotropics. Finally, we describe the main wildlife conservation challenges per biome assessed, and present open research questions to which genetics could be of paramount importance.
... It is the source of many water springs encompassing the main hydrographic basins and the largest reservoirs of freshwater in this continent, the Guarani Aquifer (Pereira et al. 2021). Cerrado is one of the 25 global hotspots (Myers et al. 2000) for biodiversity conservation (Mittermeier et al. 2005), and the most diverse neotropical savanna (Klink & Machado 2005), providing diverse and important ecosystem services essential to sustain agricultural systems (Lambers et al. 2020). Due to the extensive land conversion to agriculture and the high susceptibility to climatic change (Strassburg et al. 2017), the Cerrado is also the most severely threatened biome in Brazil (Lopes et al. 2021). ...
... The Cerrado is a heterogeneous ecosystem regarding biodiversity and phytophysionomy: ranging from grassland with small and sparse shrubs, savanna with predominant woody vegetation (trees of approximately 6-7 m height) and discontinuous tree cover, to forest formation with a canopy height of 12-15 m (Coutinho 2006, Sano et al. 2008). This heterogeneity is indicated by a high endemism rate (44%), representing about 12% of all Brazilian species (Klink & Machado 2005). The cerrado sensu stricto is considered one of the most common phytophysiognomies, occurring in approximately 70% of all territorial extensions of its domain (Eiten 1972). ...
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Cerrado remnants can hold an important diversity of plant species of environmental and ecological relevance. We presented a checklist of vascular plants based on 12 years of inventory carried out in 36 plots (10 m x 2 m; 0.18 ha in total) and during unsystematic walks in a remnant area of cerrado sensu stricto located at Itirapina municipality, state of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. The list comprised 195 plant species, corresponding to 54 families and 131 genera. The richest families were Fabaceae (25 species), Asteraceae (16), Myrtaceae (16), Rubiaceae (11), Bignoniaceae and Malpighiaceae (10 each), Melastomataceae (9), and Erythroxylaceae, Sapindaceae and Annonaceae (6). Predominant life forms included shrubs and trees, with 68% of the species, followed by lianas with 12%, sub-shrub and herbs with 10% each. Bees were the dominant pollinators (67,5%) and the majority of species had seeds dispersed by animals (56.8%), mostly by birds, followed by wind (33.3%) and self-dispersed (11.2%). More than 60% of the total species were classified as “typical” Cerrado species. Bowdichia virgilioides was the only species classified as Near Threatened (NT) and 157 were regarded as Data Deficient (DD). Our dataset provides floristic, structural, and ecological information for one of the targeted areas for Cerrado survey at São Paulo state, contributing to the understanding of diversity patterns and future conservation and restoration actions in this threatened hotspot. Keywords: Brazilian savanna; hotspot; life form; functional traits.
... In summary, this landscape has suffered a higher deforestation rate than the Amazon rainforest. However, conservation efforts have been modest (Klink and Machado 2005). ...
... Habitat fragmentation has been occurring rapidly in all Brazilian biomes, but with greater intensity in the Brazilian savannah (Cerrado) in recent decades. One of the main causes of fragmentation is the rapid expansion of agriculture and livestock (Klink & Machado, 2005;Machado et al., 2004). However, urban expansion also intensifies fragmentation, further reducing green patches inside cities. ...
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Ants are present in almost all terrestrial environments and are considered indicators of environmental quality. Areas such as the Brazilian savannah have been suffering from intense degradation in the last decades. This work aims to describe the composition of the ant community in Cerrado fragments in urban areas and test how the size and type of fragment affect this composition. The study was carried out in four Cerrado fragments located in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazilian Center-West: two state parks and two private natural heritage reserves. The collections were carried out using 675 pitfall traps for 72 h, and environmental variables were measured in each plot. Overall, 84 ant species were recorded, including five new species for the state. There was a significant difference in species richness and community composition between fragments, and environmental variables significantly affected community composition. Variation in habitat structure may have been due to vertical stratification of the vegetation, elements of understory formation, and the contribution of leaf litter formation. Local, regional, and landscape aspects are significant for the maintenance of local ant biodiversity in cities. However, variation and quality of habitat within the fragments are also preponderant factors in this regard.
... In summary, this landscape has suffered a higher deforestation rate than the Amazon rainforest. However, conservation efforts have been modest (Klink and Machado 2005). ...
... Land use and cover include savanna vegetation, agriculture and pasture fields, urban areas, barren land, and forests ). According to Klink and Machado (2005), tall and dense evergreen gallery forests form the vegetation, ranging from closed to open canopy deciduous and semi-deciduous with a maximum height of 15 m. ...
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Hydrological data provide valuable information for the decision-making process in water resources management, where long and complete time series are always desired. However, it is common to deal with missing data when working on streamflow time series. Rainfall-streamflow modeling is an alternative to overcome such a difficulty. In this paper, self-organizing maps (SOM) were developed to simulate monthly inflows to a reservoir based on satellite-estimated gridded precipitation time series. Three different calibration datasets from Três Marias Reservoir, composed of inflows (targets) and 91 TRMM-estimated rainfall data (inputs), from 1998 to 2019, were used. The results showed that the inflow data homogeneity pattern influenced the rainfall-streamflow modeling. The models generally showed superior performance during the calibration phase, whereas the outcomes varied depending on the data homogeneity pattern and the chosen SOM structure in the testing phase. Regardless of the input data homogeneity, the SOM networks showed excellent results for the rainfall-runoff modeling, presenting Nash–Sutcliffe coefficients greater than 0.90. Graphical Abstract
... The Brazilian Cerrado is the savanna holding the highest diversity of plants in the world and more than 44% of its plant species are endemic (Klink and Machado, 2005;Vidal et al., 2019). In addition to its high ☆ Edited by: Gerhard Overbeck biodiversity, the Cerrado has an important role in conserving water resources in Brazil, and due to the core position in Brazilian territory, the deep soils and the higher elevation (Klink et al., 2020), major Brazilian rivers originate in Cerrado (Oliveira et al., 2019). ...
Article
Woody plant encroachment (WPE) is a process that lead to the transformation of savanna environments into forests, and in the threatened Central Brazilian savanna (locally called Cerrado) it is a result of inadequate conservation policies. Here, we compared the floristic and functional attributes of the adult (trees with diameter at ground level ≥ 5cm) and juvenile (trees with diameter at ground level < 5cm) components in a Cerrado sensu stricto to assess changes in a plant formation under a process of woody encroachment. We found that the adult and juvenile components had a mean Jaccard similarity index of 19% and PERMANOVA analysis showed a separation of two clusters (species of the adult component and species of the juvenile component), indicating high species dissimilarity between both components. We also found a higher percentage of forest species, with lower bark thickness and dispersed by animals in the juvenile component compared to the adult component. Our results indicate that under a process of WPE, forest species less adapted to stressful conditions and fire can establish in the juvenile component and may reflect environmental changes as increasing shade, reduced fire and lower temperatures. Considering that Cerrado is becoming hot and drier, our results alert that WPE can make Brazilian savanna ecosystems more vulnerable to global climate changes, since it selects species less resistant to fire. Our sampling approach is useful to detect further encroachment in Cerrado throughout short-term plant inventories.
... This negligence may be associated with the paradigm of commercial use of these native plants, especially by local small producers. Indeed, the recent replacement of native vegetation by crops has caused the deforestation of more than half of the 2 million km 2 of the biome [37]. Therefore, the increase in studies regarding the commercial and technological importance of these plants may help the conservation of the biome. ...
Article
We aim to evaluate the concordance level between Science and Technology in Natural Science, for this we investigated the relationship between the number of articles and patents resulting from Cerrado plant research. We found a significant concordance between scientific and technological publication patterns in Natural Sciences. Private companies, public universities, and natural person are the categories of patent assignees with more patents. Lastly, we found great importance of the Cerrado plant species to global technological development, where cosmetology is the main branch of economic bioprospecting. Therefore, it is crucial to produce studies aiming to promote both the conservation and technological development of sub-products of these plants.
... Located at the geographic center of the South American continent, it is contiguous to different biomes, e.g., the Amazon Forest, Caatinga (sparse forest leafless in the dry season), Atlantic Forest, Pantanal (wetlands), and the Atlantic Ocean (by a thin strip of land in the north of the country). Mostly composed of woodland savanna, its vegetation is distributed among several different types (e.g., wet and dry grasslands, shrublands, and forests), which are home to the largest number and diversity of species among the world's savannas [10]. ...
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The expansion of the agricultural frontiers that occurred in the last decades in the South American savanna (Cerrado), the second-largest biome in Brazil (covering an area of 204 million hectares), has accounted for a substantial portion of South America’s CO2 emissions. In this context, our research investigated the potential for soil carbon storage in the biome. The analysis of previous data (n = 197) shows a vertical distribution pattern of soil carbon stock: 26.17% for the upper 0–30 cm layer, 37.67% for the 30–100 cm layer, and 36.15% for the 100–200 cm layer. The total soil carbon storage for the biome is 13.5 +- 6.7 gigatons (n = 71) for the upper 0–30 cm layer, 30.5 +- 18.9 Gt (n = 64) for the 0–100 cm layer, and 47.8 +- 4.3 (n = 9) for the 0–200 cm layer. The results indicate that the soil carbon stock up to 1 m deep in the Cerrado ranges from 0.5% to 2.29% of the global soil organic carbon storage for this depth. Further research is necessary to investigate what happens at a depth of at least 2 m. The results also indicate that the soil under pasture lands constitutes the largest manageable pool for increasing soil carbon stocks via the restoration of degraded pastures.
... The Cerrado encompasses 1 984 659 km 2 of the Brazilian territory (CNUC, 2020) and suffers severe environmental pressures due to human occupation, such as habitat fragmentation, soil erosion, aquifer pollution, and fire regime changes. However, 173 548 km 2 of the Cerrado is protected by Conservation Units (CNUC, 2020), and trade-offs between land use and conservation are being encouraged to improve biodiversity conservation efforts (Klink and Machado, 2005). ...
Article
When bryophytes, lichens, eukaryotic algae, cyanobacteria, bacteria and fungi live interacting intimately with the most superficial particles of the soil, they form a complex community of organisms called the biological soil crust (BSC or biocrust). These biocrusts occur predominantly in drylands, where they provide important ecological services such as soil aggregation, moisture retention and nitrogen fixation. Unfortunately, many BSC communities remain poorly explored, especially in the tropics. This review summarizes studies about BSCs in Brazil, a tropical megadiverse country, and shows the importance of ecological, physiological and taxonomic knowledge of biocrusts. We also compare Brazilian BSCs communities to others around the world, describe why BSCs can be considered ecosystem engineers and propose their use in the colonization of other worlds.
... Reservoirs alter the balance of sediment and coastal erosion, change the flora and fauna, and lead to a loss of functioning ecosystems ecosystems [14,120]. Deforestation and slash-and-burn practices also lead to severe erosion and the alteration of biodiversity and geomorphodiversity, as well as the entire hydrological regime in mountainous or rainforest areas [121], while mining or geothermal energy practices lead to subsidence or sinkholes. Although geomorphological genesis led to the formation of permafrost soils, which normally act as carbon sinks, the melting of permafrost due to climate change and the intensification of land use is now causing northern-hemisphere soils to release carbon back into the atmosphere [82]. ...
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Remote sensing (RS) enables a cost-effective, extensive, continuous and standardized monitoring of traits and trait variations of geomorphology and its processes, from the local to the continental scale. To implement and better understand RS techniques and the spectral indicators derived from them in the monitoring of geomorphology, this paper presents a new perspective for the definition and recording of five characteristics of geomorphodiversity with RS, namely: geomorphic genesis diversity, geomorphic trait diversity, geomorphic structural diversity, geomorphic taxonomic diversity, and geomorphic functional diversity. In this respect, geomorphic trait diversity is the cornerstone and is essential for recording the other four characteristics using RS technologies. All five characteristics are discussed in detail in this paper and reinforced with numerous examples from various RS technologies. Methods for classifying the five characteristics of geomorphodiversity using RS, as well as the constraints of monitoring the diversity of geomorphology using RS, are discussed. RS-aided techniques that can be used for monitoring geomorphodiversity in regimes with changing land-use intensity are presented. Further, new approaches of geomorphic traits that enable the monitoring of geomorphodiversity through the valorisation of RS data from multiple missions are discussed as well as the ecosystem integrity approach. Likewise, the approach of monitoring the five characteristics of geomorphodiversity recording with RS is discussed, as are existing approaches for recording spectral geomorhic traits/ trait variation approach and indicators, along with approaches for assessing geomorphodiversity. It is shown that there is no comparable approach with which to define and record the five characteristics of geomorphodiversity using only RS data in the literature. Finally, the importance of the digitization process and the use of data science for research in the field of geomorphology in the 21st century is elucidated and discussed.
... Addressing this challenge is particularly critical in Brazil. The country hosts a high level of species diversity and endemism in biomes currently experiencing a dramatic reduction in native vegetation due to agricultural expansion: this is the case in the Amazon, the Atlantic Forest, the Pantanal, and the Cerrado biomes (Klink & Machado, 2005;Ribeiro et al., 2009;Roque et al., 2016). While over 18% of the country is now covered by PAs (MMA, 2020), deforestation and landscape transformation are occurring inside and around PAs , threatening biodiversity as well as indigenous land rights (Walker et al., 2020). ...
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In addition to protected areas, sustainable working landscapes are key to successful biodiversity conservation. Yet such landscapes are threatened by rapid crop expansion, in particular in Brazil. In this context, this study explores the influence of farming systems on farm-scale vegetation patterns around the Serra da Bodoquena National Park in Mato Grosso do Sul. To collect data on farming systems and how they are evolving, we conducted interviews at 40 farms covering 120,000 ha, including eight farms with land within the national park. To assess vegetation patterns, we conducted pixel-wise and landscape analyses based on MapBiomas land cover maps from which we calculated seven metrics over the 2009–2019 period. Using multivariate methods, we identified the activities that differentiated farming systems, isolating five farm types with contrasting involvement in crop cultivation and ranching. We found that most farm-scale landscape metrics were only weakly influenced by farming systems. Temporal analyses and interviews suggested that biophysical and legislative contexts limit crop expansion, which mainly occurred at the expense of old pastures and did not directly impact forest proportion within farms. As a consequence, crop expansion in the region seemed to mainly affect small tree patches in pasture areas, making its effect on vegetation patterns barely detectable with 30-m resolution imagery. These findings suggest that rather than focusing solely on deforestation, monitoring the dynamics of wooded pastures with high-resolution images is crucial to assess the early effects of crop expansion on vegetation patterns and to ensure the conservation of biodiversity-friendly agricultural matrices around protected areas in Brazil.
... We suggest that the population structuring observed here through the use of microsatellites can be a consequence of more recent causes, mainly the human-promoted habitat changes. Most of the reduction of original landscapes in both biomes that characterized the two regions, 92% for Atlantic Forest and more than 50% for Cerrado, occurred in the last 100 years (Klink and Machado 2005;Ribeiro et al. 2009) and the water body enlargement in the past five decades due to dam construction in some local rivers, may be restricting gene flow between CW and SE populations. Additionally, although the existence of isolation by distance (IBD) was indicated by SAA, some distances between individuals within the central-western population (about 1000 Km) are longer than distances between individuals from the centralwestern and southeastern populations (600 Km). ...
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Human-modified landscapes have been threatening mammal populations worldwide. However, little is known about the genetic consequences of these impacts in long term for most species. Here, we analyzed the genetic diversity and population structuring of a top predator, the maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), to investigate genetic signatures that could be explained by anthropogenic threats. We collected non-invasive samples from scats, tissue from road-killed and blood from captured animals, which were analyzed by a set of nine microsatellite loci. We assessed the genetic population structure of 105 individuals using Bayesian and discriminant factorial components. Additionally, we measured the genetic diversity and gene flow, and evaluated bottleneck signatures. Genetic analyses revealed a spatial population structuring between central-western and southeastern populations, that is likely due to the reduction of gene flow. Both central-western and southeastern populations showed similar genetic diversity values and signatures of a recent bottleneck. It is suggested that maned wolf population structuring observed is a consequence of the huge human landscape modification, for agribusiness purposes occurring during the past century. It is inferred that both gene flow reduction and recent bottlenecks may compromise the genetic variation maintenance within local populations and negatively affect the long-term persistence of this wild and unique canid. Our results may be useful for defining international conservation actions considering landscape and population conectivity of this charismatic though Near Threatened to extinction Neotropical species, and helpful for the National Action Plan for Brazilian Canids Conservation.
... Our assumption of long-distance dispersal event needs to be supported, however, by long-term studies focused on the evaluation of movements and space use by the water opossum mainly just before and in the beginning of the breeding season. Despite that, we believe that the evidence reported here will contribute to a deeper understanding of the use of space, long-distance dispersal, and ecological requirements of the water opossum in the Cerrado, the largest and most threatened tropical savannah in the world (Klink & Machado 2005).We expect that our previously unknown record will encourage further studies on the species, with potential for improving actions and policies for the conservation of this unique mammal. ...
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Unusual movements of an animal can potentially represent a dispersal event. A higher frequency of young males dispersing is a pattern observed for most part of polygynous or promiscuous mammals with these dispersion events occurring, mainly, before or at the beginning of the breeding season. The water opossum (Chironectes minimus), the only marsupial adapted for semi-aquatic life, occurs from Mexico to Argentina and it has been mostly described as a sensitive species to river and riparian vegetation degradation, occurring exclusively near water curses. Here we describe the first record of long-distance movement of a water opossum not associated with riverine vegetation through dry land. We captured a healthy adult male of C. minimus in July 2012 beside of a highway (DF-001) located 1,100 m from nearest gallery forest in the Federal District. The region is characterized by urban and suburban residential, small fragments of typical savanna and degraded gallery forests. Our unique record could be an event of dispersion through degraded dry lands as observed for other semi-aquatic mammals and also suggests that this species is more resistant to anthropogenic disturbances than previously described. Also, information about dispersal patterns of water opossum is scarce and may contributes to a deeper understanding of ecological requirements of this species.
... Although the Cerrado is considered one of the main conservation hotspots in the world, the destruction of its habitats continues unabated. Klink and Machado (2005) alerted that approximately half of the biome's two million square kilometers had been transformed into cattle ranches and plantations of cash crops in the preceding 35 years, a process that continues to threaten the conservation of the region's biodiversity. ...
... The Cerrado is the second largest Brazilian biome and has the greatest biodiversity of all savannas in the world, albeit considered the third conservation hotspot concerning its extension area (Myers et al., 2000;Klink & Machado, 2005). The Cerrado holds a high diversity and expressive endemism of plants and animals (Diniz et al., 2010), which is associated with great environmental heterogeneity, combining grassland, savanna, and forest formations in the landscape (Ribeiro & Walter, 2008). ...
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Data on species occurrence and richness are important to support conservation actions for strategic areas. To increase knowledge about the herpetofauna of the Cerrado biome, we present a list of amphibians and reptiles' species from the Private Reserve of Natural Heritage Serra do Tombador (RNST). The fieldwork was performed in November 2016 and the samplings were carried out through pitfall traps, active search, occasional encounters, and third-party records. We also consider the species recorded in the RNST Management Plan. We recorded 34 amphibians and 55 reptiles, and expanded the known distribution of some species. The observed and estimated amphibian species curves showed a tendency to stabilize, with the observed richness representing 89% of the number of species expected. On the other hand, observed and estimated reptile species curves did not show a stabilization trend. Even considering the smallest sample period in this study, the richness of amphibian and reptile species was similar or greater to those found in protected areas in the Cerrado, close to the RNST. The presence of species with restricted endemism, recently described, and data deficient highlights the importance of the RNST for the conservation of the Cerrado herpetofauna.
... Moreover, plant species diversity under native Cerrado is greater (Eiten 1972;Klink and Machado 2005;Felfili and Fagg 2007), and an input of plant residues of 5 Mg ha −1 (Soares et al. 2019) and root content of 16 Mg ha −1 in the 0-100 cm soil layer (Morais et al. 2013) was measured. Besides increasing soil cover, residues are a source of energy for soil organisms and enhance the beneficial functions of soil litter for the ecosystem (e.g., the release of organic exudates, biogeochemical nutrient cycling) (Smith and Bradford 2003). ...
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Quilombola communities found in the Cerrado region of Brazil are inhabited mainly by groups of African ancestry. They tend to use agricultural management without technical assistance, which degrades soil quality. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the carbon and nitrogen pools in the Quilombola areas under different soil management types. A crop sequence was evaluated in two native Cerrado areas: 1—Cerradão (NC1) and 2—Cerrado stricto sensu (NC2), as follows: planted pasture (PP1 and PP2); maize (M1 and M2); citrus-cassava intercropping (T1); and citrus monoculture (T2). The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design with five replicates, and the plots were composed by the management systems, and the subplots were soil layers 0–10, 10–20, 20–30, 30–40, 40–50, and 50–60 cm. Conservation cultivation practices in T1 increased total organic carbon (TOC) stock (173 Mg ha⁻¹), compared with M1 (120 Mg ha⁻¹) and PP1 under conventional management (105 Mg ha⁻¹). Down to a soil depth of 20 cm, the total N (TN) stocks were 39% and 56% lower in NC1 and PP1, respectively, than under conventional management. In area 2, the TOC stocks were similar in all treatments (mean of 118 Mg ha⁻¹), and the cumulative TN stock down to the 50–60 cm layer was 10 Mg ha⁻¹. In the 0–20-cm layer, the N stock decreased by 15% under M2, while increases of 10% and 12% were observed in T2 and PP2, respectively. These results confirm that conservation management practices can increase carbon and nitrogen storage.
... The Cerrado is a highly biodiverse biome that covers 21% of the Brazilian territory, spanning dense forests, open savannahs, and grasslands ( Fig. 1a). Yet, it is also one of the most poorly protected biodiversity hotspots in the world (Klink & Machado, 2005). Brazil's Native Vegetation Protection Law (NPVL), referred to colloquially as the ''Forest Code", allows 65-80% of a property's native vegetation to be cleared in the Cerrado and protected areas cover only 8% of the region (Law 12,651/2012) (Strassburg et al., 2017). ...
Article
Over the past decade public and private actors have been developing a variety of new policy approaches for addressing agriculturally-driven deforestation linked to international supply chains. While payments for environmental services (PES) have been advocated in many contexts as an efficient and pro-poor environmental policy to incentivize conservation, they have been the subject of intense scrutiny and criticism for leading to mixed and sometimes adverse environmental and social outcomes. It remains unclear whether such an approach is an improvement over existing approaches to govern sustainability in supply chains and especially as a mechanism for reducing ecosystem conversion. Here we conduct an ex-ante analysis to examine the potential outcomes of using a standalone PES scheme versus existing standalone market exclusion mechanisms (MEM) to govern commodity supply chains. The analysis develops a theoretical framework to examine the potential effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, equity, and legitimacy of the two approaches and then applies this framework using qualitative analysis of secondary and interview data. Using this theory-driven evaluation approach we examine the case of the Brazilian Cerrado, where a PES mechanism is currently being proposed to achieve zero-deforestation targets in soy supply chains. We find that both standalone approaches suffer from different strengths and challenges and would be better used in combination. We conclude that a mixture of strict market exclusion with positive incentives and enabling programs that are targeted at the poorest farmers would be more effective, cost-effective, equitable, and legitimate. However, in the future such supply chain focused soy deforestation control efforts in the Cerrado must be complemented by broader jurisdictional approaches to addressing deforestation and sustainable developement that include all land use actors, not just soy farmers. These more inclusive and balanced initiatives can help ensure that avoiding deforestation goes hand in hand with supporting sustainable livelihoods for a wider range of actors in the Cerrado.
... found a high species richness, including species endemic to certain biomes. These areas are inserted in a hotspot for the conservation of the world biodiversity -the Cerrado biome (Klink and Machado 2005) and an exclusively Brazilian biome -the Caatinga biome, considered one of the richest semi-arid regions in the world (Oliveira and Diniz-Filho 2010), with a high rate of endemism (Oliveira et al. 2012). Thus, we recommend future studies on the diversity and distribution of hosts and their associated helminth fauna in these highly diverse, threatened, and under-studied regions. ...
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Historically, amphibian parasites have been poorly represented in ecological studies, hence, we know little about their diversity, distribution, and role in biological communities. The helminth fauna of four amphibian species (Dermatonotus muelleri, Leptodactylus vastus, Rhinella diptycha, and Trachycephalus typhonius) from three locations in the state of Piauí, northeastern Brazil was studied. In total, we found 2,024 parasite specimens of 13 helminth taxa (Aplectana crucifer, Aplectana vellardi, Cosmocerca podicipinus, Cosmocercidae gen. sp., nematode cysts, nematode larvae, Ochoterenella digiticauda, Ochoterenella sp., Oswaldocruzia lopesi, Oswaldocruzia sp., Oxyascaris oxyascaris, Raillietnema spectans, and Rauschiella linguatula), and ten new occurrences of parasitic helminths were recorded. The most abundant parasite species were R. spectans (n = 1,018) and A. vellardi (n = 574). All hosts presented high infection levels. The prevalence of infection of hosts ranged from 64.7 to 100%, the mean intensity of infection ranged from 6.1 to 69.3, and the mean abundance ranged from 5.5 to 69.3. The number of parasites per host ranged from 122 to 1,468. Dermatonotus muelleri was the host with the highest prevalence of infection (n = 93.9%) and L. vastus presented the highest richness (n = 10 spp.). We also present an update of all helminth species associated with D. muelleri, L. vastus, R. diptycha, and T. typhonius in South America. This is the first study on the diversity of parasitic helminths associated with amphibians in the state of Piauí, northeastern Brazil.
... The region has undergone intensive agricultural and pastoral expansion over recent years, being under a rapid conversion of natural areas to croplands and grazed lands. Some studies estimated the loss of around 50% of the Cerrado natural vegetation, replaced by anthropic land use, and that about 80% are under some form of human use (Mittermeier et al., 1999;Machado et al., 2004;Klink and Machado, 2005). Besides, only 6.5% of the Cerrado is legally protected (Françoso et al., 2015). ...
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The focus of research and conservation in tropical regions is mainly devoted to forest ecosystems, usually neglecting the processes underlying widespread, more open biomes, like savannas. Here we test a wide range of sampled woodland sites across the South American savanna for the direct and indirect effects of habitat loss and vegetation density on the diversity of small-mammal species. We quantify the direction and magnitude of the effects of habitat amount (habitat loss), vegetation density (tree or foliage density), and patch size (species-area effect) on species composition and richness. We also test whether the relative effect sizes of landscape and patch-related metrics predict a persistence gradient from habitat specialist to generalist species across 54 sites. We used structural equation models (SEM) to test our predictions. After 22,032 trap-nights considering all sampled sites and 20 small-mammal species identified, the structural equation model explained 23.5% of the variance in the richness of small-mammal species. Overall, we found that landscape-level metrics were more important in explaining species richness, with a secondary role of patch-level metrics such as vegetation density. The direct effect of local landscape was significant for explaining species richness variation, but a strong positive association between regional and local landscapes was also present. Furthermore, considering the direct and indirect paths, SEM explained 46.2% of the species composition gradient. In contrast to species richness, we recorded that the combined landscape-level and patch-level metrics are crucial to determining small-mammal species composition at savanna patches. The small mammals from the South American woodland savanna exhibit clear ecological gradients on their species composition and richness, driven by habitat specialist (e.g., Thrichomys fosteri, Monodelphis domestica, and Thylamys macrurus) and generalist (e.g., Didelphis albiventris, Rhipidomys macrurus, and Calomys callosus) species’ responses to habitat amount and/or vegetation density, as seen in dense-forest Neotropical biomes.
... The Brazilian Atlantic Forest, constituted by evergreen and semideciduous forest (Oliveira-Filho & Fontes, 2000), and the Cerrado, considered to be the most species-rich savanna of the world, are recognized hotspots for conservation (Myers et al., 2000). The Cerrado features poorer and more acid soils and its climate is characterized by a long dry season with less annual precipitation in comparison with the Atlantic Forest (Eiten, 1972;Klink & Machado, 2005). In contrast with the Atlantic Forest, natural fires are common in the Cerrado . ...
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Abstract The Cerrado, the largest Neotropical savanna, and the Brazilian Atlantic Forest form large ecotonal areas where savanna and forest habitats occupy adjacent patches with closely related species occurring side by side, providing opportunities for hybridization. Here, we investigated the evolutionary divergence between the savanna and forest ecotypes of the widely distributed tree Plathymenia reticulata (n = 233 individuals). Genetic structure analysis of P. reticulata was congruent with the recognition of two ecotypes, whose divergence captured the largest proportion of genetic variance in the data (FCT = 0.222 and FST = 0.307). The ecotonal areas between the Cerrado and the Atlantic Forest constitute a hybrid zone in which a diversity of hybrid classes was observed, most of them corresponding to second‐generation hybrids (F2) or backcrosses. Gene flow occurred mainly toward the forest ecotype. The genetic structure was congruent with isolation by environment, and environmental correlates of divergence were identified. The observed pattern of high genetic divergence between ecotypes may reflect an incipient speciation process in P. reticulata. The low genetic diversity of the P. reticulata forest ecotype indicate that it is threatened in areas with high habitat loss on Atlantic Forest. In addition, the high divergence from the savanna ecotype suggests it should be treated as a different unit of management. The high genetic diversity found in the ecotonal hybrid zone supports the view of ecotones as important areas for the origin and conservation of biodiversity in the Neotropics.
... This global biodiversity hotspot (Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund, 2018;Mittermeier et al., 2011;Myers et al., 2000) has over 12,000 plant and 1000 vertebrate species, with high levels of endemism (Joly et al., 2019;Klink & Machado, 2005), yet just 11% of the biome is protected as conservation units and Indigenous lands (Sano et al., 2019). This is far less than the 46% protected in the Amazon and still a long way from reaching Brazil's 17% commitment under the Convention on Biological Diversity (2010). ...
Article
The Brazilian Cerrado is one of the most biodiverse savannas in the world, yet 46% of its original cover has been cleared to make way for crops and pastures. These extensive land-use transitions (LUTs) are expected to influence regional climate by reducing evapotranspiration (ET), increasing land surface temperature (LST), and ultimately reducing precipitation. Here, we quantify the impacts of LUTs on ET and LST in the Cerrado by combining MODIS satellite data with annual land use and land cover maps from 2006 to 2019. We performed regression analyses to quantify the effects of six common LUTs on ET and LST across the entire gradient of Cerrado landscapes. Results indicate that clearing forests for cropland or pasture increased average LST by ~3.5°C and reduced mean annual ET by 44% and 39%, respectively. Transitions from woody savannas to cropland or pasture increased average LST by 1.9°C and reduced mean annual ET by 27% and 21%, respectively. Converting native grasslands to cropland or pasture increased average LST by 0.9 and 0.6°C, respectively. Conversely, grassland-to-pasture transitions increased mean annual ET by 15%. To date, land changes have caused a 10% reduction in water recycled to the atmosphere annually and a 0.9°C increase in average LST across the biome, compared to the historic baseline under native vegetation. Global climate changes from increased atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations will only exacerbate these effects. Considering potential future scenarios, we found that abandoning deforestation control policies or allowing legal deforestation to continue (at least 28.4 Mha) would further reduce yearly ET (by -9% and -3%, respectively) and increase average LST (by +0.7 and +0.3°C, respectively) by 2050. In contrast, policies encouraging zero deforestation and restoration of the 5.2 Mha of illegally deforested areas would partially offset the warming and drying impacts of land-use change.
... Reservoirs alter the balance of sediment and coastal erosion, change the flora and fauna, and lead to a loss of functioning ecosystems ecosystems [14,120]. Deforestation and slash-and-burn practices also lead to severe erosion and the alteration of biodiversity and geomorphodiversity, as well as the entire hydrological regime in mountainous or rainforest areas [121], while mining or geothermal energy practices lead to subsidence or sinkholes. Although geomorphological genesis led to the formation of permafrost soils, which normally act as carbon sinks, the melting of permafrost due to climate change and the intensification of land use is now causing northern-hemisphere soils to release carbon back into the atmosphere [82]. ...
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Remote sensing (RS) enables a cost-effective, extensive, continuous and standardized monitoring of traits and trait variations of geomorphology and its processes, from the local to the continental scale. To implement and better understand RS techniques and the spectral indicators derived from them in the monitoring of geomorphology, this paper presents a new perspective for the definition and recording of five characteristics of geomorphodiversity with RS, namely: geomorphic genesis diversity, geomorphic trait diversity, geomorphic structural diversity, geomorphic taxonomic diversity, and geomorphic functional diversity. In this respect, geomorphic trait diversity is the cornerstone and is essential for recording the other four characteristics using RS technologies. All five characteristics are discussed in detail in this paper and reinforced with numerous examples from various RS technologies. Methods for classifying the five characteristics of geomorphodiversity using RS, as well as the constraints of monitoring the diversity of geomorphology using RS, are discussed. RS-aided techniques that can be used for monitoring geomorphodiversity in regimes with changing land-use intensity are presented. Further, new approaches of geomorphic traits that enable the monitoring of eomorphodiversity through the valorisation of RS data from multiple missions are discussed as well as the ecosystem integrity approach. Likewise, the approach of monitoring the five characteristics of geomorphodiversity recording with RS is discussed, as are existing approaches for recording spectral geomorhic traits/ trait variation approach and indicators, along with approaches for assessing geomorphodiversity. It is shown that there is no comparable approach with which to define and record the five characteristics of geomorphodiversity using only RS data in the literature. Finally, the importance of the digitization process and the use of data science for research in the field of geomorphology in the 21st century is elucidated and discussed.
... Soybean and other agricultural plantations cover substantial portions of landscapes in Cerrado and are likely to increase in extension [75][76][77][78]. Thus, it would be important to act urgently to avoid the establishment of intensive agriculture adjacent to nature reserves still surrounded by native vegetation as currently occur in northern Cerrado, such as in the states of Piaui, Maranhão and Tocantins. ...
Article
Although studies of edge effects have great importance for reserve design, they have rarely investigated impacts into nature reserves. This study aimed to examine edge effects associated with adjacent agricultural landscape on birds at Parque Nacional das Emas, Brazil. Study sites [n = 36] were plots in the natural grassland habitat located at four distance bands in relation to the boundary line between protected vegetation and agricultural fields [0-500 m, 500-1,000 m, 1,000-1,500 m and interior]. Birds were surveyed through transect counts between October 2006 and February 2007. GLMMs were used to analyse variation in the abundance of selected species and trophic guilds among distance intervals, while species richness was compared through curves of rarefaction. Variation in community composition was evaluated through Correspondence Analysis. A total of 59 species were recorded. Species more sensitive to proximity to agriculture were insectivores such as Culicivora caudacuta and Alectrurus tricolor. Granivores and omnivores were more abundant close to rather than distant from agriculture. The species richness of the whole community and that of guilds did not vary among distance intervals, as result of species replacement. Communities found in the 0-500 m and 500-1,000 m intervals were very distinct from those of the interior. Edge effects penetrated up to 1,500 m into the park, being more intense within 1 km from adjacent modified landscapes. This study suggests that more effort should be done to establish effective buffer zones [> 1.5 km in width] and avoid the settlement of agribusiness adjacent to nature reserves in Cerrado.
... The Cerrado is the largest tropical savanna and is considered a biodiversity hotspot due to high levels of biodiversity, endemism, and habitat loss (Myers et al. 2000;Klink and Machado 2005). Intense anthropogenic pressure on this biome, mainly as a result of the transformation of natural areas into monocultures and pastures has reduced native cover to less than 50% of the original habitat (Silva et al. 2006). ...
Article
Understanding the relative importance of exogenous and endogenous factors in natural population dynamics has been a central question in ecology. However, until recently few studies used long-term data to assess factors driving small mammal abundance in Neotropical savannas. We used a 9-year data set, based on monthly captures, to understand the population dynamics of two scansorial small mammals inhabiting the Brazilian Cerrado: the semelparous gracile mouse opossum (Gracilinanus agilis), and the iteroparous long-tailed climbing mouse (Rhipidomys macrurus), the two most abundant species at Panga Ecological Station (Uberlândia/MG). We tested the impact of two fires that occurred in 2014 and 2017 on the abundance of both populations. Also, we used Royama’s framework to identify the role of the endogenous system (intraspecific competition) and exogenous factors (annual rainfall, days with minimum and maximum temperatures, annual minimum Normalized Difference Vegetation Index [NDVI], and Southern Oscillation Index) in population dynamics. Extensive and severe fires had a lasting, negative impact on the studied populations, probably by reducing the carrying capacity of the environment. Both populations were influenced by negative first-order feedback, indicating density-dependent effects. Moreover, the endogenous system and the annual minimum NDVI operated as vertical effects determining G. agilis dynamics, while the R. macrurus population was governed by the vertical effects of 1-year lagged rainfall. Our results support the contention that small mammal population fluctuations are driven by the interaction between endogenous (density-dependent) and exogenous factors, which in this study were mainly associated with habitat complexity. Despite ecological similarities shared by both species, their response and recovery time to disturbances and environmental variables varied, probably due to their contrasting life histories. Hence, we emphasize the need to consider species life histories to understand the responses of small mammals to extreme events and reinforce the importance of long-term studies that evaluate the combined effects of endogenous and exogenous variables on population dynamics.
... For example, some frontiers advance slowly while others erupt rapidly (Kröger and Nygren 2020), some frontiers grow outward while others leap-frog to remote places (Bowman et al 2012), and some frontiers accelerate while others consolidate and slow down (Bonilla-Moheno and Aide 2020). Likewise, a wide range of land-use-actors drive frontier expansion, such as swidden cultivators (Vieilledent et al 2018), forest smallholders , Phiri et al 2019, or agribusinesses (Klink and Machado 2005). Further, in some regions, frontiers may be considered old or suspended, whereas in other regions new frontiers emerge. ...
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Agricultural expansion into tropical and subtropical forests often leads to major social-ecological trade-offs. Yet, despite ever-more detailed information on where deforestation occurs, how agriculture expands into forests remains unclear, which is hampered by a lackof spatially and temporally detailed reconstruction of agricultural expansion. Here, we developed and mapped a novel set of metrics that quantify agricultural frontier processes at unprecedented spatial and temporal detail. Specifically, we first derived consistent annual time series of land-use/cover to, second, describe archetypical patterns of frontier expansion, pertaining to speed, diffusion and activity of deforestation, as well as post-deforestation land use. We exemplify this approach for understanding agricultural frontier expansion across the entire South American Chaco, a global deforestation hotspot. Our study provides three major insights. First, agricultural expansion has been rampant in the Chaco, with more than 19.3 million ha of woodlands converted between 1985 and 2020, including a surge in deforestation after 2019. Second, land-use trajectories connected to frontier processes have changed in major ways over the 35-year study period we studied, including substantial regional variations. For instance, while ranching expansion drove most of the deforestation in the 1980s and 1990s, cropland expansion dominated during the mid-2000s in Argentina, but not in Paraguay. Similarly, 40% of all areas deforested were initially used for ranching, but later on converted to cropping. Accounting for post-deforestation land-use change is thus needed to properly attribute deforestation and associated environmental impacts, such as carbon emissions or biodiversity loss, to commodities. Finally, we identified major, recurrent frontier types that may be a useful spatial template for land governance to match policies to specific frontier situations. Collectively, our study reveals the diversity of frontier processes and how frontier metrics can capture and structure this diversity to uncover major patterns of human-nature interactions, which can be used to guide spatially-targeted policies.
... Partamona rustica Schwarz 1939 is endemic to the Cerrado (savanna) and Caatinga (xeric scrubland forest) biomes in Brazil. Those biomes have suffered profound anthropogenic changes and the fauna and the flora require further knowledge as a first step towards conservation (Klink & Machado, 2005;Zanella et al., 2003). Although the geographic distribution of P. rustica was described to be restricted from the northern portion of the state of Minas Gerais (Cerrado) to the southwestern portion of the state of Bahia (Caatinga) , the occurrence of colonies of this species 150 km north of this limit was reported (Miranda et al., 2015). ...
... This biome covers 23.92% of the Brazilian territory; however, it was responsible for 33.8% of the total vegetation loss in the country in the last three decades (Souza et al., 2020). Despite this, only 2.2% of its area (approximately 2 million km 2 ) is under legal protection (Klink and Machado, 2005). ...
Article
Precipitation is the main input for hydrological models. However, due to limitations of rain gauge stations, satellite precipitation estimates have become a good alternative to precipitation information. In this context, this study aimed to validate the precipitation data with Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Multisatellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) and Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for Global Precipitation Measurement (IMERG) data, in addition to assessing the uncertainty and performance of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) using observed precipitation (OP), TMPA, and IMERG data. Statistical coefficients were used to validate TMPA and IMERG precipitation data. P-factor and r-factor were considered for the uncertainty analysis, while the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), its logarithmic version (LNSE), and the percent bias (PBIAS) were analyzed to characterize the model performance analysis in monthly time steps. There was an overestimation by TMPA and IMERG in the precipitation estimation, especially in the dry period. OP, TMPA, and IMERG setups presented satisfactory results for uncertainty and performance analysis in hydrological modeling. The IMERG setup generally showed better results than the TMPA setup, being a good alternative for hydrological modeling, especially in regions with scarce precipitation datasets.
... We must increase the study of non-forest biomes and additional regions since agricultural production is often high or increasing in these areas. For instance, the Brazilian Cerrado is a hotspot of pastureland and farmland [57], and agriculture is expected to expand rapidly in sub-Saharan Africa over coming decades, matching population increases [58]. Further, we must broaden our focus of study, as successful restoration approaches are rarely one size fits all, and therefore, successful restoration practices may not be applicable in other areas. ...
Article
Well-designed approaches to ecological restoration can benefit nature and society. This is particularly the case in tropical agroecosystems, where restoration can provide substantial socioecological benefits at relatively low costs. To successfully restore tropical agroecosystems and maximise benefits, initiatives must begin by considering ‘who’ should be involved in and benefit from restoration, and ‘what’, ‘where’, and ‘how’ restoration should occur. Based on collective experience of restoring tropical agroecosystems worldwide, we present nine actions to guide future restoration of these systems, supported by case studies that demonstrate our actions being used successfully in practice and highlighting cases where poorly designed restoration has been damaging. We call for increased restoration activity in tropical agroecosystems during the current UN Decade on Ecosystem Restoration.
... In terms of physical properties, most of the soils are well-drained and deep (Reatto et al. 1998;Lopes and Guilherme 2016;Sano et al. 2019) with no evident physical limitation for the development of deep root growth. This geological, geomorphological and edaphic diversity translates into diverse vegetation types and a plethora of plant forms and species (Klink and Machado 2005). ...
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Background The Cerrado of central Brazil—the world’s largest Neotropical savanna – is comprised of a mosaic of highly heterogeneous vegetation growing on an extremely diverse geologic and geomorphologic background. Geomorphic processes under stable tectonic and climatic conditions facilitated the development of diverse edaphic properties, which interact with disturbance events to form unique vegetation types. Scope In this review, we detail how the geophysical environment affects soil formation and evaluate the mechanisms through which edaphic conditions control vegetation structure, floristic diversity and functional diversity. Conclusion The influence of geomorphic processes on edaphic properties has a marked impact on the ecology and evolution of plant communities. Species exhibit morphological and physiological adaptations that optimise their successful establishment in particular soil conditions. Furthermore, fire disturbance alters these soil-vegetation associations further regulating the structural nature of these communities. Therefore, we propose an integrative view where edaphic, chemical and physical properties act as modulators of vegetation stands, and these conditions interact with the fire regime. The knowledge of plant edaphic niches, their functional traits related to resource acquisition and use, as well as the interaction of edaphic properties and disturbance regimes is paramount to research planning, conservation, and successful restoration of the full diversity of Cerrado vegetation types.
... Of the total global cropland area (estimated in 2019), 17% was established since 2003, with the highest rate of establishment occurring in South America and Africa (154). In the 1990s, technological developments to reduce soil acidity sparked a wave of agricultural conversion in South American savannas (Cerrado) where ∼50% of its native vegetation was converted (155,156). Here, current rates of land conversion are ∼1% per year with 39% of new cropland expansion spreading into intact vegetation (154,155). Rates of conversion are 2.5 times higher than that of the Amazon where avoided deforestation activities spill over into the Cerrado (157). ...
Article
As the Anthropocene advances, there are few parts of Earth that have not been impacted by human influence. Humans have had a long-sustained interaction with grassy ecosystems, but they are becoming severely impacted by direct and indirect impacts as the Anthropocene advances. Grassy ecosystems are easy to clear and cultivate, poorly protected, and poorly defined due to legacies of colonial narratives that can describe them as deforested, wastelands, or derived. Climate change, land conversion, and the erosion of the processes that have shaped grassy ecosystems for millennia have had cascading and cumulative impacts on grassy ecosystem extent and integrity. We examine how these changes are impacting grassy ecosystems, more specifically, those that fall into ecosystem uncertain space—a climate envelope where vegetation is not at equilibrium with climate and either grassy or forest ecosystems can occur. It is within this space that climate, CO 2 , and disturbances (fire, herbivores) interact to determine the presence of grassy ecosystems. Changes to any of these components reduce the integrity of grassy ecosystems. The loss of these ancient biodiverse ecosystems means loss of an array of ecosystem services fundamental to the lives of more than 1 billion people alongside Earth system impacts of altered albedo, carbon, and hydrological cycles. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Environment and Resources, Volume 47 is October 2022. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
... The pasture has not been rehabilitated for over 10 years, and as is common in this region, fertilizer is typically not applied due to the low nutrient holding capacity of the sandy soils and the seasonal flooding to which they are subjected (Cardoso, 2012). Thus, the many of the pastures in this region have low cover and/or production and are, according to Klink and Machado (2005), in a degraded state. The total amount of animals grazing between the beginning of the experiment and the end of May 2019 was 767, consisting of 600 cows, 150 heifers (18 months of age) and 17 bulls. ...
Article
The Pantanal is the largest seasonal wetland in the world with a landscape that consists of a mosaic of permanent aquatic habitats, and floodable and non-floodable savannas, pastures and forests. Drought events are expected to occur more frequently in the Pantanal biome under future climate conditions, but the effects of land management and hydrological extremes on pastures have been poorly studied at spatial scales relevant to local livestock. In this study, we measured CO2C fluxes using eddy covariance over a hydrological year on pastures within a cattle farm in the Brazilian Pantanal that experienced seasonal flooding. Our measurements show that seasonally flooded pastures were large emitters of CO2C, contributing 337 g CO2C m⁻² year⁻¹ to the atmosphere. During flooding, when the soils were anaerobic, and soil O2 was close to zero, the flooded pasture was a net sink of -18 g CO2C m⁻², while during the aerobic phase (soil O2 > 15%) the pasture was a significant CO2 source to the atmosphere (301 g CO2C m⁻²). Transitions to and from anaerobic conditions corresponded to 54 g CO2C m⁻². Our results indicate that the seasonally flooded cattle pastures in the Brazilian Pantanal may be an important regional source of CO2C for the atmosphere. Better management, and use of drought resistant grasses, may be a way to improve soil C stocks and limit emissions, especially as global climate change is anticipated to increase heating and drying for the Pantanal biome.
... The climate is seasonal, with the rainy season being from October to March and the dry season from April to September. The mean annual precipitation is between 800 and 2,000 mm (Ratter et al., 1997) and temperatures are, on average, between 22 and 27°C throughout the entire year (Klink and Machado, 2005). Soils are acidic and nutrient-poor and have significant concentrations of aluminum. ...
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In the Brazilian Cerrado, the land-use change caused by the expansion and intensification of agribusiness farming has led to dramatic socio-environmental problems. To foster sustainable development, Brazilian farming students have to learn about land use according to the Sustainable Development Goals and how to implement them on their home farm and future workplace. Through a questionnaire-based survey, our study explored the perceptions of 128 students at the Family Farming High School of Porto Nacional on the sustainability of farming systems in the Cerrado of Tocantins. We analyzed the effectiveness of the school in teaching sustainability, the students’ occupational preferences and perspectives, and their sentiment about three common farming systems in the Cerrado of Tocantins, i.e., agribusiness, family farming, and agroecological farming, and their opinion on the business relationships among the three systems. Even though our study confirmed the effectiveness of school-work alternation models in transferring sustainability practices from school to home farms, it also revealed farming students’ poor understanding of the systemic definition of sustainability. Students defined sustainable and unsustainable farms with different perspectives and evaluation criteria, most of them referring to environmental indicators such as the way materials are used, whether the natural environment is protected, and whether biodiversity is preserved on the farm. There is a discrepancy between students’ occupational preference and their prevalent sentiment about family farming, agribusiness, and agroecological farming. While more than half of them would accept to work on an agribusiness farm, significantly more students have a positive sentiment in favor of family farming and agroecological farming than agribusiness farming. The three farming systems, however, are not perceived as contending or isolated but as partnering businesses, featuring low competition and high cooperation rates. Our study contributes to a broader appreciation of the Brazilian students’ perception of farming sustainability in the Cerrado of Tocantins and helps environmental education programs improve their effectiveness in transferring sustainability.
... It is characterised as a savanna vegetation complex (Cerrado complex) composed of three main formations namely forest formations: riparian, gallery and deciduous forests and woody savanna), savannas (dense cerrado, typical cerrado, sparse cerrado, mound field, palm swamps, rocky cerrado) and fieldlands (rocky field, shrub grassland and open grassland) (MMA, 2017;Ribeiro et al., 2008). Although the Cerrado complex has a great importance in terms of biodiversity and ecosystem services, it is under imminent threat due to different human actions such as habitat loss, changes in fire regimes, climate change, biological invasions (Klink and Machado, 2005;Maciel et al., 2021a). The change in the vegetation dynamics has been attributed to these anthropogenic causes in the Cerrado complex Pereira et al., 2021;Silva and Araújo, 2009). ...
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The Cerrado complex is covered by twelve physiognomies characterized by a gradient of grassland, savanna and forest formations. We assessed the recruitment (RI) and mortality (MI) of individuals and the gain (BG) and loss (BL) of basal area in the Cerrado complex. We used 26 sites classified into savanna (15) and forest formations (11); dry (19) and moist environments (7); non-disturbed (14) and disturbed areas (12) that were recovered from the literature. The median of the vegetation dynamics varied as follows: MI= 3.95, RI = 2.99, BL = 3.08 and the BG = 3.99. MI exceeded RI at 13 sites, and forests formation comprised 70% of the sites with high MI. The median RI was 2.2 times higher in savanna than in forest formations, while it was 1.7 times higher in disturbed areas than in non-disturbed ones. Although the vegetation dynamics have been studied for decades in Cerrado, the studies of disturbances are majority focused on fire and fragmentation effects, indicating that the research should go beyond it. Generalized additive models (GAMs) showed that the MI, RI, BL and BG differ in their responses to three environmental gradients: (1) elevation + temperature, (2) precipitation and (3) precipitation seasonality, even across sites with similar environmental conditions.
... The Cerrado biome has undergone an intense process of transformation of natural areas into pastures, soybean and corn plantations, and planted forest areas, mainly eucalypt plantations (Klink and Machado 2005). In 2009, the Environmental Ministry mapped the vegetation coverage of the Cerrado in Brazil and concluded that 51.16% of the total area was covered by remnants of natural vegetation, and 48.22% was already anthropized for various land uses, such as pasture, agriculture, and urban development (MMA/IBAMA 2011). ...
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Land use changes from native vegetation to agriculture, livestock grazing, and urban development are among the main problems related to biodiversity loss worldwide. In this paper we evaluate how land use changes (eucalypt plantation and pasture) affect the richness and assemblage of wasps (Braconidae, Ichneumonidae, Pompilidae, and Vespidae), in comparison with nearby areas with native vegetation in the Cerrado. Specimens were collected at six points, with two Malaise traps at each location. The collections were performed monthly for 10 d, for 12 mo. A total of 773 hymenopterans of the selected groups were collected, representing 253 species or morphospecies. Richness of the families Ichneumonidae and Pompilidae between the areas did not present significant differences. For the families Braconidae and Vespidae, the richness was greater in the eucalypt plantation and pasture areas compared to the native area. Species composition in the native habitat was different from either of the managed habitats in the studied environment. Furthermore, the composition of wasps in native areas varied less throughout the sampling campaigns when compared with the pasture and eucalyptus sites. In native areas, 85 exclusive morphospecies were found. Thus, changes in land use may cause changes in the composition of wasp species, since areas with native vegetation presented more heterogeneous and stable environments than the other land uses. The maintenance of native areas, even if close to planted forest and/or pasture areas, could be the best way to combine forest productivity with biodiversity conservation.
... Percebe-se que o Cerrado e a Caatinga não foram incluídos nesse parágrafo. Isso é uma pena, pois o Cerrado, a savana mais biodiversa do mundo, tem sofrido sérios danos ambientais (cerca de 55% desse bioma já foi alterado pelo uso humano) e estima-se que, em 2030, não exista cerrado original fora de unidades de conservação (KLINK; MACHADO, 2005;MACHADO et al., 2004). Existem ainda outras legislações que promovem a conservação de recursos naturais, como de nascentes, córregos, encostas de morros, dentre outros atributos locais, como o Código Florestal Brasileiro (Lei 12.651, de 25 de maio de 2012), aplicado especialmente para a conservação vegetacional em áreas privadas. ...
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Passamos por uma crise ambiental sem precedentes, marcada por um crescimento populacional desenfreado, pelo uso de recussos ambientais sem a menor parcimônia, pela perda da biodiversidade e pelo aumento na produção de resíduos, poluição e lixo. Isso tem reduzido a qualidade de vida da população de uma forma geral, de forma que medidas para o controle e manutenção da qualidade ambiental e preservação da fauna e flora são essenciais. Uma das frentes de trabalho para o combate dessa crise ambiental é a formação de profissionais qualificados, sobretudo na área técnica. Contudo, se fizermos uma busca na internet sobre livros de ecologia voltados à formação de nível técnico ambiental, não encontraremos nenhum. Portanto, essa obra aborda temas centrais em ecologia com linguagem direcionada aos profissionais de carreiras técnicas na área ambiental (técnico em meio ambiente, controle ambiental, saúde etc.), que tanto carecem de materiais específicos para sua formação. Juntamente com conceitos-chave de ecologia, como habitat, nicho, condições e recursos, abordamos temas aplicados e de grande interesse ao técnico ambiental como eutrofização, espécies invasoras, amplificação biológica, autodepuração, demanda bioquímica de oxigênio, dentre outros. Com uma linguagem acessível e interdisciplinar, tratamos de assuntos relativos à ecologia e incorporamos aspectos essenciais de legislação ambiental, que nortearão o trabalho do profissional de nível técnico. http://revistaeixo.ifb.edu.br/index.php/editoraifb/issue/archive
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Different studies have shown that, despite the rise in PA numbers and coverage worldwide, the global deterioration of biodiversity has not been stopped. Are PAs adequately fulfilling their mission of conserving biodiversity? That is the key question that PA effectiveness assessment / evaluation (PAME) seeks to answer. PA evaluation methods can be classified according to the type of data used as: qualitative, opinion-based methods, quantitative methods and mixed methods. Conventional PAME methods assume that good management equals good conservation outcomes, which is not always the case. Thus, PA assessments are gradually moving towards measuring biodiversity outcomes rather than indirect factors of performance.
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Differences in habitat complexity and structure can directly influence the composition, diversity, and structure of species assemblages. Measurements of functional and phylogenetic diversity complement the commonly used measurements of taxonomic diversity, elucidating the relationships between species, their traits, and their evolutionary history. In this study, we evaluated how the mosaic of open and forested formations in a federal conservation unit in the western portion of the Brazilian Cerrado savanna influences the taxonomic, functional, and phylogenetic structure of lizard assemblages. Lizards were sampled for 15 months using pitfall traps set in open and forested formations. We recorded 292 lizards distributed among 16 species from eight families, with species composition differing among the formations. Richness was greater in the assemblages from open formations, while functional diversity and phylogenetic variability were greater in those of forested formations. Lizard assemblages in open formations were functionally and phylogenetically clustered, probably as a result of environmental filters acting on species, while the assemblages from forested formations were randomly structured. Different environmental and historical mechanisms have apparently shaped the current diversity of lizards in the region. This study shows that Cerrado vegetation mosaics can promote wide variation in different aspects of the taxonomic, functional, and phylogenetic structure from the lizard assemblages.
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Global Perspectives for the Conservation and Management of Open-Air Rock Art Sites responds to the growth in known rock art sites across the globe and addresses the need to investigate natural and human-originated threats to them as well as propose solutions to mitigate resulting deterioration. Bringing together perspectives of international research teams from across five continents, the chapters in this book are divided into four discrete parts that best reflect the worldwide scenarios where conservation and management of open-air rock art sites unfolds: 1) ethics, community and collaborative approaches; 2) methodological tools to support assessment and monitoring; 3) scientific examination and interventions; and 4) global community and collaborative case studies innovating methodologies for ongoing monitoring and management. The diverse origin of contributions results in a holistic and interdisciplinary approach that conciliates perceived intervention necessity, community and stakeholders’ interests, and rigorous scientific analysis regarding open-air rock art conservation and management. The book unites the voices of the global community in tackling a significant challenge: to ensure a better future for open-air rock art. Moving conservation and management of open-air rock art sites in from the periphery of conservation science, this volume is an indispensable guide for archaeologists, conservators and heritage professionals involved in rock art and its preservation.
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The giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) is a strictly myrmecophagous xenarthran species that ranges from Honduras to northern Argentina, occupying various habitats, from grassland and floodplains to forests. According to the IUCN, it is a vulnerable species mainly threatened by poaching, habitat loss and fragmentation, and road kills. Here, we investigate the phylogeography, distribution, ecology, and historical demography of Brazilian populations of the giant anteater. We analysed two mitochondrial (mtDNA) and three nuclear (nDNA) markers in 106 individuals from the Cerrado, Pantanal, Atlantic Forest, and Amazon Forest biomes through analyses of population structure and demography, phylogeography, and ecological niche modelling. Two divergent mtDNA clusters were found, one in the Amazon (AM) and another in the Cerrado, Pantanal, and Atlantic Forest biomes (CEPTAF). At the population level, CEPTAF presented higher mtDNA haplotype richness than AM and a unidirectional mtDNA gene flow was identified from AM to CEPTAF, which could be linked to more favourable habitat conditions for the species in Cerrado and Pantanal. Paleodemographic reconstructions with mtDNA and nDNA data indicate a large population expansion of the species starting at the end of the Pleistocene. Finally, the integrative phylogeographic analyses of giant anteater populations reinforce the importance of the Brazilian Cerrado as a priority biome for the species’ conservation.
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O presente trabalho teve por objetivo testar a microenxertia in vitro em jabuticabeira Myrciaria jaboticaba (Vell) tendo como porta enxerto M. jaboticaba, como técnica para obter a diminuição do longo período juvenil da planta. Este trabalho foi realizado no Laboratório de Biologia Celular e Cultura de Tecidos Vegetais da Universidade Federal da Paraíba e em casa de vegetação. O primeiro teste constou da germinação in vitro com sementes oriundas de frutos verdes e maduros que possuíam o tegumento, colocadas em tubos de ensaio contendo meio de cultivo, na ausência de luz e temperatura de 25 ºC. O segundo teste constou da germinação ex vitro de sementes semeadas em Casa de Vegetação, com posterior transferência das plântulas para sala de crescimento em tubos de ensaio contendo meio de cultivo, na ausência de luz e temperatura de 25 ºC. O terceiro teste tratou-se de sementes provenientes de frutos verdes e maduros sem o tegumento, embebidas por 0, 24 e 48 horas, colocadas em meio de cultivo, em sala de crescimento, a fotoperíodo de 16 horas de luz e temperatura de 25 ºC. Em todos os testes foram avaliados a contaminação fúngica, bacteriana e IVG, onde aquelas que germinaram foram utilizadas para testar a microenxertia. Os resultados indicam que as sementes que possuem o tegumento há um maior índice de oxidação e contaminação. Na transferência de plântulas germinadas ex vitro para a condição in vitro, ocorreu um grande índice de contaminação. A embebição das sementes por 48 horas estimulou a germinação das mesmas, proporcionando maior média do IVG.
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O trabalho de organização e edição dessa obra iniciou-se em 2020 como parte das atividades para atualização do banco de dados referente ao Cerrado da plataforma Webambiente (Embrapa/Mapa/MMA), uma ferramenta cujo objetivo é auxiliar a tomada de decisões para recomposição dos biomas nacionais. Porém, as informações apresentadas são fruto de décadas de experiências, aprendizados e trabalhos de campo de centenas de pessoas que dedicaram e vem dedicando suas vidas à conservação e à pesquisa do segundo maior bioma brasileiro. Não por acaso essa obra nasce durante a Década das Nações Unidas da Restauração de Ecossistemas, uma convocação global para a revitalização dos ecossistemas, uma vez que grande parte das áreas degradadas que o Brasil tem o compromisso de restaurar encontra-se no bioma Cerrado, principalmente nas áreas de Reserva Legal e de Preservação Permanente dos imóveis rurais. Assim, para recompor essas áreas, é necessário disponibilizar informações técnicas sobre as espécies nativas que subsidiem os proprietários rurais nesse trabalho hercúleo, sendo esse o nosso objetivo com essa publicação. Apesar das mãos humanas não conseguirem reintroduzir todas as espécies da biodiversidade, é possível ampliar o uso de diversas delas na recomposição da vegetação nativa e na agricultura integrada. Ainda que restrito, esse guia apresenta mais de 350 espécies nativas e seus atributos para identificação, propagação e utilização na recomposição das diferentes fitofisionomias do Cerrado, aumentando o portfólio da cadeia da restauração. A seleção das espécies apresentadas priorizou seu papel ecológico e econômico nas diferentes estratégias de recomposição e do conhecimento científico disponível. Porém, muito aprendizado ainda há de vir sobre a utilização dessas espécies na recomposição dos ecossistemas, principalmente das formações savânicas e campestres do Cerrado. Embora ricamente ilustrado, não se trata de um guia clássico de identificação das espécies, pois, para isso, já existem excelentes livros publicados com descrições botânicas e imagens detalhadas para reconhecimento das plantas, como os que estão citados nas referências. Ao invés disso, priorizamos uma abordagem mais prática, que considera os atributos funcionais e o uso concreto dessas espécies em trabalhos e projetos de recomposição da vegetação nativa, considerando os fatores de degradação ambientais, as principais fitofisionomias de referência, os indicadores ecológicos para o diagnóstico e para o monitoramento e os parâmetros de quitação a serem considerados no Programa de Regularização Ambiental (PRA) dos estados. Para facilitar a consulta das informações no guia e a escolha das espécies para plantio em trabalhos de recomposição, elas foram divididas em dois capítulos pela formação de ocorrência, diferenciando aquelas que ocorrem preferencialmente em formações mais abertas, como as savanas e/ou campos, daquelas preferencialmente de formações florestais. Recompor ecossistemas naturais é um processo longo e árduo, e a correta escolha e utilização das diferentes “peças” representadas pelas diversas espécies ajudará na reconstrução desse imenso “quebra-cabeças” biótico e abiótico que é o bioma Cerrado. A obra pode ser baixada na íntegra no seguinte link: https://ainfo.cnptia.embrapa.br/digital/bitstream/item/240092/1/Guia-para-recomposicao-do-Cerrado.pdf
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One of the core issues in community ecology is the understanding of mechanisms that determine community structure. In this study, we examine how two structurally distinct habitats (campo sujo – a grassy savanna habitat with low shrubby cover – and seasonal semi‐deciduous forest) and distinct hydrological seasons (dry and rainy) influence the taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic diversity of lizard assemblages in a savanna area in the Brazilian Cerrado. We used pitfall traps to sample lizards from May 2000 to February 2002. To quantify spatio‐temporal changes in the lizard assemblages, we used parameters of taxonomic (species richness – SR), functional (functional diversity – SES.FD, functional redundancy – FR and functional dispersion – FDis), and phylogenetic diversity (phylogenetic species richness – PSR and phylogenetic species variability – PSV). We also estimate functional and phylogenetic structure of the assemblages in each habitat during dry and rainy seasons. We recorded 182 lizards distributed among 14 species. Species composition differed among habitat types, but did not differ seasonally within habitats. SES.FD, FDis, and FR also differed among habitat types but not among seasons, with SES.FD and FDis being greater in seasonal semi‐deciduous forest, while FR was greater in campo sujo. SR, PSR, and PSV were not influenced by the factors analysed. The lizard assemblage of campo sujo was functionally clustered in the dry season and phylogenetically clustered in the rainy season. These results demonstrate that differences among habitat types and seasons are important in shaping the taxonomic, functional, phylogenetic diversity and structure of lizard assemblages in the savanna area studied. Our study also demonstrates the importance of using different measures of diversity to obtain a better understanding on the mechanisms that influence the lizard assemblages in a highly seasonal environment.
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The Cerrado, which includes both forest and savanna habitats, is the second largest South American biome, and among the most threatened on the continent.
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Tropical savannas have been heavily impacted by human activity, with large expanses transformed from a mixture of trees and grasses to open grassland and agriculture. The National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) CCM3 general circulation model, coupled with the NCAR Land Surface Model, was used to simulate the effects of this conversion on regional climate. Conversion of savanna to grassland reduced precipitation by approximately 10% in four of the five savanna regions under study; only the northern African savannas showed no significant decline. Associated with this decline was an increase in the frequency of dry periods within the wet season, a change that could be particularly damaging to shallow-rooted crops. The overall decline in precipitation is almost equally attributable to changes in albedo and roughness length. Conversion to grassland increased mean surface air temperature of all the regions by 0.5°C, primarily because of reductions in surface roughness length. Rooting depth, which decreases dramatically with the conversion of savanna to grassland, contributed little to the overall effect of savanna conversion, but deeper rooting had a small positive effect on latent heat flux with a corresponding reduction in sensible heat flux. The authors propose that the interdependence of climate and vegetation in these regions is manifested as a positive feedback loop in which anthropogenic impacts on savanna vegetation are exacerbated by declines in precipitation.
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The present study applies a series of new techniques to understand the conservation of Cerrado tree species in the face of climate change. We applied techniques from the emerging field of ecological niche modeling to develop a first-pass assessment of likely effects of climate change on tree species' distributions in the Cerrado biome by relating known occurrence points to electronic maps summarizing ecological dimensions. Distributional data represent 15,657 records for 162 tree species occurring in Cerrado. By focusing on the trees of one important and highly endemic biome, rather than the biota of a political unit, we were able to focus on developing biome-wide projections. An important limitation of this study is that only those species with more than 30 unique occurrence records were used-hence, the study is limited to those species of relatively broad geographic distribution, and does not take into account those species with narrower geographic distributions. Global climate change scenarios considered were drawn from the general circulation models of HadCM2; we assessed both a conservative and a less conservative scenario of how climates could change over the next 50 year using the (Hadley HHGSDX50 and HHGGAX50 scenarios, respectively): HHGSDX50 assumes 0.5%/yr CO2 increase, whereas HHGGAX50 assumes a 1%/yr CO2 increase. Results of predictions of present and future distributions varied widely among species. Present distributional models predicted areas of 655,211-2,287,482 out of the 2,496,230 km 2 core area of Cerrado in Brazil. All models used to represent species' present geographic ranges were highly statistically significant based on independent test data sets of point localities. Most species were projected to decline seriously in potential distributional area, with both scenarios anticipating losses of >50% of potential distributional area for essentially all species. Indeed, out of 162 species examined, between the two climate change scenarios, 18 (HHGSDX50 scenario) - 56 (HHGGAX50 scenario) were predicted to end up without habitable areas in the Cerrado region, and 91 (HHGSDX50 scenario) - 123 (HHGGAX50 scenario) species were predicted to decline by more than 90% in potential distributional area in the Cerrado region. Bearing in mind the limitations of the method, and considering its explicit assumptions, these results nevertheless should be cause for ample concern regarding Cerrado biodiversity. Since only 2.25% of the Cerrado biome is presently protected, this future scenario presents a pessimistic forecast, which would likely include widespread species loss from the biome, as well as dramatic shifts to the south and east, further complicating conservation planning efforts.
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We compared fluxes of CO2, CO, NO, and N2O, soil microbial biomass, and N availability in a 20-yr-old Brachiaria pasture and a native cerrado area (savanna in central Brazil). Availability of N and NO fluxes were lower in the pasture than in the cerrado. N2O fluxes were below detection limit at both sites. The CO fluxes showed weak seasonal variation with slightly higher positive fluxes in the dry season and lower fluxes, including net consumption, during the wet season. The cerrado CO fluxes were higher and more variable than the fluxes in the pasture. Both sites showed a seasonal pattern in CO2 emissions with lower fluxes (∼2 μmol CO2·m-2-s-1) during the dry season. There were no significant differences in annual CO2 soil emissions between the cerrado and the pasture, but the temporal trends differed, with higher fluxes in the pasture during the transition from the wet to the dry season. Artificial water addition in the pasture during the dry season resulted in short-lived pulses of NO and CO2.
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An analysis was made of the floristic composition of 376 areas of cerrado and Amazonian savanna, encompassing most of the area of such vegetation in Brazil. A total of 951 species of trees and large shrubs was recorded for these areas, of which 334 (35%) occurred at only a single locality (unicates). The core cerrado area and its outliers were studied in 315 areas, and 914 species were recorded. However, only 300 species occurred at more than eight of the sites (i.e. ≥2.5% of the total) and only 38 species at ≥50%, while the remaining 614 species, including 309 unicates, are very rare. About 300 species, therefore, dominate the core cerrado area; this number is expanded to 350 if the southern São Paulo cerrados are included. Alpha diversity, the number of tree species occurring in a single community, is often high, with more than 100 species of trees and shrubs growing together. We noted particular 'hotspots' in the drainage of the rivers Araguaia, Tocantins and Xingu, but high diversity figures occur in many other areas of the cerrado core, and also in São Paulo' state. On the other hand, the disjunct Amazonian savannas, with the exception of Alter do Chão (Pará) and one site at Humaitá (Amazonas), represent a low diversity vegetation in which 117 species of trees and large shrubs were recorded in the 58 sites analysed. Of these, 77 are widespread species common in the core cerrados. The alpha diversity of disjunct Amazonian savannas seldom exceeds a dozen species of trees and large shrubs. The data were analysed using two techniques of multivariate analysis which we had found particularly appropriate in our previous work: (a) a divisive hierarchical classification by Two-Way Indicator Species Analysis (TWINSPAN), and (b) an agglomerative hierarchical classification by UPGMA (Unweighted Pair-Groups Method using Arithmetic Averages), using the Sørensen Coefficient of Community (cc) as a measure of similarity. The results of both methods showed great similarity, demonstrating a strong geographical pattern in the distribution of the cerrado biome similar to that outlined in the preliminary scheme of our previous work. The following geographic groups were recognized: (i) A very distinctive group of southern sites in São Paulo, Paraná and southern Minas Gerais. (ii) Central and southeastern sites from the Federal District, neighbouring Goiás, and southern and central Minas Gerais. (iii) North and northeastern sites from Bahia, Ceará, the extreme north of Minas Gerais, Maranhão, Piauí, Tocantins, and one site in Pará very close to the Tocantins border. (iv) Central-western sites made up of a huge swathe running across the states of Mato Grosso do Sul, Mato Grosso, Goiás, Tocantins, and into Pará. (v) Widely spread sites with a strong mesotrophic character; this group is particularly well represented in Mato Grosso do Sul. (vi) Far western mesotrophic sites, forming a small group in Rondônia, Mato Grosso do Sul and Mato Grosso. (vii) Disjunct Amazonian sites forming a very distinct group separated from the other sites at the first division of both TWINSPAN and UPGMA.
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Conversion to permanent agriculture is rapidly occurring over vast areas of the 1.8 million km2; Brazilian Cerrado; a region that is naturally a mosaic of grasslands, savannas and evergreen tropical woodlands. Yet, few studies have quantified total biomass of plant communities in this ecosystem, particularly the belowground component; a C pool of potential global significance. Total biomass (aboveground and belowground), and the quantity of biomass consumed by fires were measured in four plant communities comprising a vegetation gradient from pure grassland (campo limpo) to a woodland with a closed canopy of tall shrubs and scattered trees (cerrado denso) near Brasilia, DF, Brazil. Total aboveground biomass (TAGB) increased along this gradient from 5.5 Mg ha-1 in campo limpo to 29.4 Mg ha-1 in cerrado denso. Vegetation structure varied among communities; trees were nonexistent in campo limpo, but were at a density of 1000 ha-1 and a biomass of 12.9 Mg ha-1 in cerrado denso. Fires consumed 92 and 84% of the TAGB in campo limpo (pure grassland) and campo sujo (savanna), respectively. In cerrado aberto and cerrado denso, trees and tall shrubs were little affected by fire. Combustion factors of the TAGB in these communities was 54 and 33%, respectively. The total biomass consumed by fire ranged from 5.0 Mg ha-1 in campo limpo to 13.5 Mg ha-1 in cerrado aberto. Compared to other widespread Brazilian ecosystems (tropical dry forest and evergreen forest), the Cerrado has a lower aboveground biomass. The TAGB of cerrado denso is > 9% of that of Amazonian tropical evergreen forest. The total quantity of biomass consumed by fire, and hence emissions to the atmosphere is lower in intact Cerrado communities compared to fires in slashed tropical forest.
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Biotic invaders are species that establish a new range in which they proliferate, spread, and persist to the detriment of the environment. They are the most important ecological outcomes from the unprecedented alterations in the distribution of the earth’s biota brought about largely through human transport and commerce. In a world without borders, few if any areas remain sheltered from these immigrations. The fate of immigrants is decidedly mixed. Few survive the hazards of chronic and stochastic forces, and only a small fraction become naturalized. In turn, some naturalized species do become invasive. There are several potential reasons why some immigrant species prosper: some escape from the constraints of their native predators or parasites; others are aided by human-caused disturbance that disrupts native communities. Ironically, many biotic invasions are apparently facilitated by cultivation and husbandry, unintentional actions that foster immigrant populations until they are self-perpetuating and uncontrollable. Whatever the cause, biotic invaders can in many cases inflict enormous environmental damage: (1) Animal invaders can cause extinctions of vulnerable native species through predation, grazing, competition, and habitat alteration. (2) Plant invaders can completely alter the fire regime, nutrient cycling, hydrology, and energy budgets in a native ecosystem and can greatly diminish the abundance or survival of native species. (3) In agriculture, the principal pests of temperate crops are nonindigenous, and the combined expenses of pest control and crop losses constitute an onerous ‘‘tax’’ on food, fiber, and forage production. (4) The global cost of virulent plant and animal diseases caused by parasites transported to new ranges and presented with susceptible new hosts is currently incalculable. Identifying future invaders and taking effective steps to prevent their dispersal and establishment constitutes an enormous challenge to both conservation and international commerce. Detection and management when exclusion fails have proved daunting for varied reasons: (1) Efforts to identify general attributes of future invaders have often been inconclusive. (2) Predicting susceptible locales for future invasions seems even more problematic, given the enormous differences in the rates of arrival among potential invaders. (3) Eradication of an established invader is rare, and control efforts vary enormously in their efficacy. Successful control, however, depends more on commitment and continuing diligence than on the efficacy of specific tools themselves. (4) Control of biotic invasions is most effective when it employs a long-term, ecosystemwide strategy rather than a tactical approach focused on battling individual invaders. (5) Prevention of invasions is much less costly than post-entry control. Revamping national and international quarantine laws by adopting a ‘‘guilty until proven innocent’’ approach would be a productive first step. Failure to address the issue of biotic invasions could effectively result in severe global consequences, including wholesale loss of agricultural, forestry, and fishery resources in some regions, disruption of the ecological processes that supply natural services on which human enterprise depends, and the creation of homogeneous, impoverished ecosystems composed of cosmopolitan species. Given their current scale, biotic invasions have taken their place alongside human-driven atmospheric and oceanic alterations as major agents of global change. Left unchecked, they will influence these other forces in profound but still unpredictable ways.
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Studies that relate changes in land cover with changes in river discharge at the small scale (<1 km2) are abundant. These studies generally indicate that deforestation causes an increase in the annual mean discharge. However, previous studies that evaluated the effects of changes in land cover in larger river basins (>100 km2) usually have not found similar relationships. Here we analyse a 50-year long time series of discharge of a tropical river, the Tocantins River at Porto Nacional (175,360 km2), as well as precipitation over this drainage area, during a period where substantial changes in land cover occurred in the basin (1949–1998). Based on agricultural census data, we estimate that, in 1960, about 30% of the basin was used for agriculture. Previous work indicates that by 1995, agriculture had increased substantially, with about 49% of the basin land used as cropland and pastures. Initially, we compare one period with little changes in land cover (period 1-1949–1968) with another with more intense changes in land cover (period 2-1979–1998). Our analysis indicates that, while precipitation over the basin is not statistically different between period 1 and period 2 (α=0.05), annual mean discharge in period 2 is 24% greater than in period 1 (P<0.02), and the high-flow season discharge is greater by 28% (P<0.01). Further analyses present additional evidence that the change in vegetation cover altered the hydrological response of this region. As the pressure for changes in land cover in that region continue to increase, one can expect important further changes in the hydrological regime of the Tocantins River.
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Conservationists are far from able to assist all species under threat, if only for lack of funding. This places a premium on priorities: how can we support the most species at the least cost? One way is to identify 'biodiversity hotspots' where exceptional concentrations of endemic species are undergoing exceptional loss of habitat. As many as 44% of all species of vascular plants and 35% of all species in four vertebrate groups are confined to 25 hotspots comprising only 1.4% of the land surface of the Earth. This opens the way for a 'silver bullet' strategy on the part of conservation planners, focusing on these hotspots in proportion to their share of the world's species at risk.
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