Article

Linking Agricultural Biodiversity and Food Security: the Valuable Role of Agrobiodiversity for Sustainable Agriculture

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Abstract

Agricultural biodiversity is critical for food security throughout the world. At the genetic, species, and farming systems levels, biodiversity provides valuable ecosytems services and functions for agricultural production. How can the erosion of agrobiodiversity be halted? How can it effectively be conserved and enhanced? This article highlights key principles, policies, and practices for the sustain-able use, conservation and enhancement of agrobiodiversity for sustaining food security. After clarifying the serious threats from the global loss of agrobiodiversity, the article summarizes practical guidelines and lessons for biodiversity management in farming systems and landscapes. Such strategies build upon valuable local experiences and knowledge in traditional farming practices, and they also take advantage of recent scientific findings in agroecology and ecosystem health. There is an urgent need to adopt an agroecosytems approach, beyond a focus on genetic resource conservation alone, to implement other biodiversity-enhancing methods in farms, such as integrated ecological pest and soil management. Conflicting agricultural politics that promote monocultural industrial farming models and uniform technology packages need to be eliminated. In addition, the protection of intellectual property rights is vital for those who have knowledge of the values and uses of such biodiversity, particularly for indigenous peoples and small farmers. The approaches reviewed in this analysis show effective ways to conserve, use and enhance biodiversity that will encourage sustainable food security.

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... Agrobiodiversity encompasses all components of biological diversity of relevance to food and agriculture, including the biological diversity that constitute agricultural ecosystems (e.g. animals, fungi, plants, and micro-organisms) at the genetic, species, and ecosystem levels (Thrupp 2002). Agrobiodiversity supports agroecological functions such as pollination and nutrient cycling that are important for overall plant productivity and resilience to environmental disturbance (Frison et al. 2011). ...
... Moreover, as agricultural systems and diets around the world are becoming more homogenous and less diverse (Khoury et al. 2014), on-farm species richness can improve household dietary diversity and nutrition (Jones 2017;Powell et al. 2015). This is especially important when global markets and climates become unstable (Frison et al. 2011;Johns et al. 2013;Thrupp 2002). ...
... Global market integration is a key factor that is changing smallholder maintenance of crop diversity (Thrupp 2002;Zimmerer and de Haan 2017). Globalization and market integration expose local agricultural systems and livelihoods to global economic, political, social, and cultural pressures (Padoch et al. 1985;Rueda and Lambin 2013). ...
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Smallholder farmers are important managers of global crop diversity. However, agricultural modernization is changing farming practices and raising questions about the socio-ecological factors that support crop diversity. In the context of the semi-arid High Atlas Mountains in Morocco, we explored determinants of crop diversity through a cross-sectional survey and farmer interviews in villages adopting new crops such as apples. Through a multiple linear regression analysis and farmer interviews, we found that market participation, land holdings, and water access influenced crop diversity. We highlight the importance of water access for crop diversity, especially in semi-arid regions with uneven hydrological resources.
... As new, higher yielding, 24 disease resistant cultivars are released, they often displace the diversity that was previously grown 25 along with all of the potentially useful traits that they contained. For example, in 1959, over 2000 26 varieties of rice could be found under cultivation in Sri Lanka but only 100 were recorded by 1992, 27 of which 75% came from common genetic stock (Thrupp, 2000). Likewise, in the USA just 4 28 cultivars of potato represent 75% of total production, 6 cultivars of soybeans are responsible for 29 50% of production, and 9 cultivars of wheat encompass 50% of production (Thrupp, 2000). ...
... For example, in 1959, over 2000 26 varieties of rice could be found under cultivation in Sri Lanka but only 100 were recorded by 1992, 27 of which 75% came from common genetic stock (Thrupp, 2000). Likewise, in the USA just 4 28 cultivars of potato represent 75% of total production, 6 cultivars of soybeans are responsible for 29 50% of production, and 9 cultivars of wheat encompass 50% of production (Thrupp, 2000). As a 30 whole, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) estimates that a 6 1 staggering 75% of agrobiodiversity was lost during the 20 th century (Commission on Genetic 2 Resources for Food and Agriculture, 2010). ...
Article
Although cannabis is legalized and accepted as an agricultural commodity in many places around the world, a significant lack of public germplasm repositories remains an unresolved problem in the cannabis industry. The acquisition, preservation and evaluation of germplasm including landraces and ancestral populations is key to unleash the full potential of cannabis in the global marketplace. We argue here that accessible germplasm resources are crucial for long-term economic viability, preserving genetic diversity, breeding, innovation, and the long-term sustainability of the crop. We believe that cannabis restrictions require a second look to allow genebanks to play a fuller and more effective role in conservation, sustainable use, and exchange of cannabis genetic resources.
... Ensuring access to safe and healthy food as a basic human right requires health of the whole food system (social and ecological) (Bizikova et al., 2014;FAO, 2004), including biodiversity conservation (Altieri, 2004;Thrupp, 2000), political and economic stability (Altieri, 2002;Pert et al., 2015;Vanloqueren & Baret, 2009), research support (Gruber, 2020;Kibler, 2020), supporting policies and resources (Bizikova et al., 2016;Foran et al., 2014), and vital intergenerational Indigenous knowledge (Berkes et al., 2000;Lal et al., 2015;Lwoga et al., 2010). The social-environmental link is inextricable and I cannot sufficiently research and understand a food system without also understanding the social dynamics and culture guiding it (Folke, 2006;Foran et al., 2014). ...
... Turner et al., 2010). Globalization 5 , market pressures, corrupt agricultural policies, unavailable food (e.g., poor infrastructure), vulnerable grain storage, poor sanitation, decimation of intergenerational knowledge, climate change, and depleted agricultural soils challenge these farmers (Adda et al., 2002;Altieri, 2002;Altieri et al., 2011;Chambers, 2019;Ebert, 2014;Salinger et al., 2005;Thrupp, 2000;Worou et al., 2020). Climatic changes and habitat destruction for livelihood needs (e.g., coal production) threaten the resources available naturally for agriculture (e.g., trees to support a cooler climate). ...
Thesis
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Indigenous West African farmers are among the most climate change threatened globally. Food insecurity is prevalent in West Africa because ecological, social, political, and economic instabilities, and globalization worsen climate pressures. In this study, I collaborated with the community of Bikotiba (bih-CO-ti-buh), Togo, to understand their household agricultural food access, one aspect of resilience to food insecurity. I adopted a feminist approach of reflexivity, radical vulnerability, and radical empathy, combined with decolonizing principles, to argue that there could be an ethical way for well-trained Western researchers to engage Indigenous communities, if negotiated carefully. Together, Indigenous Research Assistants and I developed and conducted semi-structured interviews in the local language, Bassari, with 56% of the heads of households in Bikotiba, and led community meetings with the demographics of men, women, and students. We learned that maize production in Bikotiba is threatened by climatic, political, and environmental changes, making maize subsistence a glaring leverage point in the community’s food security, in addition to the social-political-economic and human rights injustices keeping rural farmers impoverished in Togo. This study demonstrates the cross-cultural possibilities to advance food systems research with Indigenous communities if Western scholars foster feminist decolonizing principles. This research is only possible if supported by communities like Bikotiba, and this study provides compelling insights on the possibilities when communities support research.
... Crop diversity 3 is essential for sustained agricultural yields and food security, and is a vital component of biodiversity (Thrupp, 2000). Researchers and practitioners are keen on encouraging smallholder farmers to retain the crop diversity they have cultivated over generations (Convention on Biological Diversity, 2019; Jarvis et al., 2016). ...
... An important debate in the literature around crop diversity is centred around whether it has increased or decreased at local levels, and the suitable strategy for its conservation. One group of researchers has observed a reduction in crop diversity through agricultural homogenisation, the loss of local varieties and interrupted native varietal evolution (Khoury et al., 2014;Thrupp, 2000;Wilkes, 1994). This view advocates for ex-situ conservation to preserve the genetic material of supplanted crops. ...
Article
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Conserving crop diversity is promoted for global food system stability and creating local benefits like improved farmer nutrition, incomes and adaptive capacities. However, little is known about how farmers make decisions shaping crop diversity, and how conservation efforts can be aligned with farmers' goals. This study examines how interacting values, rules and knowledge shape decisions of subsistence farmers in central India. Findings suggest that farmers' values play a central role in shaping crop diversity. Their culinary and health preferences for consuming various self-cultivated crops primarily drive portfolio decisions. Farmers are hesitant to invest in commercial agricultural because of unreliable returns. Furthermore, they prefer to control water availability and land quality as means of coping with environmental change, rather than resorting to crop diversification. Finally, a rich understanding of local crop diversity dynamics questions the ethics of expecting marginal farmers to shoulder the burden of conservation for global gain, suggesting ex-situ strategies are appropriate where in-situ practices are not autonomously selected. Overall, the analysis demonstrates the importance of understanding farmer-level decision-making for wider crop diversity conservation debates.
... Mexico is considered to be one of the nations with the greatest agrobiodiversity, and center of origin and diversification of maize, a variety of species of beans, and some species of squash [2,8,9], which are crucial to the diet of-and a source of income for-rural families [10]. Maintaining native varieties and free exchange of seeds among farmers is key to preserving agrobiodiversity and achieving sustainable agriculture in peasant communities [7,[11][12][13]. ...
... These varieties were the three most exchanged among farmers. Exchanges were carried out among acquaintances from the same locality (73), family members (26) and to a lesser extent friends (20), neighbors (12) and people who the farmers did not know, yet approached to obtain seeds (13). The number of exchanges carried out varies according to the variety of maize (Table 2). ...
Article
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Seed exchange networks among farmers favor circulation of crop varieties and have been discussed as an effective means of crop diversity conservation. This study aims to document the processes and structure of seed exchange networks of native maize, beans, and squash among farmers and other participating sectors (local market or seed banks), analyzing their influence on agrobiodiversity conservation in the municipalities of Ixtenco and Huamantla, in the Mexican state of Tlaxcala. Through interviews, questionnaires, and social network analysis, nodal farmers were identified. In the maize network, five nodal farmers were detected, the blanco maize being the most commonly exchanged seed. In the bean network, three nodal farmers were identified, with amarillo beans as the most exchanged seed. In the squash network, no nodal farmer was identified. For maize and beans, the greater the number of exchanges, the greater the varieties exchanged. The local market of Huamantla and the Vicente Guerrero seed bank are relevant seed sources. The nodal farmers propitiate circulation of a large number of seed varieties in the exchange networks and contribute to maintenance and conservation of agrobiodiversity
... Excessive reliance on a limited number of mainstream domesticated crops for nutritional requirements has been flagged as an important issue in the global fight against food insecurity and in ensuring global food security to achieve zero hunger by 2030 as envisaged in the Agenda 2030 of Sustainable Development Goals [10]. Furthermore, the current widespread cultivation of uniform domesticated varieties carries huge risks of crop failures and significant reduction in yield as they are more vulnerable to biotic (pathogen and pests) and abiotic stresses (due to global climate change) [11]. It has been estimated that the rise in global mean temperatures may result in a reduction in significant yields of several crops currently in use such as wheat, rice, maize and soybean [12,13]. ...
... The uniform varieties are most likely to be destroyed simultaneously with the evolution of resistant pathogens or with climate change unless region-specific strategies and preventive measures are in place [37]. This leads to widespread hunger, malnutrition, migration and may even lead to civil wars [11,38]. Therefore, the existence of diversity in food plants is crucial and required for the breeding of improved varieties for desirable traits such as stress resistance and nutritional superiority [39][40][41]. ...
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Indigenous communities across the globe, especially in rural areas, consume locally available plants known as Traditional Food Plants (TFPs) for their nutritional and health-related needs. Recent research shows that many TFPs are highly nutritious as they contain health beneficial metabolites, vitamins, mineral elements and other nutrients. Excessive reliance on the mainstream staple crops has its own disadvantages. Traditional food plants are nowadays considered important crops of the future and can act as supplementary foods for the burgeoning global population. They can also act as emergency foods in situations such as COVID-19 and in times of other pandemics. The current situation necessitates locally available alternative nutritious TFPs for sustainable food production. To increase the cultivation or improve the traits in TFPs, it is essential to understand the molecular basis of the genes that regulate some important traits such as nutritional components and resilience to biotic and abiotic stresses. The integrated use of modern omics and gene editing technologies provide great opportunities to better understand the genetic and molecular basis of superior nutrient content, climate-resilient traits and adaptation to local agroclimatic zones. Recently, realizing the importance and benefits of TFPs, scientists have shown interest in the prospection and sequencing of TFPs for their improvements, cultivation and mainstreaming. Integrated omics such as genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics and ionomics are successfully used in plants and have provided a comprehensive understanding of gene-protein-metabolite networks. Combined use of omics and editing tools has led to successful editing of beneficial traits in several TFPs. This suggests that there is ample scope for improvement of TFPs for sustainable food production. In this article, we highlight the importance, scope and progress towards improvement of TFPs for valuable traits by integrated use of omics and gene editing techniques.
... Biodiversity positively contributes to agriculture via pest control and pollination, and provides long-term resilience to disturbances and environmental changes (Hooper et al. 2005), thereby contributing substantially to economic and social development (Gallai et al. 2009). It also provides valuable ES and functions for agricultural production at genetic, species, and farming system levels (Thrupp 2000). Loss of BD reduces ecosystem functions and crop yields, and results in potential income loss while increasing health risks and malnutrition (Leakey 1999). ...
Chapter
Research over the past two decades has provided solid evidence for many of the ecosystem services (ES) of agroforestry (AF). The main objective of this book is to synthesize the relevant literature from around the globe. The book not only covers the ES related to soil, air, water, food security, biodiversity conservation, and pollination, but also discusses allied topics such as agroforestry design, cultural values, and economic valuation of ES services. In addition, we also have included two country-specific case studies. These include carbon sequestration potential in India and ES services of AF in Australia. Major findings and suggestions from each chapter will also be presented in this introduction chapter to explain how AF can mitigate and lessen impacts on critical global issues. These chapters have confirmed that adoption of AF can help reduce soil and land degradation, water pollution, flooding, food insecurity, and biodiversity decline. These chapters have described how AF improves provisional, regulating, supporting, and cultural ES. Chapters on soil services indicated that soil carbon addition of AF was the main factor for increasing resiliency of ecosystems to climate change threats. The perennial components of AF help improve water quality due to its direct influence on nutrient cycling and also its indirect influence through the modification of soil properties. Chapters on silvopasture clearly demonstrate that properly managed silvopastoral systems improve the environment, not only animal welfare, but land productivity and resource-use efficiency as well while providing better economic returns. Another review showed that pollination can be enhanced by agroforestry by creating new and enhancing existing habitat. Agroforestry can reduce flooding and improve air quality due to the presence of trees. Chapters on cultural services, designing AF, and economics showed the importance of these concepts to improve AF adoption although the literature is still limited on these topics. Although AF is not the sole solution for every current issue like climate change, food insecurity, biodiversity decline, and environmental degradation, its broader adoption as part of a multifunctional working landscape can definitely offer much-needed help.
... Although this balancing act is contentious within the literature, there are two key strategies to achieve these goals without one compromising the other: 1) Focusing on maximizing on-site biodiversity would not only promote environmental resilience within the area but also provides spillover benefits for the surrounding environment (Galluzzi et al., 2010;L. A. Garibaldi et al., 2017;González-Jácome, 2016;Jackson et al., 2007;Thrupp, 2000;Wood & Lenné, 1999) . 2) Sites with degraded or contaminated soils should be treated as opportunities for soil remediation and rewilding, particularly with plants who are bioculturally important within Taíno ontologies but may have become threatened or endangered since colonization; such efforts offer chances to experiment with hybrid ecosystems and their functionalities, prioritizing rehabilitating the land however possible and in creative ways rather than continuing patterns of neglect (Alkon & Agyeman, 2014;Burnett et al., 2019;Carpenter & Rosenthal, 2011;Cederlöf, 2016;Hobbs et al., 2014;Munawar et al., 1990;Rascio & Navari-Izzo, 2011;P. ...
Thesis
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Puerto Rico’s food systems are dangerously precarious, with the islands importing about 90% of its food, a consequence of five centuries of colonialism prioritizing foreign profit over local welfare. Particularly in the aftermath of Hurricane Maria, though, there has been a swelling movement towards food sovereignty on the islands, often aligned with overlapping movements towards the resurgence of Taíno identity and culture. Bringing these movements together, this dissertation focuses on Taíno social-environmental systems, using the recorded Taíno language as the primary vantage point in order to understand the dynamics of pre-colonial social-environmental systems on the islands, the cultures that shaped such systems, and how that can guide us to food and material sovereignty on the islands. This dissertation is grounded in a decolonial research methodology, which I develop and provide as a generalized framework such that other researchers can make use of it as well. Delving into Taíno ecolinguistic ontologies – or the worldviews and relations revealed by the nexus between language and the environment – demonstrates a high degree of naming multiplicity in the Taíno lexicon, particularly for plants and animals with which there was greater intimacy in Taíno cultures. Additionally, redundancy was a prominent feature in pre-colonial Taíno bicultural systems, contributing to socioecological resilience, although there were several categories, especially related to spiritual functions, for which certain biota are simply irreplaceable. Although there are numerous critical barriers obstructing food and material sovereignty for Puerto Rico, the lessons gleaned from Taíno culture, particularly Taíno ecolinguistic ontologies and pre-colonial social-environmental systems, indicate several promising opportunities for cultivating sovereignty: research towards decolonization, mass (re)education, land reclamation, land cultivation & restoration, establishing constellations of care, and building a Pan-Caribbean coalition.
... In short, agrobiodiversity constitutes the biodiversity components that contribute to food and agriculture, which includes genetic resources of crops and livestock as well as of other plants, animals, and microorganisms sustaining the structure and functions of the agroecosystems. Agrobiodiversity has been reported to contribute to agricultural productivity and food security, stability of farming systems and reduce pressure of agriculture on fragile areas, forests and endangered species (Thrupp, 2000) and can enhance human food diversity and nutrition (Remans et al., 2014). Recent works reported that food crops obtained from traditional cultivars and non-cultivated plants gathered from diverse ecosystems which compose many local diets globally, contain higher nutrient content (FAO, 2010). ...
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North-East India, which falls under the Indian Eastern Himalayan region and forms part of two global biodiversity hotspots, is well-known for its rich diversity of flora, fauna, cultures and traditional knowledge systems. Agriculture is the main occupation of the communities living in this region supplemented by utilization of wild useful species from the nearby forests. Traditional agriculture in North-East India follows mixed cropping pattern through multi-cropping, crop rotation, use of multipurpose nitrogen (N)-fixing trees, along with protection of semi-domesticated and wild biodiversity, including medicinal plants, wild edible fruits and vegetables, fodder plants and other useful species. Presently, there has been a gradual shifting from subsistence cultivation to commercial agriculture driven by market forces and modernization, leading to transition from traditional to intensive agriculture and monoculture of cash crops. This has resulted in reduced cultivation of local crop varieties and disappearance of the associated traditional ecological knowledge (TEK). Therefore, the present study attempts to review the contribution of traditional agricultural practices to agrobiodiversity conservation and sustainable natural resource management. Relevant traditional practices such as shifting (Jhum) cultivation systems, bamboo-drip irrigation, paddy-cum-fish cultivation, traditional agroforestry systems of different Indigenous communities residing in different states of North-East India were mentioned in this review. It is undeniable that TEK was developed by communities through many centuries by trial-and-error methods to conform to the local climate, topography, ecology and socio-cultural relevance to the concerned Indigenous communities. This knowledge, therefore, has a great scope for improvement by integration with scientific knowledge for transforming into sustainable agricultural systems in the face of climate change adaptation and mitigation of the vulnerable mountain communities of the Himalayan region.
... Later on, Elias [7] divided Myricaceae into two genera (Comptonia and Myrica) and one sub-genus (Morella) based on pollen morphology, and in 1985 this classification was supported by Sundberg [8]. According to the modern taxonomist, and utilization of traditional biodiversity crops that could have the importance to promote the cereal staples more sustainably and also spread the nutrition and food security at the household level in a better way [14][15][16]. Due to increased biotic and abiotic stresses on wild edible species, their regeneration is becoming poor in their natural habitats [13]. ...
... Para la agroecología la biodiversidad es uno de los aspectos primordiales y más importantes de los sistemas naturales y por consiguiente de los agroecosistemas; Altieri (1999b) define a la biodiversidad como "el número de poblaciones de individuos y especies distintas, así como las interacciones durables entre las especies y su medio ambiente inmediato". Lamentablemente, el fraccionamiento y/o destrucción de los hábitats naturales para el uso agrícola y el uso indiscriminado de plaguicidas y agroquímicos, representan las causas más importantes en la pérdida masiva de diversidad biológica a nivel mundial (Thrupp, 2000;Primavesi et al., 2014). ...
Book
El fraccionamiento y/o destrucción de los hábitats naturales para el uso agrícola, y el uso indiscriminado de plaguicidas y agroquímicos, representan las causas más importantes en la pérdida masiva de diversidad biológica a nivel mundial. Para contrarestar estó, la agroecología trata de rescatar el potencial endógeno de los agroecosistemas locales, para alcanzar la autosuficiencia y fortalecer su reproducción a nivel biológico; haciendo uso de tecnicas de manejo sostenible como las barreras vivas, las cuales suponen beneficios para la agricultura, sin embargo, la eficiencia de éstas hacia los cultivos, en un enfoque paisajístico, es poco conocida; sobre todo en cultivos revalorizados como el Amaranto. En el presente estudio se evaluó el crecimiento vegetativo, así como la comunidad de insectos asociados, de Amaranthus hypochondriacus L., en función de la proximidad a barreras vivas nativas, a nivel de pequeña parcela, comparando tres sistemas diferentes, zona natural, zona con barrera viva y zona sin barrera. Los resultados mostrarón patrones de respuesta por parte de las plantas de A. hypochondriacus, así como de la entomofauna asociada a A. hypochondriacus, hacia la presencia de barreras vivas nativas adyacentes a un sistema natural. Las plántas de A. hypochondriacus tienden a crecer más, cerca de la barrera, y de manera importante la panícula; sugieriendo la existencia de efectos de borde positivos. Por su parte, la respuesta de los insectos mostró tendencias diferentes: las abundancias, no fueron diferentes significativamente entre zonas, pero tienden a ser mayores en la zona de cultivo cercana a la barrera viva. Los tres sistemas son semejantes, sin embargo, las tendencias muestran que las comunidades no están anidadas. La abundancia presenta un patrón de respuesta positivo; por su lado la riqueza tiene una respuesta transicional (positivo en la zona de cultivo). Los valores de diversidad funcional sugieran que la funcionalidad de la comunidad presente en la zona con barrera viva se asemeja a la funcionalidad de la comunidad en la zona natural; al contrario, la zona sin barrera presentó valores de funcionalidad muy bajos, pero con la característica de tener una mayor equitatividad. Así el presente estudio establece por primera vez que tanto las plantas de amaranto, como la entomofauna asociada tienen el potencial de responder a la presencia de barreras vivas, y para el caso específico, una barrera viva nativa (ecotono) adyacente a un sistema natural, impacta positivamente en el crecimiento vegetativo de dicha especie nativa cultivada, así como en el establecimiento de comunidades de insectos con altos valores de funcionalidad, que inciden en el establecimiento de poblaciones de especies plaga.
... Seeds are the starting point of all agricultural activity, with any disturbance potentially affecting the entire agricultural value chain. Moreover, breeding shapes the agroeconomic characteristics of plant varieties, determining their suitability for specific climatic and biophysical conditions, while the genetic diversity within and between varieties and species links to the stability of food systems (Jackson et al., 2007;Lammerts van Bueren et al., 2018;Thrupp, 2000). Furthermore, breeding and seed production are closely tied to questions about ownership of and access to plant genetic resources, affecting farmers' ability to build up capacities to respond to disturbances. ...
Article
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Building resilience in food systems is a priority to meet societal challenges such as climate change and biodiversity loss. However, there has been little systematic research on the role of seed production in fostering agroecological resilience. The increasing commercialization and privatization in the conventional seed industry result in the development and use of only a small number of high-yielding varieties. To counter this trend, new organizational approaches and governance structures in plant breeding and seed production build upon common ownership and collective management. In this study, we analyse how commons-oriented seed production promotes agroecological resilience in comparison to conventional private-property-based seed production. We apply an indicator-based framework to analyse publications from breeding and seed-producing organizations in the German-speaking vegetable seed sector. We find that in comparison to conventional seed production, commons structures promote agroecological resilience in several respects. They foster diversity at the genetic, crop species, and landscape level, create redundancy in seed supply channels, and increase autonomy from external resource inputs and international markets. The governance structures of commons-based seed production contribute to agroecological resilience through a high degree of self-organization of farmers and breeders along the value chain, participatory breeding approaches, and greater access rights to seeds.
... Pest control is one of the biggest challenges in modern agriculture (Tilman et al. 2002;Thrupp 2000;Manosathiyadevan et al. 2017;Isman 2019). Intensive agriculture, which typically harbors low biodiversity (Tilman et al. 2002), is highly vulnerable to animal pests attack (including vertebrates and invertebrates), leading to an average yield loss between 9 and 37% when crops are not protected (Oerke 2006;Culliney 2014). ...
Article
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Birds provide important ecosystem services in many ecosystems, including important pest control effects on productive systems. The typically low bird diversity observed in intensive agricultural landscapes renders them more susceptible to pests that cause important economic losses. Although these pests have traditionally been controlled using chemical methods, recent work suggests that bird-mediated biological control is an effective and environmentally friendly form of ecological intensification practice. We conducted a global meta-analysis to synthesize the effect of the exclusion of wild birds on crop damage, pest abundance, and crop yield in agroecosystems. We used 179 case studies from 55 articles, from which we found that wild birds reduced crop damage and pest abundance, but increased crop yield. The positive effect of birds as biological control agents was found to be significant on conventional farms using traditional chemical methods but not on organic farms. Our analysis shows that embracing ecological intensification practices such as using wild bird species as pest control represents a win–win strategy for agriculture and biodiversity.
... Therefore, a home garden is a multipurpose farming system around a homestead where household members maintain diverse agricultural biodiversity. Agricultural biodiversity is regarded as a fundamental component of agricultural systems and it encompasses many types of biodiversity associated with agricultural systems, including the following (Thrupp, 2000;Heywood 2013;Allen et al. 2014;Maroyi 2020): genome, the essential genetic resource of all living organisms (i), wild edible plants and agricultural crops (ii), livestock and freshwater fish (iii), soil organisms which are important to soil fertility, composition, structure, health and quality (iv), naturally occurring insects, fungi, bacteria and virus which control insect diseases and pests of domesticated plants and animals (v), agro-ecosystem resources associated with nutrient stability, productivity and cycling (vi), and wild resources associated with natural landscapes and habitats which provide ecosystem functions and services to agriculture (vii). ...
Article
Ngcaba P, Maroyi A. 2021. Home gardens in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa: A promising approach to enhance household food security and well-being. Biodiversitas 22: 4045-4053. The current study is aimed at documenting the diversity and composition of food plants cultivated and maintained in home gardens; and also assessing their role at enhancing household food security and well-being in the Eastern Cape province, South Africa. This study was undertaken in six villages in the province, between June 2014 and March 2016. Information on socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of the respondents, home garden practices, food plants grown and maintained in home gardens were collected by means of questionnaires and guided field walks with 129 respondents. A total of 32 edible plants belonging to 27 genera and 18 families were recorded. The main uses of plants grown and managed in home gardens were edible fruits or seeds (56.3%), leaves cooked as leafy vegetables (28.1%), edible bulbs, roots and tubers (21.9%), beverage, cereal, and culinary herb or spice (3.1% each). The most preferred species were Zea mays (64.3%), followed by Brassica oleracea (59.7%), Solanum tuberosum (58.9%), Spinacia oleracea (52.7%), Allium cepa (51.9%), Cucurbita moschata (44.2%), Capsicum annuum (38.0%), Cucurbita maxima (31.8%) and Daucas carota (31.0%). This study showed that home gardens can provide alternative sources of diverse and nutritious food to households, making home gardens an important agricultural resource for increasing food security in the province.
... For seed businesses to thrive on new varieties, they would need a steady stream of newly released varieties, which requires linkages breeding and seed programs. In addition, ensuring a constant flow of new varieties could raise other problems: effective campaigns for variety replacement can result in a loss of land races, agrobiodiversity, and in-situ conservation (Pautasso et al., 2013;Thrupp, 2000), and the frequent release of new varieties could complicate choices for farmers (Stone, 2007). ...
Article
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The overdependency on local cassava varieties and informal seed sources by farmers in Rwanda has contributed to the spread of cassava viral diseases. The use of improved planting materials made available through formal seed sources, that assure seed quality, is one way to prevent future disease outbreaks. In order to increase the availability of, and farmers access to, such materials there is increasing interest to develop seed business models. This study aims to understand seed sourcing practices of different farm typologies to inform the development of tailored seed business models. A total of 390 farmers were interviewed and the collected data was analyzed into clusters, resulting in seven farm typologies. Seed sourcing strategies, seed replacement dynamics and purchasing behavior of these typologies were explored via a seed tracing study. We find that more commercial oriented farmers have better access to formal seed sources. Nevertheless, the majority of farmers in all typologies accessed new varieties and quality cassava seed via informal channels. At both formal and informal sources, cash investments in seed were mainly made by the categories of better-off farmers, and were one-time investments to acquire a new variety. Based on farmers current seed sourcing practices, clarifications on the differences between farmers and their willingness-to-pay, the roles of seed degeneration, cost-benefit analysis, value propositions and profit formulas seem important requirements for the further development of viable cassava seed business models. We conclude that tailoring seed business models can have a high potential as it acknowledges differences among farmers, but that careful coordination is needed to ensure that one approach or intervention does not contrast with and/or undermine the others.
... A maior concentração da produção provavelmente reflete a proximidade das RDS Uatumã e, especialmente, Rio Negro, ao mercado de Manaus, enquanto Juma está muito mais isolada. Conforme observado em diversos lugares do mundo (Thrupp, 2000), em condições relativamente isoladas, a população da RDS Juma gera um portfólio maior de produtos como estratégia para diminuir riscos. *Respostas espontâneas e múltiplas. ...
Technical Report
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Institucional Publication-Série Cadernos de Sustentabilidade, COORDENAÇÃO GERAL Virgílio Viana REVISÃO FINAL Elizabeth Cavalcante; João Tezza Neto; Suelen Marostica PROJETO GRÁFICO E EDITORAÇÃO ELETRÔNICA Felipe Lobo IMPRESSÃO Grafisa Gráfica e Editora LTDA, TIRAGEM, 500 exemplares
... In turn, ABDI is a measure of how the land occupation period with living vegetal cover is occupied with different species and represent the agrobiodiversity (Jackson et al., 2005) degree. Agrobiodiversity has been associated with important aims of EI such as farm stability, robustness, and sustainability, sound pest and disease management, soil conservation, diversification of products and income opportunities, reduction or spreading risk, maximization of resource use and contribution to ecosystem structure conservation, and stability of species diversity (FAO, 2015;Thrupp, 2002). ...
Article
The design of crop sequences based on ecological intensification (EI) may help to restore lost agroecosystem services and to increase resource use efficiency. Our aim was to evaluate, using a modelling approach, the impact of EI-based strategies, such as changing crop sequence configuration and increasing cropping intensity and agrobiodiversity, in the Inner Argentinean Pampas (IAP) region on water productivity (WP) of crop sequences and its components, i.e. water capture (Cw) and water use efficiency (WUE). We simulated crop sequences using SWB crop model for a 50-year period in two locations of IAP region. Crop sequences, of two-year duration each, had different configurations and included sole and/or double-crops in the growing season. These crop sequences were characterized using the following indexes of EI: cropping intensity index (CII), agrobiodiversity index (ABDI), cereal proportion (CP), maize (Zea mays L.) proportion (MP) and soybean (Glycine max [L] Merrill) proportion (SP). Our main findings reveal that: i) Regardless of location, all crop sequences alternatives to those based on a high SP had a higher estimated glucose yield, ii) Estimated glucose yield, WP, Cw, and WUE were significantly related to one or more indexes of EI included in multiple lineal models, iii) The role of Cw was more important than that of WUE to increase WP, iv) The choice of crop sequence was more critical to increase Cw when decreasing rainfall, v) vapour pressure deficit appears as a meteorological variable at least as important as the total amount of rainfall and its distribution pattern to design crop sequences in the IAP. Thus, the used modelling approach allowed us to evaluate crop sequences spanning a wide range of ecological intensification indexes, which take into account the level of agrobiodiversity, cropping intensity, and the proportion of key crops in their composition, gaining useful insights to design sustainable cropping systems.
... The higher average amount of interspecific crop diversity in this study than previous national and regional scale estimates (Aguilar et al., 2015;Hijmans et al., 2016) reflects research from the Global South that has documented that crop diversity is most often maintained by smallholder farmers who orient their production around home consumption (Brush, 2003;Pautasso et al., 2013;. While the context of the US is distinct as most producers are not reliant on the food they grow for their livelihoods or subsistence, parallels do exist in that a large portion of crop diversity in the Global South traditionally comes from small-scale polyculture systems such as gardens (Thrupp, 2000). ...
Article
Crop diversity is fundamental to the sustainability of agricultural and ecological systems. However, there has been relatively little attention to crop diversity in the US, despite its continued decline. Moreover, most past research on crops in the US has principally focused on crops grown commercially, neglecting the crop diversity that occurs through non-commercial activities. In this paper, we explore the influence of various motivations on the decision to maintain crop diversity among commercial and non-commercial seed producers in the US state of Vermont. Drawing on an original online survey of seed producers (n = 151), we consider who is producing seed, the crop diversity these seed producers maintain, and their motivations for doing so. Findings suggest that seed producers maintain crop diversity for myriad reasons beyond profit accumulation, including environmental, social, and cultural motives – indicating that the avenues through which crop diversity conservation can be encouraged within the US are numerous. Our findings also suggest that motivations for crop diversification can be understood through a variety of theoretical lenses – many of which are not being widely considered by scholars – suggesting that research, policies, and programs focused on monetary incentives alone may miss important opportunities to encourage the maintenance of crop diversity.
... Los paisajes rurales de Bogotá, donde aún se desarrollan prácticas tradicionales de manejo agrícola diversificado, suelen ser refugios de altos niveles de biodiversidad e importantes repositorios de conocimiento ecológico local (Zimmerer, 2004;Clavijo-Ponce y Pérez-Martínez, 2014;Pérez y Matiz-Guerra, 2017) que conforman sistemas socioecológicos con un robusto patrimonio biocultural, caracterizados por las relaciones de conocimientos, prácticas y experiencias que involucran a diversas especies, y permiten una agricultura multifuncional que posibilita la innovación local y la adaptación al cambio socioambiental (Nazarea-Sandoval, 1998;Perreault, 2005;Perrault-Archamault y Coomes, 2008;Rhoades y Nazarea, 1999;Thrupp, 2002). Estos sistemas pueden motivar la transformación del sistema agroalimentario basado en el monocultivo y el uso intensivo de insumos externos, por lo que reconocer sus visiones del mundo y reivindicar sus experiencias es clave para trazar nuevos caminos hacia la sostenibilidad (Andrade et al., 2018). ...
Article
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A través de un proceso de co-investigación con sabedores de la ruralidad bogotana, se documentaron prácticas culinarias tradicionales y se realizaron encuentros para conversar sobre sus implicaciones territoriales y los desafíos de sus transformaciones. El diálogo permitió reactivar la memoria y las percepciones que, desde la cocina, remiten al territorio, y conversar sobre los riesgos y potencialidades de las innovaciones en las prácticas suscitadas, considerando la porosidad de las fronteras urbano-rurales. Se evidencia una persistencia de conocimientos y relaciones con la biodiversidad local, que representan un acervo esencial para pensar la conservación y dinamización de la diversidad biocultural y su integración como parte del patrimonio cultural material e inmaterial de Bogotá. ---***--- ENG -----***---- A process of co-research with farmers in the rural area of Bogotá, documented traditional culinary practices and held meetings to discuss their territorial implications and the challenges of their transformations. The dialogues promoted the reactivation of memories and perceptions, linking the space of kitchens and territories, and included conversations on the risks and opportunities of innovations triggered by urban-rural relations. This research sheds light on the persistence of linkages related to local biodiversity, which represent a key asset for the conservation of biocultural diversity and of the material and immaterial heritage of Bogota. Revista de Antropología y Sociología: Virajes, 23(2)
... Elle comprend également les interactions que les humains établissent avec les dimensions biologiques de l'agrobiodiversité telles que la diversité des savoirs, des usages et la diversité culturelle (FAO, 1999 ;Pautasso et al., 2013). Il s'agit donc d'un enjeu pour la sécurité et la souveraineté alimentaire (Ehsan Dulloo et al., 2017 ;Esquinas-Alcázar, 2005 ;Jacobsen et al., 2013 ;Thrupp, 2000 ;Toledo et Burlingame, 2006 ;Zimmerer et de Haan, 2017). ...
Thesis
Depuis près de 50 ans, l’érosion de l’agrobiodiversité est constatée à l’échelle globale. Différentes stratégies de conservation ont été mises en œuvre, sans toutefois parvenir à enrayer son déclin. À l’heure d’une nécessaire transition agroécologique, les choix de conservation de l’agrobiodiversité sont questionnés avec une nouvelle acuité : « que conserver ? » et « comment conserver ? ». Les espèces pérennes mineures (en terme économique) bénéficient d’un regain d’intérêt du fait de leur adaptation à certains environnements marginaux et changeants, ou encore de leurs qualités nutritionnelles. Peu conservées ex situ, la gestion dynamique est souvent considérée comme la meilleure stratégie pour conserver leur diversité génétique. Néanmoins, sa mise en pratique pose de nombreuses questions. L’objectif de cette thèse est de comprendre l’importance que peut avoir la re-domestication du châtaignier, définie comme la réappropriation de populations locales d’une espèce abandonnée ou en contexte de production marginal, pour conserver l’agrobiodiversité.J’ai développé une approche pluridisciplinaire en mobilisant des outils propres à la génétique des populations et aux sciences humaines et sociales. Dans un premier temps, j’ai (i) identifié les actrices et acteurs qui s’intéressent (ou se désintéressent) de cette agrobiodiversité, et (ii) caractérisé cette agrobiodiversité sur le plan de la diversité génétique neutre, à l’échelle de la France. Ces deux aspects en toile de fond, j’ai ensuite (iii) comparé la caractérisation de l’agrobiodiversité par l’approche génétique avec celle réalisée par les initiatives étudiées et réalisé des entretiens et observations participantes qui ont permis de (iv) révéler les principales manières de valuer le châtaignier. La conservation de la diversité génétique du châtaignier est rendue fragile par le désengagement progressif de l’État et des associations s’organisent avec l’intention de la conserver. Le génotypage de châtaigniers cultivés et forestiers à l’aide de marqueurs de type microsatellites révèle une diversité génétique moyenne du châtaignier en France et une absence de structuration de la diversité génétique entre châtaigniers forestiers et cultivés. Indépendamment du caractère forestier ou cultivé des châtaigniers, une structuration nette a été détectée en deux groupes génétiques, qui se subdivisent ensuite en six sous-groupes. La distance géographique explique partiellement la différence génétique entre les principaux groupes. L’analyse phylogénétique et clonale a montré une bonne correspondance entre les noms de variétés et la différenciation génétique. La plupart des variétés génotypées apparaissent polyclonales dans l’échantillonnage effectué et certaines d’entre elles ont été transportées sur de longues distances. La théorie de la valuation de J. Dewey a servi de cadre d’interprétation des entretiens compréhensifs et des observations participantes réalisés auprès de deux associations en Ariège et Hautes-Pyrénées. Elle permet d’appréhender ce à quoi tiennent les actrices et acteurs impliqués dans ces associations lorsqu’elle‧il‧s redomestiquent le châtaignier. L’analyse révèle cinq manières de valuer le châtaignier : la diversité cultivée, la patrimonialisation de la nature, l’autonomisation décisionnelle et technique, le développement de relations avec le vivant et l’action collective. Les résultats suggèrent que la re-domestication du châtaignier repose sur une diversité de valuations. Dans les cas où les actrices et acteurs de terrain en viennent à attacher de l’importance à certains châtaigniers et variétés plutôt qu’à d’autres, elle‧il‧s sont susceptibles de participer à la conservation de l’agrobiodiversité. La re-domestication de populations locales ou régionales d’une espèce n’est pas directement assimilable à une gestion dynamique. (Suite et fin du résumé dans la thèse)
... Crop diversity can sometimes be measured as "crop group diversity" where crops are grouped together by similar characteristics, for example ecological functions in the agricultural system, nutrient content or importance for creating income from crop sales. Agricultural biodiversity is a broader characterisation that encompasses for example genetic resources, edible plants and crops including traditional varieties, and other genetic material, livestock and freshwater fish, soil organism vital to soil fertility, naturally occurring insects, bacteria and fungi that control insect pests and diseases, and wild resources or natural habitats which can provide ecosystem functions and services (Thrupp, 2000). Throughout the paper agricultural biodiversity and agrobiodiversity are used interchangeably. ...
Article
Diversity in agricultural systems is often presented as having benefits for multiple purposes like food and nutrition security in low- and middle-income countries. Our review aims to give an overview of the strength and direction of the diversity-food security relationship as presented in research published since 2010, based on a comprehensive search in Web of Science. We present an overview and synthesize results for different spatial scales and units of observation, from individual to global and for the four dimensions of food security: availability, access, stability and utilisation. Eighty-eight of the 924 surveyed publications meet the inclusion criteria and report the direction and magnitude of 314 individual diversity-food security relationships. In almost two thirds of all cases, agricultural diversity had a positive effect on food security. In about one third of the relationships there was no effect of agricultural diversity on food security, or the results were mixed. These numbers hold for the availability, access and utilisation dimensions of food security and at individual, household and farm scales, but the number of studies was too small to draw robust conclusions on the stability dimension and at global scale. Diversity can be an important driver of food security, but the magnitude of the contribution depends on the broader socio-economic and biophysical characteristics of the local farming system. We conclude that diversification can be a potential strategy to improve food and nutrition security. Yet, it is not a necessary characteristic of all agricultural systems at all costs especially in the presence of other strategies that can potentially achieve similar outcomes. We make several recommendations to strengthen future studies that can help identify how strongly related agricultural diversity and food security are.
... Biodiversity has been highlighted as contributing to the productivity, sustainability, and stability of agricultural systems [1,2]. The accelerated loss of biodiversity has caused growing concern, and even a significant extinction of species has been reported due to the consequences of climate change and land use [3]. ...
Article
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Complementary ex situ and in situ conservation, including the on-farm alternative, is a highly desired and dynamic strategy that allows the natural evolution of the conserved germplasm. Due to the high costs involved, in addition to the limitations of both economic and human resources, in situ conservation must focus on areas where the greatest benefits are obtained, and the efforts made result in better impacts. Therefore, using spatial multi-criteria analysis and expert knowledge, 22 and 23 criteria were obtained as important for the conservation of wild and cultivated hawthorn, respectively. Criteria weights were calculated by the analytic hierarchy process and expert knowledge. The results showed species richness, phenotypic and ecogeographic diversity, and areas not covered by the official protected areas network were the most important criteria for in situ conservation of wild hawthorn. Prioritized areas were particularly focused in Chiapas, State of Mexico and Morelos. The prioritized areas for the in situ conservation of cultivated hawthorn were mostly defined by criteria such as number of cultivated varieties, number of uses, phenotypic diversity, ecogeographical diversity, and areas with rainfed agriculture. These areas were located mainly in Puebla. From this study, we propose a list of priority areas for the in situ conservation of both cultivated and wild hawthorn.
... In addition, at the genetic, species, and farming systems levels, biodiversity provides valuable ecosystems services and functions for agricultural production (Thrupp 2000). "Agroforestry" is a relatively new term, the traditional knowledge and practices underpinning these land use systems is ancient, having originated in the ancestral "shifting cultivation" practices of African peoples and indigenous peoples of the Americas (and elsewhere). ...
Article
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Traditional coffee cultivation in Cuba is the result of a complex interaction between different flora species creating agroforestry systems widely spread in mountainous area. The systems, product of local traditional knowledge, are mainly devoted to coffee production but, thanks to the interaction with other species, farmers provide different food products both for self-consumption and to be sold. Furthermore, the adoption of shade trees in order to reach a better quality of the coffee cultivated creates particular microclimate conditions favorable for microorganisms, fauna species and also for spontaneous flora species. According to this it is clear the relationships between traditional knowledge and biodiversity preservation which is fundamental also for improving the surrounding environment, avoiding floods or hydrogeological instability damages, concurring to climate change mitigation and carbon storage. Traditional agroforestry systems are one of the best example of coexistence and coevolution between man and nature, being an historical system adopted by local communities to satisfy their needs in total respect of the surrounding environment. Considering this, the promotion and maintenance of this kind of systems and knowledge related might constitute a valid example to actively preserve biodiversity while respecting human needs for food and livelihood security. These systems are also of particular importance considering the importance of coffee as a beverage served in many countries of the world, but often produced in intensive plantations. This paper shows the high sustainability of coffee production under the shade of trees and support a new concept of food quality contributing to preserve local cultures and environments.
... In addition, genetically identical crops increase the selection pressure toward pathogens overcoming plant resistance. As a result, defeated resistances are no longer of agronomic value, the available genetic diversity is eroding (Thrupp, 2000), and the need for pesticides increases (Brown & Tellier, 2011). ...
Article
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Multiline and cultivar mixtures are highly effective methods for agroecological plant disease control. Priming‐induced cross protection, occurring when plants are challenged by avirulent pathogen genotypes, and resulting in increased resistance to subsequent infection by virulent ones, is one critical key to their lasting performance against polymorphic pathogen populations. Strikingly, this mechanism was until recently absent from mathematical models aiming at designing optimal host mixtures. We developed an epidemiological model to explore the effect of host mixtures composed of variable numbers of single‐resistance cultivars on the equilibrium prevalence of the disease caused by pathogen populations polymorphic for virulence complexity. This model shows that a relatively large amount of resistance genes must be deployed to achieve low disease prevalence, as pathogen competition in mixtures tends to select for intermediate virulence complexity. By contrast, priming significantly reduces the number of plant genotypes needed to drop disease prevalence below an acceptable threshold. Given the limited availability of resistance genes in cultivars, this mechanism of plant immunity should be assessed when designing host mixtures.
... Although about 20% of the world's food comes from traditional cropping systems (Thrupp 2000), but the energy-intensive agriculture is rapidly deteriorating these landscapes (Jackson et al.,2007) with a concomitant loss of indigenous agro-biodiversity. In India, rice (Oryza sativa L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) based agro ecosystems (RWAS) dominate the agricultural landscape. ...
... Restoring on-farm biodiversity and soil fertility through diversified farming systems that mimic nature is considered to be a key strategy for sustainable agriculture (Thrupp 2002, Jackson et al 2007. On-farm biodiversity, if correctly assembled in time and space, can lead to agro ecosystems capable of maintaining their own soil fertility, regulating natural protection against pests and diseases and sustaining productivity (IIRR andACT 2005, Sheibani andAhmad 2013). ...
Article
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The objective of this paper was to provide an inclusive view and evaluation of conservation tillage based annual intercropping, summarizing their main advantages and challenges to use as compared to conventional crop production system. Conservation tillage based intercropping (CTBI) controls soil erosion caused by conventional tillage based sole/mono-cropping as compared to conventional crop production system. Its long term effect gives higher percentage of organic matter and organic carbon as compared to conventional tillage based mono-cropping due addition of carbon input from the intercropped legumes and residues from conservation tillage. CTBI system in the long term significantly lowers the bulk density in the top layer and in turn improves the soil pore size distribution. Similarly, it resulted in higher total N, available K and Mg content than conventional crop production system. CTBI had significantly higher infiltration characteristics, soil water content, water use efficiency than continuous sole cropping and conventional tillage based intercropping. And also establishes more biodiversity into agroecosystems and reduces the addition of chemicals and gases that triggers greenhouse gas accumulation in the atmosphere. The CTBI is used as the primary means of sustainable crop production system by improving soil health, promoting diversity of diet, stability of production, reduced pests, efficient use of labor, intensification of production with limited resources, maximization of returns under low levels of technology and used as insurance against crop failure. However, in Ethiopia conservation tillage based annual intercropping system becomes effective if and only if inclusive research and extension service and appropriate land use policy over it should be implemented.
... Insect pollination is vital to the economic and ecologic sustainability of many food crops grown in the United States [1][2][3][4][5][6]; however, the populations of bees and other beneficial insects have sharply declined in recent years [7][8][9]. As a result, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) has encouraged private landowners to implement conservation practices aimed at maintaining or establishing pollinator habitat, known as the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) established in 1985 [10]. ...
Article
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The persistence of Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) seed mixtures following planting is crucial for the long-term support of pollinator habitat; however, the role of disturbance regimes and their interactions in supporting this ecosystem service are largely unknown. This study set out to evaluate how ecological disturbances (prescribed burn, light disking, or fallow control) and commercially available diverse species mixtures (‘Hamilton’, ‘Bamert’, and ‘Holland’) affect pollinator habitat and the flowering period of commonly used CRP species mixtures. Specifically, three pollinator species mixtures were assessed for plant stand dynamics (plant density, yield, and dual-use pollinator-lignocellulosic feedstock potential); the resulting soil properties; and the total bloom count during the growing season. Following 5 years after their establishment, the proportions of flowering pollinator species varied by disturbance regime × seed mixture (p < 0.05), with the burned Hamilton and disked Holland plots having the greatest pollinator species percentages. Overall, if the long-term stability of pollinator blooms is a key consideration for management, the Hamilton mixture should be disturbed via prescribed burning, while the Holland mixture should be disked, owing to a species-specific disturbance regime preference. However, post-senescence yield and soil health properties did not vary (p > 0.05) across pollinator mixtures or disturbance regimes. Pollinator mixtures could also be harvested as a lignocellulosic feedstock without damaging pollinator habitat and providing comparable biomass for regional feedstocks; however, seeding mixtures and disturbance regimes should be considered based on desired residue usage for long-term sustainable CRP pollinator habitat.
... Local people and institutions involvement in sustainable agriculture, water, and soil conservation are vital for success [45]. Knowing what people want in reality can help to achieve the successful implementation of any project [48]. Ecological agriculture with proper planning and implementation can support a growing population in India [47]. ...
Article
Sugarcane is cash crop that demands various agricultural inputs like fertilizers, labor, etc. The study area is Shevgaon and Paithan sub-districts of Maharashtra, around Jayakwadi Dam on the Godavari River. The objectives of the present study are (1) to assess the sustainability of the Agroecosystem of the sugarcane cultivation in a local context with fewer resources available for study. (2) To identify and know the present status of activities that need to be improved for sustainable agriculture. Agroecological sustainability of sugarcane management practices conceptualized and operationalized using SALT (The sustainability assessment Adaptive and Low-input Tool). Overall, social and economic dimensions showed low values. Sub-indicators within social dimension like organized farmers, participation in decision making and level of trust in public institution were observed low. Most of other sub-indicators are of average values. Farmers training, self help groups, Group farming, subsidies for infrastructure and agricultural inputs, crushing of sugarcane residue, preservation of local seeds, use of locally made and organic fertilizers like vermicopost, biofertilizers can aid sustainable agriculture. Use of MIS,GIS,and IT can support good governance which will improve public trust and participation.
... Globally, increasing awareness has be given to the relationship between agrobiodiversity and food security [24][25][26]. On occasion, households experiencing greater diversity are not in fact wealthier or necessarily more food secure [27]. ...
Article
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Background The Amazon region of Brazil is known both for its significant biological and cultural diversity. It is also a region, like many parts of the country, marked by food insecurity, even amongst its rural agricultural populations. In a novel approach, this paper addresses the networks of exchanges of local food and their relationship to the agrobiodiversity of traditional riverine peoples’ ( ribeirinho ) households in the Central Amazon. Methodologically, it involves mapping the social networks and affinities between households, inventories of known species, and, finally, statistical tests of the relationships between network and subsequent agrobiodiversity. Results The diversity per area of each land type where food cultivation or management takes place shows how home gardens, fields and orchards are areas of higher diversity and intense cultivation compared to fallow areas. Our findings, however, indicate that a household’s income does appear to be strongly associated with the total agrobiodiversity across cultivation areas. In addition, a household’s agrobiodiversity is significantly associated with the frequency and intensity of food exchanges between households. Conclusions Agrobiodiversity cannot be considered separate from the breadth of activities focused on sustenance and yields from the cash economy, which riverine people engage in daily. It seems to be connected to quotidian social interactions and exchanges in both predictable and occasionally subtler ways. Those brokers who serve as prominent actors in rural communities may not always be the most productive or in possession of the largest landholdings, although in some cases they are. Their proclivity for cultivating and harvesting a wide diversity of produce may be equally important if not more so.
... Es notable en mz la baja cantidad de arvenses exóticas, la baja cantidad de especies muestra que la diversidad local es importante para la producción (Fernández & Marasas, 2015). Además, se ha sugerido que altos niveles de diversidad y de riqueza de especies hacen a los ecosistemas naturales más resilientes contra especies invasoras; esto puede estar ocurriendo en ecosistemas antropizados como las tierras de cultivo, donde han sido reconocidos distintos servicios ofrecidos por la diversidad al agroecosistema (Thrupp, 2000;Storkey & Neve, 2018). La notable proporción de especies nativas en la flora arvense de los cultivos estudiados incrementa la importancia ecológica de este grupo de plantas para los cultivos en principio, a través de la polinización (Hernández-Villa, Vibrans, Uscanga-Mortera & Aguirre-Jaimes, 2020), por lo que los beneficios potenciales que esta diversidad proporciona a la agricultura intensiva pueden ser aún mayores. ...
Article
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Weeds are a strong competitor for crops but, they also are an essential part of the agroecosystems, so it is better to know their ecology. The aim was to compare the abundance, richness and, diversity of weeds from monocultures of corn (mz), wheat (tg) and sorghum (sg). From November 2018 to May 2019 the crops were visited three times a month, the sampling was made by quadrants of 2 m2. All plants were identified at the species level and organized by their immigration status. Diversity index, accumulation curves were calculated, also a Kruskal Wallis test and Discriminant analysis were made to compare between weeds populations. 28 species were found, the total richness was obtained for mz and tg but it did not for sg. The corn was the cropping with more species (S= 26) and, a significantly high diversity (H= 2.94), it also was observed in native and exotic weed (H = 1.91 y H = 1.94, respectively). The weed abundance was significantly high in mz. The composition of weed populations was different between crops, the AD with 83% of variance explained separated three groups according to the type of crop, which was reflected in the structure of the weed populations. Plant communities are different between crops despite being in a spatially homogeneous environment. Hence, factors associated with the crops are influencing the diversity patterns observed. Species richness is inside of range of other agroecosystems but, diversity is higher than some studies reported for traditional and intensive farming systems. The present of native species in local diversity is a positive ecological indicator for crops
... Ancak bitkilerin büyüme dönemlerinin büyük bir bölümünün eş zamanlı olarak yetiştirilmeleri gerekmektedir (Lithourgidis et al., 2011). Bu nedenle, tarla içi biyoçeşitlilik, kendi toprak verimliliğini koruyabilen, zararlılara karşı doğal korumayı düzenleyen ve verimliliği sürdürebilen agro ekosistemlere neden olabilmektedir (Thrupp, 2002;Scherr and McNeely, 2008 Uyanık, 1984 ;Pekşen ve Gülümser, 1995 ;Pekşen ve ark., 1999 ;Yılmaz ve ark., 2008). Türkiye de mısır ve baklagillerin beraber yetiştiriciliği Karadeniz bölgesinde ise daha yaygın olduğu bildirilmiştir (Takıl ve ark., 2020). ...
Presentation
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ISPEC 6th INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON AGRICULTURE, ANIMAL SCIENCE and RURAL DEVELOPMENT May 16 -18, 2021 Siirt, Turkey
... Agriculture plays a key role in rural development in developing regions such as the Pacific Islands (Addinsall, Glencross, Scherrer, Weiler, & Nichols, 2015;Berno, 2011;Duncan, 2007;Gollin, 2010). Sustainable rural development is centered on the agriculture, forestry and fisheries sectors mainly by conserving land, water, plant and animal genetic resources (Reijntjes, Haverkort, & Waters-Bayer, 1992;Thrupp, 2000). Sustainable agriculture is environmentally non-degrading, technically appropriate, economically viable, and is socially acceptable by rural Pacific communities (Lee, 2005;Vijaykumar, Patil, & Satihal, 2017). ...
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This paper examines the agricultural training in higher education institutions and tertiary colleges, their pre-eminent role and how best they can contribute to alleviate poverty in rural communities in Fiji and other South Pacific island countries. These institutions provide support through training farmers (vocational and adult education) and/or extension officers and providing researchers. Unfortunately, agricultural training institutions are not adapting to the rapid changing times early enough and have more or less maintained the traditional way of training. There is a need for agricultural institutions to amend their programs to facilitate the new emerging areas, together with new learning and teaching frameworks, establish new partnerships with the private sector in addition to expanding their representation in governance in addition to holding continuous dialogue with policymakers. Further, these institutions can potentially showcase local customs and knowledge, mirroring the regional culture, and ethical customs of the Pacific island community, as well as global movements and development forces. In reinforcing their title role as contributors to a culture of education and rural agricultural development, we suggest that agricultural institutions engage more directly and more effectively in partnerships and dialogue with other local agricultural stakeholders and their surrounding rural communities in Fiji and other Pacific island countries.
... Simultaneously, people have become more alert about sustainable agricultural practices essential to meet future agricultural demands globally (Singh et al., 2020f;Hunter et al., 2017). Therefore, the maintenance of soil dynamics has become of utmost importance to suf ce food and sustain the land for future generations (Thrupp, 2000). ...
Chapter
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Rhizobacteria are stated as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) because they inhabit the roots of the plant and help protect the plant from stresses, promoting plant growth, and substantially improving soil fertility. Presently, microbes living in symbiosis with plants and PGPR are being explored to improve crop productivity and develop sustainable agricultural practices. The utilization of PGPR for improving crop yield is an eco-friendly and well-known approach, which promotes plant growth by either indirect or direct mechanisms. The mechanism of PGPR involves solubilizing of nutrients, production of plant growth hormones, development of resistance against phytopathogens. This chapter intends to provide a summary and role of PGPR in improving crop productivity and health. It also discusses its influence on other bacterial species, the mechanism involved, role in bioremediation, and stress management.
... One of the largest challenges facing the food and agriculture sector is the effect of climate change, one area for future research that we have identified is to map the connections between climate-smart agriculture and nutritionsensitive agriculture. As climate change is affecting many of the key components for food production, such as biodiversity (Frison et al., 2011;Thrupp, 2000), soil quality (Gomiero, 2016), and water use (Hanjra & Qureshi, 2010), there will be a negative effect on nutrition outcomes (IPCC, 2019). The framework described here holds the possibility to provide a base for future research that aims to connect climate and nutrition by demonstrating the linkages between components that are connected to climate as a key contextual factor. ...
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... Restoring on-farm biodiversity and soil fertility through diversified farming systems that mimic nature is considered to be a key strategy for sustainable agriculture (Thrupp 2002, Jackson et al 2007. On-farm biodiversity, if correctly assembled in time and space, can lead to agro ecosystems capable of maintaining their own soil fertility, regulating natural protection against pests and diseases and sustaining productivity (IIRR andACT 2005, Sheibani andAhmad 2013). ...
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