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Abstract

Rhodiola rosea (rose root) belonging to the family Crassulaceae is a popular medicinal plant in Russia, Scandinavia, and many other countries. Extracts of the roots of this plant have been found to favorably affect a number of physiological functions including neurotransmitter levels, central nervous system activity, and cardiovascular function. It is being used to stimulate the nervous system, decrease depression, enhance work performance, eliminate fatigue, and prevent high-altitude sickness. Most of these effects have been ascribed to constituents such as salidroside (rhodioloside), rosavins, and p-tyrosol. It has also been found to be a strong antioxidant and anticarcinogen due to the presence of several phenolic compounds. Adaptogens are plant extracts that allow an organism to counteract adverse physical, chemical, and biological stressors by generating nonspecific resistance. Adaptogens are known to increase the availability of energy during the day, reduce stressed feelings, increase endurance, and increase mental alertness. This multipurpose medicinal plant (R. rosea), with adaptogenic properties that increase the body's nonspecific resistance and normalize functions, has been traditionally grown and used in Russia and Mongolia. Due to increasing consumer demands toward natural health products and the growing interests in the secondary metabolites of plants and their application in biotechnology and therapy, much focus has been put on the rose root and its medical properties. The rose root imparts normalizing influences on adverse physical, chemical, and biological disturbances but is otherwise innocuous. In India, the plant has been growing wild in the high altitudes of the Himalayas. The Defence Research and Development Organization in India has taken on the responsibilities of its conservation, as well as the development of multiple management practices and the development of health foods, supplements, and nutraceuticals in India.

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... rostlinné adaptogeny, které nespecificky zvyšují fyzickou i psychickou odolnost organismu a chrání jej pøed stresem. Ve formì èaje se používá ke zlepšení nálady, zvýšení energie, zlepšení sexuální výkonnosti, snížení váhy a k podpoøe dlouhovìkosti (Khanum et al., 2005;Wiedenfield et al., 2006;Bystritsky et al., 2008;Cuerrier et al., 2014;Panossian et al., 2009;Panossian et al., 2010). ...
... Perspektivní je také úèinek antioxidaèní, protizánìtlivý, imunomodulaèní a protinádorový. Rozchodnice pùsobí pøíznivì i na endokrinní a reprodukèní systém (Barnes et al., 2007;Panossian et al., 2010;Khanum et al., 2005). ...
... Rozchodnice nebyla toxická ani pro larvy žábronožky solné, LC 50 byla vìtší než 1000 mg/ml. Genotoxicita zjištìna nebyla (Khanum et al., 2005;Montiel-Ruiz et al., 2012). ...
Article
Rhodiola rosea L., also known as "golden root" or "roseroot", belongs to the plant family Crassulaceae. It grows primarily in dry sandy ground at high altitudes in the arctic areas of Europe and Asia. For centuries, R. rosea has been used in the traditional medicine of Russia, Scandinavia, and other countries. The current medical and pharmacological texts describe its use as a stimulant good for fatigue, for somatic and infectious illnesses, in psychiatric and neurological conditions, and in healthy individuals to relieve from fatigue and to increase attention span, memory, and work productivity. R. rosea enhances learning and memory in animal models and increase 5-HT levels in the frontal cerebral cortex, promotes release of catecholamines that activate the cerebral cortex and the limbic system. R. rosea may prevent or ameliorate some age-related neurological dysfunctions.
... Botanists have identified several species of Rhodiola, but not all of them have been investigated for their health benefits (Brown, Gerbarg, & Ramazanov, 2002;Cuerrier & Ampong-Nyarko, 2015;Kumar, Tayade, Chaurasia, Sunil & Singh, 2010;Yousef et al., 2006). The beneficial effects R. rosea have been related to the powerful adaptogens found in the root extracts (Chiang, Chen, Wu, Wu, & Wen, 2015;Khanum, Bawa, & Singh, 2005;Panossian, Hammb, Wikmana, & Efferth, 2014;Zhou et al., 2015). R. rosea is the species considered most safe for human consumption, having no reported adverse effects (Brown et al., 2002;Khanum et al., 2005). ...
... The beneficial effects R. rosea have been related to the powerful adaptogens found in the root extracts (Chiang, Chen, Wu, Wu, & Wen, 2015;Khanum, Bawa, & Singh, 2005;Panossian, Hammb, Wikmana, & Efferth, 2014;Zhou et al., 2015). R. rosea is the species considered most safe for human consumption, having no reported adverse effects (Brown et al., 2002;Khanum et al., 2005). Extracts of R. rosea roots were found to positively affect a number of physiological aspects: neuro-cardio and hepato-protection, cardioprotective effects, stimulation of the central nervous system, as well as increasing cognitive functions such as attention, memory and learning. ...
Article
In physiological conditions, the response to oxidative stress induced by strenuous physical training, is not always efficient. Furthermore, a weak muscle fiber antioxidant system can contribute to muscle wasting during ageing and pathological conditions. Natural antioxidant supplements could counteract the effects of oxidative stress. An in vitro model of exercise allowed us to mimic intense or moderate exercise by electrically stimulating cultured mouse myotubes with high- and/or low-frequency pulses; the resulting ROS production was then monitored. The herbal supplement Rhodiola rosea aqueous extract was characterized in terms of its polyphenol content and used to test for antioxidant activity against ROS, produced during muscle contraction. Our results showed that Rhodiola rosea extract reduced the oxidative stress produced by muscle contraction and brought values of ROS production back to physiological levels. We suggest that Rhodiola rosea root extract could exert a protective antioxidant role during intense physical exercise.
... R. rosea is reported to have adaptogenic properties [15][16][17]. The root stock contains 6 distinct groups of active compounds, among which the phenylpropanoids rosavin and rosarin are considered to occur only in R. rosea [18,19]. ...
... These single aspects also translated into an improved overall outcome and positive impact on many aspects of everyday life, as indicated by the improvement in the CGI and SDS scales. Our results thus confirm published findings from research on the adaptogenic properties [15][16][17] and related therapeutic effects of R. rosea [22][23][24][25][26] and prove the applicability of these findings to the target group studied in this trial. The patients in this study showed only overlapping low levels of depressive symptoms with a low initial BDI-II score. ...
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Background: Rhodiola rosea roots and rhizomes are a herbal medicine for temporary relief of stress symptoms such as fatigue and sensed weakness. A daily dosage of 400 mg is recommended. Methods: A dry ethanolic extract of R. rosea (WS® 1375) was studied in 100 subjects with prolonged or chronic fatigue symptoms. In an uncontrolled, open-label multicenter clinical trial, the subjects were administered 2 × 200 mg WS® 1375 over 8 weeks. Outcome measures were scales and tests related to fatigue. They were evaluated in an exploratory data analysis to generate hypotheses regarding efficacy. The pilot character of the trial is marked by its broad focus on subjects suffering from fatigue in general and by its comparatively long duration. Results: The greatest change was observed after 1 week of treatment. The fatigue symptoms continued to decline further, with statistically significant improvement at week 8. The safety assessments of WS® 1375 during the trial proved to be favorable, with most adverse events being of mild intensity and not related to the study drug. Conclusions: The results indicate that 2 × 200 mg WS® 1375 may be an effective treatment in subjects suffering from prolonged or chronic fatigue. The safety and tolerability of WS® 1375 also presented a favorable profile.
... Rhodiola preparations have been used for treating disorders like cerebral ischemia, diabetes, hypoxia, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer [13]. Rhodiola is also used as a dietary supplement to increase work performance, longevity and improve resistance to high-altitude sickness [14,15]. A number of pharmacological investigations have demonstrated that R. imbricata preparations exhibit antiviral [16], radioprotective [17,18], wound healing [19], immunomodulatory [20], adaptogenic [2], anti-cancer [6,21], immunostimulatory [20,22], hepatoprotective [23], cytoprotective, and antioxidant properties [1,2,4,5]. ...
... A number of pharmacological investigations have demonstrated that R. imbricata preparations exhibit antiviral [16], radioprotective [17,18], wound healing [19], immunomodulatory [20], adaptogenic [2], anti-cancer [6,21], immunostimulatory [20,22], hepatoprotective [23], cytoprotective, and antioxidant properties [1,2,4,5]. The majority of these pharmacological properties have been attributed to its diverse array of phenolic compounds [3,4,14,23]. Phenolic compounds have been used for centuries in different medicinal applications [24]. ...
Article
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Rhodiola imbricata is a rare medicinal plant of the trans-Himalayan region of Ladakh. It is used for the treatment of numerous health ailments. Compact callus aggregate (CCA) suspension cultures of Rhodiola imbricata were established to counter extinction threats and for production of therapeutically valuable phenolic compounds to meet their increasing industrial demands. The present study also investigated the effect of jasmonic acid (JA) on production of phenolic compounds and bioactivities in CCA suspension cultures. CCA suspension cultures established in an optimized Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 30 g/l sucrose, 3 mg/l NAA, and 3 mg/l BAP showed maximum biomass accumulation (8.43 g/l DW) and highest salidroside production (3.37 mg/g DW). Upon 100 μM JA treatment, salidroside production (5.25 mg/g DW), total phenolic content (14.69 mg CHA/g DW), total flavonoid content (4.95 mg RE/g DW), and ascorbic acid content (17.93 mg/g DW) were significantly increased in cultures. In addition, DPPH-scavenging activity (56.32%) and total antioxidant capacity (60.45 mg QE/g DW) were significantly enhanced upon JA treatment, and this was positively correlated with increased accumulation of phenolic compounds. JA-elicited cultures exhibited highest antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli. This is the first report describing the enhanced production of phenolic compounds and bioactivities from JA-elicited CCA suspension cultures of Rhodiola imbricata.
... At one point or another, R. rosea has appeared, and still appears in some cases, in the official Pharmacopoeia of multiple European countries, notably, Sweden (Sparschuch 1775), France, Estonia, and Russia (Panossian, Wikman, and Sarris 2010). Naturally, many reports and studies exist on the phytochemistry and pharmacology of R. rosea in Scandinavian literature (Khanum, Bawa, and Singh 2005), and particularly Russian literature (Galambosi 2006). ...
... Although Russian literature has dominated the research on R. rosea as an adaptogen since the Cold War era, there has been a considerable increase in interest by the general scientific community since the turn of the millennium (for an extensive summary on the phytochemistry and pharmacology of R. rosea, see Brown, Gerbarg, and Ramazanov [2002]; Khanum, Nawa, and Singh [2005]; and Panossian, Wikman, and Sarris [2010]). The plant is now popular in Asia and Eastern Europe with a reputation of stimulating the nervous system, decreasing depression, enhancing work performance, eliminating fatigue, and preventing high-altitude sickness (Khanum, Bawa, and Singh 2005). ...
... As a dietary supplement, numerous preparations of Rhodiola extracts are used world-wide (Khanum et al., 2005). The functional claim of Rhodiola dietary supplements currently mentioned in the Consolidated list of Article 13 health claims of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) is formulated as following -''contributes to optimal mental and cognitive activity'' [http://www.efsa.europa.eu/EFSA/ ...
... Post-Russian 'Western' research on Rhodiola has grown over the past decade. Results of some clinical trials are discussed in several review articles (Kelly, 2001;Brown et al., 2002;Khanum et al., 2005;Walker and Robergs, 2006;Blomkvist et al., 2009;Panossian and Wikman, 2009a,b). In total, more than 30 publications on clinical efficacy of various Rhodiola preparations can be found in Pubmed database. ...
... It is now approved by the European Medicines Agency as a traditional herbal medicine product [8]. There are several clinical studies that confirmed the use of R. rosea as an evidence-based adaptogen [2,6,7,[9][10][11]. ...
... evidence-based adaptogen [2,6,7,[9][10][11]. This plant is one of the most important adaptogens. ...
Article
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The extraction of Rhodiola rosea rhizomes using natural deep eutectic solvent (NADES) consisting of lactic acid, glucose, fructose, and water was investigated. A two-level Plackett–Burman design with five variables, followed by the steepest ascent method, was undertaken to determine the optimal extraction conditions. Among the five parameters tested, particle size, extraction modulus, and water content were found to have the highest impact on the extrability of phenyletanes and phenylpropanoids. The concentration of active compounds was analyzed by HPLC. The predicted results showed that the extraction yield of the total phenyletanes and phenylpropanoids (25.62 mg/g) could be obtained under the following conditions: extraction time of 154 min, extraction temperature of 22 °C, extraction modulus of 40, molar water content of 5:1:11 (L-lactic acid:fructose:water, mol/mol), and a particle size of rhizomes of 0.5–1 mm. These predicted values were further verified by validation experiments in predicted conditions. The experimental yields of salidroside, tyrosol, rosavin, rosin, cinnamyl alcohol and total markers (sum of phenyletanes and phenylpropanoids in mg/g) were 11.90 ± 0.02, 0.36 ± 0.02, 12.23 ± 0.21, 1.41 ± 0.01, 0.20 ± 0.01, and 26.10 ± 0.27 mg/g, respectively, which corresponded well with the predicted values from the models.
... Rhodiola rosea belongs to the family of Crassulaceae, to the subfamily Sedoideae and to the genus Rhodiola (Ohba, 1981). Rhodiola rosea is a dioecious plant that reaches a height of 30 to 80 cm and produces yellow flowers (Khanum et al., 2005) from April to August (Tasheva & Kosturkova, 2012). It is a perennial plant with thick rhizome which has a rose-like fragrance when cut (Khanum et al., 2005). ...
... Rhodiola rosea is a dioecious plant that reaches a height of 30 to 80 cm and produces yellow flowers (Khanum et al., 2005) from April to August (Tasheva & Kosturkova, 2012). It is a perennial plant with thick rhizome which has a rose-like fragrance when cut (Khanum et al., 2005). The average weight of the rhizomes is 70-400 g, but a weight of 3.5 kg can be reached. ...
Article
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Rhodiola rosea L. is an important adaptogen medicinal plant. In this study two new microsatellite markers were developed. The assessment of the genetic diversity of R. rosea has recently started with molecular markers, but only a few species-specific microsatellite markers have been published so far. However the small number of markers allows only a limited insight into the genetic variability of the species therefore the aim of our work was to develop new microsatellite markers for R. rosea with a microsatellite enrichment library technique. Genomic DNA was cleaved with an endonuclease enzyme followed by adaptor ligation and PCR amplification. DNA fragments that contained microsatellites were first isolated using a biotin-streptavidin linkage based magnetic selection and then cloned into plasmids. Out of forty-three sequenced clones three contained microsatellites, in these cases primers were designed for the amplification of the microsatellite repeats. The newly developed primer pairs were tested on individuals from distant R. rosea populations and the variability of the amplified fragments was estimated by fragment-length analysis. The locus RhpB14a was found to be monomorphic while RhpB14b and RhpB13 were polymorphic. As a result of the present study, two novel variable microsatellite loci were identified in the genome of R. rosea.
... The studies reported the hypnotic activity and sedative of salidroside from Rhodiola sachalinensis . Rhodiola sachalinensis has found to have stimulating role for the nervous system, enhancing working efficacy, decreasing depression and microwave radiation, resisting anoxia, eliminating fatigue, improving sleep, preventing high altitude sickness, etc. (Khanum et al. 2005;Ming et al. 1988). Salidroside, which is a phenylpropanoid glycoside, has been reported to have antiinflammatory activity (Lu et al. 2003). ...
Chapter
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Rhodiola is one of the important plants studied for its medicinal properties in ancient time. Some of the well-known and mostly evaluated species of genus Rhodiola are Rhodiola rosea, Rhodiola imbricata, Rhodiola heterodonta, Rhodiola quadrifida, etc. These species are known to possess potent biological/pharmacological activities such as antioxidant, leprosy, anti-inflammatory, antistress, etc. These plants grow at a height of around 4000–5000 m above the sea level with a low temperature of around −10 °C, thus surviving in very harsh conditions. Their survival in such harsh conditions is due to their adaptation in that environment as well as the kind of compounds these plants produce in their biological mechanism. The present chapter deals with the phytochemical composition, bioactivity, and in vitro analysis of some important Rhodiola species.
... Active components of Rhodiola are primarily rosavins (primarily rosin, rosavin and rosarin) and salidroside. Roots preparations of Rhodiola are widely used in traditional and integrative medical practices and possess numerous health benefits (Khanum et al., 2005). ...
... Select species from this genus have a long history in traditional medicine with purported roles in bolstering immunity, memory, and learning, while ameliorating depression, altitude sickness, and fatigue (Lei et al., 2006;Fu et al., 2009). Recent studies of Rhodiola extract have also demonstrated anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties with potential applications in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases and cancer (Khanum et al., 2005;Zhang et al., 2007;Skopi nska-Ró zewska et al., 2008;Tu et al., 2008;Gauger et al., 2010). Extensive phytochemical analysis of Rhodiola has identified a number of specialized glycosides, including rosiridin, rhodionin, rosarin, rosin, rosavin, and salidroside (Supplemental Figure 1) (Du and Xie, 1995;Rohloff, 2002;Yousef et al., 2006;Yang et al., 2012). ...
Article
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Salidroside is a bioactive tyrosine-derived phenolic natural product found in medicinal plants under the Rhodiola genus. In addition to their anti-fatigue and anti-anoxia roles in traditional medicine, Rhodiola total extract and salidroside have also displayed medicinal properties as anti-cardiovascular diseases and anti-cancer agents. The resulting surge in global demand of Rhodiola plants and salidroside has driven some species close to extinction. Here, we report the full elucidation of Rhodiola salidroside biosynthetic pathway utilizing the first comprehensive transcriptomics and metabolomics datasets for Rhodiola rosea. Unlike the previously proposed pathway involving separate decarboxylation and deamination enzymatic steps from tyrosine to the key intermediate 4-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (4-HPAA), Rhodiola contains a pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-dependent 4-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde synthase (4HPAAS) that directly converts tyrosine to 4-HPAA. We further identified genes encoding the subsequent 4-HPAA reductase (4HPAR) and tyrosol:UDP-glucose 8-O-glucosyltransferase (T8GT), respectively, to complete salidroside biosynthesis in Rhodiola. We show that heterologous production of salidroside can be achieved in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as well as in plant Nicotiana benthamiana through transgenic expression of Rhodiola salidroside biosynthetic genes. This study provides new tools for engineering sustainable production of salidroside in heterologous hosts.
... In the Pamir Mountains of Tajikistan and Afghanistan, the indigenous people use R. gelida, locally known as "zarchoy," as an energy enhancer ( Kassam et al. 2010). In addition, many ethnic groups in Russia and in Siberia have applied R. rosea to increase endurance and for treating conditions spanning from impotence to depression, schizophrenia, asthenia, and fatigue to flu, gastrointestinal disorders, cancer, and infections ( Khanum et al. 2005). For example, the people of Altai apply the aerial parts of the plant as a stimulant and performance enhancer, while the subterranean part was used against diseases (Perinskaya and Sakanyan 2014). ...
Chapter
Rhodiola rosea, commonly known as roseroot, is an arctic and alpine plant distributed on the northern hemisphere. The plant has for long been used ethnobotanically as a means of increasing endurance and as a general cure against several diseases. Nowadays, the medicinal properties of roseroot have been characterized, and some of its important bioactive compounds are salidroside and the rosavinoids rosavin, rosarin, and rosin. The primary effect of the plant has been described as adaptogenic, i.e., providing a nonspecific broad-range response. Recently, R. rosea has increased in popularity which has led to overexploitation in nature, and new bio-sustainable production methods are needed for future production. Transformation with the soil bacterium Agrobacterium rhizogenes is a promising strategy to increase the natural content of bioactive compounds within plants. The increase of the bioactive compounds is caused by the root oncogenic loci (rol) genes, present on the transfer DNA within the bacterial plasmid. The rol genes are integrated in the plant host genome during transformation, causing formation of hairy roots. Other species in the Rhodiola genus have been successfully transformed by A. rhizogenes. However, several optimizations in terms of selection of superior plant lines, explant for transformation, and tissue culture are needed in order for R. rosea to serve as a platform for the production of bioactive compounds in hairy root cultures. Once established, several further measures could be taken to increase the content of bioactive compounds further, in that respect genome editing via the CRISPR/Cas9 system is emerging as a powerful beacon.
... With the invasion of fungus ZPRs-R11, NO, H 2 O 2 , and SA were involved in transmitting signals, which were integrated by transcription factors (a), which could activate the synergic expression of multiple genes and activate the expression of genes regulating similar secondary metabolites, such as salidroside and tyrosol (b,c) 8 . Results showed that [3] tyrosine decarboxylase gene (TYDC) and [4] monoamine oxidase gene (MAOA) exhibited the highest relative transcript level, followed by that of [1] phenylalanine ammonialyase gene (PAL), [2] cinnamic-4-hydroxylase gene (C4H), [5] tyrosine transaminase gene (TAT), and [6] pyruvate decarboxylase gene (PCD). Such result indicated that TYDC and PAL branch pathways played more vital role than that of TAT branch pathway in R. crenulata plantlets inoculated with ZPRs-R11. ...
Article
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Endophyte is a factor that affects the physiology and metabolism of plant. However, limited information is available on the mechanism of interaction between endophyte and plant. To investigate the effects of endophytic fungus ZPRs-R11, that is, Trimmatostroma sp., on salidroside and tyrosol accumulations in Rhodiola crenulata, signal transduction, enzyme gene expression, and metabolic pathway were investigated. Results showed that hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), nitric oxide (NO), and salicylic acid (SA) involved in fungus-induced salidroside and tyrosol accumulations. NO acted as an upstream signal of H2O2 and SA. No up- or down-stream relationship was observed, but mutual coordination existed between H2O2 and SA. Rate-limiting enzyme genes with the maximum expression activities were UDP-glucosyltransferase, tyrosine decarboxylase (TYDC), monoamine oxidase, phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL), and cinnamic-4-hydroxylase sequentially. Nevertheless, the genes of tyrosine transaminase and pyruvate decarboxylase only indicated slightly higher activities than those in control. Thus, TYDC and PAL branches were the preferential pathways in ZPRs-R11-induced salidroside and tyrosol accumulation. Trimmatostroma sp. was a potential fungus for promoting salidroside and tyrosol accumulations. The present data also provided scientific basis for understanding complex interaction between endophytic fungus and R. crenulata.
... Some of these herbs are Withania somnifera, Panax ginseng, Eleutherococcus senticosus, Schisandra chinensis, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Rhodiola rosea, Bacopa monniera, Lepidium meyenii and Centella asiatica. These adaptogens from plant extracts have been found to increase resistance against stress and stress related conditions (Khanum et al., 2005;(Panossian & Wagner, 2005;Liao et al., 2018;Todorova et al., 2021). Plant adaptogens associated with human/animal studies have shown increased cortisol level, antioxidant capacity, mental and physical performance and prevented scopolamine induced oxidative stress (Giridharan et al., 2011;Zarabi et al., 2018). ...
Article
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Adaptogens are natural (herbs) or synthetic compounds (levamisole) used to maintain stability in human body. The plant based adaptogens were mainly used to enhance the physical endurance and metal health of patients. However, adaptogens are widely studied for their ability to protect and cope up the body against physical, chemical and biological stress and related diseases. Panax ginseng and Withania somnifera are natural adaptogens, used to attenuate stress & related disorders without increasing oxygen consumption. This review deals with a detailed description of adaptogenic potential of Panax ginseng and Withania somnifera in improving human health. It also focuses on the similarity and mechanism of action of Panax ginseng and Withania somnifera as adaptogens on human stress induced disorders.
... Rhodiola rosea L. (Crassulaceae) is a flowering perennial native to central Europe and Asia, historically used for the treatment of various mental and physical conditions [1][2][3]. Research suggests it may have adaptogenic, antidepressant, and/or anxiolytic qualities [4]. The roots of European and Asian specimens may have potential as an intervention for anxiety-and stress-related disorders [5][6][7][8][9]. ...
Article
Rhodiola rosea is a plant with adaptogenic qualities used by Inuit populations of Nunavik, Quebec (Canada) for general mental and physical rejuvenation. Previous studies have demonstrated that the Canadian populations of R. rosea significantly attenuate the expression of learned fear and anxiety-like behaviors in rodent models. In order to further characterize the anxiolytic activity of Nunavik R. rosea, experiments were conducted to assess the effects of oral administration of the plant extract on both the fear-potentiated startle response and corticosterone levels. Findings suggest that oral administration of R. rosea ethanolic extract (75 mg/kg) significantly attenuated fear-potentiated startle, but did not produce any effects on stress-induced secretion of corticosterone.
... Rhodiola gelida is also used in the Pamir Mountains [11]. Different authors stated that the roots of Rhodiola genus have become popular, particularly since the Soviet period (e.g., [43]). Although undocumented by recent ethnobotanical studies, Angelica ternata is known to be used in Tajikistan [44]. ...
Article
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This study recorded and analyzed traditional knowledge of medicinal plants in the Turkestan Range in southwestern Kyrgyzstan, where ethnobotanical knowledge has been largely under-documented to date. Data was collected through participant observation and both semi-structured and in-depth interviews with 10 herbal specialists. A total of 50 medicinal plant taxa were documented, distributed among 46 genera and 27 botanical families. In folk medicine they are applied in 75 different formulations, which cure 63 human and three animal ailments. Quantitative ethnobotanical indices were calculated to analyze traditional knowledge of the informants and to determine the cultural importance of particular medicinal plants. Ziziphora pamiroalaica, Peganum harmala, and Inula orientalis obtained the highest use value (UV). The best-represented and culturally important families were Lamiaceae, Asteraceae, and Apiaceae. Gastro-intestinal system disorders was the most prevalent ailment category. Most medicinal plants were gathered from nearby environments, however, species with a higher cultural value occurred at distant rather than nearby collection sites. The findings of this study proved the gap in documentation of traditional knowledge in Kyrgyzstan, indicating that further studies on the traditional use of wild plant resources could bring important insights into ecosystems’ diversity with implications to human ecology and bio-cultural diversity conservation in Central Asia.
... Thus, they have been proposed as a possible therapeutic strategy for prevention and treatment of several disorders related to stressful conditions. Among different adaptogen plants, a variety of studies have focused on Rhodiola Rosea (R. Rosea) [6][7][8], a popular herbal medicine used in Chinese medicine and widely distributed in Russia, Scandinavia, and many other countries such as North America and India. For centuries, R. Rosea root and rhizome extracts have been used in traditional medicine to increase work performance, eliminate fatigue, and improve cardiovascular function and central nervous system (CNS) activity (for a review see [9]). ...
Article
Rhodiola Rosea (R. Rosea) is a plant used in traditional popular medicine to enhance cognition and physical performance. R. Rosea medicinal properties have been related to its capability to act as an adaptogen, i.e., a substance able to increase the organism's resistance to a variety of chemical, biological, and physical stressors in a non-specific way. These adaptogen properties have been mainly attributed to the glycoside salidroside, one of the bioactive compounds present in the standardized extracts of R. Rosea. Here, we aimed to investigate whether a single dose of salidroside is able to affect memory and emotional behavior in wild type adult mice. We performed fear conditioning to assess cued and contextual memory, elevated plus maze and open field to evaluate anxiety, and tail suspension test to evaluate depression. Our results showed that a single i.p. administration of salidroside was able to enhance fear memory and exerted an anxiolytic and antidepressant effect. These data confirmed the adaptogenic effect of R. Rosea bioactive compounds in animal models and suggest that salidroside might represent an interesting pharmacological tool to ameliorate cognition and counteract mood disorders.
... Rose root (Rhodiola rosea L., Crassulaceae) grows in rocky, inhospitable regions of Asia and Europe, particularly in the Arctic countries. Its biological effects of stimulating the nervous system, decreasing depression, enhancing work performance, eliminating fatigue, and preventing high-altitude sickness, have been attributed to salidroside (rhodioloside), rosavins ( Figure 5.3), and p-tyrosol from R. rosea [137]. ...
... At present, scientific reports regarding the adverse effects of R. rosea are negligible (Adaptogen, 2001;Ming et al., 2005). However, it has been reported that the median lethal dose (LD 50 ) for R. rosea extract is 3360 mg/kg body weight in rat (Khanum et al., 2005). Therefore, it can be concluded that equivalent dosage in a 70-kg man is about 235.2 g, which represents a very high amount of extract. ...
Article
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Rhodiola rosea L. (roseroot) is a common member of the family Crassulaceae, known as one of the most important popular medicinal plants in the northern region of Europe. The roots of R. rosea possess a wide range of pharmacological activities such as antioxidant, antiinflammatory, anticancer, cardioprotective, and neuroprotective effects that are because of the presence of different phytochemicals such as phenols and flavonoids. In addition, the presence of salidroside, rosavins, and p-tyrosol are responsible for its beneficial effects for the treatment of on depression, fatigue, and cognitive dysfunction. A plethora of studies report that R. rosea has potent neuroprotective effects through the suppression of oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and excitotoxicity in brain tissues and antagonism of oncogenic p21-activated kinase. However, to our knowledge, no review articles have been published addressing the neuroprotective effects of R. rosea. Therefore, the present article aims at critically reviewing the available literature on the beneficial effects of R. rosea on as a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative diseases where oxidative stress plays a major role in disease development and progression. We also discuss the cultivation, phytochemistry, clinical impacts, and adverse effects of R. rosea to provide a broader insight on the therapeutic potential for this plant.
... Similarly, in the traditional medicine of China and Tibet, R. rosea is commonly used for the treatment of high-altitude sickness and hypoxia. Furthermore, various R. rosea preparations are used worldwide as dietary supplements and claimed to ''contribute to optimal mental and cognitive activity'' (Khanum et al. 2005). ...
Article
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Rhodiola rosea L. is a worldwide popular plant with adaptogenic activities that have been and currently are exploited in the traditional medicine of many countries, as well as, examined in a number of clinical trials. More than 140 chemical structures have been identified which belong to several natural product classes, including phenylpropanoid glycosides, phenylethanoids, flavonoids and essential oils, and are mainly stored in the rhizomes and the roots of the plant. A number of mechanisms contribute to the adaptogenic activities of R. rosea preparations and its phytochemical constituents. Among them, the intrinsic inducible mammalian stress responses and their effector proteins, such as heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70), are the most prominent. Due to its popular medicinal use, which has led to depletion of its natural habitats, R. rosea is now considered as endangered in most parts of the world. Conservation, cultivation and micropropagation are all implemented as potential preservation strategies. A number of in vitro systems of R. rosea are being developed as sources of pharmaceutically valuable secondary metabolites. These are greatly facilitated by advances in elucidation of the biosynthetic pathways and the enzymes, which catalyse the production of these secondary metabolites in the plant. In addition, biotechnological approaches show promise towards achieving sustainable production of R. rosea secondary metabolites.
... The unique medicinal activity of the plant is attributed to the phenylethanol derivative salidroside (rhodioloside) and the phenylpropanoids rosarin, rosavin and rosin ( Figure 1) [1][2][3][4][5][6][7]. The latter compounds are exclusive to R. rosea [8]. ...
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This is the first report on the phytochemistry of Nunavik (Québec, Canada) populations of Rhodiola rosea L., a medicinal plant widely used in Eurasia as a tonic and adaptogen. The wild harvested rhizome of the Nunavik populations contained the marker phytochemicals (salidroside, rosarin, rosavin and rosin) reported in authentic Eurasian material, although in lesser amount. Phytochemical profiling by HPLC of the Nunavik populations also showed the presence of new marker compounds not found in the Eurasian material. For quantitative analysis of the phytochemicals, method validation was undertaken, and the marker phytochemicals were measured in the rhizome, leaf, stem, and seeds. The rhizome showed the highest amount of salidroside and rosavins, as well as the highest total phytochemical content. Consequently, the rhizome remains the most medicinally valuable part of R. rosea.
... A previous study (14), in addition to the present study, observed a higher number of pups in the litters delivered by mothers that were fed RKW-A extracts. This is in agreement with a number of pre-clinical and clinical observations on the beneficial reproductive effects of other Rhodiola species, such as R. rosea (32,33). ...
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Plants of Rhodiola genus are medicinal herbs that have a number of therapeutic properties, including anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activity. The present study aimed to determine whether the use Rhodiola kirilowii as an immunostimulant during pregnancy has an adverse effect on the development of the offspring immune system. Following mating, pregnant mice were placed in three groups that were fed during pregnancy and lactation with R. kirilowii aqueous extract (RKW; 20 mg/kg), R. kirilowii 50% hydro-alcoholic extract (RKW-A; 20 mg/kg) or water (control group), receiving water. Following birth, offspring were given six weeks to develop prior to evaluation of their immune system. Morphometric and morphological examination of the spleen did not reveal any abnormalities or differences between the experimental and control groups. However, both RKW and RKW-A splenic lymphocytes presented a diminished proliferative response to concanavalin A. RKW spleen lymphocytes demonstrated increased metabolic activity following phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) stimulation, which was associated with a higher percentage of cluster of differentiation 4 positive spleen cells and lower interleukin-17a (IL-17a) serum concentration. The RKW-A group exhibited a diminished proliferative response of spleen lymphocytes to PHA and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and increased serum concentrations of IL-10 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). The progeny of mice fed with RKW-A extract demonstrated a significantly lower level of anti-SRBC antibody following immunization compared with progeny of the control (P=0.0305) and RKW (P=0.0331) groups. In conclusion, caution is recommended in the use of RKW and RKW-A extracts as immunostimulants in pregnancy.
... Rhodiola sachalinensis A. BOR belongs to the family Crassulaceae, and the root of the plant (Gao-shanhong-jing-tian in Chinese), Rhodiolae Radix, have been widely used as a hemostatic, antibechic, tonic, and endermic liniment for burns and contusions in traditional Chinese medicine (Khanum et al., 2006;Ming et al., 2005). Many studies have reported that Rhodiolae Radix has many important biological activities, including adaptogenic, antihypoxia, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antivirus, antidiabetic, anticancer, immune enhancing and sexually stimulating properties (Bawa and Khanum, 2009;Kim et al., 2007;Li et al., 2011). ...
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The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of polysaccharide from Rhodiolae Radix (PRR) on physical fatigue using a forced swimming test in male mice. 96 mice were divided randomly into four groups based on body weight (n = 24). One of the groups was the control group; the others were PRR supplemented groups (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight). Forced swimming test of mice were carried out after 28 days of PRR administration, and the blood lactic acid (BLA), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), liver glycogen and muscle glycogen contents were determined. The data suggest that PRR can extend the exhaustive swimming time of the mice, as well as increase the tissue glycogen contents, and decrease the BLA and BUN contents. These results indicated that PRR had significant anti-fatigue effects. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3329/icpj.v2i3.13579 International Current Pharmaceutical Journal, February 2013, 2(3): 49-52
... Rhodiola rosea L. (R. rosea L.), also known as Rhodiola, Roseroot, Arctic Root, and Golden Root, belongs to the plant family of Crassulaceae, subfamily of sedoideae and genus Rhodiola (Farhath et al., 2005). R. rosea L. and its ingredients replenish qi (vital energy), activate blood circulation, unblock blood vessels, enhance mental function, and smooth asthmatic conditions in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) (Pharmacopoeia Committee of the People's Republic of China Ministry of health, 2005). ...
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Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and dementia are disorders of the aging population and becoming major health care burden worldwide due to unavailability of complete therapy. AD is the most frequent cause of dementia among 60% to 80% patients and has effected 45 million people globally which is estimated to triple by 2050 (Alzheimer’s, 2015). AD is a progressive, neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by behavioral turbulence, cognitive dysfunctions, imperfection in routine life activities, thus putting a huge socioeconomic burden on the health care system ( Ahmad et al., 2015; Ali et al., 2017; Ayaz et al., 2017b). Among the pathophysiological hallmarks of the disease are the deficiency of vital neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh), deposition of amyloid plaques (Aβ), highly phosphorylated tau proteins, and imbalance in gluatamatergic system ( Ayaz et al., 2017a; Khalil et al., 2018 ; Ovais et al., 2018a). Only five drugs are linically approved for use, among which tacrine, galantamine, donepezil, and rivastigmine are cholinesterase inhibitors whereas the fifth one memantine is glutamatergic system modulator (Ayaz et al., 2015 ; Kamal et al., 2015). These drugs have limited efficacy and are associated with side effects like tacrine is hepatotoxic (Watkins et al., 1994). Currently, results from clinical trials performed in mild to moderate AD dementia have directed researchers to find more effective yet safe alternatives from natural sources (Yiannopoulou and Papageorgiou, 2013 ; Cummings et al., 2014 ; Ovais et al., 2018b).
... Rhodiola rosea L. also named Rhodiola, Golden Root, Arctic Root, and Roseroot, belongs to the plant family of Crassulaceae and genus Rhodiola (Khanum et al., 2005), and is widely distributed in Asia, Europe and North America (Elameen et al., 2020). In traditional Russian (Siberian) folk medicine, Rhodiola rosea L. has been used as an adaptogenic medicinal product for a long time (Ioset et al., 2011), and the plant is useful for increasing mental and physical capacities (Panossian., et al., 2021). ...
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Background: Rhodiola rosea L. has long been used as traditional medicines in Europe and Asia to treat a variety of common conditions and diseases including Alzheimer’s disease, cardiovascular disease, cognitive dysfunctions, cancer, and stroke. Previous studies reported that Rhodiola rosea L. and its components (RRC) improve ischemia stroke in animal models. Here, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis for preclinical studies to evaluate the effects of RRC and the probable neuroprotective mechanisms in ischemic stroke. Methods: Studies of RRC on ischemic stroke animal models were searched in seven databases from inception to Oct 2021. The primary measured outcomes included the neural functional deficit score (NFS), infarct volume (IV), brain water content, cell viability, apoptotic cells, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells, B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) level and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) level. The secondary outcome measures were possible mechanisms of RRC for ischemic stroke. All the data were analyzed via RevMan version 5.3. Results: 15 studies involving 345 animals were identified. Methodological quality for each included studies was accessed according to the CAMARADES 10-item checklist. The quality score of studies range from 1 to 7, and the median was 5.53. Pooled preclinical data showed that compared with the controls, RRC could improve NFS (Zea Longa (p < 0.01), modified neurological severity score (mNSS) (p < 0.01), rotarod tests (p < 0.01), IV (p < 0.01), as well as brain edema (p < 0.01). It also can increase cell viability (p < 0.01), Bcl-2 level (p < 0.01) and reduce TNF-α level (p < 0.01), TUNEL-positive cells (p < 0.01), apoptotic cells (p < 0.01). Conclusion: The findings suggested that RRC can improve ischemia stroke. The possible mechanisms of RRC are largely through antioxidant, anti-apoptosis activities, anti-inflammatory, repressing lipid peroxidation, antigliosis, and alleviating the pathological blood brain barrier damage.
... Rhodiola rosea may prevent or ameliorate some age-related neurological dysfunctions. 5,6 Research both from animal models and human clinical trials indicates a number of favorable effects associated with its use, including CNS stimulation, pronounced anti-stress effects, enhanced physical work and exercise performance, increased muscle strength, reduction in mental fatigue and prevention of high altitude sickness. Cardioprotective and anticancer effects also have been attributed to its intake. ...
... [95][96][97]. Further temperature tolerance mechanisms may be gleaned from Antarctic plants, or plants that have survived dramatic events such as forest fires and prolonged flood(98)(99)(100). Some plant extremophiles have evolved to accumulate certain specialized metabolites at very high levels as part of their unique adaptive strategies, with a few already harnessed for human uses, including UV protection, food, and beverage(101)(102)(103). ...
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Planet Earth has experienced many dramatic atmospheric and climatic changes throughout its 4.5‐billion‐year history that have profoundly impacted the evolution of life as we know it. Photosynthetic organisms, and specifically plants, have played a paramount role in shaping the Earth's atmosphere through oxygen production and carbon sequestration. In turn, the diversity of plants has been shaped by historical atmospheric and climatic changes: plants rose to this challenge by evolving new developmental and metabolic traits. These adaptive traits help plants to thrive in diverse growth conditions, while benefiting humanity through the production of food, raw materials, and medicines. However, the current rapid rate of climate change caused by human activities presents unprecedented new challenges to the future of plants. Here, we discuss the potential effects of modern climate change on plants, with specific attention to plant specialized metabolism. We explore potential avenues of future scientific investigations, powered by cutting‐edge methods such as synthetic biology and genome engineering, to better understand and mitigate the consequences of rapid climate change on plant fitness and plant usage by humans. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... Thus, the antioxidative actions of some plants and plant-derived compounds on physical exertion are already demonstrated (Avakian et al., 1984;Abidov et al., 2003;Huang et al., 2009;Jówko et al., 2011;Jurcău & Jurcău, 2017). Also, different plant extracts have been shown to have beneficial effects in increasing endurance (Murase et al., 2006;Lee et al., 2009;Panossian, 2013; and performance (Yang et al., 2018;Jurcău et al., 2019) and reduce physical fatigue (Kimura & Sumiyoshi, 2004;Khanum et al., 2005;Yang et al., 2018;Jurcău et al., 2019). ...
... The main phenylethanol derivatives are salidroside (rhodioloside), para-tyrosol, and phenylpropanoid-rosavin. These are also responsible for the adaptogenic and ergogenic effects of Rhodiola rosea [8,73,75]. ...
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Adaptogens are synthetic compounds (bromantane, levamisole, aphobazole, bemethyl, etc.) or plant extracts that have the ability to enhance the body’s stability against physical loads without increasing oxygen consumption. Extracts from Panax ginseng, Eleutherococcus senticosus, Rhaponticum carthamoides, Rhodiola rosea, and Schisandra chinensis are considered to be naturally occurring adaptogens and, in particular, plant adaptogens. The aim of this study is to evaluate the use of plant adaptogens in the past and now, as well as to outline the prospects of their future applications. The use of natural adaptogens by humans has a rich history—they are used in recovery from illness, physical weakness, memory impairment, and other conditions. About 50 years ago, plant adaptogens were first used in professional sports due to their high potential to increase the body’s resistance to stress and to improve physical endurance. Although now many people take plant adaptogens, the clinical trials on human are limited. The data from the meta-analysis showed that plant adaptogens could provide a number of benefits in the treatment of chronic fatigue, cognitive impairment, and immune protection. In the future, there is great potential to register medicinal products that contain plant adaptogens for therapeutic purposes.
... уже длительное время используются в качестве адаптогенов в России и странах Северной Европы. В последнее время для препаратов родиолы розовой также выявлен целый ряд новых фармакологических свойств, а именно: антиоксидантная, анксиолитическая, ноотропная, антидепрессантная, иммуномодулирующая активность [7][8][9][10][11][12][13]. Имеются сообщения, что препараты родиолоы розовой повышают физическую выносливость, снижают утомляемость и оказывают терапевтическое действие при нарушениях желудочно-кишечного тракта, сердечно-сосудистой системы и центральной нервной системы. ...
Article
Rhodiola rosea L. rhizomes and roots are pharmacopoeial raw materials, which are used in official medicine for obtaining medicines with adaptogenic activity. One of the most common problems in the production of medicines from Rhodiola rosea L. rhizomes and roots is the use of poor quality medicinal plant materials, which leads to the absence of biologically significant compounds in the preparations. One of the possible reasons is the shortcomings in the existing approaches to the standardization of Rhodiola rosea L. raw materials and preparations. The aim of the study is the improvement of approaches to the standardization of medicinal preparations from Rhodiola rosea L. rhizomes and roots. Materials and methods . Experimental and industrial samples of liquid extract from Rhodiola rosea L. roots, as well as reference samples of rosavin and salidroside, were used as materials of the research. The HPLC analysis was carried out using a Milichrom-6 chromatograph (NPAO Nauchpribor) under the following conditions of reversed-phase chromatography in an isocratic mode: a steel column KAKH-6-80-4 (2 mm x 80 mm; Separon-C18 7 μm), a mobile phase – acetonitrile: 1% solution of acetic acid in water in the ratio of 14:86, the elution rate was 100 μL/min, the eluent volume was 2000 μL. The constituents were detected at the wavelength of 252 nm (rosavin) and 278 nm (salidroside). Results . An assay of rosavin and salidroside in the liquid extract of Rhodiola rosea L. was developed using the HPLC method. It was determined that the content of rosavin in the samples of the liquid extracts obtained from Rhodiola rosea L. rhizomes and roots of the pharmacopoeial quality, varied from 0.21%±0.03% to 0.32%±0.04%, salidroside – from 1.13% ±0.05% to 2.71%±0.12%, respectively. The results of statistical processing indicate that the relative error of the average result for the determination of rosavin and salidroside in the preparations of Rhodiola rose a L. with a confidence level of 95% does not exceed ±6.0%. Conclusion . Thus, methodological approaches to the analysis of medicinal preparations from Rhodiola rosea L. rhizomes and roots have been substantiated. These methodological approaches consist of the quantitative determination of the dominant and diagnostically significant biologically active compounds – rosavin and salidroside.
... Phenolic glycosides contained in GRE, namely salidroside and rosavin, have been identified as the primary active constituents which exert adaptive organismal responses classifying it as an "adaptogen" [1]. Nutritional enrichment with GRE has been linked to hormonal modulation, increased activity of the central nervous system (CNS), and improvements in cellular energy production [3,4]. These physiological responses have been shown to aid in attenuation of various types of stress including mental, metabolic, oxidative, and physical/exercise induced stress [4][5][6]. ...
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The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of short-term Golden Root Extract (GRE; Rhodiola rosea) supplementation on blood lactate, catecholamines, and performance during repeated bench press exercise. Resistance-trained males (n = 10) participated in this study. In a double-blinded, crossover, counterbalanced study design, participants supplemented with either 1500 mg/day of GRE or placebo (PL; gluten-free cornstarch) for 3 days prior to experimentation. An additional 500 mg dose was ingested 30 min prior to exercise testing. During each exercise trial, participants completed 2 repetitions of bench press at 75% of one-repetition maximum (1RM) as explosively as possible. A linear position transducer was used to measure mean concentric velocity. After 5 min of rest, participants completed 3 sets × repetitions to failure (RTF) at 75% 1RM separated by 2 min of rest between each set. A capillary blood sample was obtained pre- (PRE) and immediately post- (POST) exercise to measure blood concentrations lactate (LA), epinephrine (EPI), and norepinephrine (NE). Mean concentric velocity was significantly higher with GRE when compared to PL (p = 0.046). However, total RTF were significantly lower with GRE versus PL (p < 0.001). Regardless of treatment, LA was significantly higher Post versus Pre (p < 0.001), but GRE resulted in greater Post values compared to PL (p = 0.049). EPI and NE increased in both conditions Pre to Post (p < 0.001). However, Pre NE was significantly higher with GRE versus PL (p = 0.008). Findings indicate that short-term GRE supplementation increases mean bench press velocity but decreases bench press repetition volume. Furthermore, GRE resulted in higher NE levels and blood lactate following exercise. Thus, supplementing with GRE may enhance explosive resistance training performance but may also impair upper body strength-endurance.
... Rosavin is a bioactive phenylpropane derivative isolated from the root of Rhodiola rosea L., which is a favorite plant as herbal medicine in Asia and eastern Europe, and is generally considered as one of the most active adaptogenic drugs [1][2][3][4][5]. As a unique substance in R. rosea, the bioactivities of rosavin had been widely studied and reported. ...
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Aim: A sensitive and selective ultra performance LC-MS/MS (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed to investigate the pharmacokinetics of rosavin as a potential adaptogenic drug isolated from Rhodiola rosa L. in rat plasma with salidroside as an internal standard. Methodology: Chromatographic separation was performed on a UPLC HSS T3 column (1.8 μm, 100 mm × 2.1 mm) with gradient elution. Multiple reaction monitoring was employed for MS analysis. Rosavin and salidroside were determined with multiple reaction monitoring-ion transitions m/z 427.2 → 293.1 and m/z 299.1 → 119.1, respectively. Conclusion: The validated UPLC-MS/MS method showed a satisfied linear range in 5-5000 ng/ml-1 and was successfully applied for the pharmacokinetic study of rosavin in the rat after intravenous and gavage administration.
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Background: In today's society, a huge population is facing intellectual health problems. Therapeutic expense of such problems leads people into a financial burden. Inspite of squandering cash on pharmaceutical prescription, it is better to take benefit from laughter therapy. It is a part of human behavior, which helps human clarify their intentions in social interaction. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of laughter on cognition. Methodology: This uncontrolled experimental study was conducted on 80 participants, recruited on convenience bases. All 18-30 years aged subjects with no chronic psychological disorder were included. While patients with a chronic psychological disorder were excluded from the study sample. Participants were divided into 3 groups: 26 participants in Group A, 33 participants in Group B and 21participants in Group C. Cognition skills were assessed by using Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) score before and after laughter therapy session of about 25 mins. The collected data was then analyzed using SPSS version 21. Results: All the groups showed improvement in MoCA score after laughter therapy. Group A MoCA score after therapy was 22.70. Group B MoCA score after therapy was 25.10. Group C MoCA score after therapy was 25.42.By mean analysis, we figured out that there is a greater change of cognition seen in members of Group C than in Group B and change in Group B is greater than in Group A. Conclusion: It was concluded that laughter improves cognition and regulates neurotransmitters. Moreover, it has great influence in daily life and puts a great impact on memory and cognitive skills
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Rhodioloside, the main effective constituent of Rhodiola rosea , demonstrates antiaging and antioxidative stress functions and inhibits calcium overloading in cells. These functions imply that rhodioloside may exert protective effects on hippocampal neurons after total cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. In this study, male Wistar rat models of total cerebral ischemia were constructed and randomly divided into four groups: sham-operation, ischemia/reperfusion, low-dosage, and high-dosage groups. The result showed that rhodioloside treatment reduced the apoptosis rates of hippocampal neurons and the histological grades of cone cells in the hippocampal CA1 region, but neuronal density was significantly increased. Besides, the protein expressions of Bcl-2/Bax and p53 were measured and found Bcl-2/Bax was increased and p53 protein level was reduced. Therefore, rhodioloside might have protective effects on rats with ischemia/reperfusion brain injury.
Article
Methodological approaches to the analysis of biologically active compounds in rhizomes and roots of Rhodiola rosea L. are substantiated. An HPLC method for quantitative determination of rosavin and salidroside, the predominant and diagnostically significant biologically active compounds in raw material of this plant, was developed. The content of rosavin in rhizomes and roots of R. rosea varied from 1.17 ± 0.04% to 1.41 ± 0.06%; of salidroside, from 1.63 ± 0.05% to 2.88 ± 0.12%, respectively. Statistical processing of the results indicated that the relative error of the mean content of rosavin and salidroside was less than ±5.0% with confidence probability 95%.
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Ethnopharmacological relevance: Previous studies have shown that the active fraction of Rhodiola tangutica (Maxim.) S.H. Fu (ACRT) dilates pulmonary arteries and thwarts pulmonary artery remodelling. The dilatation effect of ACRT on pulmonary artery vascular rings could be reduced by potassium (K+) channel blockers. However the exact mechanisms of ACRT on ion channels are still unclear. Aim of the study: This study aimed to investigate whether the effect of ACRT on K+ channels inhibits cell proliferation after pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) are exposed to hypoxia. Materials and methods: The whole-cell patch-clamp method was used to clarify the effect of ACRT on the K+ current (IK) of rat PASMCs exposed to hypoxia. The mRNA and protein expression levels were detected using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and western blotting, respectively. The intracellular calcium (Ca2+) concentration ([Ca2+]i) values in rat PASMCs were detected by laser scanning confocal microscopy. The cell cycle and cell proliferation were assessed using flow cytometry analysis and CCK-8 and EdU assays. Results: ACRT pretreatment alleviated the inhibition of IK induced by hypoxia in rat PASMCs. Compared with hypoxia, ACRT upregulated voltage-dependent K+ channel (Kv) 1.5 and big-conductance calcium-activated K+ channel (BKCa) mRNA and protein expression and downregulated voltage-dependent Ca2+ channel (Cav) 1.2 mRNA and protein expression. ACRT decreased [Ca2+]i, inhibited the promotion of cyclin D1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression, and prevented the proliferation of rat PASMCs exposed to hypoxia. Conclusion: In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that ACRT plays a key role in restoring ion channel function and then inhibiting the proliferation of PASMCs under hypoxia, ACRT has preventive and therapeutic potential in hypoxic pulmonary hypertension.
Article
Microwave assisted extraction (MAE) was applied for extraction of biologically active compounds from Rhodiola rosea L. Various extraction conditions-different solvents, MAE time, solid/liquid ratio and microwave power were investigated to optimize the extraction of polyphenols, flavonoids and total extractable compounds. It was found that MAE compared to conventional extraction (CE) is an efficient time, energy, and solvent saving method for extraction of biologically active compounds from R. rosea.
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The rich botanical biodiversity of high-altitude Trans-Himalayan region has gained a lot of importance in recent years owing to its immense curative and therapeutic potential. Rhodiola imbricata is one such exceptionally celebrated plant widely acknowledged by the scientific community and pharmaceutical industries. The plant offers a phenomenal range of properties such as antioxidant, antiaging, radioprotective, etc., along with treating a multitude of disorders. The copious traditional knowledge, short growing season, and availability of novel bioactive compounds have led to indiscriminate harvesting of the plant leading to its overexploitation by the local farmers. This chapter provides detail description and composition of phytochemicals and bioactive compounds and highlights prophylactic significance and application of advanced tissue culture technologies for sustainable growth and efficient utilization of the plant for benefitting the larger consumer base.
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This present review deals with chemical constituents, biological activities and traditional uses of Rhodiola imbricata Edgew. in traditional and modern medicines. This species of plant grows at higher altitude zones of Himalayan such as in Ladakh and Kashmir regions. In total, there are 30 compounds reported from the roots and rhizomes of this plant, and major components include phenylpropanoids, flavonoids, terpenoids, phenolic acids, and phenylethanol derivatives. Pharmacological studies confirmed that R. imbricata exhibits adaptogenic, cardioprotective, anti-stress, and anti-inflammatory activities. The compounds present in plant are known to increase physical endurance, work productivity and longevity. It has been also used to treat fatigue, asthma, hemorrhage, impotence, gastrointestinal ailments, decreasing depression, preventing high altitude sickness and for stimulating the nervous system. In conclusion, R. imbricata has lots of folklore and pharmacological evidence to deal with stress and fatigue. Also there is emerging evidence for supporting radioprotective activity.
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Introduction Supplementation with Rhodiola Rosea (RR) and Cordyceps Sinensis (CS) has been shown to improve aerobic performance, but their influence on concurrent training (resistance training plus high intensity interval training) outcomes has not been established. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of supplementation with a multi-ingredient performance supplement (MIPS) containing RR and CS during a 14-week training and testing program on body composition, weekly exercise training outcomes, overall training and performance outcomes, and hormone profiles. Methods Active college-aged men (N = 21) were stratified into either a MIPS or a placebo (PLA) group. Both groups completed 14 weeks of training and testing. Body composition, overall training outcomes, and blood sample collection occurred at weeks 0, 7, and 14, while training performance was evaluated weekly. Results Both groups improved (p < 0.05) percent body fat (-1.3%), bench press (+4%) and squat strength (+8%), with no difference between groups. Serum cortisol concentrations significantly decreased (-11%) but there were no differences between groups. No other changes in blood hormone profiles occurred. Weekly exercise performance data suggests that MIPS improved sprint performance, bench press lifting volume, and total workload, but this did not lead to improved overall training performance compared to PLA over the14-week study. Conclusion Despite MIPS improving certain aspects of weekly training performance, supplementation with MIPS for 14 weeks did not improve body composition, overall training and performance outcomes, or blood biomarkers of health in response to concurrent training in young men compared to PLA. This study was registered with clinicaltrials. gov (NCT02383017).
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Adaptogens comprise a category of herbal medicinal and nutritional products promoting adaptability, resilience, and survival of living organisms in stress. The aim of this review was to summarize the growing knowledge about common adaptogenic plants used in various traditional medical systems (TMS) and conventional medicine and to provide a modern rationale for their use in the treatment of stress-induced and aging-related disorders. Adapto-gens have pharmacologically pleiotropic effects on the neuroendocrine-immune system, which explain their traditional use for the treatment of a wide range of conditions. They exhibit a biphasic dose-effect response: at low doses they function as mild stress-mimetics, which activate the adaptive stress-response signaling pathways to cope with severe stress. That is in line with their traditional use for preventing premature aging and to maintain good health and vitality. However, the potential Med Res Rev. 2020;1-74. wileyonlinelibrary.com/journal/med | 1 This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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A new ferulic acid ester, 6-feruloyloxyhexanoic acid (1), was isolated along with 10 known ones (2–11), from the concentrated water extract of Rhodiola wallichiana var. cholaensis. Their chemical structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic methods including Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D NMR) experiments. Compound 3 was isolated from this plant for the first time. The protective effects against H2O2-induced myocardial cell injury in cultured H9c2 cells were also evaluated. Compounds 1, 5 and 7–11 provided significant protective effects on H2O2-induced H9c2 cells injury at the concentration of 25 μg/mL. And the protective effects of compound 1 was also investigated by the oxygen–glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R) tests.
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This chapter presents an up-to-date review on the effect of ingestion of Rhodiola rosea (. R. rosea) on cardiovascular health, mood alleviation, and energy metabolism. R. rosea, also known as Golden Root, is an herb that grows in high-altitude, mountainous regions of the world. Historically, R. rosea has long been used to enhance mental and physical performance and fight fatigue. However, only recently have scientists and nutritional researchers robustly examined the efficacy of R. rosea. This chapter focuses on the extant data relating to exercise performance following both acute and chronic ingestion of R. rosea and the subsequent impact of R. rosea ingestion on cardiovascular parameters, mood, metabolism, and other related variables. It explores the active constituents of R. rosea and explores the studies that have also examined the effect of R. rosea ingestion combined with other substances. The purported mechanisms of action for the potential ergogenic effect of R. rosea are unpacked alongside direction on how to take R. rosea and the reported side effects arising from R. rosea ingestion. This chapter also presents a gap analysis and clear direction for future research related to the efficacy of R. rosea as a nutritional supplement.
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Rhodiola rosea extract is widely used to alleviate stress and improve cognition and mental resources. A total of 50 adult participants were treated with 2 × 200 mg R. rosea extract (Rosalin®, WS® 1,375) for 12 weeks and were subjected to a neuropsychological test battery as well as an event‐related brain potential measurement in a dual task paradigm prior to administration, after 6 weeks and after 12 weeks. The study followed a single‐arm open‐label design. Reaction times improved for the attention network task (ANT), the Go/Nogo task, and the divided attention task. Moreover, the orienting effect and the executive effect in the ANT showed an improvement. The P3 component in a dual task paradigm was increased in amplitude. The results of this pilot study show an improvement of mental speed and moreover, suggest improved mental resources. As the current study is single‐armed these findings need to be replicated in a double‐blind placebo controlled study.
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Zusammenfassung Rhodiola rosea L., Rosenwurz, ist eine ausdauernde Pflanze aus der Familie der Crassulaceae, die v. a. in der nördlichen Hemisphäre wächst. Der Rosenwurz-Wurzelstock enthält u. a. Phenylethanoide (Salidrosid und Tyrosol) und Phenylpropanoide (Rosavin, Rosin und Rosarin). Diese Stoffe haben antioxidative, antiinflammatorische sowie neuro-, kardio- und hepatoprotektive Eigenschaften. Volksheilkundlich wird die Pflanze in Europa und Asien als Adaptogen gegen Stress und Müdigkeit eingesetzt.
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Over the past three decades, the knowledge gained about the mechanisms that underpin the potential use of Rhodiola in stress- and ageing-associated disorders has increased, and provided a universal framework for studies that focused on the use of Rhodiola in preventing or curing metabolic diseases. Of particular interest is the emerging role of Rhodiola in the maintenance of energy homeostasis. Moreover, over the last two decades, great efforts have been undertaken to unravel the underlying mechanisms of action of Rhodiola in the treatment of metabolic disorders. Extracts of Rhodiola and salidroside, the most abundant active compound in Rhodiola, are suggested to provide a beneficial effect in mental, behavioral, and metabolic disorders. Both in vivo and ex vivo studies, Rhodiola extracts and salidroside ameliorate metabolic disorders when administered acutely or prior to 2 experimental injury. The mechanism involved includes multi-target effects by modulating various synergistic pathways that control oxidative stress, inflammation, mitochondria, autophagy, and cell death, as well as AMPK signaling that is associated with possible beneficial effects on metabolic disorders. However, evidence-based data supporting the effectiveness of Rhodiola or salidroside in treating metabolic disorders is limited. Therefore, a comprehensive review of available trials showing putative treatment strategies of metabolic disorders that include both clinical effective perspectives and fundamental molecular mechanisms is warranted. This review highlights studies that focus on the potential role of Rhodiola extracts and salidroside in type 2 diabetes and atherosclerosis, the two most common metabolic diseases.
Article
The aim of this study is to assess the possibility of using deep eutectic solvents (DES) for the extraction of components of essential oils and biologically active substances from the rhizomes of Rhodiola rosea. Cinnamic alcohol was obtained obtained in aqueous, methanol, ethanol and DES extracts by maceration. Content of the alcohol in extracts was assessed. For preparation of DES, choline chloride was used as an hydrogen bonds acceptor, and malonic acid and glycerol were used as hydrogen bonds donors. Analysis was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using a GCMS-QP2010 instrument (SHIMADZU) with NIST 27.147 databases. It has been established that the mixture of choline chloride + glycerin + water extracts more than 2 times more cinnamic alcohol than ethanol, and more than 5 times more than methanol.
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Tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, remains one of the most difficult diseases to control. Despite of various available synthetic anti-TB drugs, the emergence of multidrug resistance presents a significant challenge for the successful treatment of TB. Herbal therapeutics are becoming popular over the synthetic medicines due to their easy availability, low cost, and safety aspects. This review aimed to highlight the outcome of various plants-based antitubercular remedies. Various phytoconstituents like alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, phenolic, tannins, terpenoids, quinones, steroids, etc., have shown promising antitubercular activity. However, very few studies have reported the mechanisms by which the phytoconstituent exert their anti-TB action. Thus, more attention is needed to explore the mechanism of phytoconstituent as anti-TB drug. This review will be of high relevance to the research scholars and formulation scientists working in the area of herbal drug development for the safe and effective treatment of TB.
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Rhodiola rosea L. (R. rosea L.) is widely used to stimulate the nervous system, extenuate anxiety, enhance work performance, relieve fatigue, and prevent high altitude sickness. Previous studies reported that R. rosea L. improves learning and memory function in animal models. Here, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis for preclinical studies to assess the current evidence for R. rosea L. effect on learning and memory function. Ultimately, 36 studies involving 836 animals were identified by searching 6 databases from inception to May 2018. The primary outcome measures included the escape latency in Morris water maze (MWM) test on behalf of learning ability, the frequency and the length of time spent on the target quadrant in MWM test representing memory function, and the number of errors in step down test, dark avoidance test and Y maze test on behalf of memory function. The secondary outcome measures were mechanisms of R. rosea L. for learning and/or memory function. Compared with control, the pooled results of 28 studies showed significant effects of R. rosea L. for reducing the escape latency (P < 0.05); 23 studies for increasing the frequency and the length of time spent on the target quadrant (P < 0.05); and 6 studies for decreasing the number of errors (P < 0.01). The possible mechanisms of R. rosea L. are largely through antioxidant, cholinergic regulation, anti-apoptosis activities, anti-inflammatory, improving coronary blood flow, and cerebral metabolism. In conclusion, the findings suggested that R. rosea L. can improve learning and memory function.
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Elevated glucocorticoid levels produce hippocampal dysfunction and correlate with individual deficits in spatial learning in aged rats. Previously we related persistent cortisol increases to memory impairments in elderly humans studied over five years. Here we demonstrate that aged humans with significant prolonged cortisol elevations showed reduced hippocampal volume and deficits in hippocampus-dependent memory tasks compared to normal-cortisol controls. Moreover, the degree of hippocampal atrophy correlated strongly with both the degree of cortisol elevation over time and current basal cortisol levels. Therefore, basal cortisol elevation may cause hippocampal damage and impair hippocampus-dependent learning and memory in humans.
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Ample research indicates that age-related neuronal-behavioral decrements are the result of oxidative stress that may be ameliorated by antioxidants. Our previous study had shown that rats given dietary supplements of fruit and vegetable extracts with high antioxidant activity for 8 months beginning at 6 months of age retarded age-related declines in neuronal and cognitive function. The present study showed that such supplements (strawberry, spinach, or blueberry at 14.8, 9.1, or 18.6 gm of dried aqueous extract per kilogram of diet, respectively) fed for 8 weeks to 19-month-old Fischer 344 rats were also effective in reversing age-related deficits in several neuronal and behavioral parameters including: oxotremorine enhancement of K(+)-evoked release of dopamine from striatal slices, carbachol-stimulated GTPase activity, striatal Ca(45) buffering in striatal synaptosomes, motor behavioral performance on the rod walking and accelerod tasks, and Morris water maze performance. These findings suggest that, in addition to their known beneficial effects on cancer and heart disease, phytochemicals present in antioxidant-rich foods may be beneficial in reversing the course of neuronal and behavioral aging.
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The objective was to investigate the stimulating and normalizing effect of the adaptogen Rhodiola rosea extract SHR-5 in foreign students during a stressful examination period. The study was performed as a double-blind, randomized and placebo-controlled with low repeated dose regime. The study drug and the placebo were taken for 20 days by the students during an examination period. The physical and mental performance were assessed before and after the period, based on objective as well as on subjective evaluation. The most significant improvement in the SHR-5 group was seen in physical fitness, mental fatigue and neuro-motoric tests (p <0.01). The self-assessment of the general well-being was also significantly (p < 0.05) better in the verum group. No significance was seen in the correction of text tests or a neuro-muscular tapping test. The overall conclusion is that the study drug gave significant results compared to the placebo group but that the dose level probably was suboptimal.
Article
The experiments on white rats have shown that the induction of 4 hour stress produces an acute increase in beta-endorphin level, as well as characteristic changes in ACTH, cortisol, insulin, thyroxin and triiodothyronine concentrations. Different types of adaptation (training with short stress periods or injection of rhodiola rosea extract) promote a moderate increase in the amount of serum immunoreactive beta-endorphin, preventing its subsequent stress-induced elevation. Adaptation is characterized by a decrease or total prevention of hormonal changes peculiar to stress. The role of opioid neuropeptides in enhancing stress tolerance and the effect of adaptation factors are discussed.
Article
Investigation of antioxidant properties of some plants was carried out. A group of plants affected human central nervous system was studied in detail. Efficiency of plants as antioxidants was tested by the influence of their extracts on the yield of photochemiluminescence of Gly-Trp solutions. Antioxidant properties were examined under conditions when their own absorption was minimized. Riboflavin as additional sensitizer was used in this experiment for superoxide generation. The antioxidant effect was evaluated with regard to single dose of plant extracts and their concentration in human organism. The effect decreases in the following consequence: Hypericum > Eleutherococcus > Rhodiola > Leonurus > Aralia > Valeriana > Echinopanax > Schizandra > Panax gin-seng.
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The acetone extract of the roots ofRhodiola sachalinensis has furnished six phenolic compounds which exhibited significant scavenging effects against DPPH free radical. The structures of these compounds were identified and determined as gallic acid (1), (−)-epigallocatechin 3-O-gallate (2), kaempferol (3), kaempferol 7-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (4), herbacetin 7-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside, (5) and rhodiolinin (6) by physico-chemical and spectral evidences.
Article
The active-oxygen scavenging activity of 70 traditional herbal medicines used in China and Japan as nourishing tonics were evaluated by electron spin resonance (ESR) technique, in order to evaluate their effectiveness for anti-aging and to search for new active-oxygen scavengers from natural resources. Most of the 70 herbal medicines showed scavenging activity with various intensities. Areca catechu (methanol extract), Dendrobium plicatile (methanol extract), Juglans regia (water extract), Paeonia lactiflora (methanol extract), Psychotria serpens (water and methanol extracts), Rhodiola sacra (water and methanol extracts) and Uncaria rhynchophylla (water extract) especially showed strong scavenging activity against superoxide anion radical (*O2-), while J. regia (water and methanol extracts), Morus alba (water extract) and Schisandra chinensis (water extract) revealed strong scavenging activity against hydroxyl radical (HO*). In addition, the active-oxygen scavenging activities of 19 compounds isolated from R. sacra were also examined, and hydroquinone (1), caffeic acid (3), protocatechuic acid (6), gallic acid (7), (-)-epigallocatechin 3-O-gallate (8), 3-O-galloylepigallocatechin-(4beta-->8)-epigallocatechin+ ++ 3-O-gallate (10), heterodendrin (17) and gallic acid 4-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (19) were found to show mild or strong inhibitory activity against superoxide anion radical (*O2-), while 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (2), 3, 4-hydroxycinnamic acid (4), 6-8 and 19 inhibited hydroxyl radical (OH*). These active-oxygen scavengers may contribute, to different extents, to their anti-aging action.
1. The effects of Adafenoxate (Adf), meclofenoxate (Mf) and citicholine (CCh) administered at a daily dose of 100 mg/kg for 7 days on the levels of noradrenaline (NA), dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) in the frontal cerebral cortex, striatum, hippocampus and hypothalamus of rats were studied. 2. Adafenoxate increased the NA level in the striatum and decreased it in the hypothalamus; it increased the DA level in the cerebral cortex and hypothalamus and decreased it in the striatum; it increased the 5-HT level in the cerebral cortex and decreased it in the hippocampus. 3. Meclofenoxate decreased the NA level in the cerebral cortex and hypothalamus; it increased the DA level in the hippocampus and hypothalamus and the 5-HT level in the cerebral cortex, striatum, hippocampus and hypothalamus. 4. Citicholine increased the NA level in the cerebral cortex and hypothalamus; it increased the DA level in the striatum and the 5-HT level in the cerebral cortex, striatum and hippocampus. 5. An attempt is made to explain some similarities and differences in the behavioral effects of the drugs tested (and those observed in other studies) by the changes they induce in brain biogenic monoamines.
Article
The experiments on white rats have shown that the induction of 4 hour stress produces an acute increase in beta-endorphin level, as well as characteristic changes in ACTH, cortisol, insulin, thyroxin and triiodothyronine concentrations. Different types of adaptation (training with short stress periods or injection of rhodiola rosea extract) promote a moderate increase in the amount of serum immunoreactive beta-endorphin, preventing its subsequent stress-induced elevation. Adaptation is characterized by a decrease or total prevention of hormonal changes peculiar to stress. The role of opioid neuropeptides in enhancing stress tolerance and the effect of adaptation factors are discussed.
Article
In experiments on albino rats, the authors studied the effects of meclofenoxate and Extr. Rhodiolae roseae on the memory-impairing action of convulsant electroshock. "Step-down" passive avoidance training with negative reinforcement was used to trace the changes in memory. Meclofenoxate administered i.p. in a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight for five days prevented the retrograde amnesia observed after convulsant electroshock upon retention testing on the 3rd and 24th hr after the end of the training session. The Rhodiola extract administered orally in a dose of 0.10 ml/rat for 10 days, which in other experimental approaches improved learning and memory, remained ineffective here. The role of biogenic monoamines in the learning- and memory-improving effects of meclofenoxate is considered on the basis of earlier studies by the authors.
The effect of alcohol-aqueous extract (1:1) from Rhodiola rosea L. roots on the processes of learning and memory is studied on rats. Several methods of active avoidance with negative and positive reinforcements are used, as well as of passive avoidance. Using the maze-method with negative (punitive) reinforcement, it has been found that Rhodiola extract in a single dose of 0.10 ml per rat essentially improves learning and retention after 24 hours. Significant improvement of the long-term memory is also established in memory tests after 10-day treatment with the same dose of the extract. In the other two doses tested (0.02 and 1.0 ml per rat) the extract has no substantial effect on learning and memory. In a dose of 0.10 ml per rat the Rhodiola extract had a favourable effect on the training process using the "staircase" method with positive (food) reinforcement as well. With the other methods used (active avoidance method with negative reinforcement "shuttle-box" and passive avoidance methods "step down" and "step through") Rhodiola extract in the dose used (0.10 ml per rat) had no substantial effect on learning and memory (a certain deterioration of the training process was even observed using the "shuttle-box" method, while the "step-down" method resulted in deterioration of the memory). The great significance of the method used for studying the effects of the pharmacological agents on learning and memory for the results obtained is evident.
Article
The study was made of the influence of the Rhodiola rosea extracts administration on chromosome aberrations, production of cells with micronuclei and unscheduled DNA synthesis in bone marrow cells of mice under action of mutagens cyclophosphamide and N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMU). It was found that Rhodiola rosea extracts reduce significantly the yield of cells with the chromosome aberrations and micronuclei induced by cyclophosphamide in vivo, inhibit unscheduled DNA synthesis induced by NMU in vitro. It is emphasized that Rhodiola rosea extracts are antimutagens due to ability to raise the efficiency of the intracell DNA repair mechanisms.
Article
Stimulus-response coupling systems responsible for defence and adaptation of organism to stressors are multi-target and very complicated pharmacological systems, including the neuroendocrine (stress) and immune system. The mode of action of adaptogens is basically associated with the stress-system (neuroendocrine-immune complex) and can be directed on the various targets of the system involved in regulation (activation and inhibition) of stimulus-response coupling. However, clinical studies performed according to the most modern standards are quite limited. On the other hand there is an extensive amount of clinical experience and also established use in self care etc. These aspects are planned to be dealt within a subsequent article which will be devoted to the application in three areas: self care, adjuvants in medicine and curative action in some diseases. At this stage, nevertheless, it seems possible to define some most important "stress-markers" for evaluation of efficiency of adaptogens in experimental and clinical pharmacological studies. They can be both activating (catecholamines, LT-s, cytokines, NO, etc.--"switch on" system--which activates energetic and other resources of the organism), and deactivating (corticosteroids and PGE2-endogenous mediators of cellular communications, which protect cells and whole organism from overreacting to the activating messengers--"switch off" system) stress-messengers. The balance between the activities of the "switch on" and "switch off" systems reflects the well being of the organism. It could be established on different levels of the homeostasis (heterostasis) with different levels of the sensitivity to stressors (Figure 8). The response of stress system--"reactivity" is different at the various levels of heterostasis and depends on adaptation--capacity of the organism (or a cell) to protect itself. In the process of adaptation to stressor's effects the basal levels mediators of switch on (e.g. NO) and switch of (e.g. cortisol) systems are increasing but their balance (the ratio) does not change. In other words, adaptogens increase the capacity of stress system to respond to external signals at the higher level of the equilibrium of activating and deactivating mediators of stress response. Consequently, plant adaptogens can be defined as "smooth" pro-stressors which reduce reactivity of host defense systems and decrease damaging effects of various stressors due to increased basal level of mediators involved in the stress-response. In further studies of adaptogens it seems important to find correlation between adaptogenic activity (a decrease in the "reactivity" of the organism--the basal level of activating and deactivating messengers: ILs, LTB4, NO, PGE2, cortisol, but not their ratio) and their therapeutic efficiency (symptomatic evaluation).
Article
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive dementia affecting a large proportion of the aging population. The histopathological changes in AD include neuronal cell death and formation of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) NFTs are composed of hyperphosphorylated tau protein, and senile plaques contain aggregates of the β-peptide. There is also evidence that brain tissue in patients with AD is exposed to oxidative stress during the course of the disease. Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs), which are formed by a nonenzymatic reaction of glucose with long-lived protein deposits, are potentially toxic to the cell, are present in brain plaques in AD, and its extracellular accumulation in AD may be caused by an accelerated oxidation of glycated proteins. The microtubuli-associated protein tau is also subject to intracellular AGE formation. AGEs participate in neuronal death causing direct (chemical) radical production: Glycated proteins produce nearly 50-fold more radicals than non-glycated proteins, and indirect (cellular) radical production: Interaction of AGEs with cells increases oxidative stress. During aging cellular defence mechanisms weaken and the damages to cell constituents accumulate leading to loss of function and finally cell death. The development of drugs for the treatment of AD remains at a very unsatisfying state. However, pharmacological approaches which break the vicious cycles of oxidative stress and neurodegeneration offer new opportunities for the treatment of AD. Theses approaches include AGE-inhibitors, antioxidants, and anti-inflammatory substances, which prevent radical production. ACE inhibitors might be able to stop formation of AGE-modified β-amyloid deposits, antioxidants are likely to scavenge intracellular and extracellular superoxide radicals and hydrogen peroxide before these radicals damage cell constituents or activate microglia, and anti-inflammatory drugs attenuating microglial radical and cytokine production.
Article
Olive oil phenolic constituents have been shown, in vitro, to be endowed with potent biological activities including, but not limited to, an antioxidant action. To date, there is no information on the absorption and disposition of such compounds in humans. We report that olive oil phenolics, namely tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol, are dose-dependently absorbed in humans after ingestion and that they are excreted in the urine as glucuronide conjugates. Furthermore, an increase in the dose of phenolics administered increased the proportion of conjugation with glucuronide.
Article
A reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed to determine salidroside and tyrosol simultaneously in the Rhodiola rosea. The optimum condition was Nova-Pak C18 as stationary phase, 6.5% methanol in water as mobile phase and detection at UV 225 nm. The identification was carried out by comparing the retention time and IC/MS spectrum of the relevant peaks with those of isolated standards. The contents of salidroside and tyrosol in the samples gathered from various area in China were ranged over 1.3-11.1 mg/g and 0.3-2.2 mg/g, respectively.
Article
The main purpose of the studies presented in this paper is twofold: 1) to evaluate whether phyto-adaptogens (Acanthopanax senticosus and Rhodiola rosea) are able to exert a protective action against stress-induced death of embryos of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis; and 2) whether a possible protective action by phyto-adaptogens can be explained by the induction of heat shock proteins. Enhancement in resistance by phyto-adaptogens was studied by applying plant extracts for a period of 20 hours to 3-day old larvae of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis. Subsequently they were exposed to a high and toxic dose of different environmental stressors. The following stress conditions were selected: a physical stress condition (heat shock: 43 degrees C for 4 minutes), an oxidative stress condition (superoxide radicals induced by menadione (600 microM for 2 hours)) and heavy metal-induced stress (copper (150 microM for 1 hour) or cadmium (20 microM during 1 hour)). Both Acanthopanax and Rhodiola exert a strong protective action against a lethal heat shock. These adaptogens also significantly protect against the negative effect of superoxide radicals as induced by menadione. With respect to the protective action against exposure to heavy metals a small but significant protection was observed against intoxication with copper or cadmium by the phyto-adaptogens. In summary, there appears to be a difference in efficiency in enhancing resistance to the various stress conditions used (heat shock>menadione>copper>cadmium). Based on the results presented in this paper, we can conclude that phyto-adaptogens are able to enhance the resistance against the different stress conditions tested in developing individuals of Lymnaea. Although the degree to which resistance is enhanced appears to depend on the type of stressor applied, our results confirm the definition of phyto-adaptogens as being universal enhancers of non-specific resistance against different kinds of stress conditions. With respect to the mechanism of enhanced resistance, the question was asked whether this protective action is caused by an induction of heat shock proteins (hsps), which are known to be involved in tolerance and adaptation. The phyto-adaptogens did not induce the synthesis of any of the hsps, nor did they modulate the normal heat shock induced synthesis of these stress proteins. We conclude that it is unlikely that hsps play a major role in obtaining an enhanced state of resistance provided by phyto-adaptogens.
Article
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of repeated low-dose treatment with a standardized extract SHR/5 of rhizome Rhodiola rosea L, (RRE) on fatigue during night duty among a group of 56 young, healthy physicians. The effect was measured as total mental performance calculated as Fatigue Index. The tests chosen reflect an overall level of mental fatigue, involving complex perceptive and cognitive cerebral functions, such as associative thinking, short-term memory, calculation and ability of concentration, and speed of audio-visual perception. These parameters were tested before and after night duty during three periods of two weeks each: a) a test period of one RRE/placebo tablet daily, b) a washout period and c) a third period of one placebo/RRE tablet daily, in a double-blind cross-over trial. The perceptive and cognitive cerebral functions mentioned above were investigated using 5 different tests. A statistically significant improvement in these tests was observed in the treatment group (RRE) during the first two weeks period. No side-effects were reported for either treatment noted. These results suggest that RRE can reduce general fatigue under certain stressful conditions.
Article
Terpenes and aroma volatiles from rhizomes of Rhodiola rosea L. from Norway have been isolated by both steam distillation and headspace solid-phase micro-extraction coupled with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry analysis. The dried rhizomes contained 0.05% essential oil with the main chemical classes: monoterpene hydrocarbons (25.40%), monoterpene alcohols (23.61%) and straight chain aliphatic alcohols (37.54%). n-Decanol (30.38%), geraniol (12.49%) and 1,4-p-menthadien-7-ol (5.10%) were the most abundant volatiles detected in the essential oil, and a total of 86 compounds were identified in both the SD and HS-SPME samples. Geraniol was identified as the most important rose-like odour compound besides geranyl formate, geranyl acetate, benzyl alcohol and phenylethyl alcohol. Floral notes such as linalool and its oxides, nonanal, decanal, nerol and cinnamyl alcohol highlight the flowery scent of rose root rhizomes.
Article
We calculate the quark part of the kernel of the generalized nonforward BFKL equation at non-zero momentum transfer t in the nextto -leading logarithmic approximation. Along with the quark contribution to the gluon Regge trajectory, this part includes pieces coming from the quark-antiquark production and from the quark contribution to the radiative corrections in one-gluon production in the ReggeonReggeon collisions. The results obtained can be used for an arbitrary representation of the colour group in the tGamma channel. Using the results for the adjoint representation, we demonstrate explicitly the fulfillment of the "bootstrap" condition for the gluon Reggeization in the nextto -leading logarithmic approximation in the part concerning the quark contribution. Work supported in part by the Ministero italiano dell'Universit`a e della Ricerca Scientifica e Tecnologica, in part by INTAS and in part by the Russian Fund of Basic Researches. email address: FADIN @INP.NSK.SU email ...
Therapy of asthenic conditions: clinical perspectives of application of Rhodiola rosea extract (golden root) In: Proceedings modern problems in psychopharmacology Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences
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Effect of golden root extract on processes of serotonin synthesis in central nervous system
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Therapy of asthenic conditions: clinical perspectives of application of Rhodiola rosea extract (golden root) In: Proceedings modern problems in psycho-pharmacology
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Effect of Rhodiola rosea extract on ovarian functional ac-tivity. Proc of Scientific Conference on Endocrinology and Gynecology; Sverd-lovsk, Russia
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Gerasimova HD. 1970. Effect of Rhodiola rosea extract on ovarian functional ac-tivity. Proc of Scientific Conference on Endocrinology and Gynecology; Sverd-lovsk, Russia; 1970 Sept 15–6.
Effect of golden root extract on pro-cesses of serotonin synthesis in central nervous system Isolation and chem-ical analysis of individual biologically active constituents of Rhodiola rosea
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Decrease of cyclophosphamide haematotoxici-ty by Rhodiola rosea root extract in mice with Ehrlich and Lewis transplantable tumors Olive oil phenolics are dose dependently absorbed in humans
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Rhodiola rosea is a valuable medicinal plant (Golden Root)
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Saratikov AS, Krasnov EA. 1987. Rhodiola rosea is a valuable medicinal plant (Golden Root). Tomsk, Russia: Tomsk State Univ. Press.
Effect of Rhodiola rosea extract on ovarian functional activity Proc of Scientific Conference on Endocrinology and Gynecology
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Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences
  • Hd Gerasimova