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Environmental Justice: Grassroots Activism and Its Impact on Public Policy Decision Making

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Abstract

A growing body of evidence reveals that people of color and low-income persons have borne greater environmental and health risks than the society at large in their neighborhoods, workplace, and playgrounds. Over the last decade or so, grassroots activists have attempted to change the way government implements environmental, health, and civil rights laws. Grassroots groups have organized, educated, and empowered themselves to improve the way government regulations and environmental policies are administered. A new movement emerged in opposition to environmental racism and environmenttal injustice. Over the last decades or so, grassroots activists have had some success in changing the way the federal government treats communities of color and their inhabitants. Grassroots groups have also organized, educated, and empowered themselves to improve the way health and environmental policies are administered. Environmentalism is now equated with social justice and civil rights.

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... The concept of EJ was first established in the United States in the 1980s and then spread worldwide, although similar environmental concerns had been raised before in Europe [43,44]. Globally, considerable inequities exist in terms of pollution exposure and access to environments that sustain inhabitants' health and well-being [45]. ...
... The difference in EJ research between Europe and the US "relies on a different cultural and legal background of public policy" [46] (p. 1849), as researchers have discovered that environmental justice concerns are correlated with cultural background and the community's awareness of protecting their own rights [43]. EJ studies in Europe are primarily focused on mapping of contaminants and their health impacts on different socioeconomic classes [46]. ...
... It was prevalent in many cities around the country in the early twentieth century, such as issues of unequal housing, partial resource distribution, and biased living environment [7]. There is a long history of grassroots advocacy for EJ in African American [43] and Latinx communities [58]. However, widespread evidence of racial and residential segregation still exists [59]. ...
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Environmental justice advocates that all people are protected from disproportionate impacts of environmental hazards. Despite this ideal aspiration, social and environmental inequalities exist throughout greater Los Angeles. Previous research has identified and mapped pollutant levels, demographic information, and the population’s socioeconomic status and health issues. Nevertheless, the complex interrelationships between these factors remain unclear. To close this knowledge gap, we first measured the spatial centrality using sDNA software. These data were then integrated with other socioeconomic and health data collected from CalEnvironScreen, with census tract as the unit of analysis. Finally, structural equation modeling (SEM) was executed to explore direct, indirect, and total effects among variables. The results show that the White population tends to reside in the more segregated areas and lives closer to green space, contributing to higher housing stability, financial security, and more education attainment. In contrast, people of color, especially Latinx, experience the opposite of the environmental benefits. Spatial centrality exhibits a significant indirect effect on environmental justice by influencing ethnicity composition and pollution levels. Moreover, green space accessibility significantly influences environmental justice via pollution. These findings can assist decision-makers to create a more inclusive society and curtail social segregation for all individuals.
... This definition points directly to the concept of environmental justice. This concerns two aspects of the use of the 'environment' as a source: the socially unequally distributed opportunities to use the environment in any way (environmental benefits), the likewise socially unequal allocation of the costs incurred by its use (environmental costs), but also the allocation of responsibility for causing the environmental problems (Bullard & Johnson, 2000;Montgomery & Chakraborty, 2015). These issues comprise a particularly complex web made up both of environmental and of social aspects with which social workers need to familiarize themselves in their education (Philip & Reisch, 2015). ...
... The concept of sustainable development and of environmental justice are key to many studies (Bento, 2013;Bullard, 2000;Bullard & Johnson, 2000;Chakraborty, 2017;Gould & Lewis, 2017;Green et al., 2013;Mohai & Saha, 2015;Montgomery & Chakraborty, 2015;Reese & Jacob, 2015;Schweitzer & Stephenson, 2007;Walker & Burningham, 2011). The term sustainable development is still unclear and controversial. ...
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The inclusion of the natural environment in the theory, education and practice of social work has increasingly become a matter of interest amongst scholars and social work educators. There is a large and increasing amount of literature on this topic. However, the inclusion of environmental issues in the curricula seems to be evolving very slowly to date. This paper examines 94 social work curricula in four European countries, and notes the presence of environmental issues in their content, by using term categories. Findings show that the natural environment is extremely under-represented in the education of social workers. The paper argues that social work curiccula need to undergo immediate reform on an international level. The discussion section includes suggestions on how the natural environment could be integrated into social work curricula. The first suggestion is to create new subjects with a direct reference to environmental issues and green social work. The second one is to include in existing subjects topics that will draw on environmental sociology and focus on the interconnections between social and environmental problems.
... While MDE does have several recommended stopgaps in place regarding the establishment of new CAFOs, this study suggests that Maryland's chicken industry policy needs to employ an environmental justice lens. Environmental justice-oriented solutions include policy that promotes community empowerment; building infrastructure that supports sustainable communities; enhancing community-based pollution prevention strategies; and creating community-based sustainable development [52]. Essentially, policy solutions should be holistic in their approach to providing protection for environmental justice communities through initiatives that empower communities rather than merely being prescriptive. ...
... Essentially, policy solutions should be holistic in their approach to providing protection for environmental justice communities through initiatives that empower communities rather than merely being prescriptive. Policy that adopts the environmental justice framework also focuses on prevention as opposed to treatment [52]. Therefore, a public health approach to policy that prioritizes the prevention of exposure to the deleterious byproducts of CAFOs and meat processing plants is essential to the regulation of these industries. ...
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Maryland’s growing chicken industry, including concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) and meat processing plants, raises a number of concerns regarding public health and environmental justice. Using hot spot analysis, we analyzed the totality of Maryland’s CAFOs and meat processing plants and those restricted to the Eastern Shore to assess whether communities of color and/or low socioeconomic status communities disproportionately hosted these types of facilities at the census tract level. We used zero-inflated regression modeling to determine the strength of the associations between environmental justice variables and the location of CAFOs and meatpacking facilities at the State level and on the Eastern Shore. Hot spot analyses demonstrated that CAFO hot spots on the Eastern Shore were located in counties with some of the lowest wealth in the State, including the lowest ranking county—Somerset. Zero-inflated regression models demonstrated that increases in median household income across the state were associated with a 0.04-unit reduction in CAFOs. For every unit increase in the percentage of people of color (POC), there was a 0.02-unit increase in meat processing facilities across the state. The distribution of CAFOs and meat processing plants across Maryland may contribute to poor health outcomes in areas affected by such production, and contribute to health disparities and health inequity.
... In this tense atmosphere, subsequent events were followed which increased the visibility and momentum of the environmental justice movement (Mohai et al., 2009). The movement was an attempt to respond to environmental inequalities, threats to public health, unequal protection, differential enforcement of environmental regulations, and disparate treatment received by the poor and people of colour (Bullard and Johnson, 2000). ...
Book
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Contribute to fill the gap in environmental inequalities studies by presenting empirical research that focuses on the Global South. In our view, this gap perpetuates a limited understanding of the relationship between urban greening, unequal and uneven development, and growth, which includes the provision of ecosystem services and social equity.Book that contains 11 articles and an editorial on issues assoiated to Green Gntrification and Environmental Inequalities in Cities in the Global South.
... Developing as a grassroot movement in the USA in the 1980ies (Bullard and Johnson 2000), the concept of environmental justice (EJ) now serves as a framework for understanding and addressing the issue of unequally distributed environmental burdens. The US' Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1998, p. 2) defines it as "[t]he fair treatment and meaningful involvement of all people regardless of race, color, national origin, or income with respect to the development, implementation, and enforcement of environmental laws, regulations, and policies. ...
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The potential of green facades (GFs) to enhance environmental justice (EJ) has not been quantified so far. EJ in Berlin, Germany is assessed by the core indicators (1) noise pollution, (2) air pollution, (3) bioclimatic stress, (4) provision of green space and (5) social status. Most of the inner city is rated "poorly" in one or multiple indicators. Based on literature and spatial data, status quo and target values are determined for indicators (1)-(4) for an exemplary, highly burdened quarter in Berlin. It is assessed if and how much GFs could potentially improve current EJ levels. The improvements due to GFs to reach target values are assessed in % for day/night and indoor/outdoor settings. It can be shown that installing GFs would improve statuses of the four indicators to different extents, with the biggest enhancement found regarding indicator (3) for indoors at daytime: 52%. Determining factors for the EJ improvement potential of GFs need to be further assessed. This feasible method for increasing the amount of urban green can be helpful for improving life in highly burdened quarters. Therefore, from the point of view of EJ, large-scale implementation of GFs in urban areas is recommended.
... IE is also interlinked with environmental justice, meaning that all people are entitled to equal protection by environmental laws and regulation, housing laws, land use, employment, and health (Bullard and Johnson 2000). In the USA, evidence shows that people of colour and low-income communities are more likely to live closer to hazardous waste sites and polluting industrial sites (Hamilton and Bullard 1991). ...
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This paper aims to apply an intersectional environmentalist lens to the circular economy (CE) transition in Flanders. CE discourse often takes a deterritorialised approach, that is, a focus on innovation and growth. This approach tends to neglect local knowledge and background skills that can inhabit and work with landscapes in balanced ways to enable a fully circular society. This knowledge is partly embodied by “nobodied” actors. After introducing relevant terminology, this article draws upon a collaborative autoethnography which integrates autobiographies of authors’ experiences of circularity in projects with “nobodied” CE actors, and ethnographic notes on the Flemish context in which the CE discourse developed. The reflections unearth how a lack of an intersectional environmentalist lens in the CE rhetoric “nobodies” informal CE actors and practices. We show how they do not matter in a circular economy in a deterritorialised approach, but how they matter in a circular landscape view.
... In the specific realm of hazards and technological risks, public opinion, sometimes in the form of activism, has influenced zoning and land use, regulations, and risk mitigation efforts, including instances where municipalities change their hazard mitigation plans to better align with public beliefs (Bullard and Johnson 2000;Pargal and Mani 2000;Linnerooth-Bayer et al. 2016). In addition, "natech" hazards, or technological effects of natural hazards, such as a chemical spill caused by a hurricane, have caused communities to push for, and governments to enact, policies to better prevent such impacts, such as promoting more resilient critical infrastructure that is less susceptible to hazards (Krausmann et al. 2019). ...
Article
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The central USA has experienced an increase in the frequency and magnitude of human-induced earthquakes. The earthquakes are caused by the deep-well injection of water produced from oil and gas development. However, the novelty of these earthquakes and the politicized nature of oil and gas have resulted in competing explanations for their causes, leading to public uncertainty. To determine public beliefs about the causes of the earthquakes and the factors that influence these beliefs, we administered and analyzed a household survey. We found that the more individuals experienced the adverse effects of the earthquakes, the more they agreed that they were caused by the injection of wastewater from oil and gas production. Further, individuals with more positive perceptions of oil and gas industry activity more strongly believed that the earthquakes are caused by nature. These findings show that beliefs around technological, energy-related hazards are shaped by hazard exposure and views about the human activity causing the hazard. Understanding what the public believes to be the cause of the earthquakes is important, as it can impact policy and personal interventions taken to mitigate risk.
... Environmental justice is the fair treatment and meaningful involvement of all people in the development, implementation, and enforcement of policies and practices determining the distribution of environmental resources and burdens. The environmental justice movement, primarily led by communities targeted for marginalization, has battled discriminatory policies and practices that amplify climate change-related health disparities [82][83][84][85] and increase risk of exposure to other hazards. As behavioral medicine professionals, we must partner across communities and disciplines to generate evidence needed for legislative action and advocate for meaningful policy changes nationally and locally (including at our own institutions). ...
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Climate change is the greatest threat to global health in human history. It has been declared a public health emergency by the World Health Organization and leading researchers from academic institutions around the globe. Structural racism disproportionately exposes communities targeted for marginalization to the harmful consequences of climate change through greater risk of exposure and sensitivity to climate hazards and less adaptive capacity to the health threats of climate change. Given its interdisciplinary approach to integrating behavioral, psychosocial, and biomedical knowledge, the discipline of behavioral medicine is uniquely qualified to address the systemic causes of climate change-related health inequities and can offer a perspective that is currently missing from many climate and health equity efforts. In this article, we summarize relevant concepts, describe how climate change and structural racism intersect to exacerbate health inequities, and recommend six strategies with the greatest potential for addressing climate-related health inequities.
... Addressing inequality is important as many minority-concentrated communities encompass elevated levels of vulnerability. They are more likely to be exposed to environmental risks and hazards, and experience negative health outcomes (Bullard and Johnson 2009). Residents with reduced greenspace access are impacted by airborne pollution, degraded water quality, and high utility costs (Rahman and Zhang 2018). ...
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Greenspaces are integral components of communities and provide numerous benefits. However, human development threatens these spaces, particularly in communities of color where histories of racial injustice persist and environmental vulnerabilities remain. A step towards preventing the loss of important cultural greenspaces is documenting knowledge and experience. This research employed community-based participatory techniques to study the relationship between the landscape and African-Canadian communities around Preston, Nova Scotia, the oldest and largest in Canada. Community-directed meetings created collaborative-based knowledge about perceptions surrounding land use change while identifying valued greenspaces. This paper studies the relationships between the community’s greenspaces and the benefits to psychological, social, and physical aspects of human wellbeing. This relationship is operationalized through the use of a public participation geographic information system (PPGIS), SoftGIS, which activates the greenspace–human wellbeing relationship through interaction and its map-based survey data collection. Results indicate residents predominately visited greenspaces near a church or community center for social wellbeing benefits to interact with neighbors and friends, to cookout, or to bring children outside. This research contributes to a greater understanding of the Preston area’s greenspace identification and qualification, resident behavior, and cultural perspectives to inform strategies and goals for engaging government agencies surrounding policy and land use planning. This research illustrates frameworks for improving building capacity and promoting racial equity within the urbanization process in other communities.
... Much like the field of energy justice itself, research that initially combined both activism and justice-oriented analyses in relation to energy deployment emerged out of the environmental justice field (Bullard & Johnson 2000;Cole & Foster 2001). In addition, a lot of this research focuses more heavily on case studies and empirics drawn from the United States (Bullard 1993;Cole & Foster 2001;Walker 2012), in a late twentieth century era in which low-carbon transitions received less policy attention and where low-carbon technologies were less widespread. ...
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“Residents Against Dirty Energy” (RADE) are a community-led energy activist group in Bristol city, UK. Since their inception, they have effectively lobbied the city council for the deployment of battery storage units in place of diesel generators in Lockleaze, north Bristol. As a result, Lockleaze now hosts battery storage facilities with 15MW of storage capacity able to store excess energy from the grid. Drawing on a focus group (n = 8) with local energy actors in Bristol and in-depth interviews (n = 2) with RADE, alongside document analysis of key secondary data sources, the paper uses three tenets of energy justice (distributional, recognition and procedural justice) to shed light on the role of local energy activism in shaping low-carbon energy infrastructures. The qualitative data reveals RADE’s efforts to ensure that local communities are closely involved in energy decision-making, to ensure that the siting of new energy technologies does not burden marginalised communities. However, questions around distributional-economic benefits and ownership are secondary to RADE; their primary concern is with the improvement of local air quality and reducing harm to the local population and environment. These issues connect strongly to Bristol’s divided landscape, underpinned by an unequal geography of socio-economic division and racial inequality. As such, the paper sees the further integration of “spatial justice” as a core tenet of energy justice as necessary to enhancing its explanatory power, concluding with a call for scholars and policymakers to further consider the visions and efforts of local and civil society energy activists in shaping just transitions.
... Both individual behaviors and decision-making, which are in turn strongly affected by formal and informal power structures, influence our capacity to tackle UPF. For example, building community capacities against UPF crucially hinges on capturing how different socio-environmental resources (like urban infrastructure) and the ability to mobilize actions shape both the likelihood of UPF occurring in particular locations (Bullard and Johnson, 2000) as well as the likely range of interventions (Cutter, 2006;Checker, 2011). This can happen by involving residents at all stages of the problem (from definition to management) and providing opportunities to increase stakeholders' knowledge about UPF. ...
Article
Urban pluvial flooding (UPF) resulting from localized, intense, rainfall-generated ponding and overland flow causes a range of socio-environmental impacts. UPF is driven by a complex set of interconnected factors, including physical, historical, social, cultural, institutional, and economic conditions. Its impacts are increasing due to both biophysical change (e.g., global warming) and the interactions between the human and physical dimensions of the urban environment (e.g., land-use change). Notwithstanding its complexity and the rather low level of attention it has received in both research and practice, UPF is an issue that needs to be tackled from a comprehensive perspective. Different integrated approaches such as citizen science and socio-hydrology have tried to address UPF by coupling humans and environmental systems, reflecting the possible outcomes from the interaction between disciplines—albeit not without limitations. This paper presents findings on a review of current integrated community-based approaches to UPF research and discusses how scholars have approached this problem and its management. The limitations of these approaches to fully capture the multi-dimensional nature of UPF are explored in detail, and research gaps are identified. Finally, the paper provides suggestions for future research based on a transdisciplinary, transformative citizen science approach.
... Il faut distinguer l'iniquité environnementale de l'injustice environnementale. En effet, l'iniquité environnement décrit une situation de fait avec un partage inégal du fardeau environnemental alors que l'injustice environnemental implique des actions correctives afin de tendre vers un traitement juste et équitable des individus (Cutter, 1995;Bullard et Johnson, 2000). ...
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By the middle of the 21st century, ambient air pollution will be responsible for premature death every five seconds, mainly in urban areas (OCDE, 2016a). According to the WHO, air pollution attributable to particulate matter is responsible for nearly 7 million premature deaths a year, of which 4.2 million for outdoor pollution and 2.6 million for indoor pollution. Air pollution has been identified as a priority in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) because of the burden that it poses on human health. In a context marked by the explosion of world demography and the acceleration of rural-urban migration, especially in emerging and developing countries, urban populations are subject to economic, environmental and health tensions, especially among the most vulnerable populations (the youngest and the oldest) and low-income socioeconomic status. Our initial assumption emphasizes the role of urban morphology in urban air quality, influencing the ’chain of transmission’ of air pollution from emission sources, to environmental concentrations, up to the exposure of urban populations. Thus, our work takes place in a specific context of relative inefficiency of air pollution control policies, despite a tightening of environmental regulations which has allowed pollutant concentrations to be lowered without reducing the exposure of air pollutants for people (HEI, 2018). Through this study, we sought to better understand the impacts of urban form on air pollution and on human health, of which particulate matters (PM2.5) are the main culprits, with economic, environmental and health consequences particularly heavy for the populations of the metropolises. For this, we first presented the main stylized facts of air pollution, urban form and health impacts. We focused on two-way interactions between air pollution and greenhouse gases responsible for climate change. We also discussed issues of equity and social and environmental justice regarding the spatial distribution of air pollution, with low-income populations overexposed to air pollution, facing cumulative risk factors and to an environmental poverty trap risk. Then, we highlight joint strategies for multipollutant management of air and climate change, at the level of the urban area. Finally, we carried out an assessment of the burden of air pollution and the economic cost involved for a set of cities belonging to OECD member countries. In order to study the effects of urban morphology, socio-economic inequalities or the economic performance of cities on the exposure of urban populations, we carried out an empirical study of 26 cities belonging to the member countries of the OECD over the period 2000-2014, with a pooled linear regression model and an individual and temporal fixed effects model (within). To settle the debate on compactness / urban sprawl duality, we obtained that the population density is associated with an increase in exposure to PM2.5 ambient pollution. The results for polycentricity show an inverse relationship with PM2.5 exposure, which seems to confirm our assumption that polycentricity could be a sustainable urban configuration favorable to the environment (reduction of pollutant concentration), the economy (economic efficiency linked to a certain degree of urban compactness) and human health (decrease in exposure). Our model also allowed us to estimate the burden of air pollution for these 26 cities in OECD countries with nearly 34,000 premature deaths per year for a total population of 115 million and an economic cost estimated about nearly $ 135 billion in constant 2010 dollars a year. Therefore, with more than 95% of the world’s population living in areas with a concentration of particulate matter (PM2.5) that exceeds the WHO guidelines (HEI, 2018), the ’clean air’ challenge is therefore more than ever one of the most important environmental challenges of the 21st century, including in developed countries.
... Исследования показывают, что объективное ухудшение экологических условий жизни не обязательно приводит к экологической озабоченности. По оценке R. D. Bullard и G. C. Jonson (2000), хотя экологические угрозы в США самые высокие для «черного населения», экологическая озабоченность у этих американцев -самая низкая [278]. В обзоре R. Chan и L. Lau (2000) отмечается, что быстрое ухудшение экологической ситуации в Китае не вызывает экологического беспокойства у граждан, т. к. для них более значимыми являются выгоды экономического роста [283]. ...
Book
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The monograph highlights the psychological aspects of anthropogenic environmental change. The analysis of the value and worldview aspects of the anthropogenic ecological crisis is carried out. For the first time in Russian-language scientific literature, an extensive review of psychological studies of the problem of global environmental change, conducted by foreign psychologists over the past 40 years, is given. The main theoretical approaches developed by leading experts in the field of conservation psychology are considered. The results of the author's empirical research focused on the problem of meaning regulation of environmentally relevant behavior are presented. The monograph also discusses the psychological aspects of social interventions in the direction of the formation of environmentally responsible behavior, and examines the problems of social and environmental marketing and environmental education. В монографии освещаются психологические аспекты антропогенных экологических изменений. Проводится анализ ценностных и мировоззренческих аспектов антропогенного экологического кризиса. Впервые в отечественной научной литературе проводится обширный обзор психологических исследований по проблеме глобальных изменений, выполненных зарубежными психологами за последние 40 лет; рассматриваются основные теоретические подходы, разработанные ведущими специалистами в области психологии экосохранения. Приводятся результаты авторских эмпирических исследований, сосредоточенных вокруг проблемы смысловой регуляции экологически релевантного поведения. Также в монографии обсуждаются психологические аспекты социальных интервенций в направлении формирования экологически ответственного поведения, рассматриваются проблемы социально-экологического маркетинга и экологического просвещения.
... Environmental justice emerged as a theme in the United States in the 1980s as result of grassroots activism of some African American communities fighting against the unfair association between race and poverty and the uneven spatial distribution of waste and industrial sites producing pollution (Bullard and Johnson 2000). The applications of environmental justice have been broadened over the years to a wide variety of environmental themes including their relationship with public health. ...
Chapter
This book examines the relationship between environmental justice and citizen science, focusing on enduring issues and new challenges in a post-truth age. Debates over science, facts, and values have always been pivotal within environmental justice struggles. For decades, environmental justice activists have campaigned against the misuses of science, while at the same time engaging in community-led citizen science. However, post-truth politics has threatened science itself. This book makes the case for the importance of science, knowledge, and data that are produced by and for ordinary people living with environmental risks and hazards. The international, interdisciplinary contributions range from grassroots environmental justice struggles in American hog country and contaminated indigenous communities, to local environmental controversies in Spain and China, to questions about “knowledge justice,” citizenship, participation, and data in citizen science surrounding toxicity. The book features inspiring studies of community-based participatory environmental health and justice research; different ways of sensing, witnessing, and interpreting environmental injustice; political strategies for seeking environmental justice; and ways of expanding the concepts and forms of engagement of citizen science around the world. While the book will be of critical interest to specialists in social and environmental sciences, it will also be accessible to graduate and postgraduate audiences. More broadly, the book will appeal to members of the public interested in social justice issues, as well as community members who are thinking about participating in citizen science and activism. Toxic Truths includes distinguished contributing authors in the field of environmental justice, alongside cutting-edge research from emerging scholars and community activists.
... Energy justice draws from environmental justice by acknowledging the uneven and inequitable distribution of environmental effects, such as pollution and climate change (Bullard and Johnson, 2002;Agyeman, Bullard and Evans, 2002). Taking this idea further, energy justice scholarship supports a targeted systems focus, which is better oriented for policy uptake and real-world impact (Jenkins, 2018). ...
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This book analyses the potential for active stakeholder engagement in the energy transition in the Baltic Sea Region (BSR) in order to foster clean energy deployment. Public acceptability and bottom-up activities can be critical for enduring outcomes to an energy transition. As a result, it is vital to understand how to unlock the potential for public, community and prosumer participation to facilitate renewable energy deployment and a clean energy transition – and, consequently, to examine the factors influencing social acceptability. Focussing on the diverse BSR, this book draws on expert contributions to consider a range of different topics, including the challenges of social acceptance and its policy implications; strategies to address challenges of acceptability among stakeholders; and community engagement in clean energy production. Overall, the authors examine the practical implications of current policy measures and provide recommendations on how lessons learnt from this ‘energy lab region’ may be applied to other regions. Reflecting an interdisciplinary approach in the social sciences, this book is an essential resource for scholars, students and policymakers researching and working in the areas of renewable energy, energy policy and citizen engagement, and interested in understanding the potential for bottom-up, grassroots activities and social acceptability to expedite the energy transition and reanimate democracies.
... Energy justice draws from environmental justice by acknowledging the uneven and inequitable distribution of environmental effects, such as pollution and climate change (Bullard and Johnson, 2002;Agyeman, Bullard and Evans, 2002). Taking this idea further, energy justice scholarship supports a targeted systems focus, which is better oriented for policy uptake and real-world impact (Jenkins, 2018). ...
... However, the movements surrounding these grievances also regularly voiced procedural and representational concerns (Bullard and Johnson, 2000;Cole and Foster, 2001). In areas of the Global South where environmental injustices have been historically linked to land ownership and access to natural resources, issues of participation and recognition have been particularly acute (Guha and Martínez Alier, 1997). ...
Article
The concept of planetary justice has received increasing attention within the field of earth systems governance. Although a significant epistemic shift, planetary justice discussions have primarily focused on western and (re)distributive notions of justice. By doing so, planetary justice is depriving current debates of crucial dimensions of what justice has meant for different communities and organisations. These trajectories spanning the realms of social activism, research, and institutional change have historically called for more than (re)distributional approaches to justice. We argue that recentring procedural, epistemic, and recognition-based notions of justice is critical in addressing the challenges of planetary justice in both research and practice of earth systems governance. Pluralising Planetary Justice (PPJ) requires a series of epistemic shifts in the way we research and practice the governance of environmental inequalities. These shifts demand attention to the links and gaps between justice movements and scholarship beyond the industrialised North. They also require scaling debates within climate justice and developmental ethics regarding peoples’ abilities to achieve well-being and the challenges of public deliberation across spatio-temporal scales. Finally, these shifts need to recognise long-lasting processes of epistemic colonialism and integrate intersectional, multispecies, intergenerational, and non-western notions of justice. We argue procedural, epistemic, and recognition-based justice are essential guiding principles and empirical standpoints to developing pluriversal and multiscale human-earth governance systems. Without appealing to procedural, recognition, and epistemic concerns, planetary justice cannot meaningfully engage with the necessary agents and trajectories or outline the normative ends to which it aims to advance in earth systems governance.
... industries) as sources of burdens or bads (Kramarz, 2022;Sahani et al., 2019). Advocates have evidenced that ethnicity and socioeconomic status still significantly influence exposure to these risks and that even if they distress all citizens, specific communities, such as those living in poverty or lousy quality housing, are more in danger because of their limited means to respond during impacts (Althor & Witt, 2020;Chakraborty et al., 2020;Maantay & Maroko, 2009) Others have claimed that due to systemic and institutional racism, ethnic and racial minorities are also constrained to live closer to Locally Unwanted Land Uses (LULUs), such as toxic waste facilities, dumps and industries that pose significant environmental and health impacts (Bullard & Johnson, 2000). ...
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Environmental justice (EJ) raises concerns about just allocating environmental harms and goods. It has been mainly analysed from a distributive lens through indicators and screening tools that have underlined communities' proximity to pollution and risk sources. However, for urban areas, existing gaps relate to the need for more comprehensive assessments of green space benefits distribution (e.g., flood mitigation, air pollution control and recreation, etc.) as well as aligning EJ indicators to local planning and policy efforts for simultaneously addressing planning issues and reinforce the evaluation of existing unjust realities. To address these issues, we developed a composite distributive environmental justice index (DEJI) structured into three sub-indices that reflect locally relevant patterns of environmental risks, disadvantaged communities, and the provision of green space benefits. The construction of this index also relies on a qualitative content analysis of planning and policy documents to contextualise EJ priorities relevant to the planning administration, and a detailed methodological rationale for composite indicator building. Applying the DEJI in Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain) at the census tract level, we identified a complex city-wide pattern of distributive injustices driven by the historical segregation patterns of insular contexts. Based on our results, we discuss how using the DEJI could help planning and policymakers reach specific goals, including those related to enhancing greening interventions in urban areas. Moreover, we argue that EJ composite indicators are needed to support environmentally just trajectories in cities with realities and planning patterns different from those found in mainland territories.
... Our findings can inform national action [e.g., implementation of the Biden-Harris Administration's Justice40 Initiative (60,61)] and emerging state and local environmental justice laws to identify overburdened communities and develop community emission-reduction plans (62)(63)(64). Our study supports the longstanding request from environmental justice communities and local organizations for location-specific solutions that center overburdened communities (11,(65)(66)(67)(68). Our results also support putting in safeguards to address the potential for pollution trading (e.g., greenhouse gas-focused cap-and-trade) to exacerbate pollution inequities, especially for already overburdened communities (69)(70)(71). ...
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Air pollution levels in the United States have decreased dramatically over the past decades, yet national racial-ethnic exposure disparities persist. For ambient fine particulate matter ( PM 2.5 ), we investigate three emission-reduction approaches and compare their optimal ability to address two goals: 1) reduce the overall population average exposure (“overall average”) and 2) reduce the difference in the average exposure for the most exposed racial-ethnic group versus for the overall population (“national inequalities”). We show that national inequalities in exposure can be eliminated with minor emission reductions (optimal: ~1% of total emissions) if they target specific locations. In contrast, achieving that outcome using existing regulatory strategies would require eliminating essentially all emissions (if targeting specific economic sectors) or is not possible (if requiring urban regions to meet concentration standards). Lastly, we do not find a trade-off between the two goals (i.e., reducing overall average and reducing national inequalities); rather, the approach that does the best for reducing national inequalities (i.e., location-specific strategies) also does as well as or better than the other two approaches (i.e., sector-specific and meeting concentration standards) for reducing overall averages. Overall, our findings suggest that incorporating location-specific emissions reductions into the US air quality regulatory framework 1) is crucial for eliminating long-standing national average exposure disparities by race-ethnicity and 2) can benefit overall average exposures as much as or more than the sector-specific and concentration-standards approaches.
... Recent reviews by Amenta and Caren (2004), Amenta et al. (2010), and della Porta and Diani (2007), for example, have identified additional types of potential political impacts, including changes to the structure or procedures of the polity (e.g., granting the protesting group new or continuing voice in political discussions or institutions), changes to public conceptions of democracy, changes to public engagement patterns in politics, and changes to public policy (e.g., new laws or regulations). Among these, changes to public policy has been the dominant focus of recent scholarship (e.g., Bullard & Johnson, 2000;Burstein et al., 1995;Skrentny, 2006), but even here, some scholars have argued that policy impacts themselves can be multifarious and variegated, reflecting the complex nature of policymaking. In this way, scholars like Amenta and Young (1999), Andrews and Edwards (2004), Baumgartner and Mahoney (2005), and Schumaker (1975) suggest that social movements could affect stages of policymaking like agenda setting, legislative content, enactment, and implementation, and they contend that by focusing exclusively on policy outputs (i.e., enacted legislation), we are missing potentially important impacts of social movements. ...
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Grassroots activism is on the rise in American education, leading some scholars to announce the arrival of a “New Politics of Education” in which political elites and grassroots actors clash over foundational questions of policy and power. However, little research has examined just how consequential grassroots education activism might actually be in this new era. This study takes up this area of inquiry by examining the political consequences of the opt-out movement, arguably the largest and most high-profile grassroots education movement in recent history.
... Improved communication has two major facets, as information must flow both to and from Maya communities. With regard to the first, the people affected by the pollution need accurate and up-todate information about the science to make informed decisions about their health and behavior, both key aspects of environmental and cultural justice (Bullard and Johnson 2002;Jamal et al. 2010). Unfortunately, the antithesis has happened over the past decade for many Maya communities surrounding the lake. ...
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Income inequality and environmental degradation are two growing threats that received significant attention from the international community at the onset of the twenty-first century. While growing concerns about income inequality have become dominant in science, policy, and society since the 1980s, environmental deterioration has been significantly accelerating since the 1950s in most countries worldwide. In this regard, the question of whether these two crises are linked becomes highly important from the environmental policy perspective as the balance of power between the poor and the rich determines the level of environmental degradation. However, despite many different theoretical and empirical studies, a clear consensus regarding the relationship between these two challenges has not yet been reached. The main objective of this chapter is to review and discuss the theoretical and empirical explanations linking income inequality and environmental deterioration by addressing some key issues. To this end, we seek to answer the following questions: how does the distribution of income affect the environment? Does environmental quality have an impact on income inequality? How should environmental policies be designed to tackle both of these challenges?
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Faced with current and future climate risks, cities are increasingly adopting resilience plans. These comprehensive plans reference a systems-wide approach to planning. Resilience plans are typically conceived of and generated at the municipal level, making an examination of the ways in which they scale down when applied to the diverse and situated experiences of specific neighborhoods within the city critical. The urban can be understood as a system, or set of relations, that transcends individual neighborhoods. The urban is also constituted by a number of discrete and diverse communities that challenge a singular understanding of climate justice. Indeed, climate justice recognizes existing, historic, and systemic inequalities in order to avoid exacerbating climate risks in vulnerable communities. Building on this framework, I focus on how one community takes on, challenges, and appropriates the principles and strategies outlined in its city’s resilience plan and argue for resilience planning that is situated and embedded. Through research on the Watts community of South Los Angeles, I examine how resilience planning strategies, frameworks, and goals are adopted, implemented, and contested at the finer scale of the neighborhood and discuss the implications of this study for climate justice.
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Book
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The world is facing an unprecedented climate and environmental emergency. Scientists have identified human activity as primarily responsible for the climate crisis, which together with rampant environmental pollution, and the unbridled activities of the extractive and agricultural industries, pose a direct threat to the sustainability of life on this planet. This edition of Global Information Society Watch (GISWatch) seeks to understand the constructive role that technology can play in confronting the crises. It disrupts the normative understanding of technology being an easy panacea to the planet’s environmental challenges and suggests that a nuanced and contextual use of technology is necessary for real sustainability to be achieved. A series of thematic reports frame different aspects of the relationship between digital technology and environmental sustainability from a human rights and social justice perspective, while 46 country and regional reports explore the diverse frontiers where technology meets the needs of both the environment and communities, and where technology itself becomes a challenge to a sustainable future.
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Disparities in drinking water quality pose harm to public health across the United States. Yet, few studies have systematically analyzed disproportionate exposure to impaired drinking water. This study sheds light on disparities in health‐based drinking water violations and the shortcomings of regulatory assessment that only considers equity in terms of variation in compliance across system size. We examine the relationship between health‐based violations, utility size, and socioeconomic factors, using probit regression and a balanced panel dataset of 1693 community water systems in California from 2000 to 2018. Demographics of water systems are developed using areal weighting. We find evidence of water equity concerns. Violation rates are several times higher at systems serving low‐income areas and communities of color. These disparities are present even in models stratified by size of service population. Our findings highlight that equity in environmental regulation could be improved by considering factors beyond system scale.
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Off-grid solar technologies, that is those solar energy technologies which function outside the centralized grid such as lanterns, pico-systems, solar home systems, micro- or mini-grids, are increasingly being used in Africa to help reduce the electricity access gap as well as deal with the limitations of the national grid. After over a decade of the growth of the off-grid solar sector in the continent, the time is ripe to take stock of the sector. This book does so by examining how political, economic, institutional, and social forces shape the adoption of off-grid solar technologies in Africa, including how injustices linked to off-grid solar electrification are manifested at different levels and spaces. Opening the edited volume, this chapter begins by giving context of energy access in the continent. This is followed by a conceptualization of energy justice, which draws on Western and non-Western perspectives. I then show how different chapters contribute to the purpose of this volume in three parts: history and politics of off-grid solar electrification, manifestations of energy injustices, and enabling uptake. Based on discussions in the various chapters, I position the book as one that contributes to the off-grid solar and energy justice scholarship in low-income non-western contexts.
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ABSTRACT It is usually believed that the role of international NGOs is meant to reinforce environmental justice all over the world. However, it is not the case with the Environmental Justice Organizations Liabilities and Trade’s (EJOLT), whose approach seems distorting the real picture in the Moroccan Sahara. Against the expectations and principles of environmental justice, the EJOLT has targeted many achievements made in the region in the area of economic and social development. From its perspective, the exploitation of the region’ resources is an environmental justice issue given the fact that the Polisario front – an armed militia that has been fighting Morocco over the territories for more than 45 years – has not been consulted about the extraction and trade of such resources. To argue for this position, the EJOLT preferred taking a pro-Polisario disinvestment stand in the region claiming that environmental justice should prevail, making a separatist movement benefit from the disputed resources. In the same vein, EJOLT uses a political discourse which considers that the exploitation of the region’ resources is a ‘reinforcement of the occupation by Morocco’. To demystify such a discourse, this chapter examines the EJOLT’s homepage and extracts its narratives using the content analysis (CA) method. The first investigation revealed that there are six infrastructures targeted by the EJOLT. The analysis also revealed that the EJOLT uses a biased discourse – mostly distorted and defamatory – that failed to provide the real picture of the population in the region. Moreover, the EJOLT argues that the Polisario militia which lives in the Algerian territory, NOT the Moroccan population living in the Moroccan Sahara provinces, must benefit from the existing resources. Similarly, the rhetoric used in the narratives has failed to recognize that one million inhabitants inside the Moroccan Sahara have been directly benefiting from the many projects developed in the region. Equally important, the results show that EJOLT’s discourse aims at triggering violence, insecurity, and instability in the region, thus serving potential interested agendas.
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In 2019, news of the opening of a waste incinerator sparked a socio-environmental controversy in a village in the Pyrenees in Catalonia (Spain). With the aim of influencing local public policies and taking part in the decision making around the project, a group of neighbors formed a citizen platform called the Cercs Anti-incineration Platform (PAIC). In this case study, we present the strategies that the activists followed to become an influential actor in local and regional politics. We describe how a group of citizens became a translocal assemblage and what obstacles were encountered with interaction and administrations. Finally, we highlight the need to broaden the concept of public participation within administrations.
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Social work responses to environmental degradation have sought to mitigate harm that has already occurred and create strategies to respond or adapt to environmental hazards. Despite a good deal of literature suggesting the promise of prevention-focused models, social workers have less frequently considered preven- tion models to address environmental issues. In this manuscript, we consider how communities engaged in environmentally-based prevention work might inform the development of ecosocial work practice. We describe how a prevention-focused agenda, in partnership with communities, can be a promising avenue for ecosocial work practice to address the root causes of environmental degradation and its social impacts.
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This chapter focuses on the use of protests and the potential of reliance on litigation in improving access to environmental justice for women, particularly in the rural parts of the Niger Delta region, where there are significant environmental impacts from the operations of the oil and gas industry.
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The economy is not circular, it is increasingly entropic. Energy from the photosynthesis of the distant past, fossil fuels, is burned and dissipated. Even without further economic growth the industrial economy would need new supplies of energy and materials extracted from the “commodity frontiers”, producing also more waste (including excessive amounts of greenhouse gases). Therefore, new ecological distribution conflicts (EDC) arise all the time. Such EDCs are often “valuation contests” displaying incommensurable plural values. Examples from the Atlas of Environmental Justice are given of coal, oil and gas-related conflicts in several countries combining local and global complaints. Claims for climate justice and recognition of an ecological debt have been put forward by environmentalists from the South since 1991, together with a strategy of leaving fossil fuels underground (LFFU) through bottom-up movements. This could make a substantial contribution to the decrease in carbon dioxide emissions.
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Ecologists increasingly work with people from other fields, in which scholars, practitioners, and activists often pluralize: “ecologies.” By contrast, biophysical ecologists use the singular. Specialists beyond ecological science may avoid the singular because it evokes environmental determinism, lack of human agency, and disrespect for ways of knowing beyond science. Some social analysts consider biophysical ecology itself to be but one way of knowing, which embodies social positioning and uneven power relations. For their part, ecologists often ignore discussions featuring the term “ecologies” as unrelated to their work. The authors—one anthropologist and two biophysical ecologists—wish to facilitate social–ecological interaction by evaluating the conceptual content of the plural versus singular contrast. We suggest there are fundamental differences between ecology in the singular and plural. We examine these differences by showing that the singular and the plural within ecological science differ in specificity versus generality. In the view of social critiques, however, the conflict reflects political power differentials and social position of science. We explore whether there are productive parallels between these contrasting implications of the singular versus plural. Social criticisms of singular ecology include lack of system openness, open‐ended dynamics, contingent pathways of change, and human agency in ecological processes. We find value in these critiques and have grappled with these issues ourselves. We find that contemporary ecology often employs concepts amenable to those in social critiques. This finding demonstrates why ecologists should not be so quick to dismiss plural ecology as a meaningful phrase. We show that concerns of the social critiques embodied in the plural term parallel ecology's use of (1) multiple models to understand a topic, (2) multifaceted, scalable concepts, and (3) nested dialog between generality and specificity. We conclude that the use of the plural and singular actually share a conceptual foundation that can facilitate interdisciplinary integration and scholarship. Furthermore, the emerging awareness by ecologists of the concerns about the politics of power in science and its use may improve the ability of ecologists not only to interact with social scientists but also to better engage with social movements and environmental justice.
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Civic-science integrates science knowledge with civic practice but differs from the citizen-science prototype by reframing science as a public good and citizens as both recipients of and actors in policy. We draw from our studies of a civic-science model in which adolescents (majority African-American) collaborate with teachers and community partners to mitigate an environmental problem in their urban community. Based on students’ reflections on what they learn from these projects we have developed Environmental Commons theory, referring both to the natural resources on which life depends and the public spaces where people negotiate how they will care for those resources and for the communities they inhabit. We contend that, to solve twenty-first century environmental and climate challenges, it is myopic to rely on elite groups of scientific experts and policymakers. Instead, a civic science skill set should be part of the preparation of younger generations to be informed citizens and youth from urban ethnic minority communities should be a high priority. From an eco-justice standpoint, these groups bear a disproportionate share of the burdens of environmental pollution and climate change yet historically have been marginalized by the institution of science and, until recently, relatively neglected by environmental movements.
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Assessment of environmental justice (EJ, a concept related to the distributional fairness of environmental risks) is a crucial component in environmental risk management. However, the risks associated with air pollutants and toxins have rarely been evaluated jointly. Therefore, using an approach integrating modeling, data fusion, and health benefits analysis, we performed an EJ assessment on the mortalities caused by fine particle (PM2.5) and ozone (O3) concentrations and mercury (Hg) deposition over the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region. The concentration index (CI) was used to measure EJ in low-income distributions and age structures, and a larger value implied a greater EJ issue. The results revealed that the CIs of PM2.5, O3, and Hg were 0.35, 0.32, and 0.16, respectively, based on the percentage of the low-income population, and 0.39, 0.36, and 0.23, respectively, based on the elderly and children, indicating that environmental injustice was more prominent for PM2.5 and more reflected in the elderly and children. The center (e.g., Guangzhou) and some marginal areas (e.g., northeast of Jiangmen) in the PRD were overburdened areas with PM2.5, O3, and Hg pollution due to their intensive source emissions. Moreover, cumulative environmental risk (CER) corrected by population vulnerability exhibited significant differences among the cities; for example, cumulative environmental risk scores (CERSs) in Jiangmen, Huizhou, and Zhaoqing were 14.18 to 32.98 times higher than that in Shenzhen. Hence, the implementation of multipollutant control policies for local PM2.5, O3, and Hg in overburdened areas is recommended to further promote EJ in the PRD.
Article
Despite research showing that public beliefs about the distribution of resources in society is a crucial factor in the reproduction of inequality, we do not know what Americans believe about environmental inequality or what factors structure those beliefs. Results of a novel national survey (n = 1000) show that Americans poorly understand environmental inequality, often view inequalities as fair, and are only marginally supportive of a range of key policy tools. Regression analyses reveal that the dominant factor explaining Americans’ views of environmental inequality is what I term color-blind environmental racism. Color-blind environmental racism refers to a specific manifestation of color-blind racial ideology, wherein belief in a post-racial society obfuscates and justifies environmental racism and reduces support for policy solutions. Given the pervasiveness of color-blind environmental racism in the American mind, it is likely a substantial cultural barrier facing the environmental justice movement, from local siting disputes to the passage of federal policy. Future research should build on this study to further explore the roles of public opinion and color-blind environmental racism as barriers to achieving environmental justice.
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In this chapter, we explain the role of environmental justice principles in people’s motivation to engage in sustainable behaviour. Subsequently, these principles are placed in the larger framework of Value-Belief-Norm-theory. We argue that these motivational accounts of sustainable behaviour fall short in explaining people’s decisions to engage in sustainable behaviour. First, besides motivation, people’s capabilities and opportunities may influence such behaviours, creating social inequality in sustainability transitions. We illustrate this with a case study on Dutch social housing residents’ attitudes toward a sustainable building renovation. Second, some people may be sceptical about climate change, which could also inhibit sustainable behaviour. Taken together, this chapter raises multiple questions regarding solidarity and social justice that warrant further discussion in the transition to more sustainable societies.
Article
Indigenous peoples around the world tend to be disproportionately affected by resource extraction activities having access to fewer technical, legal and other resources to participate effectively in the decision-making process. Taking a resistance movement concerning the Phulbari Coal Project in Bangladesh, through qualitative research, this paper examines how Indigenous peoples frame their claims in a mining conflict situation. The Phulbari resistance movement took place more than a decade ago in Bangladesh, however, local Indigenous peoples, Bangalee farming communities, and activists still bear the spirit of the movement. As such, this study seeks to test the claims of how the Indigenous and farming communities, and the actions of national and transnational environmental justice organisations in the Phulbari resistance movement form part of an environmental justice movement. The paper argues that various components of Indigenous resistance and claims may contribute to the overall goals of the environment justice movement against powerful transnational corporations in the global South.
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The introduction touches upon the deliverables of psychology for the development of contemporary society. It commences the deliberation with the emphasis on human happiness. Vouching for the all-time contribution of psychology, the chapter suggests for augmentation of deliverables corroborating with the change in need patterns of the human being in different behavioural contexts. The four contexts as expounded in this volume, namely—identity and relationship, community, employment and culture—have been emphasized in this introductory description.KeywordsDeliverablesDevelopmentHappinessRelationshipCommunityEmploymentCulture
Article
Communities affected by contaminated sites are often overburdened by environmental and social fragilities living a depression in their potentialities and destabilisation in health and quality of life. The paradigm of Environmental Justice and the framework of community capacity are at stake in promoting environmental public health in communities affected by contaminated sites. Three community changes foreseeing the following objectives appear as priorities: centralisation in decisions regarding the use of their territories; an active (i.e. participated) role in decision-making processes; a view of a possible future without contamination. These transitions require the activation of technical, scientific, and cultural domains. While environmental public health research, especially if implemented through a community participative approach, has a central role in promoting the community capacity of ‘knowledge’, performing arts have great potential for empowering the other capacities. Different collective theatrical approaches are reviewed and analysed in the cultural domain, identifying those of community theatre as the practices with the greatest participative and transformative impact. A community-based approach for promoting environmental justice in contaminated sites requires the development of interventions integrating technical-scientific with cultural domains.
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El artículo ofrece una visión de la evolución y consolidación del derecho ambiental en México, en perspectiva con el derecho internacional. Por un lado, muestra como en unos pocos años, la regulación constitucional mexicana se ha engrosado y ha alcanzado los estándares de otros países latinoamericanos. Por otro lado, revisa los rasgos de las resoluciones de tribunales nacionales e internacionales que evidencian lo que algunos autores llaman un “enverdecimiento” de las cortes. Es decir, un conjunto de apreciaciones jurisdiccionales que resultan muy favorables para la protección del medio ambiente, así como para la protección del derecho humano a un medio ambiente sano. En esta tendencia, el artículo reflexiona sobre la vulnerabilidad de las comunidades indígenas y de la sociedad en su conjunto e identifica –como parte de los desafíos de evolución de las tendencias jurisdiccionales- la ampliación de la perspectiva de vulnerabilidad, y la concepción de un interés universal.
Article
The Idle No More (INM) movement emerged in reaction to Bill C-45, the Canadian Jobs and Growth Act, in November 2012, inspiring a new wave of activism. Central to the movement’s grievances are Indigenous resistance and environmental justice (EJ), positioning INM’s activities against neo-colonialism, exploitation, and environmental degradation. We build upon existing EJ movements, Indigenous Peoples/Indigenous Environmental Justice (IEJ) movements, and social movement spillover, grievance, and claims making literatures to understand the role of shared movement narratives in encouraging mobilization. INM relies on social media to educate members and construct and communicate movement goals and actions. Analyzing 6 months of Facebook comments, reflecting the INM movement’s emergence period, we argue that INM activists employ structural grievances embedded in previous EJ and Indigenous resistance movements, combined with emerging (incidental) grievances to articulate shared claims that address inequality and justice, appealing to a range of potential supporters. We offer an analysis of the emergent INM movement to consider the active intersection of EJ, Indigenous Peoples, and IEJ movements to mobilize and sustain movement activities in spite of Bill C-45’s passage.
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Дисертацію присвячено теоретико-методологічному та емпіричному обґрунтуванню синергетичної концепції смислової регуляції екологічно релевантної поведінки. Емпірично вивчена роль екологічної позиції особистості як керуючого параметра системи смислової регуляції екологічно релевантної поведінки, що заданий співвідношенням біосферних та грошово-утилітаристських смислів. Смислове підґрунтя екозберігаючої поведінки становить екологічна стурбованість – властива біосферній екологічній позиції система смислових утворень, яка інтегрує афективний, когнітивний і екзистенціальний компоненти ставлення до екологічного оточення та визначає особистісну орієнтацію на екозбереження. Емпірично вивчені трансформації смислів екологічно релевантних дій залежно від екологічної ризик-рефлексії та зміни у осмисленні екологічної проблематики під впливом економічної кризи. The dissertation is devoted to the theoretical and empirical substantiation of the concept of meaning regulation of ecologically relevant behavior. The role of the ecological position of person as an operating parameter of the system of meaning regulation of ecologically relevant behavior that opened through parity of biospheric and economic orientation is investigated. The meaning basis of pro-ecological behavior is ecological concern – a system of meaning structures that is peculiar to biospheric ecological position and integrates affective, cognitive, and existential components of the relation to an environment, influencing subject orientation to conservation. Transformations of the meaning of ecologically relevant actions caused by ecological risk-refleсion and changes in the meaning of ecological issues under the influence of economic crisis are empirically investigated. Диссертация посвящена теоретико-методологическому и эмпирическому обоснованию концепции смысловой регуляции экологически релевантного поведения. На основе анализа социогенеза экологического дискурса разработана структурно-динамическая модель психологической регуляции процессов жизнеобеспечения в современном обществе. Экоразрушительная активность людей поддерживается доминирующей социальной парадигмой (ДСП), ключевыми параметрами которой являются антропоцентризм и вера в прогресс как непрерывный рост материального потребления. Осознание антропогенных глобальных угроз связано с формированием и развитием новой экологической парадигмы (НЭП). Оценка экологических изменений с позиций ДСП определяет более интенсивное экопотребление, в то время как осмысление с позиций НЭП ориентирует на экосохранение. Основное различие между ДСП и НЭП проявляется как оппозиция «финансово-экономическая ориентация – экологическая ориентация». Реализован синергетический подход к анализу смысловой регуляции субъектной активности. Вводится понятие экологической позиции личности как управляющего параметра системы смысловой регуляции экологически релевантного поведения, определяемой соотношением биосферной и денежно-утилитаристской ориентации и проявляющейся через смысловые образования разных уровней: личностные ценности, смысловые диспозиции, смысловые конструкты и установки. На эмпирическом материале c привлечением методов моделирования структурными уравнениями выявлены паттерны осмысления проблемы глобальных экологических изменений, характерные для субъектов с разными типами экологической позиции. Осмысление экологически релевантных действий опосредовано категориальной структурой, функционирующей как динамическая система смысловых конструктов. Содержание таких смысловых конструктов раскрывается через соотношение категориальных установок, упорядочивающих представления субъекта о возможных мотивах экологически релевантных действиях человека. На основе игрового моделирования изучены трансформации смыслов экологически релевантных действий, обусловленных экологической риск-рефлексией и проявляющихся в усилении экологического содержания смыслового конструкта беспокойства о будущем и переоценке действующих социальных норм. Смысловую основу экосберегающего поведения составляет экологическая озабоченность – система сложно скоординированных смысловых и ценностных диспозиций, релевантная экологическим угрозам и определяющая личностную ориентацию на экосохранение. Такая динамическая смысловая система, характеризующая биосферную экологическую позицию, интегрирует аффективный, когнитивный и экзистенциальный компоненты отношения к экологическому окружению. Осмысление глобальных экологических изменений связано с ценностными приоритетами субъекта. Биосферная ориентация обеспечивает непосредственный эмоциональный отклик на экоразрушительные процессы, спровоцированные активностью людей. При приоритете ценностей самовозвышения внимание субъекта направляется на текущие выгоды экоразрушительных способов действия, а их экоразрушительные последствия отрицаются. Ориентация на социальную гармонию обостряет внимание к потенциальным угрозам человеческому сообществу, однако эта ориентация может сочетаться с установками на неограниченный материальный прогресс и рост человеческой популяции. Выявлены неоднозначные сдвиги в осмыслении проблемы глобальных экологических изменений под влиянием макроэкономической ситуации: в условиях экономического кризиса усиливается субъективная значимость экологической безопасности при снижении субъективной значимости экологических проблем в целом, антропогенное влияние на экологическое окружение становится более отрефлексированным, но менее актуальным для субъекта. При обострении экономической ситуации актуализуются иррациональные смыслы экологических проблем как заслуженного возмездия со стороны природы. Важную роль в социальном продвижении проэкологического поведения играют социально-экологические сообщения, особенности осмысления которых обусловливают формирование готовности к экосберегающему поведению. В сообщениях о социально-экологических мероприятиях и программах следует делать акцент на актуальности конкретной экологической проблемы и доступных для осуществления в реальной жизни способах ее решения.
Thesis
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Article
La digitalización de la esfera pública ha propiciado una mayor visibilidad de la acción colectiva ciudadana y su participación como actor político y social. El objetivo del presente estudio se centra en el análisis de las plataformas de activismo ciudadano digital del movimiento de asociaciones de pensionistas a través de sus redes sociales y plataformas, con un estudio de caso de sus principales asociaciones (COESPE y MERP) y su contenido de vídeo. Los resultados extraídos nos aproximan a concebirlas como grassroots desde sus bases en la defensa de sus demandas e identidad visual de sus principales actores políticos y sociales.
Thesis
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Bu araştırma iklim hareketi ve termik santral karşıtı hareketin nasıl haberleştirildiğini karşılaştırmalı olarak analiz etmektedir. Bu çalışmanın temel amacı, iklim eylemsizliğine ve çevresel adaletsizliklere neden olan kişi, kurum ve politik sistemi eleştiren hareketlerin medyada nasıl temsil edildiğini incelemektir. Araştırmanın literatür bölümünde genel olarak ekolojik problemlerin özel olarak ise iklim krizinin neoliberalizmin egemenliğinde konsensüse dayalı bir söylemsel çerçevede tartışıldığı ve bunun kamusal tartışmalarda depolitize edici bir etkiye sahip olduğu iddia edilmiştir. Bu araştırma da çevresel adalet ve iklim adaleti söylemlerinin ve bu talepte bulunan aktörlerin iklim sorununu siyasallaştırma mücadelelerinde medyanın ekonomi politik sınırlarını aşamadığını ileri sürmektedir. Bu iddianın ampirik olarak test edilmesi amacıyla çerçeveleme kuramı yöntem olarak seçilmiştir. Bu kapsamda araştırmada Bianet, BirGün, Cumhuriyet, Hürriyet, Sabah ve Yeni Şafak gazeteleri araştırmanın örneklemine dahil edilmiş, 2018-2020 yılları boyunca yayımlanan toplamda 682 haber nicel ve nitel haber analizine tabi tutulmuştur. Araştırmanın sonuçlarına göre haber medyası sosyal bir problem olan iklim krizinin depolitizasyonunu iklim eylemsizliğine tepki gösteren iklim aktivistlerinin adalet taleplerini ve suçlamalarını merkeze almayan haber çerçeveleriyle üretmekte ve sürdürmektedir. Bununla birlikte yurt dışında gerçekleşen eylemlerin sayısının Türkiye'deki iklim eylemlerine kıyasla daha fazla olması iklim hareketi aracılığıyla Türkiye'nin iklim eylemsizliği hakkında politik söylem üretme şansının kaçırılmasına neden olmuştur. Termik santral karşıtı hareketi konu alan haberlerde ise alternatif ve bağımsız medyada yereldeki çevresel adaletsizlikler gündeme getirilmesine karşın bu hareketlerin medya temsili aracılığıyla iklim krizi arasında zayıf bir bağ kurulmuş, bu durum termik santrallerin küresel çapta yol açtığı iklim adaletsizliğinin görmezden gelinmesi sonucunu doğurmuştur. Ayrıca termik santral karşıtı hareketin kolektif eylem çerçeveleri aracılığıyla termik santrallerin yol açtığı risklere ve problemlere yapılan vurgu neoliberalizmin fosil yakıt hegemonyasını sarsma yolunda önemli fırsatlar sunmaktadır. Buna karşı bu problemler, kapitalist sistemin azami kar elde etmek için sürekli olarak büyümeyi hedeflemesi ve bunun gerçekleşmesi için fosil yakıt endüstrisinin oynadığı rol arasında bir bağlantının kurulmamış olması, medyanın kapitalizmi tartışmalarından uzaklaştırarak statükoyu sürdürmesine neden olmuştur. This research comparatively analyzes the news media portrayal of the climate movement and the anti-thermal power plant movement. The principal purpose of this study is to examine the representation of social movements that challenge the institutions and political systems given their responsibility in climate inaction and environmental injustices. It was claimed that ecological problems in general and the climate crisis, in particular, are discussed within the framework of a consensus-based discourse shaped by neoliberalism and that this framework has a depoliticizing effect on public debates. Based on this claim, this master's thesis asserts that the calls for environmental and climate justice and the actors' demand on this issue cannot cross the political economy constraints of the media in their attempt to politicize the climate crisis. Framing analysis has been utilized as a research method to test this hypothesis empirically. Based on this claim, Bianet, the daily BirGün, Cumhuriyet, Hürriyet, Sabah, and Yeni Şafak were included in the research sample, and the total 682 news articles published between 2018-2020 were examined by applying qualitative and quantitative content analysis. Research results indicate that the depoliticization of climate crisis as a social problem was manufactured and sustained by news frames that did not focus on the demands and accusations of activists who react to the climate inaction. Moreover, provided that the number of actions taking place abroad is higher than the climate actions in Turkey, this situation resulted in a missed opportunity to disseminate the claims on Turkey's climate inaction through the climate movement. In a similar vein, the representation of the anti-thermal power plant movement in the alternative and independent media foregrounds the local injustices caused by the thermal power plants. On the other hand, there is a lack of connection between thermal power plants and their effects on the climate crisis in the media, and this misframing disguises the role of these plants in the materialization of transnational climate injustices. Besides, the focus of the collective action frames of anti-thermal power plants movement on the risk and problems resulting from these plants provide genuine opportunities to shake the fossil fuel hegemony of neoliberalism. However, the connection has not been established between these problems, the capitalist systems' intrinsic tendency for ongoing growth to achieve maximum profit, and the importance of the fossil fuels industry to realize it. Therefore, news media maintained the status quo by removing the capitalist system on the issue.
Article
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In this study we investigate the spatial relationship between Superfund sites and the racial, ethnic, and economic characteristics of the areas surrounding those sites in the state of Florida. Unlike many previous environmental justice studies, we examine census tracts rather than larger aggregates such as counties or zip codes. We also look at the problem of environmental injustice longitudinally by analyzing Census data from 1970, 1980, and 1990. Such an analysis not only allows us to detect potential environmental inequality, but also to postulate on the nature and origins of this injustice. Overall, our findings indicate that Blacks and Hispanics are more likely to live near Superfund hazardous waste sites, but income and poverty indicators do not predict the location of sites. The spatial association between race, ethnicity, and Superfund sites is increasing over time, leading us to conclude that the likely cause of much of the recent environmental injustice uncovered in our results stems from indirect, rather than direct, forms of discrimination.
Article
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Communities are where public health, the environment, and labor are inseparable: where people live, work, and play. In communities, the interaction of the environment and human health are inextricable, inescapably intertwined. Yet communities and their residents are often the least involved in making environmental decisions that affect their immediate well-being. This article is divided in three parts: Part I examines the problem of community disenfranchisement in environmental decisions; Part II examines administrative and judicial responses to the concerns of communities about these issues; Part III discusses the role of science in communities that want a more active role in making environmental decisions for themselves; the article concludes by discussing how the environmental dynamics are truly inescapable.
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To describe trends in blood lead levels for the US population and selected population subgroups during the time period between 1976 and 1991. Two nationally representative cross-sectional surveys and one cross-sectional survey representing Mexican Americans in the southwestern United States. Participants in two national surveys that included blood lead measurements: the second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1976 to 1980 (n = 9832), and phase 1 of the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988 to 1991 (n = 12,119). Also, Mexican Americans participating in the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1982 to 1984 (n = 5682). The mean blood lead level of persons aged 1 to 74 years dropped 78%, from 0.62 to 0.14 mumol/L (12.8 to 2.8 micrograms/dL). Mean blood lead levels of children aged 1 to 5 years declined 77% (0.66 to 0.15 mumol/L [13.7 to 3.2 micrograms/dL]) for non-Hispanic white children and 72% (0.97 to 0.27 mumol/L [20.2 to 5.6 micrograms/dL]) for non-Hispanic black children. The prevalence of blood lead levels 0.48 mumol/L (10 micrograms/dL) or greater for children aged 1 to 5 years declined from 85.0% to 5.5% for non-Hispanic white children and from 97.7% to 20.6% for non-Hispanic black children. Similar declines were found in population subgroups defined by age, sex, race/ethnicity, income level, and urban status. Mexican Americans also showed similar declines in blood lead levels of a slightly smaller magnitude over a shorter time. The results demonstrate a substantial decline in blood lead levels of the entire US population and within selected subgroups of the population. The major cause of the observed decline in blood lead levels is most likely the removal of 99.8% of lead from gasoline and the removal of lead from soldered cans. Although these data indicate major progress in reducing lead exposure, they also show that the same sociodemographic factors continue to be associated with higher blood lead levels, including younger age, male sex, non-Hispanic black race/ethnicity, and low income level. Future efforts to remove other lead sources (eg, paint, dust, and soil) are needed but will be more difficult than removing lead from gasoline and soldered cans.
Article
One of the first wave of law review articles on the topic.
Chapter
There is an immense need patiently to disseminate information, to dwell repeatedly on the concrete cases of injustice and on the concrete cases of ecological unsustainability. (Naess, 1999: 28) People care deeply about their local environment because its quality affects their quality of life, wellbeing and contribution to environmental sustainability. Local environmental justice is a critical component of social justice. Like other forms of social inequality, environmental inequalities worsen health and wellbeing, hamper economic development and diminish social cohesion. Environmental justice matters because access to environmental benefits and protection from environmental harms constitutes basic human rights (UNEP, 2001). The history and origin of environmental justice go back to environmental justice movements (EJM) and their links with civil rights movements of the 1950s and 1960s in the United States. This was a time when the poor and predominantly non-white communities suffered most from pollution especially from toxic waste disposals. Today, the political reach of environmental justice has moved beyond race to include deprivation, age, gender and other vulnerabilities. The question of ‘who gets what’ has been extended to include other questions such as ‘who counts’, ‘whose voice is listened to’ and ‘what counts as a legitimate claim’. Similarly, its substantive scope has moved beyond toxic waste and hazards to incorporate a wide range of both environmental ‘bads’ (burdens) and environmental ‘goods’ (benefits). The breadth of issues covered in discussions of environmental justice reflects the pervasiveness of the environment in everyday life. The four chapters that make up this section of the book address a number of local environmental concerns including, urban greenspace, local schools, transport and food. The authors draw on their knowledge and experience of Newcastle to provide examples of various ways in which people experience justice and fairness in the city. The section starts with Chapter 2, which focuses on urban greenspace and its benefits to local environmental quality and local communities. Drawing on their earlier work, Simin Davoudi and Elizabeth Brooks present a multidimensional framework for understanding justice that goes beyond a concern with the geographical distribution to concerns about recognition, responsibility and capability. Based on this framework, they develop a number of key principles that can be applied to judge claims of injustice in relation to urban greenspace in Newcastle city.
Article
The fast growth of the maquiladoras in the border region has triggered big hopes for regional development. The complex industrial structure which characterizes the border and the lack of a clear policy for regional development could be major obstacles to development. Studies some of the environmental risks related to the maquiladoras, with the basic hypothesis being that the maquiladora does generate significant amounts of hazardous waste under conditions that are an environmental risk. To validate this hypothesis, empirical evidence is first provided of the use of hazardous materials in the maquiladora, and then possible controls are studied which can be applied to the potential waste resulting from these materials. -from Author
Book
This book reveals the distribution of transportation benefits to the wealthy and educated to be disproportionately high compared to people of colour and those at the lower end of the socio-economic spectrum. Essays by a wide range of environmental and transportation activists, lawyers, and scholars trace the historical roots of transportation struggles in United States civil rights history from Rosa Parks and the Freedom Riders to modern-day unjust transportation equity are examined, as well as the impact of transportation policy on inner city environments
Article
The findings in this report clearly indicate a continuing health concern that too many children are exposed to too much lead in their environments. About 17% of children in Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas are exposed to environmental sources of lead at concentrations that place them at risk of adverse health effects (using a blood lead criterion of 15 micrograms of lead per deciliter of blood). Three to four million children are estimated to have this level of risk. Additionally, 400,000 fetuses are estimated to be at risk of excess absorption of lead due to maternal exposure. Lead in paint and lead in dust/soil will continue as major problems into the foreseeable future. These sources of exposure to lead remain, in large measure, as problems of poor housing and impoverished neighborhoods. The report recommends effective use of screening programs to prevent development of adverse health effects in children exposed to environmental sources of lead. The most-effective prevention measure will be removal or marked reduction of lead-exposure sources. The report contains an extensive bibliography.
Article
Land had always been the issue central to North American politics and economics. Throughout this century both the US and Canadian national governments have proceeded with the most insidious and mercenary neocolonial policies imaginable. The energy-rich western reservations of the various Indian tribes are now faced with a political and economic turning point which is at least as vast in its implications as those of the reorganisation of the 1930s or even the 19th century transition to reservation status. The colonialism is radioactive: what it does can never be undone. -J.Sheail
Article
At Argonne National Laboratory, scientists have been studying the relative potential for exposure of minority population groups to substandard outdoor air quality. The studies have focused on areas identified by EPA as failing to attain national ambient air quality standards. Under the Clean Air Act, EPA has established standards for ground-level ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, lead, and particulate matter and annually identifies areas having excess levels of these pollutants. These so-called nonattainment areas generally consist of counties of many square miles, and residents' exposure to air pollution surely varies depending on where individuals live and work within an area. Nevertheless, the racial and socio-economic makeup of the population in these areas can imply differences in potential exposure to pollutants and may suggest directions for research and remedial action. So far, scientists have examined these differences for African Americans, Hispanics, and whites (non-Hispanic).
Article
Despite significant improvements in environmental protection over the past several decades, millions of Americans continue to live in unsafe and unhealthy physical environments. Many economically impoverished and politically powerless individuals are exposed to greater health hazards in their homes, on the jobs, and in their neighborhoods when compared to their more affluent counterparts. A growing body of evidence reveals that people of color and low-income persons have borne greater environmental and health risks than society at large. Over the last two decades, grassroots activists in the United Staes have attempted to change the way government implements environmental, health, and civil rights laws. These groups have also organized, educated, and empowered themselves to make government and industry responsive to their needs.
Conference Paper
The NIMBY (not in may backyard) syndrome has become the nemesis of facility siting efforts in the USA. Given people`s reluctance to live near noxious facilities, in whose backyard are such facilities located? This study employs US county-level data to examine relative concentrations of minorities living near noxious facilities. Facility types analyzed include electric generating plants, manufacturing plants, Superfund sites, and radioactive waste disposal sites. While this study does not address which cam first, the minority population concentration or the noxious facilities, it documents their current degree of association.
Article
“Environmental justice” refers to the fair treatment and meaningful involvement of all people regardless of race, color, national origin, or income with respect to the development, implementation, and enforcement of environmental laws. Fair treatment means that minority and low-income groups should not bear a disproportionate share of the negative environmental impacts of government actions. Recent studies have shown that, in the United States, some government decisions have adversely affected low-income and minority communities disproportionately to the rest of society. To avoid such inequities in future federal activities, President Clinton issued Executive Order (EO) 12898, which requires federal agencies to consider environmental justice in carrying out their missions. Guidance issued by the Executive Office of the President requires every federal agency to consider environmental justice in conducting impact evaluations under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Thus, an “environmental justice analysis” is a highly focused form of social impact assessment that must be conducted within the framework of NEPA. The specific purpose of such an analysis is to determine whether a proposed federal activity would impact low-income and minority populations to a greater extent than it would impact a community's general population. This article explains the development and implementation of EO 12898 and explores what federal agencies are doing to incorporate environmental justice into their NEPA procedures. It also includes recommendations for other authorities to consider when incorporating environmental justice into their environmental impact assessments (EIAs).
Article
Communities want improved environmental conditions, a goal that is bogged down by strong views on poverty, racism, and development.
Article
The South in the 1970s attempted to rid itself of the image as a socially and economically "backward' land. However, many of the old problems remained, and new environmental problems were created as a direct result of the new growth. Uneven development within the region's central cities and the suburbs, and companies' systematic avoidance of areas that had large concentrations of blacks heightened the social and economic inequalities between blacks and whites. -from Author
Article
This paper presents data on the siting of solid waste facilities in one of the nation's fastest growing cities, Houston, Texas. The findings reveal that solid waste sites were not randomly scattered over the Houston landscape but were likely to be found in predominantly black neighborhoods and near black schools. Institutionalized discrimination in the housing market, lack of zoning, and decisions by public officials over the past fifty years are major factors that have contributed to Houston's black neighborhoods becoming the “dumping ground” for the area's solid waste.
Of pollution and poverty: Keeping watch in Cancer Alley
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It's the thought that counts: The intent requirement in environmental racism claims
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Dumping grounds: Indian tribes contend with some of the worst of America's pollution
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Toxic targets: Polluters that dump on communities of color are finally being brought to justice
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Global threats to people of color
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The truth about where you live: An atlas for action on toxins and mortality
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Transforming a movement: People of color unite at summit against environmental racism
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L.A.'s lethal air: New strategies for policy, organizing, and action
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The toxic threat to Indian lands: A Greenpeace report
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Civil rights remedies for environmental injustice. Paper presented at Transpor-tation and Environmental Justice: Building Model Partnerships conference Proceedings: The First National People of Color Environmental Leadership Summit
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Environmental racism
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Racism: An American cauldron
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Doob, C. B. (1993). Racism: An American cauldron. New York: Harper Collins.
A new vision for urban transportation: The bus riders union makes history at the intersection of mass transit, civil rights, and the environment
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Mann, E. (1996). A new vision for urban transportation: The bus riders union makes history at the intersection of mass transit, civil rights, and the environment. Los Angeles: Labor/Community Strategy Center.
Basel: Another dumping convention
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Puckett, J. (1993). Basel: Another dumping convention. Washington, DC: Greenpeace.
Dump at the border: U.S. firms make a Mexican wasteland
  • J Juffers
Juffers, J. (1988, October 24). Dump at the border: U.S. firms make a Mexican wasteland. Progressive.