Wadi flow in the Arabian Gulf States

ArticleinHydrological Processes 20(11):2393 - 2413 · July 2006with96 Reads
DOI: 10.1002/hyp.6051
Abstract
Real data on wadi flood flows from Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Oman, Kuwait, UAE, Bahrain and Qatar were used to develop methodologies for the prediction of annual maximum flows and average monthly flows in the Arabian Gulf states. For the prediction of annual maximum floods, three methods have been investigated. In the first method, regional curves were developed and used together with the mean annual flood flow, estimated from the characteristics of the drainage basin, to estimate flood flows at a location in the basin. The second method fits data to various probability distribution functions, with a developed methodology introduced to account for floods generated by more than one system of climate, and the best fitted function was used for flood estimates. In the third method, only floods over a threshold, which depends on characteristics of the drainage basin, were considered and modelled. For the prediction of average monthly flows, stochastic simulation approaches of flood frequency analysis were used. Each of the prediction methods was verified by being applied in 40 different drainage basins. Based on the results obtained, recommendations were made on the best method to be applied (at present) by design engineers in the Arabian Gulf states. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    • "Flash floods are fairly common in arid regions (Subyani, 2011). However, their occurrences depend on the interaction between geological and morphological characteristics (elevation, slope, sediment transport etc.) and hydro-meteorological phenomena such as rainfall, runoff, evaporation and groundwater storages (Nouh, 2006). In the UAE, most of annual rainfalls reach the Gravel Plain region which, in some cases, corresponds to a relatively high annual runoff. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Spatial and temporal characteristics of rainfall in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) were investigated. The region is divided into four climate zones (East Coast, Mountains, Gravel Plains and Desert Foreland) of distinguished rainfall distribution. The rainfall patterns, rainfall probability of occurrences, rainfall intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) relationship, probable maximum precipitation (PMP) and drought scenarios were investigated. Daily rainfall data from a network of stations across the UAE were used. Standard statistical techniques were applied for data analyses. The Gumbel, log Pearson, generalized extreme value, log normal, Wakeby and Weibull probability distributions were tested to fit extreme rainfalls. Both Gumbel and Weibull distributions were found adequate. Measures of dispersion and symmetry of rainfall patterns were found relatively high. The estimated PMP values were found highest in the East Coast region and lowest in the Gravel Plains region. Estimated drought severity index showed that the regions have similar trends of drought patterns over the years. The study is useful for sustainable water resources planning and management in the region.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2014
    • "This kind of studies is useful as a basis for engineering studies related to flood protection, storm drainage and water resource management, e.g. [1,3, 4]. Previous work dealing with the numerical simulation of heavy rainfall events and its mechanisms of occurrence are very limited in the Arabian Peninsula region. "
    Article · Jan 2013
    • "Examples are the Jeddah flood of 2009 during which greater than 90 mm of rainfall occurred in a 3.5- h period and the Wadi Dellah flash flood of 1982, when 163.2 mm of rainfall occurred in a 12-h period (Vincent 2008). Because of the intense use of wadis in Saudi Arabia for water supply, the geology, hydrogeology, geomorphology , and the water quality within wadi aquifer systems have been investigated for many years (Al-Nujaidi 1978; Al-Hajeri 1974, 1977 Al-Saqaby 1974; Weir and Hadley 1975; Abdulrazzak 1976; Italoconsult 1976; Ghurm 1980; Zaidi 1983 Zaidi , 1984 Saleh 1984; Al-Kabir 1985; Red Sea Mining Company 1986; Sen 1986 Sen , 2008a Dames and Moore 1988; Al-Suba'l 1992; Hussein and Bazuhair 1992; Hussein et al. 1993; Al-Yamani et al. 1994; UNESCO 2002; Wheater 2002; Al-Sefry et al. 2004; Subyani, 2005a Subyani, , 2005b Subyani, , 2010 Nouh 2006; Hussein 2007; Sen and Wagdani 2008; Bastien 2009; Qari 2009; Subyani et al. 2012). Despite the generally large number of general hydrogeologic investigations on wadis in Saudi Arabia, the detailed analysis of aquifer hydraulics has not been carried out in many locations. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fresh water resources within the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia are a rare and precious commodity that must be managed within a context of integrated water management. Wadi aquifers contain a high percentage of the naturally occurring fresh groundwater in the Kingdom. This resource is currently overused and has become depleted or contaminated at many locations. One resource that could be used to restore or enhance the fresh water resources within wadi aquifers is treated municipal waste water (reclaimed water). Each year about 80 percent of the country's treated municipal waste water is discharged to waste without any beneficial use. These discharges not only represent a lost water resource, but also create a number of adverse environmental impacts, such as damage to sensitive nearshore marine environments and creation of high-salinity interior surface water areas. An investigation of the hydrogeology of wadi aquifers in Saudi Arabia revealed that these aquifers can be used to develop aquifer recharge and recovery (ARR) systems that will be able to treat the impaired-quality water, store it until needed, and allow recovery of the water for transmittal to areas in demand. Full-engineered ARR systems can be designed at high capacities within wadi aquifer systems that can operate in concert with the natural role of wadis, while providing the required functions of additional treatment, storage and recovery of reclaimed water, while reducing the need to develop additional, energy-intensive desalination to meet new water supply demands.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2012
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