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Competency Based Curriculum in Higher Education: A Necessity Grounded by Globalization (English version)

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Ever demanding forces of globalisation have introduced new discourses into curriculum planning in the higher education. In order to sustain in the knowledge based economy and to deal with demand in job market, incorporation of competency based curriculum is emerging as a necessity in higher education sector. In order to develop competency based curriculum in higher education, determination of competencies for each discipline and subsequent development of means of measurement and performance assessment is a must. There are competency based models developed for specific discipline through intense research can serve as a guiding tool for this purpose. In this backdrop the present paper tries to draw an attention to the importance of competency based curriculum and its pros and cons.
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Competency Based Curriculum in Higher Education: A Necessity Grounded by
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Revista Românească pentru Educaţie Multidimensională
Romanian Journal for Multidimensional Education
ISSN: 2066 – 7329 (print), ISSN: 2067 – 9270 (electronic)
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Competency Based Curriculum in Higher Education: A Necessity Grounded
by Globalization
Arup BARMAN, Jothika KONWAR
Revista Românească pentru Educaţie Multidimensională, 2011, Year 3, No. 6,
April, pp: 7-15
The online version of this article can be found at:
http://revistaromaneasca.ro
Published by:
Lumen Publishing House
On behalf of:
Lumen Research Center in Social and Humanistic Sciences
Competency Based Curriculum in Higher
Education: A Necessity Grounded by Globalization
Ph.D. Arup BARMAN 1
Asst. Professor Ms. Jothika KONWAR 2
Abstract
Ever demanding forces of globalisation have introduced new discourses into curriculum
planning in the higher education. In order to sustain in the knowledge based economy and to
deal with demand in job market, incorporation of competency based curriculum is emerging as
a necessity in higher education sector. In order to develop competency based curriculum in higher
education, determination of competencies for each discipline and subsequent development of
means of measurement and performance assessment is a must. There are competency based
models developed for specific discipline through intense research can serve as a guiding tool for
this purpose.
In this backdrop the present paper tries to draw an attention to the importance of
competency based curriculum and its pros and cons.
Keywords:
Curriculum, Competence, Innovation, Knowledge Based Education
1Ph.D. Arup BARMAN- Reader, Deptt. Of Business Administration, Jawaharlal Nehru School
of Management, Assam University, Silchar-788011, Email: abgeet@gamil.com
2Asst. Professor Ms. Jothika KONWAR - Deptt. Of Business Administration, Jawaharlal Nehru
School of Management, Assam University, Sichar.
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BARMAN, A., KONWAR, J., (2011) Competency Based Curriculum in Higher Education: A Necessity Grounded by Globalization,
Revista Romaneasca pentru Educatie Multidimensionala, Year 3, No. 6, April, pp : 7-15
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Introduction
The term "globalization" has gained considerable attention and
importance during the last few years. In a “flat world” where technology and
globalization is levelling the competitive landscape, the nature of knowledge
work is changing at the interface of technology and services and the demand for
knowledge workers is increasing as the complexity of knowledge work increases
(Choudaha, 2008). The basic premise is that knowledge is becoming a primary
factor of production, in addition to capital, labor and land. (Morell, 2007). These
hifts indicate emergence of a “new knowledge-based service economy” that
differs from the industrial economy. The distinctive characteristic of
“knowledge-based economy is its dependence on human capital inputs, on
knowhow and skill, competence and expertise” (Choudaha, 2008). These ever
demanding forces of globalisation have introduced new discourses into
curriculum planning of higher education. In order to sustain in the knowledge
based economy and deal with demand of job market, incorporation of
competency based curriculum is emerging as a necessity in higher education
sector. Specifically in Indian context, Prof. Yashpal’s
committee report on Renovation and Rejuvenation of Higher Education
mention - currently, many students passing out from institutions of higher
education do so without obtaining the kind of skills they really need to work in a
real-world environment (Singh, 2009). In this backdrop the present paper tries
to draw attention to the importance of competency based curriculum and its
pros and cons.
Concept of Competency
The concept of competency has been developed over a long period of
time. It plays an important role in organisational success. In Latin one can find
‘competens’, as being able and allowed by law/regulation, and ‘competentia’, as
(cap)ability and permission (Mulder, 2007). Competence in Longman Dictionary
of Contemporary English (1995; p 270) is defined as “the ability and skill to do
what is needed”. The use of the western European words ‘competence’ and
‘competency’ date back to the early 16th century (Mulder, 2007). The concept of
competency was developed as early as 1957 by Selznick (as cited by Shaikhah et
al, 2009). It has been originally used in the field of education to describe trainee
teacher behaviours (Bowdenard Masters, 1993; Hoffmann, 1999). It became
widely known in the management field through the work of Boyetzis in 1982
(Hoffmann, 1999). According to Deist & Winterton (2005) the concept of
competence or competency dominated the management strategy literature of
the 1990s, which emphasized ‘core competence’ as a key organizational resource
that could be exploited to gain competitive advantage.
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BARMAN, A., KONWAR, J., (2011) Competency Based Curriculum in Higher Education: A Necessity Grounded by Globalization,
Revista Romaneasca pentru Educatie Multidimensionala, Year 3, No. 6, April, pp : 7-15
Competency Based Curriculum in Higher Education …
Ph.D. Arup BARMAN, Asst. Professot Ms. Jothnika KONWAR
Competency and Competence
The term competence and competency are confused in the literature
(Shaikhah et al, 2009). It has been defined from several points of views and
much ink has been spilt on finding accurate definition between
competence/competences and competency/competencies (Hoffman, 1999). As
Shaikhah et al.(2009) has pointed out that, many authors, including Winterton
(2009), McClelland (1973), Thornston (1992), Athey and Orth (1999), Kurz and
Bartram (2002), Schippmann (2000), Lustri (2007), Le Boterf (2000), etc, wrote
about competence and/or competency using one of these terms, and sometimes
both of them in the same article, believing that both terms hold the same
meaning. The number of definitions of competency continues to grow along
with different view points from different researchers. Those researching the
field, as well as practitioners, have evolved several meanings that serve as a
focus for their efforts to implement the competency approach to their work
(Hoffmann, 1999). A primary point of contrast is between individual
competencies – those knowledge, skills, and abilities that individuals in the
organization possess – and organizational competencies – those things that
characterize collective action at the organizational level (Olson and Bolton,
2002).However, Whiddett & Hollyforde (2003) have mentioned that most
definitions are variations on two well-established themes from different origins
as follows:
Descriptions of work tasks/ i.e. what a person has to do in a job.
These has their origin in national training schemes such as the National/
Scottish Vocational Qualifications and the Management Charter
Institute (MCI)
Description of behaviour/ i.e. how a person does their job. These
have evolved from the work of researchers and consultants specialising
in managerial effectiveness.
A general convention has developed although it is not always followed,
which use ‘ability based on work task’ as “competence” (plural competences)
and ‘ability based on behaviour’ as “competency’ (plural competencies)
(Whiddett & Hollyforde, 2003). According to Armstrong (2005) also, whilst
competency is a person-related concept, competence is a work related concept.
Kouwenhoven (2003) presents a comprehensive definition of competency,
according to which, ‘Competency’ is the capability to choose and use (apply) an
integrated combination of knowledge, skills and attitudes with the intention to
realise a task in a certain context, while personal characteristics such as
motivation, self-confidence, and willpower are part of that context; and
‘Competence’ is the capacity to accomplish ‘up to standard’ the key occupational
tasks that characterise a profession. Therefore, competency may be defined as
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BARMAN, A., KONWAR, J., (2011) Competency Based Curriculum in Higher Education: A Necessity Grounded by Globalization,
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the necessary knowledge, skills, experience and attributes to carry out defined
function effectively, whilst competence means those things the whole
organization must be good at to outperform its competitors (Mackay, 2003). At
individuals’ level, competencies mean skills, traits, characteristics and behaviours
that distinguish an individual, whereas at the organizational level, competences
are those activities that an organization has the capability to effectively
performing given the required skills and knowledge (Hafiz, Siddiqi & Essmail,
2006).
Competences are usually job or role-specific while competencies can
cover a wide range of different jobs and often cover different levels of jobs as
well (Whiddett & Hollyforde, 2003). For the present work the word
“competency” will be used as per the definition given by Whiddett &
Hollyforde (2003), where competency is the broader term that refers to ability
based on behaviour- i.e. how they have to achieve.
Competency Based Curriculum
The effectiveness and efficiency of any educational programme is largely
dependent on the philosophy of the curriculum design followed (Sudsomboon,
2007). According to Fincher (1986, cited by Choudaha, 2008) the most
significant influence on college curriculum since the 1960s has been the demand
for measured or assessed outcomes that would ensure the competency and
proficiency of graduates. A way to conceptualise the relation between education
and the world of work is through competence-based education (Kouwenhoven,
2003). If specific competencies are not focused in the curriculum design
philosophy, the products of the higher education may not be “work-ready” and
therefore not readily accepted by the industry. Therefore, to reduce the
unemployment and ‘under employment’ levels, it becomes necessary to consider
‘occupation-specific competencies’ in the curriculum designs (Sudsomboon,
2007). According to a report of U.S. Department of Education (2002) the
importance of implementing competency-based initiatives in colleges and
universities lies in two major reasons; ‘One main reason is that specific articulations of
competencies inform and guide the basis of subsequent assessments at the course, program, and
institutional levels. Secondly, specific competencies help faculty and students across campus, as
well as other stakeholders such as employers and policymakers, to have a common
understanding about the specific skills and knowledge those undergraduates should master as a
result of their learning experiences’. Therefore demand from the stakeholders is also
leading to the emphasis on competency based education (Choudaha, 2008).
Competency based curriculum summarizes academic and professional profiles,
defines new objectives in the learning process, enhances learning environments
and shifts the concept of learning as accumulation of knowledge to learning as a
permanent attitude towards knowledge acquisition (Edwards et. al, 2009).
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BARMAN, A., KONWAR, J., (2011) Competency Based Curriculum in Higher Education: A Necessity Grounded by Globalization,
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Competency Based Curriculum in Higher Education …
Ph.D. Arup BARMAN, Asst. Professot Ms. Jothnika KONWAR
The main idea of competency-based curriculum illustrates
(Sudsomboon, 2007):
1. Instead of objectives, think “competencies”;
2. Instead of content, think outcomes;
3. Learner activities will be based on performance of learner and
accomplishment of criteria;
4. Teaching activities are learner centered;
5. Formative evaluation is necessary.
Competence-based education (CBE) aims to make students more
competent through the acquisition of competencies and further development of
the newly acquired or already held competencies. Grant et al. (as cited by
Edwards et. Al, 2009) in 1979 defined competence-based education as “a form
of education that derives a curriculum from an analysis of a prospective or
actual role in modern society and that attempts to certify student progress on
the basis of demonstrated performance in some or all aspects of that role”,
concluding that competence is a broad term, and that the programmes based on
competences can be very diverse with respect to their theoretical orientation,
their scope, their intentions and their scientific focus. Competencies can be
domain-specific, relating to clusters of knowledge, skills and attitudes within one
specific content domain related to the profession. Another group of
competencies is called ‘generic’, because they are needed in all content domains
and can be utilised in new professional situations (transfer) (Kouwenhoven,
2003). The specification of competencies is an important process for any
discipline, as competencies define the expected capacities of individuals (Gebbie
et al, 2002).
The characteristics of competency-based education (CBE) are given by
Kouwenhoven (2003) as follows:
CBE is oriented to the professional practice.
CBE is learner-centred and the learning process is central.
CBE has a constructivist approach.
In CBE the role of the teacher is that of a ‘cognitive guide’.
CBE has learning environments focussed on the development of
competencies.
CBE includes the development of generic competencies.
In CBE assessment focussed on competencies.
In CBE curriculum development is based on the elaboration of
profiles and identification of competencies.
In fact competence-based education is considered the leading paradigm
for innovation since it emphasizes the integrated nature of what students need
to learn to face not only labour market but also life in general (Edwards et. al,
2009). Brownell and Chung (2001) identified five major benefits of competency
based education—a change in the student-teacher relationship, an increase in
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BARMAN, A., KONWAR, J., (2011) Competency Based Curriculum in Higher Education: A Necessity Grounded by Globalization,
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emphasis on internal information sharing, improvement in clarity of desired
student outcomes and program effectiveness, better articulation of the
competencies of program graduates, and an increase in student satisfaction and
learning. The implementation of an educational training curriculum should be
based on social demands, and the competency analysis process identifies
whether students have attained the competency standards proficiently
(Sudsomboon, 2007). According to U.S. Department of Education, National
Center for Education Statistics (2002), Competency-based initiatives seek to
insure that students attain specific skills, knowledge, and abilities considered
important with respect to whatever they are studying or the transitions for
which they are preparing. Utilizing competencies requires the development of
three distinct, but interactive components:
A description of the competency;
A means of measuring or assessing the competency; and
A standard by which someone is judged to be competent.
In order to develop competency based curriculum in higher education,
determination of competencies for each discipline and subsequent development
of means of measurement and performance assessment is a must. Competency
models developed for specific discipline through intense research can serve as a
guiding tool for this purpose. The U.S. Department of Education has prescribed
the following conceptual learning model for competency which can be seen as
guideline for developing a working model;
Fig1: A Conceptual Learning Model, adopted form Voorhees(2001)
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BARMAN, A., KONWAR, J., (2011) Competency Based Curriculum in Higher Education: A Necessity Grounded by Globalization,
Revista Romaneasca pentru Educatie Multidimensionala, Year 3, No. 6, April, pp : 7-15
Competency Based Curriculum in Higher Education …
Ph.D. Arup BARMAN, Asst. Professot Ms. Jothnika KONWAR
Challenges of implementing Competency based curriculum
Regarding the implementation of the intended curriculum it is extremely
important that intended learning outcomes (competencies), teaching & learning
approaches and assessment are aligned (Kouwenhoven, 2009). The higher
education system as a whole should be flexible for ensuring proper alignment of
competency based curriculum. Various regulatory authorities along with rules
and regulations of universities may prohibit the experimentation and innovation
in case of implementing competency based curriculum. Reforming a curriculum
towards a more competence based approach implies more autonomy for the
educational institution offering the educational programmes (Kouwenhoven,
2009).
Another major challenge for faculty, staff, and administrators is to
ascertain the “data ramifications” that ensure that competencies are both valid
and reliable with the ultimate aim, in practice, being that they are fully
transportable between and outside of postsecondary entities (U.S. Department
of Education, 2002). Data ramifications also refer to efforts to describe
competencies in a uniform manner so that they can have the same meaning in a
variety of contexts and for a variety of audiences. By taking care of data
ramification standardization of terminology and semantics can be ensured which
in turn can lead to the transportability of competencies among different
disciplines of higher education and across organizations.
Conclusion
We can think as many as innovative and catchy curriculum to
incorporate in higher education. But, who will administer these courses? Many
questions arise in implementing this type of curriculum? Thus, the competency
based curriculum demands orientation of teacher of higher educations. Strong
and multifaceted competent faculty is must and for which faculty development
in right direction will become. For inculcating and facilitating competency based
curriculum compelled by the global issues demand the collaborative
administration with the institutes those already have been practicing and
administering. There are various institutions of western as well as advanced
eastern countries those are already in the stream can cooperate in adopting the
curricula. Indian higher education may go for collaboration with such institutes
and organisations to reap the benefits.
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Revista Romaneasca pentru Educatie Multidimensionala, Year 3, No. 6, April, pp : 7-15
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... Such a curriculum, in theory, is learner-centred and flexible enough to meet the changing requirements of students, teachers and society in general. Barman and Konwar (2011) described competency-based curriculum as a curriculum for the education that prioritises a student's special skills and capabilities rather than solely concentrating on academics and test results. Cremers et al. (2005) defined competency-based curriculum as a type of school curriculum in which specific objectives are defined for each process in which a person, an institution, or a program is evaluated and recognized as meeting predetermined standards of the separate skills taught in training programs with integrated instructional and practical instruction and successful completion of an examination demonstrating mastery of every skill. ...
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Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate what stakeholders in education thought about strategies to enhance the competence-based curriculum's effective implementation in Tanzania's secondary schools. The research methodology: A case study research design was used in the study. 112 participants from various educational categories, including District Education Officers (DEO), Quality Assurers (QA), heads of secondary schools and teachers, participated in focus groups and interviews to acquire the data. The study also employed a thematic approach to data presentation and analysis. Findings: The study's findings identified several strategies that can be used in Tanzania to successfully implement a competency-based curriculum: ensure that heads of schools regularly receive pedagogical leadership training, improve in-service teacher training, improve school-based indoor training, employ enough teachers, improve school infrastructure, provide enough teaching and learning materials, ensure effective partnership between schools and parents improve library services and improve use of information technology, improve school based assessment procedures and establishment of school-based quality assurance department. Unique Contribution to Theory, Practice and Policy: The findings of the study supported the constructivist theorists' claim that social interaction among students is an important factor in fostering meaningful learning. As an outcome, it will be possible to adequately apply the competency based curriculum in the classroom if there is a positive teaching and learning environment that is characterised by having sufficient teachers, teaching and learning resources and knowledgeable school leaders. The study recommended that both public and private schools keep up their efforts to hire enough teachers, increase and redevelop school facilities, install information and communication technology (ICT) infrastructures at every school and establish and strengthen initiatives aimed at training heads of schools and teachers in pedagogical leadership.
... A standardised curriculum is a set curricular ideal with specific content and skills (Karseth, 2006) created to enhance learning outcomes and to provide equal and egalitarian opportunities for personal development. Curricular discourses are sectoral and vocational in nature (Karseth, 2006;M€ akinen and Annala, 2012) and require disciplinary efforts to determine achievement levels and update assessments (Barman and Konwar, 2011). ...
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Purpose The twenty-first century education system seeks to meet the societal demands of economic effectiveness and the unique professional development needs of individuals. This paper aims to discuss the qualities of competence-oriented educational processes and the recent movement towards competence-based curricula in higher education. Design/methodology/approach This study follows a systematic literature review (SLR) methodology to explore the concept of competence within the context of educational science. The subsequent thematic synthesis analyses the findings of reviewed publications regarding graduate attributes in competence-oriented higher education and their perspectives and working-life expectations on exit profiles. Findings Interest in competence-oriented education, training and learning has grown in recent years, resulting in numerous theoretical and technical pedagogical applications in higher education. Nonetheless, ambiguous terminology presents a significant challenge, which is demonstrated by the inconsistent language of the study's results. Moreover, there is an obvious need for teachers' in-service training. The qualitative synthesis of this article will be useful for both educational and working life sectors to inform and promote different perspectives on competence-oriented educational processes. A clear articulation of competences is crucial for reforming higher education to meet students' interests and recognise their work-life needs. Originality/value The concept of competence has been under-investigated in higher education research and practices. This study offers novel insights and practical implications for competence-oriented learning concerning the paradigmatic change across higher education.
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There is no doubt that a global competent-based workforce in the 21 st Century shall drive the current business organizations in climbing on the stepladder of success in the present business scenario. But practically, business leaders and H.R. managers are presently worried about the intensifying competition for talent, termed as the "war for talent". Today, with the business organizations being highly concerned about the competency level of their workforce, it is the sheer responsibility of higher education and management education, in particular, to come out of its policy of trade and comfort zone and adopt a competency-based approach in their course curriculum to address this crisis of the global ready workforce. Hence, it is high time for the B-schools to fill the "curriculum gap" to keep pace with the existing business and workplace needs. The present study is an exploratory study, following a mixed method of research aiming towards the assessment of the institutional awareness on the importance of various workplace competencies among the students of the B-schools in Assam and to examine the process of delivery of these workplace competencies through the different pedagogic practices adopted by B-Schools in the proposed location. The study also further attempts to investigate the differences between the students level of workplace competencies level of awareness and the level of acquisition of the workplace competencies by the students of the B-schools in Assam.
... In the actual condition, there is an incompatibility of the current approach with the existence of the NE. Recently, Indonesian education applied a Competency-Based Curriculum which aimed to make students more competent through the acquisition of competencies and further development of the newly acquired ones (Barman & Konwar, 2011). This aim is not in line with the purpose of the NE itself. ...
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The implementation of the National Examination (NE) in Indonesia in elementary to high schools is considered as high-stakes testing and affects the teachers’ practice particularly in vocational settings. As material developers, English teachers in Vocational High Schools (VHS) are demanded to develop appropriate and suitable materials to meet the students’ specific needs. The incompatibility of the NE materials prescribed by the government and the vocational students’ needs put the teachers in a dilemma. The teachers should deal with the pressure of the NE and their roles as materials developers. This article tries to reveal how high-stakes testing impacts their roles as material developers particularly in the absence of specifically prescribed materials for VHS students. A case study design was used in this research with 31 participants of English teachers from nine state VHS in Pontianak, Indonesia. Data were collected through questionnaires and interviews. The result revealed that the role of teachers as materials developers somehow becomes diminishing because of the presence of the NE as high-stakes testing in the learning process, especially in VHS. This condition is detrimental to the teachers’ professional development since their roles as materials developers are limited and even under-developed. With the cancellation of NE by the end of this year, it is expected that the teachers are able to play their roles as materials developers and conduct evaluations based on the students’ specific expertise.
... The basis for evaluation of competence is an evaluation of the final result of the activity. Notable significant contributions have been made to the development of professional competence by military experts as stated by Alagappa (2001), Barman and Konwar (2001), Bohdaniuk (2013), Cline (1943), Didenko (2014), and Yagupov and Svystun (2007). Analysis of professional training for border guards is impossible without a definition of professional competence as the desired result of their professional training. ...
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Professional training of border guards is closely connected with Ukraine’s national development, its stability and economic prosperity. Due to emerging security threats, the training of future border guards in Ukraine has recently undergone radical changes including the reconsideration of professional competence. According to its reviewed profile, professional competence of border guards means integral unity of knowledge, skills, personal qualities, and values that help them perform their professional duties. Professional competence of border guards is the desired result of their training. The content of professional training for border guards is therefore an important aspect. Changes in the tasks facing the border agency has caused significant rethinking of training content for border guards, resulting in new subjects, sections, modules and topics. As information has to be transferred effectively to trainees, a range of teaching techniques was innovated in order to achieve the pedagogical intention. The innovative techniques include simulation technologies, horizontal learning, innovative lectures, training courses, information and communication technologies, interactive technologies, as well as game-based and project-based learning. These techniques are proven to be more effective in comparison to traditional methods. Despite some unresolved issues, the system of professional training for border guards in Ukraine has shown outstanding results. Further development and improvement will lead to the formation of professional competence of border guards at the desired high level.
... En estudio realizado por Guardia, Márquez, Sánchez, Llanes, Rocha, y Peralta (2018), se realiza la implementación del contenido Superficie de Respuesta en la asignatura Diseño Estadístico de Experimentos para estudiantes de la carrera de Ingeniería Mecánica, a partir del análisis de su contenido y las falencias determinadas en la evaluación del egresado; la inclusión de dicho contenido proporcionó el incremento del índice de calidad como indicador que permite evaluar la efectividad de los procesos de enseñanza y aprendizaje En un "mundo plano" donde la tecnología y la globalización están nivelando el panorama competitivo, la naturaleza del conocimiento en el trabajo está cambiando en la interfaz de la tecnología, los servicios y la demanda de trabajadores aumenta a medida que aumenta la complejidad del trabajo (Barman y Konwar, 2011;Choudaha, 2008). A partir de lo abordado, el presente estudio tuvo como objetivo: proponer la dimensión gnoseológica en el proceso de enseñanza aprendizaje de los problemas de la profesión, a partir del análisis del contenido de la asignatura "Elementos de los Sistemas Hidráulicos y Neumáticos" en la profesión del Ingeniero Automotriz, como respuesta a los desafíos globalizados de la profesión. ...
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Al plantear estrategias específicas para alcanzar metas y evaluar el desempeño, constituye un motor para la mejora personal. El objetivo del estudio fue proponer la dimensión gnoseológica en el proceso de enseñanza aprendizaje de los problemas de la profesión, a partir del análisis del contenido de la asignatura “Elementos de los Sistemas Hidráulicos y Neumáticos” en la profesión del Ingeniero Automotriz, como respuesta a los desafíos de la profesión. Se concluyó que el docente mediante la actualización innovadora en los contenidos conforme a los avances tecnológicos contribuye de forma significativa a las competencias del egresado.
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Globally, there has been a shift from teacher-centered learning to student-centered learning in higher education focused on competence-based curriculum necessitating alignment of student learning outcomes with learning activities and assessment. The aim of this chapter is to explore the practices being put in place, identify deficiencies, and highlight necessary changes. The constructive alignment has involved four major steps: defining student learning outcomes, selecting learning activities, assessing actual learning outcomes, and arriving at a grade/feedback. Two major forms of assessment include summative and formative assessment. Both have been identified to have deficiencies due to the lack of student involvement in the assessment process. In formative assessment, feedback has usually been dialogic, and students' capacity to generate productive internal feedback from multiple sources is lacking. The capacity to align student assessment with long-term learning has been deficient. Bloom's taxonomy and backward design have been useful in alignment of student learning outcomes with activities and assessment will be explored through the lessons learned and carried out as a result of participation in the summer Planning and Implementing Effective Teaching Strategies (PIETS) Faculty Learning Community (FLC) held at Florida A&M University in summer 2021.
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RESUMEN Análisis sintetizado de diferentes modelos curriculares partiendo de la postura de su autor. Se incluye desde la propuesta curricular de Ralph Tyler hasta el modelo por competencias actual, considerando algunos diseños intermedios a estos. Cada apartado se compone de la visión particular del currículo según el autor, así como de los factores incluidos en el proceso de creación e implementación de este. Los autores presentados forman la base para el estudio del currículum escolar. Palabras clave: Modelo curricular, Competencias, Educación, Desarrollo y diseño curricular, Alumnos. ABSTRACT Synthesized analysis of different curricular models based on the position of its author. From Ralph Tyler's curriculum proposal to the current competency model, including some intermediate design. Each section consists of the vision of the curriculum according to the author, as well as the factors included in the process of creating and implementing it. The authors presented form de basis for the study of the school curriculum.
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The overarching purpose of this research was to provide theoretical and conceptual foundations for developing a competency-based curriculum for an interdisciplinary master’s program in Service Science, Management and Engineering (SSME). Specifically, the objective was to ascertain the competencies and courses that are relevant for developing a competency model for a service scientist and a curriculum blueprint for SSME. The study employed three rounds of the online Delphi survey to achieve the research objectives. The three rounds were used to identify, prioritize, and define competencies and courses. A panel of industry professionals and university faculty were invited to participate as experts. A total of 51, 40, and 39 respondents participated in Round 1, Round 2 and Round 3 survey respectively. Overall, a high degree of consensus was observed among the participants for the importance of competencies and courses, however, there were some differences noted by the disciplinary expertise and professional background of the respondents. Based on the consensus of the study participants, a final list of 10 competencies and 14 courses was generated. These competencies were used to develop a competency model and the courses were used to create a curriculum blueprint. The final 14 courses were categorized into four modules, Module 1: Contextual Foundation (Information & Service Economy, Consumer Behavior, Leadership & Organizational Behavior, Project Management); Module 2: Service Core (Service Innovation, Service Design, Service Operations and Supply Chain); Module 3(a): Engineering Concentration (Business Process Modeling, Service Engineering, Quality Management); Module 3(b): Management Concentration, Strategic Management, Service Marketing, Enterprise Systems) and; Module 4: Integrative Capstone (Business and Technology Integration). The final 10 competencies were categorized into three clusters; Cluster 1: Service Mindset (Needs assessment, Conceptualize service system, Problem-solving, Contextualize service science); Cluster 2: Integrative Competence (Business and technology integration, Interdisciplinary collaboration, Diversity orientation) and; Cluster 3: Meta-competence (Adaptability, Interpersonal communication, and Critical thinking). The results of this study may serve as a common language among stakeholders to prepare future service scientists or “T-shaped” professionals for the service economy. This study also contributed to the body of literature of competency-based curriculum development in higher education.
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The fact of placing competences and outcomes learning at the heart of the academic activity means overhauling the curricular architecture of higher education in Europe. Some universities have undergone important transformations moving toward a competence-based learning environment, while others maintain traditional curriculum packaged formats. In the realm of the European Higher Education Area, this paper examines the use of competence-based initiatives in curricular development for engineering degrees with special focus to the Spanish case. Although the concept of competence and competence-based learning have a long history in education and training research, these terms are still very diffuse and demand a clear conceptualization. In the first part of this paper, we provide a conceptual overview and a critical reflection of competences as implemented in a wide range of settings, including its origins, key concepts and definitions. Next, we discuss the purposes, principles, pitfalls, and processes that enable to define a map of competences within Engineering Education. Finally, we present a pilot project involving curriculum development and faculty enhancement within a competence-based learning initiative in Electronic Engineering.
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The term “competency” has not been clearly defined in the literature. Two main meanings of the term have been identified, one referring to the outputs, or results of training – that is, competent performance. The other definition referring to the inputs, or underlying attributes, required of a person to achieve competent performance. Each definition has been used to describe both individual and organisational competencies. A typology of the meanings of competency has been developed to show that the term has several meanings depending on the purpose for which it is used. The implications developed in this paper are directed toward reducing the confusion over the meaning of the term competency.
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As management educators increasingly focus their attention on instructional outcomes, competency-based education has emerged as an important component in graduate business education. The most sought after graduate students are not only knowledgeable in business fields but also demonstrate competence in critical managerial skills. This article focuses on the development, implementation, and assessment of a competency-based component of the Master of Management in Hospitality program at the School of Hotel Administration at Cornell University. This program component assesses and directs the development of graduate students’ skills in writing, presentational speaking, and leadership/group process skills. To the extent that it has proven effective in accomplishing its objectives, it may serve as a model for business educators interested in including competency-based education in their programs.