Article

Considering Future Sport Delivery Systems

Authors:
  • Deakin University, Burwood
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Abstract

It is evident that the sports infrastructure in Australia is becoming increasingly more complex and, as proposed in this paper, is evolving into a series of specific industries. This paper describes these changes by applying elements of Porter's (1998) concept of clusters. In essence, clusters represent overlapping industries, and the increasing ability of sports to leverage financial contributions from organisations relying on a sport's ongoing success in the marketplace. Several examples are used to illustrate: (1) the concept of sport clusters, and (2) the issues confronting sports as they interact with a plethora of sport and non-sport organisations. Several outcomes are enunciated in the paper describing the impact of changing sport delivery systems. Conclusions include the need to recognise a broader role for national and state sporting organisations and to leverage financial support from within their cluster to complement existing, but limited government support. The ability to leverage financial resources from within a cluster will also be reliant on revamping inter-organisational networks recognising that a cluster actually becomes the value chain defining supplier and buyer linkages. Finally, a number of research issues are raised calling on scholars to examine changing industry structures and subsequent sporting organisation responses to these changes by mapping the interactions between industries and organisations to better understand cluster networks and competition.

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... Previous cluster research has used the term of stakeholders in the context of clusters as the organisations that have a shared interest in the prosperity of the respective cluster ( Arthurs et al., 2009). Cluster stakeholders are also mentioned in the context of sport clusters ( Shilbury, 2000). Sport cluster stakeholders are all industries, sellers and buyers with an impact on a particular sport. ...
... Sport cluster stakeholders are all industries, sellers and buyers with an impact on a particular sport. Three levels of stakeholders are differentiated: those with the strongest interest in the sport, those with moderate interest in the sport and those with least interest in the sport ( Shilbury, 2000). This paper further investigates stakeholders in sport clusters and specifies different types of CLORs and their roles for the functioning of the sport cluster. ...
... Sport entities and education/ research institutes can use the sport cluster framework to analyse their environment and unveil opportunities of mutual benefit. Achievements, limitations and further research Conceptual studies on sport cluster have suggested similar frameworks ( Hillairet, 2005;Shilbury, 2000) but not in the same depth and breath as the one suggested here. Hillairet (2005) investigates whether the innovative milieu concept can be applied in the sport sector. ...
Article
Research question: This research develops deductively a conceptual framework for the detection and analysis of sport clusters. Research methods: We test this framework in the ocean racing cluster in Brittany, France. Primary data collection comprises 34 interviews and 8 observations. Secondary data consisted of organisational information and archival data. Data were analysed with NVivo. Results and findings: The suggested framework consists of location-specific factors (LSFs) that determine the development and sustainability of a sport cluster and 10 types of cluster organisations (CLORs) as typical members. We find that all suggested LSFs are relevant. Some CLORs receive less attention than others. Shipyards, professional sport organisations, governing bodies and marine equipment firms have key roles in the ocean racing cluster. Implications: The sport cluster framework is consistent and applicable to different contexts. Further sport cluster studies in different sports and countries are recommended to consolidate the concept and to enable practitioners to better understand and create sport clusters.
... Sport systems are complex and often vary in form, structure, and purpose across different countries. The actors within sport systems typically include for-profit organisations (e.g., sport equipment firms), non-profit organisations (e.g., amateur sport clubs), public organisations (e.g., Ministries of Sport), governing bodies (e.g., national sport federation), and unorganised stakeholders (e.g., customers of a sport brand) (Petry, Steinbach, & Tokarski, 2004;Shilbury, 2000). Previous research on sport systems focuses on policy issues in elite and professional sports (De Bosscher, De Knop, van Bottenburg, À and discuss stakeholder motives for creating or joining IORs in these clusters. ...
... Most existing sport cluster studies simply apply Porter's (2008) cluster model to a sport context (Chetty, 2004;Stewart, Skinner, & Edwards, 2008), while some develop the concept of a sport cluster (Gerke et al., 2015;Shilbury, 2000). However, all of these studies focus on determinants and features of cluster development rather than on dynamics and interactions between cluster members. ...
... We can glean interesting insights into sport management research in this area. For instance, some studies have explored the role and level of formalisation of IORs in the sport sector and have found that institutional pressures and changes in sport systems (e.g., shift of governmental funding for sports) have led to increases in the creation and formalisation of interorganisational linkages (Babiak, 2007;Shilbury, 2000). Additionally, challenges related to capacity (e.g., lack of human resources, collaborative systems, communication channels) may play a role in the implementation and formalisation of IORs for nonprofit sport organisations engaging in cross-sector linkages (Babiak, 2007;Misener & Doherty, 2013). ...
Article
Interorganisational linkages are a widely studied topic in sport management. However, most researchers focus on public or non-profit organisations and analyse one focal organisation rather than a network of interrelated organisations. The purpose of this study was to address both of these shortcomings by investigating interorganisational linkages in sport clusters, a type of cross-sectoral network. The authors address three main questions: (a) what is the nature of interorganisational linkages in sport clusters; (b) how do linkages in sport clusters develop; and (c) what are the organisational motivations for creating or joining linkages in sport clusters? A multiple case study approach explores two sailing clusters in France and New Zealand. Results show that interorganisational relationships tend to be formalised, while interorganisational networks tend to be informal. A circular development process from formal relationships to formal networks via informal relationships and networks was detected. Reciprocity is the most prevalent motive for the development of all types of interorganisational linkages. This research contributes to sport management practice by showcasing the potential multitude and variety of interorganisational linkages in a cross-sectoral sport context which are foundations for cooperation and collaboration. The theoretical contribution lies in the conceptualising of the IOR development process and different motivational patterns as antecedents. © 2017 Sport Management Association of Australia and New Zealand. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
... This article aims at closing this research gap. A sport cluster incorporates all organisations and industries in a particular geographical area that have an interest in the same sport or related sports as either buyer or seller (Shilbury, 2000). Sport refers to 'all forms of physical activity which, through casual or organised participation, aim at expressing or improving physical fitness and mental well-being, forming social relationships or obtaining results in competition at all levels' (Council of Europe Committee of Ministers, 2001, Art. 2). ...
... The cluster concept has been applied to sport and sport-related industries. Some studies have been conceptual (Hillairet, 2005; Shilbury, 2000), but most is empirical European Sport Management Quarterly 3 research in which sport clusters are mapped, analysed or used as an empirical context for certain research questions (Chetty, 2004; Kellett & Russell, 2009; Parker & Beedell, 2010; Richard, 2007; Sarvan et al., 2012; Stewart et al., 2008; Viljamaa, 2007). We specifically build on Shilbury (2000) who proposes sport clusters as future sport delivery systems. ...
... Some studies have been conceptual (Hillairet, 2005; Shilbury, 2000), but most is empirical European Sport Management Quarterly 3 research in which sport clusters are mapped, analysed or used as an empirical context for certain research questions (Chetty, 2004; Kellett & Russell, 2009; Parker & Beedell, 2010; Richard, 2007; Sarvan et al., 2012; Stewart et al., 2008; Viljamaa, 2007). We specifically build on Shilbury (2000) who proposes sport clusters as future sport delivery systems. Stewart et al. (2008) investigate the surfing industry in Torquay, Australia. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The aim of this paper is to test the sport value framework (SVF) suggested by Woratschek, Horbel, and Popp (2014) in the context of sport industry clusters. Woratschek et al. (2014) suggest a fundamentally new logic for analyses in sport management. Sport management issues should be analysed in the context of the entire value co-creation system of sport industries (meso-level) rather than from the perspective of single actors (individuals, organisations). The aim of this paper is to investigate the validity of the ten foundational premises (FP) of the SVF in the context of sport clusters. The sport cluster model refers to geographical concentrations of interconnected organisations with a particular interest in a sport or related sports (Gerke, Desbordes, & Dickson, 2015).
... Traditional structures of games and sports and sporting organisation reflected Australia's historical period of colonisation and post colonisation. Sport in Australia, through its cult development of athleticism, was seen as a building block of the individual, the team, the nation, and the ultimately the Empire (Shilbury andDeane, 1997, 2001). Then came 'the turning point'. ...
... Correspondingly, in the manner in which the sports industry has grown, so has the field of sports management. Chelladurai (1994), as cited in Shilbury andDeane (1997, 2001) argued that it is the products of exchange within the context of sport are able to determine the field and boundaries of sports management. In essence the role of sports management is to cater for the diversity of sports products that are utilised in conjunction with technology and support units in the delivery of participation sport. ...
... the Sportsfun programs were two initiatives that developed out of the Kirk, 2004, Kirk, 2005, Houlihan and Green, 2006 wide range of sports that are inclusive versus elite, and task orientated as apposed to exclusionary and competitive. Shilbury andDeane (1997, 2001) identify two benefits of sport in terms of these positive and negative findings; that of process benefits versus, or in conjunction with, goal benefits. These can be seen as positive and negative operation of intrinsic goals and extrinsic goals. ...
Article
The quality of the school sport experience is critical if the educational objectives of school sport are to be achieved. This study has identified that there are many variables that affect the outcomes of the school sport experience. None considered more important and integral than that of the person(s) who 'shapes and steers' the school sport experience; the School Sport Manager. This case study examined the roles, skills and competencies of School Sport Managers (SSMs) and how the employment of these traits is influenced by the recognition and vocational preparation of SSMs. The research participants consisted of one female and three males, all of whom are located in Gold Coast secondary schools. Both government and non government schools were selected as the research settings.
... It investigates how New Zealand can serve as a source of country-specific advantages and product innovation as a source of firm-specific advantages with respect to a firm's internationalisation (Gerke, 2010). Shilbury (2000) examines sport cluster as potential future sport delivery systems. There are more studies on sport clusters such as the horseracing industry in Southern England (Parker and Beedell, 2010), the skateboarding cluster in Australia (Kellett and Russell, 2009), the surfing cluster in Torquay, Australia (Stewart et al., 2008), the football league in Victoria, Australia (Dickson et al., 2005) and the motor sport industry in North Carolina, USA (Kimmo, 2007, Connaughton andMadsen, 2007). ...
... Greve (2009) supports this theory in suggesting that a firm's proximity to the location where innovations develop influences the extent to which firms adopt and benefit from those innovations. However, Shilbury (2000) puts forward that the relevance of location and geography is reduced for service industries. He also argues that sport is hal-00716680, version 1 -11 Jul 2012 4 Prepared for EAMSA by Anna Gerke, 28 July 2011 primarily considered a service sector (Shilbury, 2000). ...
... However, Shilbury (2000) puts forward that the relevance of location and geography is reduced for service industries. He also argues that sport is hal-00716680, version 1 -11 Jul 2012 4 Prepared for EAMSA by Anna Gerke, 28 July 2011 primarily considered a service sector (Shilbury, 2000). On the contrary, sporting goods businesses play an essential role in sport clusters. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The focus of this research is on the relationship between inter-organisational citizenship behaviour (ICB) and innovation within sport clusters. ICB is defined as discretionary and voluntary behaviour of organisations within a cluster that is not formally rewarded but promotes the functioning of the cluster. The innovation of sport through sport equipment, hence product innovation, is subject of this research. Sport clusters are geographic concentrations of interconnected organisations that have an interest in a particular sport as buyer or seller of related services or products. Four clusters are analysed contrasting two different locations, France and Australasia, and two sports of different maturity and level of organisation, sailing and surfing. This research considers the relevance of culture in sport management research by taking a comparative approach across two different cultures. In the first stage qualitative data is collected to map out clusters and their inter-organisational relationships. In the second step multivariate analysis is applied to investigate how much ICB (independent variable) influences product innovation (dependent variable) in those relationships. This research aims at improving the innovativeness of sport clusters and its organisations. Overall, the results are expected to create a better understanding of clusters, their organisations, relationships, and interactions. The objective is to disclose benefits of clusters as industrial structure with regards to innovation. The authors' intention is furthermore to interpret the results in a wider context, such as other sports or consumer goods markets with similar characteristics, and countries and locations with similar conditions.
... Sport systems are complex and often vary in form, structure, and purpose across different countries. The actors within sport systems typically include for-profit organisations (e.g., sport equipment firms), non-profit organisations (e.g., amateur sport clubs), public organisations (e.g., Ministries of Sport), governing bodies (e.g., national sport federation), and unorganised stakeholders (e.g., customers of a sport brand) (Petry, Steinbach, & Tokarski, 2004;Shilbury, 2000). Previous research on sport systems focuses on policy issues in elite and professional sports (De Bosscher, De Knop, van Bottenburg, Shibli, & Bingham, 2009;Dickson, Arnold, & Chalip, 2005;Dickson, Phelps, & Waugh, 2010), governance aspects in non-profit sport organisations (Ferkins, Shilbury, & McDonald, 2005;Inglis, 1997), or the increased professionalisation of non-profit sport organisations (Macris & Sam, 2014). ...
... Most existing sport cluster studies simply apply Porter's (2008) cluster model to a sport context (Chetty, 2004;Stewart, Skinner, & Edwards, 2008), while some develop the concept of a sport cluster (Gerke et al., 2015;Shilbury, 2000). However, all of these studies focus on determinants and features of cluster development rather than on dynamics and interactions between cluster members. ...
... We can glean interesting insights into sport management research in this area. For instance, some studies have explored the role and level of formalisation of IORs in the sport sector and have found that institutional pressures and changes in sport systems (e.g., shift of governmental funding for sports) have led to increases in the creation and formalisation of interorganisational linkages (Babiak, 2007;Shilbury, 2000). Additionally, challenges related to capacity (e.g., lack of human resources, collaborative systems, communication channels) may play a role in the implementation and formalisation of IORs for nonprofit sport organisations engaging in cross-sector linkages (Babiak, 2007;Misener & Doherty, 2013). ...
Article
Interorganisational linkages are a widely studied topic in sport management. However, most researchers focus on public or non-profit organisations and analyse one focal organisation rather than a network of interrelated organisations. The purpose of this study was to address both of these shortcomings by investigating interorganisational linkages in sport clusters, a type of cross-sectoral network. The authors address three main questions: (a) what is the nature of interorganisational linkages in sport clusters; (b) how do linkages in sport clusters develop; and (c) what are the organisational motivations for creating or joining linkages in sport clusters? A multiple case study approach explores two sailing clusters in France and New Zealand. Results show that interorganisational relationships tend to be formalised, while interorganisational networks tend to be informal. A circular development process from formal relationships to formal networks via informal relationships and networks was detected. Reciprocity is the most prevalent motive for the development of all types of interorganisational linkages. This research contributes to sport management practice by showcasing the potential multitude and variety of interorganisational linkages in a cross-sectoral sport context which are foundations for cooperation and collaboration. The theoretical contribution lies in the conceptualising of the IOR development process and different motivational patterns as antecedents.
... Financial, administrative, and infrastructural support for community sport services may flow from broader governmental or nongovernmental agencies that are not necessarily situated within only one community. Thus, sport can be analyzed in the context of macro-level value cocreation systems, or sport clusters (Shilbury, 2000), rather than from a micro-level perspective (Woratschek, Horbel, & Popp, 2014). Hence, an opportunity exists for research investigating how macro-level sport clusters are associated with community resilience. ...
... From the community development perspective, sport has the potential to deliver geographically driven social benefits (Coalter, 2005), which are facilitated by good community planning (Gehl, 2011). Researchers have suggested that localized sport industries, which Shilbury (2000) termed sport clusters, are an interesting empirical context for the analysis of the sport value framework (Gerke, Woratschek, & Dickson, 2020). ...
... Sport clusters, as new sport delivery systems, are often defined as geographic concentrations of interconnected sport industries, such as organizations of professional athletes, sport facilities, equipment manufacturers, retailers, and promoters (Gerke, Desbordes, & Dickson, 2015;Shilbury, 2000). This means that the community-level sport cluster consists of various types of sport industries in a particular community. ...
Article
Full-text available
How to enhance community resilience to natural disasters is a major question for researchers and policymakers. Although researchers agree that sport generates community benefits, few scholarly efforts in sport management have been invested in understanding the sport-resilience association. This paper attempted to address whether and how sport clusters-the clustering of sport industries-are associated with community resilience across locations. To achieve this, geographically weighted regression and visualization techniques were applied to macro-level data regarding community resilience and the clustering of 13 separate sport industries across 3,108 counties in the contiguous United States. The results indicate that, overall, the clustering of 8 sport industries was significantly associated with community resilience and demonstrates the existence of spatially heterogeneous associations in magnitudes and signs of community resilience in sport clusters. The findings of this paper have the potential to help community sport scholars and policymakers implement location-specific resilience policies through sport industry development.
... Cluster theory bridges the knowledge gap on location-decisions and strategy, and is used extensively by organisations and national governments (Martin & Sunley, 2003). The application of cluster theory to sport led to the sport cluster concept in contemporary sport management research (Gerke, 2014;Gerke et al., 2015;Shilbury, 2000). ...
... Many authors highlight differences between sport clusters and Porter's classic cluster concept (Chetty, 2004;Kellett & Russell, 2009;Richard, 2007;Shilbury, 2000;Stewart, Skinner, & Edwards, 2008). For Shilbury (2000), the key success factor for a sport cluster is the ability of sport organisations to link with other industries. ...
... Many authors highlight differences between sport clusters and Porter's classic cluster concept (Chetty, 2004;Kellett & Russell, 2009;Richard, 2007;Shilbury, 2000;Stewart, Skinner, & Edwards, 2008). For Shilbury (2000), the key success factor for a sport cluster is the ability of sport organisations to link with other industries. This attracts investment and generates revenue, leading to improved performance (Shilbury, 2000). ...
Article
The Sport Value Framework provides a new logic for value creation in sport based on the Service-dominant logic. The Sport Value Framework is a general theory with high level of abstraction, and there is no middle-range theory yet to link it to empirical data. The purpose of this research is to provide one middle-range theory connecting empirical findings to the Sport Value Framework. The authors used a case study approach of a geographical localised sport industry. Primary data collection in the Auckland sailing industry included 27 interviews and observations at events. Secondary data include 13 documents of organisational information and archival data. Data were analysed with NVivo. The results suggest that the Sport Value Framework explains value creation within a localised sport industry. The middle-range theory between the authors’ data and the Sport Value Framework is the Sport Cluster Concept. Eight of the ten foundational premises of the Sport Value Framework are relevant to the case. The results confirm the Sport Cluster Concept as a middle-range theory to explain value creation in localised sport industries through the lenses of the Service-dominant logic. This research helps sport management practitioners to better understand value creation in localised sport industries. It suggests that sport management and marketing scholars should focus more on networks of actors and related inclusive empirical research designs rather than focusing on isolated elements and single actors of sport industries.
... Sport systems and their actors are complex and often vary in form, structure, and purpose across different countries. The actors of sport systems typically include interest groups that are organized commercially (e.g., sports equipment firm), institutionalized non-profit organizations (e.g., amateur sports club), governing bodies (e.g., the Ministry of Sports), or unorganized stakeholders (e.g., customers of a sports brand) (Petry, Steinbach, & Tokarski, 2004;Shilbury, 2000). Previous research on sport systems has focused on policy issues in elite and professional sports (De Bosscher, De Knop, van Bottenburg, Shibli, & Bingham, 2009;Dickson, Arnold, & Chalip, 2005;Dickson, Phelps, & Waugh, 2009), governance aspects in amateur and volunteer administered sport organizations (Ferkins, Shilbury, & McDonald, 2005;Inglis, 1997), or the transition of the latter in professionally run sport organizations (Macris & Sam, 2014). ...
... The research context of this paper are industrial agglomerations in a particular geographical area whose members share an interest in the same or similar sports as profit, non-profit or public organization. Sport industry cluster were chosen because membership is very diverse and interconnectedness is high (Gerke, 2014;Gerke, Desbordes, & Dickson., 2015, Shilbury, 2000.The two sport industry clusters studied for this research focus on sailing equipment and technology for ocean racing. Both clusters comprise a number of interconnected organizations that provide different products or services related to ocean racing, professional and amateur sport entities, sport-related education/research institutes, and governing bodies that exert control or influence over these organizations. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This article addresses three main questions: what kind of interorganizational linkages exist in sport industry clusters, how do they develop over time, and what are the motivations for creating or joining them. Different types of interorganizational linkages are identified according to the number of partners involved, the formalized nature of linkages, and the type of organizations involved. A multiple case study approach is adopted. The empirical context are two sport industry clusters in sailing (France and New Zealand). Results show that interorganizational relationships tend to be formalized, while interorganizational networks tend to be informal. A circular development process of different types of linkages was detected. Reciprocity is the most prevalent motive for the development of all types of linkages.
... These tensions can be associated with leadership, the motivations of the board, structure of the board, and/or the performance of the organisation. Furthermore, Shilbury andFerkins (2011) andFerkins et al. (2005) indicate that these tensions have profound effects on the relationships between volunteer based boards and professional staff in the governance of not-for-profit amateur sport organisations. ...
... In regards to cross-pollution opportunities, the emerging literature surrounding sport development offers a number of potential avenues for future research into the systemic professionalisation of sport (see SMR special issue (2008), sport development: systems, policies and pathways). Cross-pollination of sport development/professionalisation opportunities includes connecting research in areas such as sport policy (e.g., Bloyce & Smith, 2010;Green, 2003;Houlihan, 1997), development through sport (e.g., Dowling, Robinson, & Washington, 2013;Lyras & Peachey, 2011;Skinner, Zakus, & Cowell, 2008) and sport delivery systems (e.g., Shilbury, 2000). All these areas examine sport at a similar systemic level and thus have a great deal to offer sport management in terms of understanding system development concurrent to the ongoing professionalisation process. ...
Article
It has been 80 years since the concept of professionalisation began to take root within the sociology and management disciplines. Similarly, the study of the professionalisation of sport has a relatively prominent and longstanding history within the discipline of sport management. Notwithstanding its continued usage and importance, there has been little systematic attempt to examine how the concept has been operationalised within sport management. In light of this recognition, this review piece draws upon extant sport management, sociological and managerial literature to (i) explore the various ways in which the concept of professionalisation has been employed within sport management, and in doing so, (ii) identifies potential research gaps and future avenues of inquiry within the sport management discipline. The review identifies three broad classifications of professionalisation (organisational, systemic, occupational) and calls for more research surrounding broader conceptualisations of professionalisation that remain relatively unexplored by sport management scholars.
... However, the five effectiveness factors extracted in the context of Hellenic NSOs are only partially consistent with previous measures suggested by Chelladurai et al. (1987), Chelladurai and Haggerty (1991), Morrow and Chelladurai (1992) and Vail (1985) in reference to Canadian NSOs. Although Chelladurai and Haggerty (1991), Koski (1995), and Papadimitriou and Taylor (2000) all employed the strategic constituencies approach, limited research reporting the use of the Competing Value Approach in studying the effectiveness of sporting organizations and sports clubs was identified in the literature (Shilbury &Moore. 2006 andBridges &Roquemore. ...
... At least some level of effectiveness is guaranteed. As Shilbury (2000) noted, however, this perspective represents a potential pitfall for sports association in the future as the proportion of government funds relative to overall expenditures declines as a consequence of an expanding range of programs and activities capitalizing on previous successes. As constituent groups come to this realization, this might lead to resource acquisition being recognized as a more important determinant of organizational effectiveness. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
The research objectives were as follow: (1) to examine structures affecting the sports organizational effectiveness in Thai sports associations by using the Competing Value Approach (CVA) model consisted of eight structures - flexibility; resources; planning; productivity; availability of information; stability; cohesive workforce; and skilled workforce; (2) to validate structures influencing the sports organizational effectiveness in Thai sports associations by employing confirmatory factor analysis; and (3) to explore a relationship between the means and ends in developing sports organizational effectiveness in Thailand. A mix-method research design that integrated quantitative and qualitative data collection and analysis was used. In quantitative approach, population is seventy-one sports associations of Thailand which reflected operational responsive organizations for fundamental and elite sport strategies of the National Sports Development Plan IV. Organizaional samples were five sports associations that qualified the four criteria. They were volleyball, tennis, Muaythai, soccer, and track & field association. Ten experts developed sixty statements of eight theoretical structures for preliminary scales in the organizational effectiveness questionnaire. Nine hundred ninety-six constituents having affiliated with five sports associations responded the questionnaires for determining the structures of the proposed measurement model. Statistics used to analyze was confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation modeling (SEM). In qualitative approach, eight key informants were recruited from the organizational samples based on Theoretical sampling for answered the interview protocol to extract detailed description of relationship of the models. Coding approach developed by Strauss was used for data analysis. The results were found that: (1) the CVA model for Thai sports association composed of eight structures of sixty scales with poor fit (CFI = .629); (2) the structures of the CVA model with highest loading were availability of information and stability (.98) followed by planning (.96), productivity (.84), flexibility (.75), skilled workforce (.57) and cohesive workforce (.53) and resources (.38); (3) the structural model was good fit (CFI = .949). The relationships of the structural model between means was significantly positive relationship with ends (total effect = .92). Planning and availability of information, which has high correlation (r = .97), have a significantly strongest positive relationship with means (lamda = .77). Skilled workforce has a significantly strongest positive relationship with ends (lamda = .69). In conclusion, the CVA model for Thai sports association composed of eight structures that highest loading in availability of information and stability. Means has a significantly positive relationship with ends where planning with availability of information was important value for skilled workforce. The recommendation of this research was operationlization the model should based on all constituent groups’ perspective. Thai sports association could adopt the CVA to visually articulate effectiveness results on each eight structures.
... For example, sport's intrinsically attractive elements of play, leisure-based culture, and amateur and nonprofit orientations have served to impede the acceptance of effectiveness, efficiency, and management practice as necessary components of organizational life. Such efficiency has clearly not been an integral part of the sports culture in Australian sport for the greater part of its history (Shilbury, 1993(Shilbury, , 2000Stewart-Weeks, 1997). Ongoing professionalization of the sector since the 1980s has slowly eroded this thinking, and as a consequence, the practice of determining effectiveness becomes paramount as increasing amounts of public money are provided to Australian national sporting organizations (NSOs). ...
... At least some level of effectiveness is guaranteed. As Shilbury (2000) noted, however, this perspective represents a potential pitfall for NOSOs in the future as the proportion of government funds relative to overall expenditures declines as a consequence of an expanding range of programs and activities capitalizing on previous successes. As constituent groups come to this realization, this might lead to resource acquisition being recognized as a more important determinant of organizational effectiveness. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study applies the competing values approach (CVA) of organizational effectiveness to a sample of nonprofit Australian national Olympic sporting organizations (NOSOs). The purpose of the study was to determine the psychometric properties of the subscales developed within each of the four quadrants composing the CVA. Two hundred eighty nine constituents from 10 NOSOs participated in this study. Initial factor analysis resulted in six of the eight theoretically derived cells in the CVA each yielding one reliable factor. These were Flexibility, Resources, Planning, Productivity, Availability of Information, and Stability. The other two cells, Skilled Workforce and Cohesive Workforce, each produced a two-factor structure. To understand the relationship between these manifest factors (cells) and organizational effectiveness, a confirmatory factor analysis was conducted, which revealed that the rational-goal model, comprising Productivity and Planning, was the critical determinant of effectiveness in NOSOs.
... Consider that participatory sport is serviced-based and geographically fragmented (Shilbury, 2000), whereas spectator sport is mature and product-based (see Figure 3). At first glance, it might seem obvious that we would not study these segments together given their differences in industrial organization. ...
... Especially unique to spectator sport and its supply chain is an arrow in Figure 4 indicating the use of produced sporting contests as free inputs to the products and services of other firms (Shilbury, 2000). Historically, spectator sport franchises allowed print news the free use of their scores as a public good (Neale, 1964). ...
Article
Full-text available
This conceptual paper uses a strategic management approach to assess the unique structure of the business of spectator sport. We argue there is a lack of business competition because franchises are simultaneous co-producers, collaborators, buyers, and suppliers. Consequently, mainstream strategic management frameworks that rely on competitive environments are ill-equipped to evaluate the nuances of spectator sport. In response to these observations, we develop multiple new and modified frameworks, including a spectator sport supply chain that inextricably links the participatory and spectator sport segments. Through this hierarchy of training, participants evolve from paid customers to inputs to production. Spectator sport and its supply chain are then positioned in the center of a revised industry model to develop a theory of spectatoritis, which is a rational explanation for why spectator sport is not only a natural focus for research, but also furnishes considerable promise for the development of unique sport management theory.
... 32). Partnerships have become more common within the sport industry due to increased competition (Shilbury, 2000), as they enable sport clubs to provide cost-effective programmes and be more competitive against commercial operators and new industry entrants (Reid, 2012). They come in many different forms and each one can be unique (Robson & Partington, 2013). ...
... The issues in sport delivery are complex, but what is inevitable is that sport clubs need to seriously reconsider the way they provide their services in the face of an increasingly competitive environment (Shilbury, 2000) and as Burley (2008) suggests, partnerships can provide that solution. This study investigates just thatpartnership motivations, selections and outcomes. ...
Article
Full-text available
Rationale/Purpose: The survival of New Zealand’s amateur sport clubs is threatened by a range of factors. This study investigated how club partnerships may address sustainability concerns brought about through sport environmental changes. Design/Methodology/Approach: Semi-structured interviews with representatives from five sport clubs explored how partnerships could alter sport clubs’ business models for long-term viability. Findings: Partnerships enabled clubs’ governing bodies to appeal to a wider cross-section of society through improved strategic focus, direction and resource use. This led to membership growth and diversity, enhanced financial viability, improved governance, greater community connection and improved HRM functions. Practical Implications: The study suggests the RCOV model and RDT helped clubs’ pre-partnership sustainability issues. Partnerships created larger clubs, enabling financial stability, retention of members, and resource management to overcome environmental challenges. Research Contribution: This study offers perceptions of club partnership outcomes. Critical success factors are presented as a guide of best practice.
... The intent of this is to link knowledge of sport organisations to sport governance, and to then propose aspects of sport governance research that can significantly enhance our knowledge base. Some of the more prevalent research linking sport organisation theory to the strategic role of the board includes examination of the bureaucratisation and professionalisation of sport organisations (Enjolras, 2002;Skinner, Stewart, & Edwards, 1999;Slack, 1985), organisation and industry structure (Amis & Slack, 1996;Chelladurai, 1987;Kikulis, Slack, & Hinings, 1992;Shilbury, 2000), culture (Doherty & Chelladurai, 1999), effectiveness (Papadimitriou & Taylor, 2000), change and stakeholder influence (Inglis, 1991;Kikulis, 2000;, strategic decisionmaking (Kikulis, Slack, & Hinings, 1995a, 1995bSack & Nadim, 2002) and leadership (Chelladurai, & Saleh, 1980;Weese, 1995). ...
... (p. 101) Of the few studies that have been undertaken, researchers have concentrated on investigating strategy and policy development in sport organisations in terms of identifying the situational features of the sport environment (Amis, Slack & Hinings, 2004;Caza, 2000;Girginov, 2001;Inglis and Graff, 1997;Legg, 2003;Sack & Nadim, 2002;Shilbury, 2000;Thibault, Slack, & Hinings, 1993, 1994. In a conceptual contribution that was later empirically verified, Thibault, Slack, and Hinings (1993), concluded that "…there is no one best way to strategize in sport organizations; the strategy developed should reflect the organizational situation" (p. ...
Article
Governance is a critical issue confronting sport organisations. Its importance in the management of sport organisations has been heightened due to the transition of many sports from predominantly volunteer administered organisations anchored in an amateur ethos, to professionally managed entities catering to a more sophisticated sport marketplace. This paper identifies four elements from the sport governance literature as the key research foci to date: shared leadership, board motivation, board roles, and board structure. Four generic themes (performance, conformance, policy and operations) are also examined and expressed as governance capabilities. The strategic role and performance of the board, while central to the practice of governance, is shown to be a weakness in many sport organisations. Further, the strategic role of the board is underdeveloped in the sport management and governance research literature. Finally, it is noted that the governance literature is shaped by a normative and prescriptive approach that may not fully encompass the diversity that
... Other key themes include strategic decision-making (Kikulis et al., 1995;Sack and Nadim, 2002), leadership (Hoye, 2006;Weese, 1995), organisation and industry structure (Amis and Slack, 1996;Babiak and Thibault, 2009;Kikulis et al., 1992;Shilbury, 2000), board member roles (Inglis, 1997a;Yeh et al., 2009), culture (Doherty and Chelladurai, 1999), change and stakeholder influence (Inglis, 1991;Kikulis, 2000;Slack and Hinings, 1992) and effectiveness (Papadimitriou and Taylor, 2000;Shilbury and Moore, 2006). All of these research streams are a reflection of the environmental dynamics evident in the sport sector. ...
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Sport governance research is growing in volume and routinely highlights the tension between volunteers and paid professionals in relation to shared leadership, board motivations, and board structures and performance. Using governance as the lens through which progress is viewed, this paper demonstrates sport's transition from an amateur, volunteer-driven pastime to a more business-like sector. Empirically derived data, from a larger action research study examining the strategic capability of New Zealand national sport organisation boards, are integrated with prior research and theoretical developments to exemplify the state of sport governance theory and the sector generally. Outcomes from the review of sport governance research, combined with a selection of results from the study of strategic capability, highlight the challenges associated with volunteer board engagement, given the increasing demands for strategic thinking and action, while also balancing this task with the conformance, policy and operation roles.
... dia that feeds off football success, sport good retailers, licensees of endorsed AFL products, venue managers, and turf maintenance specialists (Shilbury, 2000, pp. 210-211). The Victorian Golf network cluster includes public golf courses, private golf clubs, golf suppliers, golf club catering services and course maintenance services (pp. 212-213). Shilbury (2000) concludes that this move to sport clusters has a number of implications and consequences. First, it will mean a changing role for national and state governing bodies of sport as they try to accommodate the growing influence and financial leverage of the corporate sector, government, and private providers. Second, it is likely to provide ...
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This paper aims to explain the global expansion of the Rip Curl and Quiksilver surfing brands through the lens of Michael Porter's cluster theory of competitive advantage. Porter's cluster theory was used to identify the special features of the Torquay region in Australia, and explain how these features provided the conditions for the explosive international growth of these businesses. Data was collected though interviews, document analysis, and field trips to the Torquay region. The data was interpreted through the prism of Porter's cluster theory of competitive advantage. It was found that the successes of Rip Curl and Quiksilver were not only the consequence of a historically strong surf culture but also the result of their ability to innovate and design superior surf products, develop strong inter-organisational synergies, and the international exposure from their association with the annual Bells Beach surfing contest. Yes Yes
... One of the main trends of the third wave would be less public funding at all levels of sport. According to Shilbury (2000) the most pertinent implication of the above trend to NSOs would be reduced levels of reliance on Federal government funding and the need to establish greater independence as a necessity to financial survival post 2000. ...
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The aim of this investigation was to determine the impact of elite funding on mass participation
... Moreover, the Danish swimming case reminds us about the relevance of evaluating the current elite sport system as a whole to understand the power relationships and how it affects its athletes (Babiak 2009;Babiak and Thibault 2009;Scheerder, Claes, and Willem 2017;Sotiriadou 2009). Shilbury (2000) recognized early that Australia's sport federations consider alternative forms of structure and supervision procedures to ensure best practice. Jacobs et al. (2019) highlighted that the number of stakeholders (e.g., local and national government, coaches, federations) started a power struggle in South Africa's elite sport. ...
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This paper examines the discourses in power in Danish elite swimming from 2003 to 2013. Gramsci’s perspective was used to deconstruct the hegemonic cultural leadership enacted by coaches and administrators in the Danish Swimming Federation and Team Danmark. Transnational coaches were also engaged in the hegemonic practices towards elite swimmers in Denmark in the quest for Olympic medals. With the exception of a few abortive rebellions, the athletes complied with the hegemonic practices because their coaches and the Danish Swimming Federation were the gatekeepers of their success. These findings are discussed in the context of the evolvement of a neo-liberal funding structure for elite sport in the Western world. The transnational coaches appear to be representing an ideological superstructure in which sporting performance became the sole measure of success (and allocation of funds) in Danish elite sport policy. This study suggests that there is a need of ensuring that athletes’ voices are being heard through an independent regulatory council.
... NSOs believe that this is due to their difficulties in attaining the number of staff necessary to meet operational needs. Shilbury (2000) argued that immaturity on the part of some sporting organisations in Australia limits their ability to be financially autonomous. He claimed that "the readiness to manage increasingly complex structures, and their willingness to consider alternative forms of organisation, structure and management procedures to ensure best practice…has not yet fully reconciled" (p.200). ...
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This paper argues for Grounded Theory (GT) to be more widely used to allow emergence of socially constructed sport related processes. The aim of GT is to explain social phenomena and the resources that are required to support social processes. GT is attractive to researchers as it uses the natural setting where the phenomena studied takes place to examine and understand social constructions. It ranks among the most influential and widely used modes of qualitative research in certain fields, such as sociology. Sport management scholars, however, have largely neglected this method. This paper examines the reasons why the method is not used and demonstrates the importance of using GT by using a sport management study to exemplify GT processes and assess its efficacy in the discipline. Integration of GT method will strengthen sport management research and enable researchers understand social constructions associated with sport.
... Previous empirical studies on spatial clustering include several sports industries: sailing (Chetty, 2004), surfing (Stewart, Skinner, & Edwards, 2008), and skateboarding (Kellett & Russell, 2009). Conceptual research also exists on sports clusters, but none focuses on innovation (Gerke et al., 2015;Shilbury, 2000). Most studies on sports innovation focus on the end user as the innovation source (Hyysalo, 2009;Lüthje, Herstatt, & von Hippel, 2005;Schweisfurth & Herstatt, 2016). ...
Article
This paper investigates the role of citizenship in the innovation process. While there is a large amount of research on organizational citizenship behavior (OCB), interorganizational citizenship behavior (ICB) has received less attention. This study examines a dense, localized cluster of private, public, and non-profit organizations. Seven dimensions characterize ICB during the different phases of the innovation process. These ICBs reflect 16 interorganizational practices that generate absorptive capacity. Seven of these practices occur during the ideation phase, five during the invention phase, and four during the exploitation phase. Cooperation and collaboration precede or underlie ICB. This study shows that spatial proximity is insufficient for enhancing innovation activities in industrial agglomerations and that ICB, collaboration, and cooperation are necessary. Therefore, these findings contribute to knowledge on the theory of innovation management and economic geography.
... The process of organizational change refers to a shift in the dominant logic that has traditionally determined a certain way of operating within an organizational field (Powell, 1991). In the literature reviewed, this organizational change process was experienced as a rationalization process (Westby & Sack, 1976), a bureaucratization process (Slack, 1985) or a professionalization process (John Amis et al., 2002, 2004a J. Amis et al., 2004b; Fahlén, 2005; L. Kikulis, 2000; L. Kikulis et al., 1995a L. Kikulis et al., , 1995b; Lisa M. Kikulis & Slack, 1995; L. M. Kikulis et al., 1992; Nichols et al., 2005; O'Brien & Slack, 1999 O'Brien & Slack, 2004; Shilbury, 2000; Skinner et al., 1999; Slack & Cousens, 2005; Slack & Hinings, 1987 Smith, 2004; Stern, 1979; Stevens & Slack, 1998; Washington, 2004 ). These three 'subprocesses' of organizational change relate to an overall formalization process, a shift from an amateur logic towards a more formalized and professional one. ...
Article
Organizational theorists have usually seen sports as an interesting field in which to illustrate organizational phenomena. In this literature review we examine academic papers and research which explore the particular nature of organizational phenomena in sports, specifically in relation to the structure of sport organizations. This topic has been commonly discussed in the context of wider organizational studies, mainly related to organizational change, organizational performance and the structural configuration of organizations. This means that the changes that have transformed the world of sports have affected not only the structure of sport organizations, but also the environment in which they operate and the measures traditionally used to evaluate their effectiveness. By exploring the literature we hope to identify interesting niches for future research on the structure of sport organizations and the essential elements to be considered when studying organizational phenomenon in the sport sector.
... According to Slack and Parent (2006), despite the studies on sports organizations often implicitly recognize the influence of the environment, there are few studies specifically focused on the relationships existing within the environment. Alliances between organizations involved with the same sport in a task environment can be strategic, leading to a harmonious systemic development for one sport in a country (Amara, Henry, Liang, & Uchiumi, 2005;Freeman, 2010;Henry, 2005;Shilbury, 2000;Sotiriadu & Shilbury, 2009). ...
... Shilbury recognized the need for NSOs to reduce their dependence on government funding in the post-2000 policy agenda and explained that this 'is not an argument to reduce overall Government funding, but recognition that such funding will not continue'. 57 Grant fluctuation and financial uncertainty compels NSOs to lobby the government through the Confederation of Australian Sports or search for alternative funding. Thibault and Harvey 58 argued that in order to deal with uncertainty, sport organizations establish strong links with various stakeholders to coordinate their efforts and increase their resources. ...
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The way the Australian sport system arrested its unrelenting decline in the 1970s to become a model of best practice perplexes many countries. This essay aims to give an insight into the way the system was transformed and became successful. The essay reviews the decline, and then the evolution and devolution of the system, and analyses the stakeholders involved, and the inter relationships developed to achieve success. The study is based on a document analysis examining 74 annual reports from 35 national sporting organizations over a period of four years, before and after the Sydney Olympic Games. The results of the study show that in the face of financial instability and an over-reliance on government funding, sport stakeholders sought alternative sources of income, amalgamated or worked in collaboration with other stakeholders, and/or opted for intra-organizational cooperation. The sport system in Australia has proven resilient and able to adapt to an ever-changing environment via the cooperation of its stakeholders and their willingness to work together towards a common goal.
... Auld, 1997;Skinner, Stewart, & Edwards, 1999). Specifi cally, the research has also examined the bureaucratisation and professionalisation of sport organisations (Enjolras, 2002;Skinner et al., 1999;Slack, 1985), organisation and industry structure (Chelladurai, 1987a(Chelladurai, , 1987bShilbury, 2000), culture (Doherty & Chelladurai, 1999), effectiveness (Papadimitriou & Taylor, 2000;Shilbury & Moore, 2006), change and stakeholder infl uence (Kikulis, 2000;Slack & Hinings, 1992), strategic decision-making (Kikulis, Slack, & Hinings, 1995a, 1995bSack & Nadim, 2002), leadership (Chelladurai & Saleh, 1980;Weese, 1995), and issues of confl ict of interest (Sherry, Shilbury, & Wood, 2007). ...
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The transition of many sport organisations from being predominantly volunteer-administered and anchored in an amateur ethos to professionally managed entities has created unique challenges for the governance of sport. This paper provides a contribution to the governance literature through the pre-sentation of a situational case where a four-stage model, drawn from an action research approach, has been used for developing a board's strategic capability and subsequent improvement in organisational performance. Action research is founded on the premise that change and research are not mutually exclu-sive and that dual foci on improving practice and developing theory are possible (Coghlan & Brannick, 2001). Utilising a national sport organisation (NSO) in New Zealand the study developed and tested a structured model for improving board functioning and, specifi cally, strategic contribution. While the case to which the model has been applied is an NSO, the model and the subsequent refl ections have value for non-profi t as well as commercial entities particularly with regard to a greater understanding of the mechanisms associated with balancing the performance and conformance roles of the board.
... Today there is little doubt that the sport industry has continued to become increasingly multifaceted and sophisticated (Aris, 1990;Massey, 1996;Shilbury, 2000). The move from amateurism to professionalism in sport has been most clearly demonstrated in the traditional, higher profile sports. ...
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Sport business is different; one of these differences is the significant and important cultural role that sport plays in society. This paper investigates the social expectations of sport, and how these expectations impact on the management and governance of sport organisations. Interviews were undertaken with the directors and CEOs of the Australian Football League and its clubs, to examine the concept of social expectations and ethical governance. Five key themes of the social expectations of sport were found: scrutiny, sport business, sport context, social investment, and the historical development of the club. Each of these themes was identified through the data analysis as having a potential impact on the management and ethical governance of sport organisations. A clearer understanding of the social and cultural context within which sport organisations operate, enables sport organisations to implement sound policy and practices for ethical governance.
... Auld, 1997;Skinner, Stewart, & Edwards, 1999). Specifi cally, the research has also examined the bureaucratisation and professionalisation of sport organisations (Enjolras, 2002;Skinner et al., 1999;Slack, 1985), organisation and industry structure (Chelladurai, 1987a(Chelladurai, , 1987bShilbury, 2000), culture (Doherty & Chelladurai, 1999), effectiveness (Papadimitriou & Taylor, 2000;Shilbury & Moore, 2006), change and stakeholder infl uence (Kikulis, 2000;Slack & Hinings, 1992), strategic decision-making (Kikulis, Slack, & Hinings, 1995a, 1995bSack & Nadim, 2002), leadership (Chelladurai & Saleh, 1980;Weese, 1995), and issues of confl ict of interest (Sherry, Shilbury, & Wood, 2007). ...
Article
Full-text available
The transition of many sport organisations from being predominantly volunteer-administered and anchored in an amateur ethos to professionally managed entities has created unique challenges for the governance of sport. This paper provides a contribution to the governance literature through the presentation of a situational case where a four-stage model, drawn from an action research approach, has been used for developing a board's strategic capability and subsequent improvement in organisational performance. Action research is founded on the premise that change and research are not mutually exclusive and that dual foci on improving practice and developing theory are possible (Coghlan & Brannick, 2001). Utilising a national sport organisation (NSO) in New Zealand the study developed and tested a structured model for improving board functioning and, specifi cally, strategic contribution. While the case to which the model has been applied is an NSO, the model and the subsequent refl ections have value for non-profi t as well as commercial entities particularly with regard to a greater understanding of the mechanisms associated with balancing the performance and conformance roles of the board.
... En la bibliografía revisada, este proceso de cambio organizacional fue experimentado como un proceso de racionalización (Westby y Sack, 1976), un proceso de burocratización (Slack, 1985) o un proceso de profesionalización (Amis et al., 2002(Amis et al., , 2004a(Amis et al., y 2004bFahlén, 2005;Kikulis, 2000;Kikulis et al., 1995aKikulis et al., , 1995bKikulis y Slack, 1995;L. M. Nichols et al., 2005;O'Brien y Slack, 1999Shilbury, 2000;Skinner et al., 1999;Slack y Cousens, 2005;Slack y Hinings, 1987Smith, 2004;Stern, 1979;Stevens y Slack, 1998;Washington, 2004). Estos tres "subprocesos" del cambio organizacional están relacionados con un proceso general de formalización, un cambio desde una lógica aficionada hacia una más formalizada y profesional. ...
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La relaci�n entre teor�a organizacional y deporte ha presentado normalmente al deporte como un campo interesante en el cual ilustrar el fen�meno organizacional. Esta revisi�n de la literatura se propone examinar los textos acad�micos e investigaciones que analizan la naturaleza particular de los fen�menos organizacionales en el deporte, espec�ficamente en relaci�n con la estructura de las organizaciones deportivas. El tema ha sido tratado habitualmente en el contexto de estudios organizacionales m�s amplios, principalmente relacionados con el cambio organizacional, el rendimiento organizacional y la configuraci�n estructural de las organizaciones. Esto significa que los cambios que han transformado el mundo del deporte han afectado no s�lo a la estructura de las organizaciones deportivas, sino tambi�n al entorno en el que operan y a las medidas tradicionales para evaluar su eficacia. Examinando la literatura se pueden identificar interesantes parcelas de investigaci�n sobre la estructura de las organizaciones deportivas, as� como los elementos esenciales a tener en cuenta a la hora de estudiar los fen�menos organizacionales en el sector del deporte.
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This qualitative case study provides a sport-oriented perspective of sport tourism. It examines a strategic alliance between an Australian national sport organisation (NSO), the Australian Rugby Union (ARU), and a sport tour operator (STO), FanFirm. The study contributes insights into how NSOs can facilitate and develop sport tourism for major events through alliances with STOs. Findings indicate that by collaborating with the STO, the ARU accrued a range of intangible and financial benefits, which in turn provided an impetus for ongoing maintenance of the strategic alliance. In addition, the alliance was perceived to deliver advantages beyond the NSO–STO nexus, with rugby fans and host governments of rugby events also benefiting. The study demonstrates that sport organisations can play a role in maximising the tourism outcomes of major events and also suggests that smaller-scale, ‘bottom-up’ cross-sector alliances can contribute to maximising tourism outcomes of major sport events.
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The action sport industry is a high growth sector that attracts the lucrative Generation Y market. Although there is a growing body of literature that examines the characteristics and traits of the Generation Y market as consumers of action sports, little is known about the supply side of the action sports industry. This paper illustrates through the example of the skateboarding sport cluster, that this sector has evolved in an organic, almost chaotic manner very different to that of the mainstream sports industry. Entrepreneurs have taken advantage of the open system, the lack of formal boundaries and the risk loving nature of the market to grow the sector into a very profitable industry. The paper specifically illustrates the differences to mainstream sports in relation to provision of facilities, program development and pathways and the roles of suppliers, councils and program developers.
Chapter
The sports business has become one of the fastest-growing industries in recent years. Sports organizations now have the potential to generate massive amounts of revenue through a variety of different channels, including broadcasting rights, advertising and branding. However, the rise of sports-related business has so far received relatively little attention from management scholars and social scientists. This book argues that we can no longer afford to ignore this important economic and social phenomenon. It presents a conceptual framework based on the concept of value creation to show how we can understand and explain the success and failure of sports organizations. Key concepts are illustrated with case studies of sporting organizations, including Real Madrid, FC Barcelona and the Americas Cup. Written by a team of authors from one of Spain's leading business schools, it provides a unique set of theoretical and practical insights for researchers and sports organization managers.
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The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of seven sport management and marketing journals on sport-related research published in 20 top tier generic management and marketing journals. Ten top tier management and 10 top tier marketing journals were inventoried to ascertain the number of sport-related management and marketing manuscripts published in those journals from 1987 to 2007. Twenty-five sport management and 51 sport marketing-related manuscripts were identified in the generic journals. From these manuscripts, twelve citations to the seven sport journals were identified in the management publications and 98 citations to the seven sport journals were found in the marketing publications. Sport Marketing Quarterly (62) was the most cited sport management and marketing journal followed by the Journal of Sport Management (28). Results also identify citation frequency by year, first citations and time taken for the seven sport journals to record first citations, author citation frequency and field of author affiliation and its impact on citation patterns. Implications for sport journal focus and editorial policies are discussed as well as the impact of citations in the generic marketing journals compared with the generic management journals.
Chapter
The sports business has become one of the fastest-growing industries in recent years. Sports organizations now have the potential to generate massive amounts of revenue through a variety of different channels, including broadcasting rights, advertising and branding. However, the rise of sports-related business has so far received relatively little attention from management scholars and social scientists. This book argues that we can no longer afford to ignore this important economic and social phenomenon. It presents a conceptual framework based on the concept of value creation to show how we can understand and explain the success and failure of sports organizations. Key concepts are illustrated with case studies of sporting organizations, including Real Madrid, FC Barcelona and the Americas Cup. Written by a team of authors from one of Spain's leading business schools, it provides a unique set of theoretical and practical insights for researchers and sports organization managers.
Chapter
The sports business has become one of the fastest-growing industries in recent years. Sports organizations now have the potential to generate massive amounts of revenue through a variety of different channels, including broadcasting rights, advertising and branding. However, the rise of sports-related business has so far received relatively little attention from management scholars and social scientists. This book argues that we can no longer afford to ignore this important economic and social phenomenon. It presents a conceptual framework based on the concept of value creation to show how we can understand and explain the success and failure of sports organizations. Key concepts are illustrated with case studies of sporting organizations, including Real Madrid, FC Barcelona and the Americas Cup. Written by a team of authors from one of Spain's leading business schools, it provides a unique set of theoretical and practical insights for researchers and sports organization managers.
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Research question This study contributes to our understanding of how network structures influence cluster governance and consequently cluster outcomes. We investigate the relational structure of cross-sectoral sport clusters and how these influence network governance. Research methods We employed a mixed methods approach, combining qualitative research data and social network analysis (SNA). Forty-nine interviews were conducted with employees from the surfing clusters in Aquitaine (France) and Torquay (Australia). The interview transcripts were subjected to two rounds of coding prior to SNA on an aggregated actor level. Results and findings Findings from both show the core is comprised of five actor types, while five other actor types are peripheral. The French case is a Network Administrative Organisation-governed Network while the Australian case is a Leading Group-governed Network. Implications This article contributes to knowledge on network governance, more specifically on network governance in sport clusters. We extend existing theory on network governance by suggesting a fourth, intermediate mode of network governance, the leading group-governed network. Furthermore, our research provides insights for sport clusters, an under-researched context in interorganisational sport networks.
Chapter
In the past 20 years, the creative economy has emerged as a framework to explore creativity as an ecosystem with direct and indirect value. The creative economy lens does not view fields such as education, arts, culture, and innovation as isolated. Rather, by adopting an ecosystem view, the creative economy maps the interdependence of these fields as unique drivers of direct and indirect economic outputs. In this book, the authors identify an active ecosystem, incorporating all organizations who participate in, or contribute to, improving individual or community well-being through the development and delivery of sport and active recreational experiences. By viewing them as part of a complex active ecosystem, the authors believe policymakers and practitioners are better positioned to shape ecosystem-level opportunities and maximize its impact on the community.
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The aim of the article is to analyze the development and strategic use of sporting events and their intricate political and diplomatic nature, especially when directed at deepening cooperation between countries. The research approaches the 1st Lusophone Games as a case study, a sporting event that took place in Macau in 2006. Through the qualitative approach, we use analysis tools that are based on documentary sources of mass media, reports, interviews, official documents, and academic studies. The interpretation of documents is supported by an interdisciplinary strategy characterized by theoretical concepts from different disciplinary fields focused on aspects of history, culture and diplomacy associated with sport. It argues that the First Lusophone Games were a supreme example of interculturality at the service of sport and the strengthening of ties between historically interconnected countries. It suggests that, the sports diplomacy can be a point of intersection for a group of countries and used to as a resource to create positive legacies based on reciprocity, which translate into social capital for the host. The article concludes by looking forward to the Lusophone Games can be to bridge gaps in the common historical heritage and contribute to maintaining cultural ties of the Lusophone countries.
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Sport clusters are geographical concentrations of private, public, and nonprofit organizations in a denominated area with a shared interest in one or similar sports. This paper addresses the question: How does socioeconomic proximity-linkages between organizations or individuals, which go beyond spatial proximity-influence the development and properties of sport clusters? This qualitative study investigates four sport clusters in surfing and sailing. The findings indicate two types of sport clusters based on different forms of socioeconomic proximity. The surfing clusters are characterized by cognitive proximity based on convergent perceptions and managerial practices. The sailing clusters are characterized by organizational proximity based on complementarity. This article (a) discusses the resilience properties of these two types of clusters and (b) proposes a two-step model of cluster development. Cluster policy makers can draw on this research to consider how to engage early with emerging clusters and foster them by facilitating collective dynamics and projects first and collaborative projects second. Cluster members learn about the long-term value of being involved in clusters and how they can take advantage of cluster involvement.
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Performance assessment by stakeholders is a strategic process that this research formed based on Freeman Stakeholders’ theory (1986) and Lee Stakeholders’ model and its goal is replying to following questions in order to present proper model for performance assessment: Who are most important stakeholders of superior football teams? What are their most important purposes? What are most important actions for fulfilling their needs? The research information collected from ministry of sport and youth, federation, club universalities, library and f iled experts and in first stage based on Freeman theory and past studies and experts’ opinions, a questionnaire was developed with Cronbach alpha coefficient of 0.891 and by using Shannon entropy model and TOPSIS method extracted 9 priorities out of 21. In second stage, a second questionnaire was developed with Cronbach alpha coefficient of 0.928 and 20 most important requests out of 71extracted by TOPSIS method. In 3rd stage, a third questionnaire was developed through interview with managers of 3 sup erior leagues and took measures to examine most implorations actions for providing stakeholders requests that 49 executive actions was recognized and performed by QFD model and quality house model indicated relation among requests of stakeholders, actions, weighting and ranked ultimately 24 important actions was recognized and by using results and normalization, performance assessment model extracted from above three processes that indicated victory result and monetary benefits included their most important requests and teams shall take action to establish clear financial and planning unit and shall be assessed periodically.
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millions of euros in high performance athletes, top teams, and popular sporting events. Studies have also shown the potentiality of sport in the business context. However, relatively few studies have focused on the interaction of business and sport from a value-creation perspective. Knowledge focusing on value creation within and through sport is scattered throughout literature and a systematic understanding of how value creation manifests itself in a business context is lacking. Using a systematic literature review and inductive analysis of 44 empirical studies, the article presents six identified topics that represent the various angles to value creation in the nexus between sport and business. The topics are (1) the many shades of value, (2) brands and sponsorship as value-creators, (3) the value of CSR in and through sport, (4) sport as a network and platform, (5) sport for developing organisations internally, and (6) value congruence and identification. The article contributes to both business man-agement and sports management. The article proposes theoretical and managerial implications and identifies avenues for further research. Download article (free): http://file.scirp.org/pdf/OJBM_2018012315304220.pdf
Article
Performance assessment by stakeholders is a strategic process that this research formed based on Freeman Stakeholders’ theory (1986) and Lee Stakeholders’ model and its goal is replying to following questions in order to present proper model for performance assessment: Who are most important stakeholders of superior football teams? What are their most important purposes? What are most important actions for fulfilling their needs? The research information collected from ministry of sport and youth, federation, club universalities, library and filed experts and in first stage based on Freeman theory and past studies and experts’ opinions, a questionnaire was developed with Cronbach alpha coefficient of 0.891 and by using Shannon entropy model and TOPSIS method extracted 9 priorities out of 21. In second stage, a second questionnaire was developed with Cronbach alpha coefficient of 0.928 and 20 most important requests out of 71extracted by TOPSIS method. In 3rd stage, a third questionnaire was developed through interview with managers of 3 superior leagues and took measures to examine most implorations actions for providing stakeholders requests that 49 executive actions was recognized and performed by QFD model and quality house model indicated relation among requests of stakeholders, actions, weighting and ranked ultimately 24 important actions was recognized and by using results and normalization, performance assessment model extracted from above three processes that indicated victory result and monetary benefits included their most important requests and teams shall take action to establish clear financial and planning unit and shall be assessed periodically.
Book
Full-text available
The sports business has become one of the fastest growing industries in recent years. Sports organizations now have the potential to generate massive amounts of revenue through a variety of different channels, including broadcasting rights, advertising and branding. However, the rise of sports-related business has so far received relatively little attention from management scholars and social scientists. This book argues that we can no longer afford to ignore this important economic and social phenomenon. It presents a new conceptual framework based on the concept of value creation to show how we can understand and explain the success and failure of sports organizations. Key concepts are illustrated with case studies of sporting organizations, including Real Madrid, FC Barcelona and the Americas Cup. Written by a team of authors from one of Spain's leading business schools, it provides a unique set of theoretical and practical insights for researchers and sports organization managers.
Chapter
The sports business has become one of the fastest-growing industries in recent years. Sports organizations now have the potential to generate massive amounts of revenue through a variety of different channels, including broadcasting rights, advertising and branding. However, the rise of sports-related business has so far received relatively little attention from management scholars and social scientists. This book argues that we can no longer afford to ignore this important economic and social phenomenon. It presents a conceptual framework based on the concept of value creation to show how we can understand and explain the success and failure of sports organizations. Key concepts are illustrated with case studies of sporting organizations, including Real Madrid, FC Barcelona and the Americas Cup. Written by a team of authors from one of Spain's leading business schools, it provides a unique set of theoretical and practical insights for researchers and sports organization managers.
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Approached from the viewpoint of value creation two questions are addressed in this chapter: (1) are sport-related businesses different from others? (2) if so, how and in what way are they different? To answer these questions we focus on the different dimensions inherent in sport-related business including historical, economic and social capitals. Different business models are analysed, and different football clubs are compared on the basis of different indicators. Stakeholder model is evaluated. Wrapping up the chapter we assess the way sport entities create value. If generic business is about the capture and retention of customers, sport business is more difficult to define due to the different dimensions that coexist. Indeed, on top of selling season tickets, merchandising products or television rights, the sport entity has to face other dimensions that are not capitalistic activities (Shulman and Bowen, 2001). In that sense, it is interesting to figure out if the development of sport activities has emerged as a consequence of professional underdevelopment or the emergence of a new performance model. The answer to this question is fundamental to determine how and where the creation of value comes from in sport activities.
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An in-depth analysis of the value-creation models used by Spain's leading football clubs is conducted in contrast to those of other European clubs. Assessment is made of the results brought about by these models. Using the sport-emphasis and business-emphasis matrix, an explanation of the context in which the models are positioned is provided in an effort to generalize the findings from the analysis. In contrast to the English, German and Italian football championships, Spain does not have its own value creation model. Yet despite this, Real Madrid and FC Barcelona are, without doubt, two of the European clubs that have generated the most income in 2006, and, moreover, that have shown consistent progression in their results over the last two years (Deloitte, 2008). Nevertheless, throughout the period 2000–2006, Real Madrid CF and FC Barcelona have used different strategies, with different results. The former, despite some triumphant years in the sporting world, has failed to achieve any important win in the last three years at all. Yet it has been recognized as the world's richest football club. As for FC Barcelona, following the difficult presidency of Joan Gaspart (2000–2003) – memorable for both his sporting and financial failures – the Catalan club, under the leadership of President Laporta, has taken back the sporting lead. Over the past two years FC Barcelona has won the UEFA Champions League once and the Spanish national premiership (‘La Liga’) two years in a row, initiating a return to financial health at the same time.
Book
With the publication of his best-selling books "Competitive Strategy (1980) and "Competitive Advantage (1985), Michael E. Porter of the Harvard Business School established himself as the world's leading authority on competitive advantage. Now, at a time when economic performance rather than military might will be the index of national strength, Porter builds on the seminal ideas of his earlier works to explore what makes a nation's firms and industries competitive in global markets and propels a whole nation's economy. In so doing, he presents a brilliant new paradigm which, in addition to its practical applications, may well supplant the 200-year-old concept of "comparative advantage" in economic analysis of international competitiveness. To write this important new work, Porter and his associates conducted in-country research in ten leading nations, closely studying the patterns of industry success as well as the company strategies and national policies that achieved it. The nations are Britain, Denmark, Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Singapore, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United States. The three leading industrial powers are included, as well as other nations intentionally varied in size, government policy toward industry, social philosophy, and geography. Porter's research identifies the fundamental determinants of national competitive advantage in an industry, and how they work together as a system. He explains the important phenomenon of "clustering," in which related groups of successful firms and industries emerge in one nation to gain leading positions in the world market. Among the over 100 industries examined are the German chemical and printing industries, Swisstextile equipment and pharmaceuticals, Swedish mining equipment and truck manufacturing, Italian fabric and home appliances, and American computer software and movies. Building on his theory of national advantage in industries and clusters, Porter identifies the stages of competitive development through which entire national economies advance and decline. Porter's finding are rich in implications for both firms and governments. He describes how a company can tap and extend its nation's advantages in international competition. He provides a blueprint for government policy to enhance national competitive advantage and also outlines the agendas in the years ahead for the nations studied. This is a work which will become the standard for all further discussions of global competition and the sources of the new wealth of nations.
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Strategy requires multiple definitions to fully appreciate its implications. Accordingly, this article proposes five definitions—strategy as plan, ploy, pattern, position, and perspective—and analyzes how these definitions interrelate.
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Economic geography in an era of global competition poses a paradox. In theory, location should no longer be a source of competitive advantage. Open global markets, rapid transportation, and high-speed communications should allow any company to source any thing from any place at any time. But in practice, Michael Porter demonstrates, location remains central to competition. Today's economic map of the world is characterized by what Porter calls clusters: critical masses in one place of linked industries and institutions--from suppliers to universities to government agencies--that enjoy unusual competitive success in a particular field. The most famous example are found in Silicon Valley and Hollywood, but clusters dot the world's landscape. Porter explains how clusters affect competition in three broad ways: first, by increasing the productivity of companies based in the area; second, by driving the direction and pace of innovation; and third, by stimulating the formation of new businesses within the cluster. Geographic, cultural, and institutional proximity provides companies with special access, closer relationships, better information, powerful incentives, and other advantages that are difficult to tap from a distance. The more complex, knowledge-based, and dynamic the world economy becomes, the more this is true. Competitive advantage lies increasingly in local things--knowledge, relationships, and motivation--that distant rivals cannot replicate. Porter challenges the conventional wisdom about how companies should be configured, how institutions such as universities can contribute to competitive success, and how governments can promote economic development and prosperity.
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