Article

Mapping Cultural Dimensions in Australian Sporting Organisations

Authors:
  • Deakin University, Burwood
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Abstract

No research focusing on sport has yet provided a method of charting culture's potential dimensions. The aim of this study was to redress this gap by identifying a set of dimensions that could describe the cultures of Australian sporting organisations. The population for this study included Australian National Sport Organisations (NSOs), State Sport Organisations (SSOs) and clubs participating in national league competitions. Eight sport organisations formed the sample. Data were collected via 24 in-depth interviews. This study revealed 12 dimensions and 68 sub-dimensions of culture, which may be used to begin the process of mapping sport cultures. These results reveal some unique sport dimensions with no single existing dimensional model that captures the collective elements revealed in this study. The unique dimensions revealed in this study include "Rituals", "Symbols", "Size", "History and tradition", with support for these dimensions found within the sub-dimensional codes. This suggests that the dimensions recorded here might provide a useful launching pad for future studies on sport culture.

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... Organizational culture is commonly known as the values, beliefs and basic assumptions operating within an organization (Schein, 1991), and has been expressed as 'how things are done around here' (MacIntosh and Doherty, 2005). Elements of an organization's culture that are observable to the naked eye include artifacts and symbols such as staff dress or uniforms, grooming standards, posters and/or paintings around the club, company logo and/or visible mission statement, among others (e.g., Smith and Shilbury, 2004). These things reflect what is valued in an organization. ...
... These things reflect what is valued in an organization. Culture is also manifested in the actions and behaviour of an organization's staff, as it provides a guideline for their performance (e.g., Smith and Shilbury, 2004). Research on organizational culture has focused almost exclusively on the effect of culture on the staff of the organization. ...
... 100). This premise has been supported by several researchers in a variety of settings (e.g., Colyer, 2000;Deal and Kennedy, 1999;Keyton, 2005;Leo and Alan, 2000;MacIntosh and Doherty, 2005;Scott et al., 2003;Smith and Shilbury, 2004). Research has confirmed the importance corporate values have on staff attitude and behaviour, and ultimately company performance. ...
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Understanding how to be competitive within the fitness industry requires a fundamental awareness of the service environment at the club level. To date, research on the fitness industry has placed considerable focus on the notion of service quality, particularly such elements as equipment, programmes, facilities and ancillary services, and its role in client satisfaction and retention. Recent research suggests that an organization's culture – the values, beliefs and assumptions that reflect how things are done within an organization – may be perceived outside the organization as well. The objective of the study was to examine the relationships between what have thus far been identified as key service elements for fitness organizations, organizational culture values, and the attitudes and intentions of client members from one private fitness company operating in Canada. Findings showed that both the service elements and the corporate values were significantly associated with members' satisfaction and intentions to stay. The findings suggest that what has typically been conceptualized as the service environment of fitness clubs should be revised to include organizational culture elements.
... One might expect that the importance of history and tradition in sport organizations (Smith & Shilbury, 2004;Thiel & Mayer, 2009) serve as a deterrent for innovative thinking. However, Wolfe, Wright, and Smart's (2006) discussion of the use of sabermetrics to assess human resources in Major League Baseball and Gilmore and Gilson's (2007) case study of innovations adopted by a professional football team in the English Premier League provide examples of innovative practices that move beyond the status quo within professional sport. ...
... Further, sport organizations, including CSOs, are characterized by passion and commitment to the product (Babiak & Wolfe, 2009). This passion can result in key stakeholders becoming deeply committed to CSOs and the innovations it undertakes, but can also be a deterrant to innovation if this passion is tied to strong feelings of nostalgia, tradition and history (Smith & Shilbury, 2004;Thiel & Mayer, 2009;Wolfe et al., 2006). In addition, CSOs rely heavily on the work of volunteers. ...
... An organizational culture characterized by risk taking, openness to change, and forward thinking has been linked to organizational innovativeness (Igira, 2008). In comparison, organizations characterized by a culture where tradition, history, and conventional wisdom are valued, such as some sport clubs and leagues (Smith & Shilbury, 2004;Thiel & Mayer, 2009;Wolfe et al., 2006), may not be as open and responsive to innovations, particularly those that are viewed as a significant departure from the status quo. ...
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There has been little attention given to examining innovation under the conditions in which community sport organizations (CSO) operate. In this case study, the process under which one CSO undertook a technological innovation is explored. The purpose of this research was to classify the determinants that contributed to the innovation process, and identify at which particular stages of innovation those determinants were critical. Interviews and focus groups with key stakeholders were conducted during the innovation process. Observations were made at important points during the implementation of the innovation. Leadership commitment, pro-innovation characteristics, organizational capacity, simple organizational design, and involved and interested external parties were identified as determinants of this technological innovation. The findings illustrate multiple determinants of innovation at the managerial, organization, and environmental levels. Some of these span the entire innovation process, while others are critical only at particular stages.
... Despite the acknowledgement that organizational culture is specific to a company, there is merit in examining culture from an industry-wide perspective. This idea is important since the external environment in which organizations operate may be a key determinant in the formation of salient values and beliefs (Choi & Scott, 2008;Ogbonna & Harris, 2002;Smith & Shilbury, 2004;Velliquette & Rapert, 2001). Values and beliefs may be shaped by common demands and dynamics, which may be similar across organizations in an industry (Lee & Yu, 2004). ...
... Values and beliefs may be shaped by common demands and dynamics, which may be similar across organizations in an industry (Lee & Yu, 2004). There is evidence of (in some cases unique) industry-wide cultures within several industries, including food retail (Ogbonna & Harris, 2002), high tech manufacturing, health care and insurance (Lee & Yu, 2004), sport (Choi & Scott, 2008;Smith & Shilbury, 2004) and, most notably, fitness (MacIntosh & Doherty, 2010). ...
... The suggested evidence of an industry-wide culture in the fitness domain, with limited cross-sectoral variation, strengthens the argument that industry demands and dynamics shape the values, beliefs and underlying assumptions about how things are done in an organization within that industry (Choi & Scott, 2008;Lee & Yu, 2004;Ogbonna & Harris, 2002;Smith & Shilbury, 2004;Velliquette & Rapert, 2001). Consistent with institutional theory (Dickson et al., 2000;DiMaggio & Powell, 1983;Lounsbury, 2001), it appears that environmental forces may have caused fitness organizations to adopt and adapt certain ways of doing things across the industry, likely as a result of both regulation and competition, resulting in the replication and imitation of successful practices (DiMaggio & Powell, 1983;Lawrence & Suddaby, 2006;Leiter, 2005). ...
Article
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This study compared the perception and impact of organizational culture on staff working in for-profit and non-profit organizations in the fitness industry. The purpose was to examine whether there was any variation in the emphasis on certain values within these organizations which may distinguish the sectors of this competitive industry. The study also considered whether there were differences in the impact of certain values on employee behavior. Survey research was employed during a major fitness conference and trade show that organizations from both sectors attend. Data were gathered from 416 fitness industry staff, of which 209 worked in the for-profit sector while 60 worked in the non-profit sector. The findings revealed that cross-sectoral variation in organizational culture was limited to the greater emphasis placed on sales in for-profit organizations. The findings suggest that shared values exist within an industry. Findings also showed that a focus on sales in both sectors increased staff intention to leave, while connectedness was inversely associated with intention to leave in the non-profit sector only. Directions for future research on the variation and impact of organizational culture are presented. Cross-sectoral Variation in Organizational Culture in the Fitness Industry Organizational culture is typically conceptualized as the values, beliefs and basic assumptions that help guide and control member behavior and is, therefore, considered to be a micro-phenomenon that is specific to an organization (Martin, 1992; Sackmann, 2001; Schein, 1985). Research has Correspondence Address: Eric W.
... A sub-purpose of the current study was to develop a survey instrument to measure organizational culture in this context. It has been argued, and there is supporting evidence, that organizational culture evolves to fit industry-specific dynamics and demands (Chatman & Jehn, 1994;Colyer, 2000;Lee & Yu, 2004;Ogbonna & Harris, 2002;Smith & Shilbury, 2004;Velliquette & Rapert, 2001). Thus, industry-specific rather than universal measures of organizational culture are required to capture particular features of different environments (cf. ...
... Thus, industry-specific rather than universal measures of organizational culture are required to capture particular features of different environments (cf. Smith & Shilbury, 2004). A brief overview of the fitness industry is provided next to set the context for the study. ...
... Organizational culture is also manifested through member dialogue and behaviour as well as organizational practices (Schein, 1985). It is also represented by company artifacts, dress codes, grooming standards, ceremonies, frequently recited company stories, and how a company deals with crises, all of which reflect an organization's values, beliefs, and underlying assumptions (Beach, 2006;Dastmalchian, Lee, & Ng, 2000;Detert, Schroeder, & Mauriel, 2000;Rafaeli & Pratt, 2006;Smith & Shilbury, 2004). ...
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This investigation examined the impact of organizational culture on job satisfaction and intention to leave the organization through a survey of fitness staff. Organizational culture is commonly known as the values, beliefs and basic assumptions that help guide and coordinate member behaviour. The Cultural Index for Fitness Organizations (CIFO) was developed to measure organizational culture in the fitness industry specifically. Exploratory factor analysis revealed eight factors that represent cultural dimensions common to this context: staff competency, atmosphere, connectedness, formalization, sales, service-equipment, service-programs, and organizational presence. Path analysis was used to examine the relationship among the organizational culture factors, job satisfaction and intention to leave. Results produced a partially mediated model of organizational culture that explained 14.3% of the variance in job satisfaction and 50.3% of the variance with intention to leave the organization. The findings highlight the multidimensionality of organizational culture and its complexity in the fitness industry.
... Scholars, such as Stock and McDermott (2001), concur with Denison and Mishra's research that organizational culture impacts operation and processes of organizations in many ways (p. 626), while others advanced the theory by challenging Denison and Mishra's study and its dimensions (Smith & Shilbury, 2004). In this light, the authors observed that scholars, such as Denison and Mishra, "choose their particular element of culture, describing what is left as insignificant, or existing only as a symptom of the "deeper' phenomenon", thus suggesting the need of a more holistic approach (Smith & Shilbury, 2004, p. 136). ...
... Attempting to expand and decipher the phenomenon, scholars have conducted studies seeking to validate and to test it nationally (Hartnell, Ou & Kinicki, 2011;Gregory, Harris, Armenakis & Shook, 2009), internationally (Banto & Chandan, 2011;Saad & Abbas, 2018;Smith & Shilbury, 2004;Zheng, Yang & McLean, 2010), and in various sectors and industries (Mushtaq, Fayyaz, & Tanveer, Saad & Abbas, 2018;Smith & Shilbury, 2004). For example, Yilmaz and Ergun (2008) advanced the theory by expanding on the organizational culture, and effectiveness constructs utilizing Denison and Mishra's model and applying it in organizations located in Turkey (p. ...
... Attempting to expand and decipher the phenomenon, scholars have conducted studies seeking to validate and to test it nationally (Hartnell, Ou & Kinicki, 2011;Gregory, Harris, Armenakis & Shook, 2009), internationally (Banto & Chandan, 2011;Saad & Abbas, 2018;Smith & Shilbury, 2004;Zheng, Yang & McLean, 2010), and in various sectors and industries (Mushtaq, Fayyaz, & Tanveer, Saad & Abbas, 2018;Smith & Shilbury, 2004). For example, Yilmaz and Ergun (2008) advanced the theory by expanding on the organizational culture, and effectiveness constructs utilizing Denison and Mishra's model and applying it in organizations located in Turkey (p. ...
... Likewise, knowledge of organizational culture allows an organization to change the emphasis on certain values and to shift the focus by emphasizing the values in the cultural type identified as more desirable. Several researchers (e.g., Cameron & Quinn, 1999; Dennison & Spreitzer, 1991; Ogbonna & Harris, 2002; Paparone, 2003, Smith & Shilbury, 2004) have also addressed the significant roles of creating, managing, and changing organizational culture for the purpose of increasing overall organizational effectiveness. In organizational behavior studies, organizational culture has been described as an essential predictor of organizational effectiveness (Amis & Slack, 2002; Cameron & Quinn, 1999; Colyer, 2000; Scott, 1997; Smith, 2004). ...
... Thus, organizational theorists have recognized that culture has powerful effects on organizational performance as well as on long-term effectiveness. In the field of sport management, the value of managing organizational culture has also been noted by several prominent scholars (e.g., Amis & Slack, 2002; Colyer, 2000; Doherty & Chelladurai, 1999; Scott, 1997; Shilbury & Moore, 2006; Slack & Parent, 2006; Smith & Shilbury, 2004; Wallace & Weese, 1995; Weese, 1996). Slack and Parent (2006) argued that the analysis of organizational culture can generate deep insights for sport managers about how to implement a new organizational culture and how to change the cultural environment within a sport organization. ...
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The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Korean version of the Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument (OCAI) based on the Competing Values Framework (CVF). More specially, cultural equivalence between the Korean version and the original English version of the OCAI was evaluated using 39 bilingual Koreans. Next, a field test was conducted to examine scale reliability and construct validity of the Korean version of the OCAI using 133 organizational members from the Korean Professional Baseball League (KPBL). The findings indicate that the Korean version was successfully translated, items maintained the same meaning of the original OCAI items, and yielded acceptable psychometric properties making it applicable to Korean sport organizations.
... Other scholars have focused on cultural differences between sport organizations and non-sport organizations (e.g., Parent & MacIntosh, 2013). Smith and Shilbury (2004) found that sport organizations have distinct rituals, size, symbols, history and traditions. ...
... Research about the impact of organizational culture on knowledge sharing within sport organizations is scant. Further studies would be valuable for managers and coaches of sporting organizations, given that (a) the organizational culture of sports organizations is considered different compared to non-sport organizations (Smith & Shilbury, 2004); and (b) there is a direct link between organizational culture and performance (Frontiera, 2010) as well as between organizational culture and increased knowledge sharing (Amayah, 2013). ...
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This research focuses on coworker learning and knowledge sharing amongst elite footballers. The authors provide an in-depth understanding on how elite footballers learn from their peers and which channels are used to share their knowledge. The authors also analyze how peer learning impacts an elite footballer’s development and performance and to what extent elite football clubs actively support peer learning. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 12 elite footballers from first and second division German Bundesliga clubs. The findings demonstrate that peers are very important sources of knowledge for elite footballers. There are four main knowledge sharing channels: observing/imitating, peer exchange/peer communication, labor mobility and knowledge brokers. The findings highlight the positive impact of knowledge sharing on elite players’ development and performance and call for future (knowledge) management tactics to specifically use this untapped potential.
... In the quantitative studies, nine out of ten used a questionnaire to collect data. Four different instruments were used, with a cluster of five studies using the Organisational Culture (2012) Integration Values, beliefs, basic assumptions, shared understandings and taken-for-granted meanings which individuals base the construction of their organisation and the behaviours and practices in it -based on Pettigrew (1979); Schein (1985); Sathe (1983); Wilkins (1983) Behaviours and practices Smith and Shilbury (2004) Integration Ogbonna and Harris (2002b); Pettigrew (1979) -a collection of fundamental values and attitudes that are common to members of a social group, and which subsequently set the behavioural standards or norms for all members. ...
... They identified the importance of socialisation, as the compressed and inflexible organisational building process put pressure on members to gel quickly and hence on the temporary organisation to rapidly infuse guiding principles, philosophies and values. Further, Smith and Shilbury (2004) queried whether sport cultures might have unique characteristics, based on their hypothesis that sport organisations often emphasise the subservience of the individual for the collective good of the team. They interviewed eight Australian National Sport Organisations, State Sport Organisations and clubs participating in national league competitions. ...
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The purpose of this paper was to systematically review the study of organisational culture in sport. The choice of research paradigms, methods, interests, perspectives, and definitions and operationalisation of organisational culture used in 33 studies was examined. This highlighted the variety of ways that culture has been studied in sport and the range of interests explored in the research, including informing athlete development, the link between the strength of culture and organisational performance and understanding the forces driving organisational diversity. Unlike the wider organisational culture literature, there has been a preference in sport to assume that culture was a variable to manipulate in an organisation. The opportunity to widen approaches to study organisational culture in sport is discussed, such as broadening the methods used to conduct studies, including both coaches and athletes in the population studied and using the fragmentation perspective, where ambiguity and conflict are considered in understanding culture.
... Often, culture can be interpreted by rites, ceremonies, stories, symbols, language, heroes, myths, legends, and other organisational artifacts. For instance, Smith and Shilbury (2004) studied the culture of a National Sport Organisations in Australia and discovered that several heroes and their traits were often discussed in addition to values, symbols, and rituals. In particular, those interviewed for the study made mention of sports memorabilia in the office as one of the symbols that contributed to the culture of the organisation. ...
... There are memorabilia, or symbols, such as the office items that are present in some coworker's work space. There are also values such as working 110% because of the passion for the organisation and the game (see Smith and Shilbury, 2004 for example of this). ...
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The following is a personnel management case study in the context of a Canadian National Sport Organisation. A brief summary of the case, its key players, and the relevant theories associated with the case is followed by the case study, teaching notes, and relevant references. 1. Case Summary This case details the experiences of a new employee in a Canadian National Sport Organisation who is trying to adjust to a new work environment. Coming from another country, Travis Wayne has many adjustments to make in his new life and job including: learning the culture of a new country, learning the governance structure of a National Sport Organisation, learning to do his specific job, and learning about a sport he has never followed. Travis is immediately aware that many in his office are much more connected to their work environment than he, and he has a hard time generating the same level of devotion and excitement that he sees in his coworkers. For Travis, the excitement in his work is related mostly to the job he has of selling and managing sponsorships, not so much the organisation he works for or the particular sport that he is around. Though his colleagues in the workplace try, it is difficult for them to initially relate to Travis because of the many differences that are present. More importantly, Mr. Sharpe (Travis' supervisor) has the same difficulty connecting with Travis, which makes Travis miss out on some of the special privileges the others have in the office because they often socialise with Mr. Sharpe at after-hours events. Finally, Travis has a work colleague that is constantly going above and beyond the call of duty, and this makes Travis question not only why he would want to do that, but the motive behind wanting to do that after work hours are over.
... They are not sufficiently informed about available calls, grants, and funds and ways to apply for financial support for the realization of their projects. However, the interpretation of these results should be considered, including the findings from some authors (Stewart & Smith, 1999;Smith & Shilbury, 2004), which revealed inertness and conservatism of sports organizations in the application of innovations. Also, some authors have noted that the history or tradition of sports organizations can influence deterrence from innovative strategies (Smith & Shilbury, 2004). ...
... However, the interpretation of these results should be considered, including the findings from some authors (Stewart & Smith, 1999;Smith & Shilbury, 2004), which revealed inertness and conservatism of sports organizations in the application of innovations. Also, some authors have noted that the history or tradition of sports organizations can influence deterrence from innovative strategies (Smith & Shilbury, 2004). The situation is somewhat better with the application of innovations that come from sports sciences, given the direct impact on competitive success. ...
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... Organisational culture refers to the unique social and psychological environment of an organisation (Ravasi & Schultz, 2006). It can be defined as a collection of basic values and attitudes common to a social group that sets the standards expected of its members (i.e., how each should think, feel, and behave; Smith & Shilbury, 2004). The impact of organisational culture in high performance sport has recently received increasing levels of attention in sport psychology research. ...
... In a pioneer study, Krotee 18 completed an organizational analysis of the IOC, demonstrating how the Committee is structured as a rational-bureaucratic organization. More recently, studies have been dedicated to analyzing the organizational behavior, 19 organizational design 20 and cultural dimensions 21 of sports organizations that are seeking models. ...
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... All this requires sports organizations to create such an external and internal environment that will enable the creation of human resources to implement the necessary changes and introduce the necessary innovations to progress. Some authors state that the history or tradition of sports organizations can influence deterrence from innovative strategies (Smith & Shilbury, 2004), and Wolfe, Wright & Smart (2006) emphasize the importance of innovation among champions (successful clubs) who have a long tradition in professional sports contexts. The vital role of dimensions of organizational climate in the prediction of innovation in sports clubs of different levels of competition is training and innovation (Escamilla-Fajardo, Núñez-Pomar, and Parra-Camacho, 2019). ...
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... In sport management, OC theory has been explored in collegiate sport departments (e.g., Southall, 2001), amateur sport organizations (e.g., Smith & Shilbury, 2004), and fitness organizations (e.g., Weese, 2005). In the aggregate, this work has shown that culture is an important theory and management principle to comprehend yet further work is needed to formally advance our understanding of the topic. ...
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... In sport related studies, researchers often borrow elements of GT (usually the coding techniques) to analyse the data (e.g. Pauleen and Yoong, 2004;Smith and Shilbury, 2004). In doing so, they combine GT with other research methods. ...
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... Organizational culture is also manifested through member dialogue and behavior as well as organizational practices (Schein, 1985). It is also represented by company artifacts, dress codes, grooming standards, ceremonies, frequently recited company stories, and how a company copes with crises and these reflect an organization's values, beliefs, and underlying assumptions (Beach, 2006;Dastmalchian, 2000;Detert, 2000;Rafaeli & Pratt, 2006;Smith & Shilbury, 2004). ...
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... The influence of organizational culture on organizational performance has been proven in many studies. For example, a number of researchers (e.g., Paparone, 2003;Smith and Shilbury, 2004;Ezirim et al., 2010) have addressed the significant roles of creating, managing, and changing organizational culture for the purpose of increasing overall organizational effectiveness and performance. In organizational behavior's studies, organizational culture has been described as an essential predictor of organizational effectiveness (Catana and Catana, 2010;Ezirim, Nwibere, and Emecheta, 2010). ...
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... In general, management (Hofstede, 1998;Tsui, Zhang, Wang, Xin, & Wu, 2006;Xenikou & Simosi, 2006) and sport management scholars (Kent & Weese, 2000;Scott, 1997;Smith & Shilbury, 2004;Weese, 1995;Westerbeek, 1999) have conducted meaningful studies about organizational culture. Table 1.1 shows selected prominent organizational culture studies in sport management literature. ...
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The main purpose of this study is to examine how employee job satisfaction is influenced by perceived managerial work values and perceived constructive organizational culture. Specifically, the current study model provides a conceptual framework describing interrelationships among three types of work values (i.e., Intrinsic, Extrinsic, and Social Relations), four dimensions of constructive organizational culture (i.e., Achievement, Self-actualizing, Humanistic-encouraging, and Affiliative), and job satisfaction. Additionally, the author can explain the influence of perceived managerial work values and perceived constructive organizational culture on non-executive employees’ job satisfaction by examining a possible mediating effect of perceived constructive organizational culture in the relationships between perceived managerial work values and non-executive employees’ job satisfaction. It is expected that non-executive employees of sport organizations influenced by a desirable constructive organizational culture will have positive reflections regarding the organization (e.g., high job satisfaction). Participants are non-executive full-time employees who work at small Korean sport service organizations (e.g., fitness clubs/gyms, martial art clubs, and golf-related facilities). Compared to large organizations, adapting to change is crucial in small organizations (Hill & Stewart, 1999). More specifically, small businesses could be more heavily influenced by situational work conditions and external environment factors (e.g., labor, the economic climate, up/down sizing, government regulations, and a fluctuating marketplace) than large businesses. Thus, scholars frequently mentioned, “Small business owners and managers must have a different outlook and must apply different principles than those ordinarily used by big companies” (Welsh & White, 1981, p. 18). In particular, small businesses in the sport service industry have proven that employees are required to have various job responsibilities and duties. Employees must have thoughts and plans to keep good relationships with their customers/users. Higher customer retention rates, thus, would be the best result of the relationships. It finally causes improved profitability. Importantly, the author only used full-time non-executive employees from the sport industry in South Korea. Compared to Western countries, Korean businesses and employees in collectivistic and hierarchical culture (Hofstede, 1980) could have different management modes, leadership styles, employer/employee relationships, and organizational behavior in general. This study, thus, will be useful to examine organizational cultures and employee attitudes from a different region. The author believes that the use of full-time employees is appropriate for this study and its purposes. Organizational culture has been normally defined as the deep-rooted beliefs and understandings shared by people in the organization (Schein, 1997). Full-time employees can expect long-term employment and a stable work timetable in general so that they might successfully explore their work culture and evaluate their executives’ work styles more adequately than different types (e.g., part-time employees and volunteers) of human resources. Based on the results of the structural equation modeling, the fully mediated model performed better statistically than the partially mediated model and no-mediation model. The partially mediated model, however, performed much better than no-mediation model. Specifically, the evidence for there being a non-significant path coefficient between perceived managerial work values and job satisfaction in the partially mediated model made the partially mediated model and the fully mediated model different. Additionally, the fully mediated model was more parsimonious. In conclusion, it shows that lower-level employees who positively perceive their organizational culture and their leaders’ (i.e., executive employees) work attributes display higher levels of job satisfaction. In other words, it is assumed that both perceived managerial work values and perceived constructive organizational culture have a great influence on lower-level employees’ satisfaction levels at work. The current study basically compared three models that combined three constructs. Also, the author planned to find which was the best predictor of job satisfaction. Finally, the fully mediated model was chosen as the most representative model. Within the current study, this model indicates that managerial work values mainly have an indirect function in employees’ job satisfaction. It also means that constructive organizational culture plays a consequential role in employees’ job satisfaction. The author hopes that the findings could address useful knowledge of organizational culture in organizational behavior research within the sport management literature.
... The influence of organizational culture on organizational performance has been proven in many studies. For example, a number of researchers (e.g., Paparone, 2003;Smith and Shilbury, 2004;Ezirim et al., 2010) have addressed the significant roles of creating, managing, and changing organizational culture for the purpose of increasing overall organizational effectiveness and performance. In organizational behavior's studies, organizational culture has been described as an essential predictor of organizational effectiveness (Catana and Catana, 2010;Ezirim, Nwibere, and Emecheta, 2010). ...
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Organizational culture is a system of meanings shared to various degrees in an organization. Despite the attention paid to the importance of organizational culture in Malaysia, most studies have not provided consistent evidences. This is partially due to its complexity and the difficulties in defaming and measuring organizational culture. Therefore, this paper aims to examine the relationship between organizational culture and financial performance of top Malaysian companies. In doing so, structured questionnaire which consisted of four parts of Hofstede' culture dimensions (power distance, uncertainty avoidance, individualism and masculinity) were employed. The performance is measured by Return of Assets (ROA) and Earning per Share (EPS) obtained from 2009 annual reports of top 100 Malaysian Public Listed Companies. The samples of the survey were selected through random stratified sampling and generated 145 usable responses. The findings indicated that although there is a significant difference of the background of the respondent as well as the nature of the companies, there is no evident of the differences of company's cultures perceived by the respondents. All four culture dimensions used in this study had influenced the ROA and EPS, but only one component (uncertainty avoidance) positively influenced the ROA and EPS of these companies. As this study is based on one year's result which has limitation in the interpretation of the results, further research is necessary to demonstrate the impact of culture on firm performance.
... This study used a grounded theory data analysis approach utilizing open and theoretical coding developed by Glaser (1992) and placed an emphasis on code/theme discovery rather than testing of hypotheses. Borrowing elements of grounded theory, and in particular the coding techniques, to analyze data is commonly found and a valid way of doing research in sport (e.g., Pauleen & Yoong, 2004;Smith & Shilbury, 2004). Open coding involved line-by-line analysis to unravel the study codes and their characteristics (sub-codes). ...
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Research on cooperative education is widespread; such studies in sport management are just as vital. This study examined student and host agency views on their actual (present behaviour) and optimal performance (desired standard) during practicum and analyzed the performance gap between present (actual) and optimal performance. Themes from journals written by 25 sport management students at an Australian university and 21 host agency evaluation reports, including nine in-depth interviews were analyzed. The data helped identify and compare perceptual differences and similarities between present behaviour and desired standard. The paper concludes with recommendations to improve the practicum experience in sport management.
... In sport management, OC theory has been explored in collegiate sport departments (e.g., Southall, 2001), amateur sport organizations (e.g., Smith & Shilbury, 2004), and fitness organizations (e.g., Weese, 2005). In the aggregate, this work has shown that culture is an important theory and management principle to comprehend yet further work is needed to formally advance our understanding of the topic. ...
... The most commonly known and simple definition of organisational culture is 'the way we do things around here' (Lundy & Cowling, 1996, p. 168). Culture reflects the values, expectations, assumptions and norms of the employees themselves (Smith & Shilbury, 2004). A lack of cultural consensus, ...
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In recent years, elite sport policy has received considerable research attention. However, to date the emphasis of such studies has been the examination of policies as stand-alone entities and the ways each policy may impact athlete performance rather than how policies influence each other. This study explores the elite sport policy interrelationships of Sprint Canoe in order to explain the dynamic links between policies and how they may affect performance. To explore these links in depth, interviews with coaches, high performance managers and athletes from Sprint Canoe in Australia were conducted. The findings of this study offer a contribution to the existing literature on elite sport policy and go beyond the mere exploration of sport and country-specific policy contexts. They showcase the role of a sport’s culture on shaping policy linkages and interrelationships. The practical implications of recognising where sport policies require attention and how to achieve improvements are discussed.
... A theoretical sampling method was utilized in which the sample categories were selected on the basis of their relevance to Zinberg's (1984) triumvirate. Given their prevalence in literature, the key variables were first, the level of the sport's commercialization (Wenner 1998, Wright 1999, Westerbeek and Smith 2003, Stewart et al. 2004, Millar 2005) and second, the sport's cultural foundations (Stoddart 1986, Mckay 1991, Smith and Stewart 1995, Lalor 2003, Smith and Shilbury 2004. The additional 'discovered' sample criterion 'performance level' was subsequently included based on emergent data, and an even split of gender was sought. ...
Article
This article reports on 12 case histories with a view to 1) uncovering the attitudes of players and athletes to drugs in sport, and 2) exploring the implications of these attitudes for the formulation of effective anti-doping policy. The theoretical approach of the research was informed by Zinberg's (198459. Zinberg , N. 1984. Drug, set, and setting: the basis for controlled intoxicant use, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. View all references) model which assumes that the relationship between the drug, individual characteristics and context are pivotal to choices about drug use. A theoretical sampling frame was derived using two key discriminators based on their empirical prevalence as important variables: i) the level of a sport's commercial involvement, and ii) a sport's masculine values as determined by aggressiveness, contact and propensity for risk-taking. The additional ‘discovered’ sample criterion ‘performance level’ was subsequently included based on emergent data. A narrative-based case-history was utilized as the analytical method employing Gee's (198615. Gee , J. 1986. Units in the production of narrative discourse. Discourse processes, 9(4): 391–422. [Taylor & Francis Online], [Web of Science ®], [CSA]View all references) coding approach. Results suggested that attitudes are contingent upon first, the legality of the substance, second, its performance impact, and finally, its social impact. If a substance is not illegal, provides performance support, expedites recovery, or makes the user feel better, then it is considered legitimate. Unlike previous analysis, these results demonstrate that substance use in sport is neither a matter of linear and logical decision-making nor one of fundamental morality for players and athletes. The results suggest that drug-management policies which are underpinned by punitive models of moral certitude and deterrence do not match with prevailing attitudes, and are therefore unlikely to be successful in eradicating drug use from sport in the future. Este artículo analiza doce casos diferentes con el objetivo de (1) descubrir las actitudes de los deportistas ante el uso de sustancias dopantes en el deporte y (2) explorar las consecuencias de dichas actitudes para el dearrollo de una política anti-dopaje efectiva. El marco teórico de esta investigación se basa en el modelo creado por Zinberg (198), según el cual se supone que la relación entre sustancias dopantes, características del individuo y el contexto son de extrema importancia en la decisión de las personas sobre el uso de las drogas. La muestra para este estudio fue escogida siguiendo dos variables discriminatorias que se consideran clave: i) el nivel de desarrollo comercial del deporte y ii) los valores de masculinidad del deporte determinados por su agresividad, contacto y propensión al riesgo. De manera adicional, también se añadió el nivel en la práctica del deporte como criterio para elegir la muestra una vez que se descubrió su importancia en las primeras etapas del estudio. Para analizar los datos obtenidos se ha usado la metodología del estudio de caso y del análisis de contenido del discurso narrativo de los deportistas, usando la codificación sugerida por Gee (198615. Gee , J. 1986. Units in the production of narrative discourse. Discourse processes, 9(4): 391–422. [Taylor & Francis Online], [Web of Science ®], [CSA]View all references). Los resultados sugieren que las actitudes de los deportistas dependen primero de la legalidad de la sustancia, segundo de su impacto en el rendimiento atlético y, tercero, la imagen social. Si ua sustancia no es ilegal, puede felicitar un rendimiento mayor, facilitar la recuperación o consigue que el deportista se sienta mejor, entonces es considerada legítima. En contra de lo sugerido en estudios anteriores, estos resultados demuestran que el uso de sustancias dopantes en el deporte no depende de una decisión totalmente racional, ni tampoco es considerado un asunto de moralidad por parte de los deportistas. Los resultados sugieren que las políticas anti dopaje que se basan en el castigo, la moralidad del deporte o el miedo no se compaginan con las actitudes de los deportitas y, por lo tanto, es probable que no tengan éxito a la hora de eradicar el dopaje. 本文藉由12個個案來1)瞭解球員及運動員對使用運動禁藥的態度以及2)探索這些態度對實際反禁藥政策規劃的意涵。本研究採用Zinberg's (1984)的理論模式作為研究的途徑。該理論模式認為禁藥、個人特質及情境等三者之間的關係,是選擇是否使用禁藥的關鍵因素。根據多數的實證研究結果,本研究的取樣是以下列兩項變數為準則,其分別為:i)運動商業介入的程度;以及ii)藉由侵犯、身體接觸及冒險行為等所顯現的運動男子氣概的價值。根據非預期的資料顯示,「運動表現程度」被增列為是另一個取樣標準。本研究借用Gee (198615. Gee , J. 1986. Units in the production of narrative discourse. Discourse processes, 9(4): 391–422. [Taylor & Francis Online], [Web of Science ®], [CSA]View all references)的解碼途徑來協助分析以描述個案故事為主的資料。研究結果顯示,球員及運動員對使用運動禁藥的態度,首先是視藥物是否合法而定;其次是看增強運動表現的效果;最後才考慮到服用運動禁藥對社會的影響。如果藥物不是非法的、能夠增強運動表現且具迅速痊癒的功效,或者是讓使用者感覺有效,使用藥物就會被視為是合法正當的方式。不像過去研究的分析,本研究的結果顯示,使用運動增強物質並不是一種合乎直線式和邏輯性的決定,且與球員及運動員基本的道德感無關。本研究認為以違反道德進行懲罰的禁藥管理政策模式,與球員及運動員對使用運動禁藥的態度,產生脫節的現象;因此,若繼續目前的禁藥管理政策模式,在未來是不可能完全根絕使用運動禁藥的情形。 本稿の目的は、12の過去の事例を基に、スポーツにおける薬物についてプレーヤーやアスリートの姿勢を明らかにし、その姿勢が効果的なアンチ.ドーピング政策を確立するにあたりどのような意味を持つのかを探ることである。薬物、人格、コンテキストの関係性が薬物使用を選択する際に決定的な要因となるとする、ジンバーグ.モデル(1984)を理論的枠組みとして用いる。理論的なサンプルフレームについては、重要な変数として実証されている、i) スポーツのビジネス化の度合い、ii) 攻撃性、コンタクト、リスクを冒す傾向によって計られるスポーツのマスキュリン的な価値、といった二つの主要な要素から生まれたものである。また、「発見された」サンプルの基準となる「パフォーマンスのレベル」については、本研究から明らかとなったデータに組み入れている。ギーのコーディング.アプローチを分析の方法として、ナラティブを基にした歴史的事例検証を行う。薬物使用に対する姿勢はまず、物質の合法性、そしてパフォーマンスへの効果、さらに社会的な影響が基準となっていることが明らかとなった。もし物質が合法的で、パフォーマンスへの影響があり、回復を早め、または使用者の気持ちを良くしてくれるものであれば、合理的な理由があるとされた。先行研究と異なる点としては、スポーツにおける薬物使用は単純で長期的な意思決定、もしくはプレーヤーやアスリートの根本的倫理観に基づいて必ずしもなされているわけではない、ということである。確固たる倫理観と抑止力を前提とした懲罰モデルに基づく薬物を取り締まる政策は、プレーヤーやアスリートに見られる姿勢と合致していないため、将来的にスポーツにおける薬物の根絶に繋がるものではないと言える。
... The vast majority of literature on national and organizational culture has been informed by this essentialist interpretation. Subsequently, studies on sport organizations' culture have proceeded from the premise that organizational members' values determine their behaviour, and have devised various instruments to measure it (Choi & Scott, 2008;Colyer, 2000;Smith & Shilbury, 2004). Another stream of sport management studies and practices within the anthropological interpretation has recognized the plurality of human nature and concentrated on conceptualizing and managing cultural diversity (Chelladurai, 2001;Cunningham, 2007). ...
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This paper addresses the under-explored culture-sport management nexus and answers the question owhy does it matter?o. After reviewing the current culture debates, seven main aspects of culture and related underlying processes, which provide both the focus of and the milieu within which sport management operates, are identified, including (i) normative, (ii) innovative, (iii) nomos, (iv) singular and plural, (v) dialectic of system and practice, (vi) determined by production and (vii) political. The implications of these aspects for studying sport management are then examined, and research and practical recommendations are put forward. It is argued that by focusing on culture the field of study of sport management changes. The researcher is no longer interested only in what makes people participate in sport, watch a game or how organizational structures are designed; rather, s/he is seeking to understand the underlying cultural processes that drive and facilitate people's and organizations' behaviours in sport. Sport management is interpreted both as a representation of the symbolic cultural system within which it operates and as a means of actively shaping this system. Sport managers are seen as mediators of meaning; sport organizations as institutions for socialization, acculturation and control. A call is issued for scholars working in this field to promote greater cultural sensitivity.
... There is a significant body of literature in organisation theory that allows for the measurement of organisational structure and organisational culture (e.g., Pugh et al., 1969;Mintzberg, 1979), and in particular related to sports organisations (e.g., Smith & Shilbury, 2004), that could be used for researching sport-plus practices. ...
... Specifically, the notions of dominant institutional logics and institutional isomorphism are relevant to organization of free sports which is known for distinctive cultural features. However, the possibility of co-existence of various institutional logics on macro-and micro levels has been revealed in some recent studies (Smith and Stewart 1995;Thibault et al. 1991;Smith and Shilbury 2004;Danisman, Hinnings and Slack, 2006;Southall et al, 2008;Skirstad and Chelladurai, 2011). So an alternative perspective of institutional pluralism can also be applicable to the field of free sports which in many instances has recently seen the new logics entering the field in addition to the traditional dominant logics of alternative "play" activities. ...
... 337 338With respect to team sports, this finding highlights the important role team culture 339 plays in the decision-making process and the pressure that teammates can put on young 340 athletes. Sport clubs/organizations develop a team culture via common activities (e.g., rituals, 341 symbols, history and tradition;Smith & Shilbury, 2004), which in turn fosters a social 342 identity among in the in-group (i.e., sense of belonging to a group) that can strongly influence 343 athletes' behavior(Rees, Haslam, Coffee, & Lavallee, 2015;Stevens et al., 2017). On the 344 other hand, athletes feel pressure from successful opponents to achieve a competitive edge 345 through maladaptive means in individual sports. ...
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The present study investigated athletes’ and coaches’ beliefs about the role of athletes’ entourage in deterring or promoting doping. Competitive athletes and coaches in Greece and Australia took part in semi-structured interviews. Our analysis of the interviews produced five main themes: coach influence, peer influence, doping stance, doping stigma, and entourage’s culture. Overall, coaches and peers having a close and trusty relationship with the athletes were considered most influential with respect to doping-related decisions. The majority of the athletes held a strong anti-doping stance but could not articulate why they held this position. This inability could be ascribed to the stigmatization of doping which led to lack of knowledge and anti-doping education. Finally, an anti-doping culture in the athletes’ environment was considered central to an anti-doping stance. The study findings provide valuable information towards a comprehensive understanding of the role athletes’ entourage can play in shaping athletes’ attitudes and decision for doping.
... With respect to team sports, this finding highlights the important role team culture plays in the decision-making process and the pressure that teammates can put on young athletes. Sport clubs/ organizations develop a team culture via common activities (e.g., rituals, symbols, history and tradition; Smith & Shilbury, 2004), which in turn fosters a social identity among in the in-group (i.e., sense of belonging to a group) that can strongly influence athletes' behaviour (Rees, Haslam, Coffee, & Lavallee, 2015;Stevens et al., 2017). On the other hand, athletes feel pressure from successful opponents to achieve a competitive edge through maladaptive means in individual sports. ...
Article
Objectives To investigate the nature of doping confrontation efficacy (DCE) beliefs – as well as their antecedents and outcomes – through a qualitative examination of Sullivan, Feltz, LaForge-MacKenzie, and Hwang’s (2015) DCE model with high-level technical and strength and conditioning (S&C) coaches from athletics and rugby union. Design Qualitative, descriptive. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 coaches (nmale = 15, nfemale = 6; ntechnical = 11, nS&C = 10; nathletics = 5, nrugby = 13, nrugby & athletics = 3), working at a regional, national, or international level in athletics, rugby, or both sports. Study data were analyzed deductively using content analysis techniques. Results Data analysis supported the relevance of all five dimensions of DCE (i.e., personal resources, initiation, legitimacy, intimacy, and expected outcomes) to coaching practice in athletics and rugby, identifying key potential antecedents (e.g., coach education) and outcomes (e.g., likelihood of confronting athletes on doping-related issues) of coach DCE beliefs relevant to one or more of the DCE sub-dimensions. Deficits in coaches’ anti-doping knowledge were also identified, supporting the need for improved anti-doping education for coaches. Conclusion By conducting the first qualitative examination of DCE beliefs, we enriched understanding of the DCE model and identified a range of possible antecedents and outcomes of DCE beliefs in technical and S&C coaches. Based on the results of this study, recommendations are posed for revising and expanding the DCE model. Practical recommendations are also offered for coach education.
... Sport organisations are commonly associated with distinctive values, symbols, stories, myths and rituals, that all contribute to unique organisational cultures (Maitland, Hills, & Rhind, 2015). Smith and Shilbury (2004) define organisational culture as 'a collection of fundamental values and attitudes that are common to members of a social group, and which subsequently set the behavioural standards or norms for all members' (p. 136). ...
Chapter
Within this chapter I explore key social issues that influence social inequity in and through sport leadership and discuss why it is important for the sector to embrace inclusivity, diversity and equity. This is followed by an overview of the theoretical framework, methodology and key findings of my research examining dominant gender power relations in the governance of two English national governing bodies of sport. My findings revealed that power operates along gendered lines to reproduce male dominance numerically, structurally, culturally and agentically. There was evidence of both the conservation and resistance of dominant gender power relations privileging men across all levels of the two organisations. I provide suggestions of how to resist or transform male-dominated structures and cultures to make English sport leadership more gender-equitable. Finally, I argue that more research is required to evidence the benefits of diverse sport leadership to provide greater motivation for sport organisations to create genuine change.
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This article reports on 11 narrative-based case histories which sought to: (1) uncover the attitudes of players and athletes to drugs in sport, and (2) explore contextual factors influencing the formation of those attitudes as informed by social ecology theory. Overall, participants viewed the use of banned performance-enhancing substances as cheating, 'hard' non-performance-enhancing recreational or illicit substances as unwise, legal non-performance-enhancing substances as acceptable, and legal performance-enhancing substances as essential. In short, attitudes were sometimes quite libertarian, and contingent upon first, the legality of the substance, and second, its performance impact. Results also indicated that athletes' attitudes about drugs were fundamentally shaped by sport's culture. Other significant factors included its commercial scale, closely identifiable others, early experiences and critical incidents of players and athletes, and their level of performance.
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The quality of the school sport experience is critical if the educational objectives of school sport are to be achieved. This study has identified that there are many variables that affect the outcomes of the school sport experience. None considered more important and integral than that of the person(s) who 'shapes and steers' the school sport experience; the School Sport Manager. This case study examined the roles, skills and competencies of School Sport Managers (SSMs) and how the employment of these traits is influenced by the recognition and vocational preparation of SSMs. The research participants consisted of one female and three males, all of whom are located in Gold Coast secondary schools. Both government and non government schools were selected as the research settings.
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Approached from the viewpoint of value creation two questions are addressed in this chapter: (1) are sport-related businesses different from others? (2) if so, how and in what way are they different? To answer these questions we focus on the different dimensions inherent in sport-related business including historical, economic and social capitals. Different business models are analysed, and different football clubs are compared on the basis of different indicators. Stakeholder model is evaluated. Wrapping up the chapter we assess the way sport entities create value. If generic business is about the capture and retention of customers, sport business is more difficult to define due to the different dimensions that coexist. Indeed, on top of selling season tickets, merchandising products or television rights, the sport entity has to face other dimensions that are not capitalistic activities (Shulman and Bowen, 2001). In that sense, it is interesting to figure out if the development of sport activities has emerged as a consequence of professional underdevelopment or the emergence of a new performance model. The answer to this question is fundamental to determine how and where the creation of value comes from in sport activities.
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The complexity and turbulent business environment nowadays forced organizations to enhance their capabilities to be able to respond to all the environmental changes. As a sign of response banks, among other organizations, tried to acquire unique resources and capabilities, develop innovative and entrepreneurial culture. This argument has been justified by the increasing attention given by many researchers to examine the interaction between the Entrepreneurial Orientation (EO) and Organizational Culture (OC). Moreover, a great deal of attention has been paid to the performance implication of this interaction. This paper reviewed the literature related to the interaction between entrepreneurial orientation (EO), organizational culture (OC) and organizational performance of banks.
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Utilising new institutionalism and resource-dependency theory, this paper examines the organisational context of competitive skateboarding. Many within skateboarding have sought to distance themselves from the institutionalised competitive structure exemplified by the Olympic Games, despite a growth in competitive skateboarding within increasingly formal structures. This paper explores how the sport has evolved and how Olympic inclusion has impacted on its organisational arrangements. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews, supplemented by selected secondary sources. The conclusions of the research are: 1) skateboarding has always functioned as a network which includes event organisers, media companies, and equipment producers, with governing bodies playing a more peripheral role; 2) there was a strong lobby from elite skateboarders in support of inclusion in the Olympics although only on 'skateboarders terms'; 3) interest from the International Olympic Committee has affected the organisational evolution of skateboarding and has stressed issues of organisational legitimacy in this sport.
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The content generation strategy of a sports franchise determines whether the user engagement increases or decreases on social media platforms. Thus, the role of Chief Operating Officer (COO) is profound who generally decides and governs social media policies of the franchises. We show that the cultural differences between local-COO vis-à-vis foreign-COO-governed sports franchises reflect in their content generation strategy and are also associated with user engagement. We use Hofstede's cultural dimensions theory and extract relevant features from the tweets. Overall, the results show that user engagement is more when the content generation strategy is in alignment with fans’ national culture. The first contribution of our work is towards showing the incremental impact of power distance, individualism and collectivism on user engagement. The second contribution of our work is towards feature construction, feature selection and building authorship attribution classifiers to understand the content generation strategy. Prior literature shows that national culture impacts writing of online reviews. We investigate the role of national culture in social media content generation and user engagement and extend the literature. Our study is useful for organizations to understand the role of national culture in content generation and how it is related to user engagement.
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Coaches in comprehensive community sport clubs perform coaching activities by sharing values and philosophy inside the club because they belong to the organization and are influenced by it. To date, many studies have examined these effects by using such constructs as organizational culture. Many qualitative studies have examined organizational culture in comprehensivecommunity sport clubs in Japan. However, few studies using quantitative methods have explored it. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to quantitatively examine the relationships between organizational culture in comprehensive community sport clubs and coaches' organizational commitment. One hundred seventy-seven coaches (male coaches = 109, female coaches = 68, mean age = 46.8 years, SD = 15.9) completed questionnaires assessing the organizational culture in comprehensive community sport clubs and their organizational commitment. A hierarchical regression analysis demonstrated that three factors (atmosphere, connectedness, and organizational presence) of organizational culture related to organizational commitment. However, the findings did not indicate that a coach's coaching experience in his/her club was a significant contributor to organizational commitment. Moreover, when coaching experience in his/her club was shorter, atmosphere related to a coach's organizational commitment. Additionally, connectedness and organizational presence were related to organizational commitment when a coach had longer coaching experience in his/her club. Overall, the study suggested that higher levels of recognition of various organizational cultures in a club were linked to the strength of a coach's identification toward and involvement with the club.
Chapter
This chapter establishes the sport innovation landscape by distinguishing where innovation can occur in the sport industry, and how these sites intersect with a cultural context. The chapter addresses how a sport enterprise can go about mapping its culture with innovation in mind. The first section of the chapter maps the potential sites within the sport industry where innovation can occur. Next, the chapter explores the innovation–culture link through a ‘cultural innovation horizons’ framework. Horizons expose the kind of cultural support that different forms of innovation require in order to be successful and sustainable. Finally, the chapter suggests ways for sport leaders to map their organisations’ cultures with innovation in mind. The chapter concludes that culture can be a repository for unimaginative and conservative values or a foundry for inspiration and enterprise. In sport, it is no longer satisfactory to just cultivate cultures that speak to strength and resilience. Such admirable qualities must be bound together with agility and ingenuity. Innovative cultures drive performance, leverage powerful histories, and change swiftly in turbulent conditions. Sports enterprises with innovative cultures find ways of winning because drive and ambition lies at the heart of their collective meaning.
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This paper discusses the processes underpinning the evolutionary development of sport climbing in recent decades, with a particular focus on the impact of its inclusion in the Olympic Games. New institutionalism and resource-dependence theory provide an analytical and explanatory framework for this study. The research adopted a qualitative method strategy comprising a series of interviews and the analysis of documents, reports, press and social media. The recent inclusion of the sport in the Tokyo 2020 Olympic programme has created challenges, primarily because of strong values inherent within the sport. The research, however, shows that the values of a sport can expand and develop in order to fit the regulatory legitimacy required by inclusion in the Olympic Games. Nonetheless, the research also shows that involvement with the IOC raises questions about who ‘owns’ the sport.
Article
This case study reviews strategies for identifying, establishing and influencing sport team culture and leadership, based on Edgar Schein’s three-level theoretical model of organizational culture integrating artefacts, values and beliefs and core assumptions. Specifically, we examine the success of a professional rugby team in New Zealand, the 2014 ITM Cup champions, the Manawatu Turbos. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with past and present coaches (N = 3) and captains (N = 3). Key findings include the need to formally recognize culture, including establishing and reinforcing values, as a tangible element of sport team management practice. A flat organization structure has helped facilitate a suitable environment for collective leadership to flourish. Implications for sport and business teams are the need to acknowledge culture as a core component, and conduct a culture audit to establish the current and desired culture through an aligned combination of informal and formal transformational leadership.
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International Journal of Exercise Science 10(6): 857-874, 2017. Women are under-represented in leadership positions throughout sport, and researchers have largely explored organizational, group, and individual antecedents of this phenomenon. The purpose of the current study was to expand on this understanding by investigating the influence of a country's cultural values on the representation of women on National Olympic Committees. Drawing from Hofstede's cultural dimensions theory, the authors included five cultural values: power distance, uncertainty avoidance, individualism-collectivism, masculinity-femininity, and long-term orientation. Results indicate that women constituted only 19.7 percent of the positions on the boards. Regression analysis, controlling for size of the Olympics program in the country, indicate that cultural values accounted for 41.8 percent of the variance in board gender diversity. Countries with lower power distance, lower masculinity, and lower uncertainty avoidance all had a higher proportion of women on the board. The authors discuss practical and theoretical implications.
Article
Managing People in Sport Organizations provides a comprehensive overview of the theory and practice of managing people within a strategic framework. This revised and updated second edition examines a range of strategic human resource management approaches that can be used by sport organizations to respond to contemporary challenges and to develop a sustainable performance culture. Drawing on well-established conceptual frameworks and current empirical research, the book systematically covers every key area of HRM theory and practice, including: recruitment; training and development; performance management and appraisal; motivation and reward; organizational culture; mployee relations; diversity; managing change. This new edition also includes expanded coverage of social media, volunteers, and individuals within organizations, and is supported with a new companion website carrying additional resources for students and instructors, including PowerPoint slides, exam questions and useful web links. No other book offers such an up-to-date introduction to core concepts and key professional skills in HRM in sport, and therefore Managing People in Sport Organizations is essential reading for any sport management student or any HR professional working in sport. © 2015 Tracy Taylor, Alison Doherty and Peter McGraw. All rights reserved.
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Previous studies acknowledge the importance of sporting organizations' developing partnerships with clubs for athlete development purposes. However, there are no studies that address the way partnerships influence athlete progression and pathways. This study explores interorganizational relationships (IORs) between a tennis federation and tennis clubs in their efforts to improve player development processes. Document analysis and semistructured interviews with representatives from clubs and the Flemish federation were used. The findings show that the federation and the clubs engaged in IORs to achieve reciprocity and efficiency. The federation anticipated gaining legitimacy and asymmetry, and clubs expected to develop stability. Formal and informal control mechanisms facilitated IOR management. The conceptual model discussed in this study shows the types of IOR motives, management, and control mechanisms that drive and influence the attraction, retention/ transition, and nurturing processes of athlete development.
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The sports business has become one of the fastest growing industries in recent years. Sports organizations now have the potential to generate massive amounts of revenue through a variety of different channels, including broadcasting rights, advertising and branding. However, the rise of sports-related business has so far received relatively little attention from management scholars and social scientists. This book argues that we can no longer afford to ignore this important economic and social phenomenon. It presents a new conceptual framework based on the concept of value creation to show how we can understand and explain the success and failure of sports organizations. Key concepts are illustrated with case studies of sporting organizations, including Real Madrid, FC Barcelona and the Americas Cup. Written by a team of authors from one of Spain's leading business schools, it provides a unique set of theoretical and practical insights for researchers and sports organization managers.
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An in-depth analysis of the value-creation models used by Spain's leading football clubs is conducted in contrast to those of other European clubs. Assessment is made of the results brought about by these models. Using the sport-emphasis and business-emphasis matrix, an explanation of the context in which the models are positioned is provided in an effort to generalize the findings from the analysis. In contrast to the English, German and Italian football championships, Spain does not have its own value creation model. Yet despite this, Real Madrid and FC Barcelona are, without doubt, two of the European clubs that have generated the most income in 2006, and, moreover, that have shown consistent progression in their results over the last two years (Deloitte, 2008). Nevertheless, throughout the period 2000–2006, Real Madrid CF and FC Barcelona have used different strategies, with different results. The former, despite some triumphant years in the sporting world, has failed to achieve any important win in the last three years at all. Yet it has been recognized as the world's richest football club. As for FC Barcelona, following the difficult presidency of Joan Gaspart (2000–2003) – memorable for both his sporting and financial failures – the Catalan club, under the leadership of President Laporta, has taken back the sporting lead. Over the past two years FC Barcelona has won the UEFA Champions League once and the Spanish national premiership (‘La Liga’) two years in a row, initiating a return to financial health at the same time.
Article
Although it is well accepted that organizational stories communicate cultural meaning, little is known about their optimal composition for memorability and subsequent transmission. This interpretive study sought to explore the features of organizational stories which contribute to their cognitive optimality. Boyer's (1994, 2001) cognitive optimality hypothesis was employed, which predicts the presence of minimally counter-intuitive (MCI) concepts in culturally recurrent stories. Employing a sample of nine Australian sport organizations, 27 in-depth interviews were conducted. The organizational stories collected in this research, when defined by Gabriel's (2000) criteria, contained MCI concepts. The data analysis revealed three emergent codes that reflect the cognitive structure of MCI concept organizational stories: Agency, Membership Markers, and Ritual. This article extends cognitive optimality theory by demonstrating how it can be employed to understand the mechanisms underpinning the cultural transmission of concepts. It adds to theoretical explanations seeking to explain the construction and composition of sport organizational culture by predicting a heavier density of counterintuitive content in stories and other cultural content.
Article
Although some elements of community sport organizations (CSOs) are welcoming and shared across all members, others may be contested. Organizational culture provides a conceptual lens through which to understand the meaning and experiences associated with CSOs. As the outer layer of organizational culture (Schein, 1985), artifacts can give further insight into participant experiences. The purpose of this study is to examine members' perceptions of artifacts in a local figure skating club. We used Martin's (1992, 2002) three perspectives to illuminate integrated, differentiated, and fragmented perspectives of The Club's organizational culture. Eight skaters and seven adults from a midsize figure skating club in Canada participated in photo-elicited interviews. We found integration in participants' discussion of the unique figure skating facility, differentiated perspectives of achievement-oriented artifacts, and fragmented perspectives of the skaters' dressing rooms. Our research demonstrates the importance of examining the meanings associated with artifacts in sport organizations.
Article
Managing People in Sport Organizations provides a comprehensive overview of the theory and practice of managing people within a human resource management framework. It provides the reader with the skills to understand and work with people in sport organizations and, given the significant changes in sport organizations over the past twenty years, it addresses the issues of managing organizational complexity and how human resources adds value. Written by a team of expert authors it: Provides a systematic approach to managing people based on well established conceptual frameworks supported by substantial empirical research Analysis and explains how to understand and work with people in organisationally complex situations Outlines how HR can support organisational strategy, positively impact performance and deliver sustainable success Designs a strategic human resource management plan that is effective, sustainable and able to adapt to changing conditions. Covers the key research findings in the key area of HR in sport. With each chapter including learning objectives, key issues, international cases studies and supported by online PowerPoint slides Managing People in Sport Organizations is the definitive text for this crucial area of sports management. © 2008, Tracy Taylor, Alison Doherty and Peter McGraw. All rights reserved.
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Contingency theorists have consistently identified size as a major factor influencing the structure of an organization. This study examines the size-structure relationship in a set of voluntary sport organizations (VSOs). The results of the study generally support the trends identified in the organization theory literature; they also demonstrate that VSOs have unique features that influence the effect that size has on their structural arrangements. This is most noticeable when the association, or more specifically the lack of association, between size and the structure of decision making is examined. The relationship between professionals and volunteers, and their associated struggle for control of these organizations, is identified as a principal factor contributing to this situation.
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Although statistical evidence seems to be lacking, it is at present widely acknowledged that organizational culture has the potential of having a significant effect on organizational performance. An analysis of sustained superior financial performance of certain American organizations has attributed their success to the culture that each of them had developed. It has been proposed that these organizations are characterized by a strong set of core managerial values that define the ways in which they conduct business, how they treat employees, customers, suppliers and others. Culture is to the organization what personality is to the individual. It is a hidden but unifying force that provides meaning and direction and has been defined as the prevailing background fabric of prescriptions and proscriptions for behaviour, the system of beliefs and values and the technology and task of the organization together with the accepted approaches to these. From the literature, a vast number of dimensions of organizational culture were observed. These dimensions were synthetized and 15 constructs of culture emerged. By means of conventional item construction, item analysis and factor analysis, a questionnaire with acceptable reliability and construct validity was developed to measure organizational culture.
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This paper draws on ongoing qualitative research on a sericulture project in Bangladesh to explore the ways in which the concept of organizational culture—which is rarely considered within the analysis of development interventions—can help reveal the complex roots of sustainability problems within multi agency rural development projects. The approach focuses both on local organizational realities and on power in the relationships that link project actors and process with wider systems and structures. It was observed that many of the initial project meanings have gradually fragmented over time, despite the earlier coherence expressed through the for-mal project culture expressed through documents and other artifacts.
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Although many organizational researchers make reference to Mead’s theory of social identity, none have explored how Mead’s ideas about the relationship between the ‘I’ and the ‘me’ might be extended to identity processes at the organizational level of analysis. In this article we define organizational analogs for Mead’s ‘I’ and ‘me’ and explain how these two phases of organizational identity are related. In doing so, we bring together existing theory concerning the links between organizational identities and images, with new theory concerning how reflection embeds identity in organizational culture and how identity expresses cultural understandings through symbols. We offer a model of organizational identity dynamics built on four processes linking organizational identity to culture and image. Whereas the processes linking identity and image (mirroring and impressing) have been described in the literature before, the contribution of this article lies in articulation of the processes linking identity and culture (reflecting and expressing), and of the interaction of all four processes working dynamically together to create, maintain and change organizational identity. We discuss the implications of our model in terms of two dysfunctions of organizational identity dynamics: narcissism and loss of culture.
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This study examines organization culture within manufacturing organizations (from the point of weak-strong and positive-negative features) through the use of metaphors. These are used to uncover quickly and easily true feelings about an organization. The study suggests that employees in manufacturing organizations have strong feelings about and towards their organization. At the same time, perhaps because of the long history of well-established organizations, there is a consistency and homogeneity of view. One important finding is that in a period of significant organizational change, employees may have negative perceptions of the organization and its culture. The study demonstrates that the use of metaphors is a useful tool for uncovering feelings towards an organization and suggests that it might be important for managers, researchers and consultants to understand, and be sensitive to, their use.
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The author employed an ethnographic research approach, combined with a clinical element, to explore the nature and role of culture in the context of organizational change. The study took place at the U. K. operations of a global human resources consulting firm, People Associates. Using Schein’s levels of culture model, the author identified cultural assumptions and values and explored how these relate to behaviors, using the author’s relationship with the organization as a rich data source. This study contributes in two main ways: first, it shows how an organizational culture develops historically, is internally coherent, and has potent effects on behaviors that should be studied and understood by managers and clinicians undertaking organizational change programs. Second, it highlights and illustrates how researcher reflexivity and subject reactivity can be useful sources of data for understanding an organization.
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The concept of organizational culture entered the fields of organizational studies, management and organizational communication nearly I5 years ago, but public relations theorists seldom have used it to explain why organizations practice public relations as they do or to explain the effect of public relations activities on culture. This article reviews the literature on organizational culture. It addresses the questions of whether culture can be measured with quantitative scales. or whether it must be observed qualitatively, and whether culture can be managed. We reason that culture can be measured quantitatively, and we developed 48 questionnaire items based on cultural concepts in the literature. These items were included in a questionnaire administered to 4,631 employees in 321 organizations in the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom that were included in the International Association of Business Communicators Research Foundation-sponsored project. Excellence in Public Relations and Communication Management. Factor analysis produced indices of two dimensions of organizational culture—of participatory and authoritarian dimensions of culture. These indices then were correlated with 55 variables that were used to produce an index of excellence in public relations. Results suggest that culture is neither a necessary nor a sufficient condition for excellence in public relations. Participatory culture provides a nurturing environment for excellence: excellence also can occur in an authoritarian culture. Participatory culture correlates strongly, however, with several variables describing the organizational context—a symmetrical system of internal communication, organic structure, and job satisfaction—suggesting that symmetrical internal communication may be the entry point for public relations practitioners to affect organizational culture and, in turn to begin an incremental process toward excellence in public relations.
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Provides students, researchers and practitioners with a thorough exposition of the value of using in-depth interviewing in qualitative research. Examples of research are used across the disciplines to show its wide applications. Minichiello and Hays, University New England, Australia; Aroni, Monash University, Australia.
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This paper begins with a comprehensive review of the management literature on culture, and demonstrates close parallels with research and writings on organisational climate and values. The paper then reports the findings from an empirical investigation into the relationship between the organisational culture, climate, and managerial values of a large Australian public sector agency. The relative strengths of four dimensions of culture in this organisation were measured using Hofstede’s instrument. Added to this were items from a questionnaire developed by Ryder and Southey, derived from the Jones and James instrument measuring psychological climate and providing scores across six specific dimensions of organisational climate. Measures of managerial values, drawn from a questionnaire by Flowers and Hughes, were also incorporated. Results show that levels of culture within this particular organisation are at variance with those reported by Hofstede from his Australian data. Findings indicate a strong link between specific organisational climate items and a number of managerial values dimensions. Additional relationships between particular dimensions of culture, climate and managerial values are also reported. From this, a hypothesised, predictive model of linkages between the constructs is presented.
Article
This study of organizational culture in selected sport associations in Western Australia introduced a quantitative methodology to explore organizational culture to show its usefulness to complement the more qualitative methods traditionally applied to the study of organizational culture. The study used the competing values approach to develop cultural profiles for three sport organizations, which were compared with the sport association members' anecdotal, subjective views of their respective organizations. While the findings reveal evidence of the tensions between volunteers and employees that suggest the existence of subcultures, this study just touches the tip of the organizational culture "iceberg" in sport management. The conclusions indicate some benefits of using the competing values model in conjunction with more qualitative methods to probe sport organizational culture.
Article
This study measures and describes the "espoused" organizational cultures of 11 chartered accounting firms. Following a similar research method to Kabanoff (1992, 1993), cluster analysis is used to classify each accounting firm's espoused organizational culture into one of four "ideal" culture types - elite, leadership, meritocratic or collegial. This is achieved by the use of computer-aided textual analysis which classifies and counts the frequency of value statements and themes made in a variety of organizational documents. The organizational documents collected from participating accounting firms consisted of strategic plans, staff manuals, performance appraisal forms (termed "internal" documents) and client bulletins and recruitment brochures (termed "external" documents). These documents facilitated a test of the consistency in espoused organizational culture: values projected to external parties as compared to the values espoused or transmitted to internal parties within the firm. Given the relatively small number of documents (N = 21) and firms (N = 11) included in the study, meaningful statistical analysis was not possible. However, using the unadjusted results generated by Quick Cluster, inferences have been made from the culture classifications and associated evidence in reviewing support, or otherwise, for the research issues identified. The analysis conducted indicated that there are only limited differences in the organizational cultures espoused externally by accounting firms, regardless of the size of the practice. However, the results also indicate that messages or signals projected to outside parties through external documents, are significantly different to the messages and signals conveyed to staff members. These findings suggest that public accounting firms have a uniform (external) organizational culture, but are heterogenous with respect to internal value sets. This result supports the need for further research into this distinctive cultural split, in interpreting the behavior of accounting firms.
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Conceptual arguments for the association between cultural characteristics and entrepreneurship have existed for decades but only in the last 10 years has this relationship been the focus of empirical scrutiny. In this article, we review and synthesize the findings of 21 empirical studies that examine the association between national cultural characteristics and aggregate measures of entrepreneurship, individual characteristics of entrepreneurs, and aspects of corporate entrepreneurship. The study concedes that a predominant number of empirical studies have used Hofstede's conceptualization of national culture and that other domains have been underdeveloped. A preliminary model that integrates past findings is extended. The review highlights fruitful avenues for future research.
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This paper addresses the determinants of intercollegiate athletic program success. We built our arguments on a recent development in the strategic management literature, the Resource-Based View (RBV) of the firm. Our purpose was to investigate the source of sustainable intercollegiate athletic program success. In making our arguments, we briefly reviewed the RBV literature and addressed appropriate success criteria for intercollegiate athletics programs. An exploratory investigation of Pennsylvania State University's football program led to the conclusion that the resources responsible for its enduring competitive advantage are the history, relationships, trust, and organizational culture that have developed within the program's coaching staff. An organization that possesses such organizational resources may sustain a competitive advantage by exploiting its human and physical resources more completely than other organizations. The paper concludes with discussions of the potential generalizability of our findings, their implications for theory and practice, and suggested future research directions.
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While most sport administrators acknowledge the advantages of managing sport organisations as businesses, or at least the need to use good management practices, they are frequently unaware of the features that distinguish sport from other forms of business (Smith, 1998). This paper aims to review these distinct features which make sport a special enterprise. These features include an intense emotional relationship between members, fans and their clubs, and ongoing tension between the sometimes competing goals of on-field success and profitability. The other major features are the importance of a balanced competition, the difficulties in ensuring constant quality, the frequent need for collaboration between competing clubs, the desire of members and fans to publicly display their club and player affiliations, and the difficulty in meeting sharp increases in demand.
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The influence of individuals' congruence with an organization's culture on their affective orientations toward the organization has been the focus of a growing body of research. The present study contributes to this research by examining this relationship (1) in the context of an organization undergoing significant cultural transformation, and (2) across four theoretically identified dimensions of culture. We found that, across all four culture dimensions, the discrepancy between individuals' assessments of the current culture and their ideal culture explained significant variance in two organization-focused affective outcomes, organizational commitment and optimism about the organization's future. In contrast, the congruence effects across the four culture dimensions were not uniformly significant for job satisfaction, job involvement, and job turnover intention. The implications of these findings for future individual-culture congruence theory and research are considered.
Article
An investigation was undertaken in a large government business enterprise in a bid to examine the utility of the repertory grid technique in the investigation of organizational culture and to conduct an ‘audit’ of performance culture. The development of a methodology is described to gauge the rate of up-take of a new culture—from a public service orientation towards a customer service orientation. Schein's (1990) theoretical framework was adopted in developing a two-stage approach to the collection of data, which incorporated qualitative (in-depth interviews), and quantitative (survey) methods. Results indicated that there was progress in the direction of the new culture desired by management. There were three active cultures or groupings, articulated through the language of the participants, which essentially mirrored a culture in transition: those who had adopted the new culture, those who had partially adopted the new culture, and those who had not adopted the new culture. Findings confirmed that there is gain to be made of the Schein paradigm of culture, and that the repertory grid technique is unique in gathering data about the ‘carriers’ of performance culture.
Article
The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact that the hiring of a professional staff person had on the structural and systemic arrangements of a voluntary sport organization. Six organizations were examined at critical decisions points following the hiring of a professional staff member. The introduction of these people was shown to result in an increase in both the levels of specialization and standardization within these organizations. The increases occurred differentially across organizational systems, with technical systems showing the greatest increases. Decision making was found to become more centralized immediately after the hiring of a professional, however it decentralized over time.
Article
Sentiments collected through paper-and-pencil surveys are often arbitrarily classified according to categories imposed by the researcher, such as attitudes, values, and manifestations of organizational culture. The question is, to what extent are such classifications supported by the distinctions that respondents make in their own minds? In this paper, distinctions between categories of sentiments are supported empirically from the results of an employee survey in a large Danish insurance company (n = 2,590). The 120 questions used were classified into attitudes, values, perceptions of organizational practices (for diagnosing organizational cultures), and demographics. Perceptions of organizational cultures were measured using an approach developed by the author and his colleagues in an earlier study across 20 Danish and Dutch organizational units. In the insurance company study, employee attitudes were found to be clearly distinct from employee values. Perceptions of organizational practices were unrelated to values, and only overlapped with attitudes where both dealt with communication. In the latter case, both can be seen as expressions of the organization's communication climate. Other perceptions of organizational practices did not form recognizable clusters at the level of individuals, but only at the level of organizational (sub)units.
Article
Strategists must manage a number of factors when executing strategy. One of the most important of these is organizational culture. And to successfully manage organizational culture, strategists must manage cultural artifacts. Cultural artifacts include myths and sagas about company successes and the heroes and heroines within the company; language systems and metaphors; rituals, ceremonies, and symbols; certain physical attributes such as the use of space, interior and exterior design, and equipment; and the defining values and norms. In managing execution by managing culture, strategists usually think in terms of managing values and norms. But as it turns out, if they don't also manage existing cultural artifacts, then they build in barriers to failure. Why? Because existing cultural artifacts support the old strategy not the new one. To be successful, strategists must create new cultural artifacts or modify the existing ones so that they support the new strategy. This article uses the case of the successful turnaround at Continental Airlines to demonstrate precisely how managing cultural artifacts enhances strategy execution.
Article
Since the introduction in 1986, by a new Managing Director, of an integrated team management philosophy and with the support of an advanced office systems technology, Rank Xerox has increased sales each year and management profits have more than doubled. The major strategic objective has been to exploit the opportunities in the office systems market by demonstrating the power that the right technology can have in turning a business around.
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A distinction is drawn between two modes of organizational control, one based on personal surveillance, behavior control, and the other based on the measurement of outputs, output control. A study of employees over five levels of hierarchy shows that the two modes of control are not substitutes for each other, but are independent of each other. The evidence suggests that output control occurs in response to a manager's need to provide legitimate evidence of performance, while behavior control is exerted when means-ends relations are known and thus appropriate instruction possible.
Article
The authors propose a competing values approach to organizational effectiveness. Seven researchers in organizational behavior were impaneled to make judgments about the similarity of effectiveness criteria derived from a comprehensive list. A spatial model was developed from the judgment data. It indicated that three value dimensions, focus (task--people), structure (control--flexibility), and time (short-term--long-term) underlie conceptualizations of organizational effectiveness. Furthermore, the model suggested some fundamental criteria of organizational effectiveness that differentially reflect these three value dimensions. The present research uses this competing values approach to resolve a number of existing problems in the organizational effectiveness literature.
Article
The purpose of this article is to define the concept of organizational culture in terms of a dynamic model of how culture is learned, passed on, and changed. The definition highlights that culture: is always in the process of formation and change; tends to cover all aspects of human functioning; is learned around the major issues of external adaptation and internal integration; and is ultimately embodied as an interrelated, patterned set of basic assumptions that deal with ultimate issues, such as the nature of humanity, human relationships, time, space, and the nature of reality and truth itself. To decipher a given organization's culture, one must use a complex interview, observation, and joint-inquiry approach in which selected members of the group work with the outsider to uncover the unconscious assumptions that are hypothesized to be the essence of the culture.
Article
The competing values model (CVM) describes organizational culture in terms of what appear to be mutually exclusive value dimensions: structural control vs. flexibility, focus on internal vs. external stakeholders, and means vs. ends. The apparent paradox in simultaneously expressing competing values has implications for a variety of organizational phenomena, including leadership, decision making, and strategic management. The CVM thus offers promise for providing a common metric for multi-level, trans-organizational, and cross-cultural analyses. To date, however, underlying assumptions regarding the competing values framework as a characterization of culture have not been fully validated. This research provides a test of the competing values model with methodology that is conceptually consonant with the paradoxical nature of the theory. Using a sample drawn from 10 U.S. organizations, a Qsort and multidimensional scaling analysis produce qualified support for a structure of organizational cultural values consistent with the CVM. Further, this study elaborates the CVM by suggesting a mechanism whereby the apparent paradox of competing values might be more effectively managed.
Article
The purpose of this paper is to link concepts of organizational culture, traditionally viewed from a corporate perspective, to management of intercollegiate athletic organizations. Relevant literature is reviewed to identify definitions and components of organizational culture, as well as elements of cultural strength. The relationship of culture to transformational leadership is recognized and ideas regarding how culture has been deciphered and managed in a corporate setting are presented. In addition, a critical perspective regarding organizational culture is examined and recognition is given to the importance of democratic ideals in the development of a “positive” culture. Recognizing that strong positive culture in a corporate organization generally equates with overall success, the implications for athletic organizations are important. These implications are discussed, and suggestions for athletic administrators and head coaches regarding culture management in collegiate sport organizations are presented.
Article
The influence of individuals’ congruence with an organization’s culture on their affective orientations toward the organization has been the focus of a growing body of research. The present study contributes to this research by examining this relationship (I) in the context of an organization undergoing significant cultural transformation, and (2) across four theoretically identified dimensions of culture. We found that, across all four culture dimensions, the discrepancy between individuals’ assessments of the current culture and their ideal culture explained significant variance in two organization-focused affective outcomes, organizational commitment and optimism about the organization’s future. In contrast, the congruence effects across the four culture dimensions were not uniformly significant for job satisfaction, job involvement, and job turnover intention. The implications of these findings for future individual-culture congruence theory and research are considered.
Article
The purpose of this article is to present, by means of a model, the determinants of organisational culture which influence creativity and innovation. A literature study showed that a model, based on the open systems theory and the work of Schein, can offer a holistic approach in describing organisational culture. The relationship between creativity, innovation and culture is discussed in this context. Against the background of this model, the determinants of organisational culture were identified. The determinants are strategy, structure, support mechanisms, behaviour that encourages innovation, and open communication. The influence of each determinant on creativity and innovation is discussed. Values, norms and beliefs that play a role in creativity and innovation can either support or inhibit creativity and innovation depending on how they influence individual and group behaviour. This is also explained in the article.
Article
The abstract for this document is available on CSA Illumina.To view the Abstract, click the Abstract button above the document title.
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Investigated the relationship between 2 industry characteristics, technology and growth, and organizational culture. This relationship was examined by comparing the cultures of organizations within and across industries. 15 firms representing 4 industries in the service sector completed the Organizational Culture Profile. Results show that stable organizational culture dimensions existed and varied more across industries than within them. Specific cultural values associated with levels of industry technology and growth were innovation, stability, an orientation toward people, and an orientation toward outcomes or results. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This paper presents the results of a study on organizational cultures in twenty units from ten different organizations in Denmark and the Netherlands. Data came from in-depth interviews of selected informants and a questionnaire survey of a stratified random sample of organizational members. Data on task, structure, and control characteristics of each unit were collected separately. Quantitative measures of the cultures of the twenty units, aggregated at the unit level, showed that a large part of the differences among these twenty units could be explained by six factors, related to established concepts from organizational sociology, that measured the organizational cultures on six independent dimensions. The organizational culture differences found resided mainly at the level of practices as perceived by members. Scores of the units on the six dimensions were partly explainable from organizational idiosyncrasies but were also significantly correlated with a variety of task, structural, and control-system characteristics of the units.
Article
Culture has evolved into a concept which occupies a prominent role in the study of organizational life, attracting the attention of academics and practitioners alike. Given culture's recent infiltration in the general and services marketing domains, it is incumbent upon researchers to gain a better understanding of the conceptualization, operationalization, and theoretical linkages associated with culture. Accordingly, the authors profile the many definitions of organizational culture, providing suggestions for appropriate methodologies. Implications are presented for services marketing, highlighting five avenues of research that remain unexplored.
Article
Discusses how, by analyzing an organization's tangible, accessible, and visible organizational rites, the underlying, expressive culture of an organization can be understood. Rites of passage (induction and basic training), rites of degradation (firing and replacing top executive), rites of enhancement (seminars to enhance social identities and their power), rites of renewal (organizational development activities), rites of conflict reduction (collective bargaining), and rites of integration (office Christmas party) are described. It is concluded that managers can learn to interpret their organizations' rites and that the insights they gain in the process can be useful for the enlightened management and changing of their organizational cultures. (0 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Examines some logical and conceptual distinctions between job satisfaction and organizational climate. From a selective review of the literature, it is argued that confusion over 3 problems has led to the suggestion that the concept of climate may be a redundancy: (a) The word "satisfaction" implies an affective inner state, while the word "climate" refers to a molar description of a situation. (b) The molar descriptions are composites of practices and procedures, while "climate" is an abstraction of a specific set of practices and procedures. (c) The basic research on satisfaction has been affectively and individually oriented, while climate research has been more descriptively and organizationally oriented. Also discussed are issues regarding the appropriate unit of analysis and issues concerning conceptualization of climate as an independent, dependent, and intervening variable. It is concluded that climate is different from job satisfaction. While both are part of the "attitude research" domain, clear distinctions should be maintained between affect and description and units of analysis. (4 p ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Suggests that governments, communities, and organizations are focusing increasing attention on the theory and practice of dialog. The author provides a perspective on dialog based on his own direct experience with it. He shows that dialog is not only different from many of the techniques that have been proposed before but also has considerable promise as a problem-formulation and problem-solving philosophy and technology. Dialog is necessary as a vehicle for understanding cultures and subcultures. Organizational learning will ultimately depend on such cultural understanding. Dialog should be a central element of any model of organizational transformation. Topics discussed include dialog vs sensitivity training, getting dialog started, and facilitating dialog. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
give an overview of the origins, purposes, uses, and contributions of grounded theory methodology / grounded theory is a general methodology for developing theory that is grounded in data systematically gathered and analyzed (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)