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Diversity management: Are we moving in the right direction? Reflections from both sides of the North Atlantic

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... Cultural diversity is increasingly acknowledged as an important issue in academic medicine and healthcare organizations internationally. In the United States, diversity management in organizations became an issue in the late 1980s, and it arrived in northwestern Europe 10-20 years later (Holvino & Kamp, 2009;Zanoni, Janssens, Benschop, & Nkomo, 2010). Programs addressing diversity in organizations are mainly legitimized by two arguments. ...
... Developed in the mid-1990s as a reaction to diversity management's inability to improve the position of minorities (Holvino & Kamp, 2009), critical diversity studies stress the power dynamics and the structural, contextual aspects of shaping diversity and its inclusion in organizations (Zanoni et al., 2010). Critical diversity studies assume that dominant views on power and diversity prevent power issues and social hierarchies from being challenged (Ghorashi & Sabelis, 2013;Van Laer & Janssens, 2011) as differenceand identitytend to be reified as something definite, all-encompassing, and exclusive (i.e., essentialism; Nkomo & Cox, 1996). ...
... They critically address the processes through which certain professionals are included on the basis of their perceived fit with and sameness to organizational norms and other, professionals are excluded on the basis of their perceived non-fit and difference (e.g. Ghorashi & Sabelis, 2013;Holvino & Kamp, 2009). Analyzing this "difference-sameness" axis (Holvino & Kamp, 2009) is a way to start deconstructing the social hierarchies and power structures in organizations. ...
Article
Internationally, academic hospitals are giving increasing attention to diversity management. This paper sheds light on the actual praxis of cultural diversity management by professionals in workplace interactions. An ethnographic study in a Dutch academic hospital showed that normalization practices were obscuring diversity issues and obstructing inclusion of cultural minority professionals. The normalization of professionalism-as-neutral and equality-as-sameness informed the unequal distribution of privilege and disadvantage among professionals and left no room to question this distribution. Majority and minority professionals disciplined themselves and each other in (re)producing an ideal worker norm, essentialized difference and sameness, and explained away the structural hierarchy involved. To create space for cultural diversity in healthcare organizations in the Netherlands and beyond, we need to challenge normalization practices.
... På andra sidan Atlanten, i USA, antogs en lag om lika möjligheter (equal opportunities) 1964 som en del av Civil Rights Act för att säkerställa lika möjligheter till anställning oavsett ras, hudfärg, kön, religion och nationalitet. Denna lag kompletterades med krav om att organisationer som deltar i federala upphandlingar ska upprätta planer som beskriver hur de ämnar öka minoriteters och kvinnors deltagande på arbetsplatsen, så kallade affirmative action plans (Holvino & Kamp 2009). ...
... Till exempel framgick det i en undersökning 2015 bland 400 chefer i privat och offentlig sektor att 80 procent arbetade aktivt med mångfald, vilket var en ökning från 69 procent år 2013 (Proffice 2015). Idag går det till och med att tala om en internationell marknad inom mångfald, med konsulter, metoder, utbildningar, konferenser och handböcker (Holvino & Kamp 2009;Oswick & Noon 2014;Wahl m.fl. 2018). ...
... Enligt kritisk mångfaldsforskning handlar en av utmaningarna i mångfaldsarbetet om hur vi pratar om mångfald och hur vi formulerar problemet. Det saknas ett maktperspektiv i de två dominerande sätten att se på olikheter (Holvino & Kamp 2009), att olikheter antingen är individuella eller kopplade till sociodemografiska kategorier. Utan ett maktperspektiv framstår skillnader mellan olika sociodemografiska kategorier som resultat av essentiella skillnader i attityder, personlighet och beteende som individer som tillhör dessa grupper delar. ...
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In this research anthology, inequality in Swedish working life in a Sweden marked by increased inequality, is studied. Racialised inequality, racism and discrimination in individual workplaces are focused, but inequalities based on class and gender are also studied. The concept of inequality regime is used by several of the authors to analyse work organizations. The workplaces studied are found in different sectors, not least in healthcare. The book also includes contributions that provide comparative international perspectives and studies of the development of inequality over time. The anthology contains 12 chapters based on empirical studies of working life, one chapter that analyses working life inequality from a political theory perspective, an introduction and a closing chapter that frames and draws conclusions from the different studies, as well as an afterword. The authors are 22 researchers from different social science disciplines.
... For example, Holvino and Kamp (2009:397) show that the US context uses a more business-driven translation compared to northern European welfare states' focus on notions of equality as sameness. In the USA, the Workforce 2000 report (Johnston andPacker, 1987, in Holvino andKamp, 2009), published in 1987, created a strong incentive for diversity management by focusing on how diversity could benefit organizations: that is, it made a business case for diversity. The report argued that the growth of diverse groups (read diverse talents) in the USA would be so significant by the year 2000 that organizations without strategic choices on diversity would lag behind. ...
... The contextual drivers for this new, more business-driven approach were strongly situated in the country's political shift towards Reaganism. Holvino and Kamp (2009) argue that when diversity management as a concept travelled to northern European countries in the 1990s, it was seen as a means to integrate ethnic minorities in the labour market. This approach was incorporated within the strong discourse on "the social responsibility of the firm." ...
... This approach was incorporated within the strong discourse on "the social responsibility of the firm." Studies in the Danish context (Holvino and Kamp, 2009) show the difficulty of valuing difference in a welfare context with a strong discourse of equality as norm, especially when equality is equated with sameness. Thus, in northern European welfare states (including the Netherlands), diversity management was understood as companies' moral obligation to include "weak groups" in the labour market: that is, to include people with limited capabilities to fit the demands of the workplace. ...
Article
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Iranians are considered the most successful refugee group in the Netherlands in terms of integration. However, their path towards inclusion is not without struggles. This paper highlights organizational and societal limiting factors that are often forgotten in research and policy on refugees’ integration in the job market and on inclusion in general. The data presented are based on 20 years of research on narratives from Iranian refugees – mostly women – about their struggles towards societal and organizational inclusion. This article critically discusses the implications of dominant discourses and policies on the integration of refugees in the past and present to enable reflection for the future. The empirical data show how the consistency of normalized images of refugees hinders their path to long‐term inclusion. The data analysis is situated within the theoretical discussion on refugees’ integration in the labour market, connecting bodies of literature from refugee studies, organization studies and integration studies.
... Madkins (1989) and Soni (1999) posit that these policies were designed to promote social justice interests and positioned affirmative action as a moral and legal obligation. The gains of these policies were evident in the increased federal executive orders and legal actions taken against non-conforming US corporations and the corresponding hiring of professionals to drive Equal Employment Opportunity and Affirmative Action initiatives to correct the exclusionary and discriminatory practices towards marginalised groups (Holvino & Kamp, 2009). Affirmative action policy subsequently gained popularity resulting in its adoption in various permutations by United Nations member countries including South Africa, the United Kingdom, Singapore, India, Namibia and Australia. ...
... These changes weakened the power of organised labour which had previously served to counterbalance capitalist surplus. It is within this context that the needs of society were negated and enforcement of Affirmative Action weakened as these were perceived to be a burden to the state and business (Holvino & Kamp, 2009). Equal opportunity legislation was reversed, enforcement resources withdrawn and judicial decisions overturned (Holvino & Kamp, 2009). ...
... It is within this context that the needs of society were negated and enforcement of Affirmative Action weakened as these were perceived to be a burden to the state and business (Holvino & Kamp, 2009). Equal opportunity legislation was reversed, enforcement resources withdrawn and judicial decisions overturned (Holvino & Kamp, 2009). Kelly and Dobbin (1998) explain that some employers, however, opted to proceed with affirmative action initiatives. ...
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Abstract Despite slow pace of transformation in post-apartheid South Africa’s corporate sector, the department of labour recently showcased some Johannesburg Stock Exchange listed corporations for executing effective diversity strategies. The strategies and discourses of diversity in these appraised corporations had not been studied scholarly, particularly from a critical perspective. This inquiry adopted a multiple case study design and the framework of critical diversity literacy to study the nature, texture, and the depth of strategies and discourses of diversity in three of these appraised corporations in the financial, retail, and private healthcare sectors. Research entailed analysis of 35 published documents to examine conceptual framing of diversity; indepth semi-structured interviews with 6 transformation managers to explore prevailing organisational diversity culture and the designed strategies to transform such dynamics; and focus groups with 32 employees from dominant and subordinated groups to gauge the efficacy of executed strategies in promoting equality and social justice. The findings suggest that appraised corporations mainly complied with prescripts of employment equity law and executed managerial instrumentalism oriented diversity initiatives. Diversity conceptual frameworks regarded inequality, oppression and dominance as historical legacies, rather than present day phenomena that are tied to coloniality of power and being and reproduced through neoliberalism. Diversity initiatives were minimalistic and impelled identity siloism, race and gender blindness, medicalization and hyper-individualisation of disability, nurturing of white fragility, and reproduction of gender binaries. Blacks, women, queer persons and persons with disabilities were barely visible in positions of power, strategic influence and high income. These subjugated groups constantly performed whiteness, normative masculinity, able�bodiedness and heteronormativity in order to fit in. This performance is systematised under the guise of merit without recognising its dehumanising effects. The findings suggest the inadequacy of employment equity legislation driven reform to produce real equality as this law is a product of ILO’s neoliberal “Decent Work” rhetoric. The study contributes to the closure of lacunae concerning paucity of agentic critical diversity studies that examine effective organisational diversity discourses. The study accentuates
... Likewise, Holliday (2007) also describes reflexivity as a complex area in qualitative research which focusses on relations between the researcher and participants in relation to the research setting, which responds to the realization that researchers and their research methods are entangled with the politics of the social world they study. He also endorses reflexivity as a way to address this entanglement as "the way in which researchers come to terms with and indeed capitalize on the complexities of their presence within the research setting, in a methodical way" (Holliday, 2007). ...
... Likewise, Holliday (2007) also describes reflexivity as a complex area in qualitative research which focusses on relations between the researcher and participants in relation to the research setting, which responds to the realization that researchers and their research methods are entangled with the politics of the social world they study. He also endorses reflexivity as a way to address this entanglement as "the way in which researchers come to terms with and indeed capitalize on the complexities of their presence within the research setting, in a methodical way" (Holliday, 2007). Here he is not just acknowledging the presence of subjectivity but suggesting that awareness of the identity of the researcher can bring strengths to the research process. ...
... This contrasts markedly with a positivist approach to research which attempts to control and/or eliminate subjectivity through the adoption of mechanistic tools. Holliday also identifies the contextual aspects of reflexivity that Alvesson and Skoldberg (2005), Cunliffe (2003) and Cherry (1998) refer to, by comparing it to an anthropological approach to learning culture, and describes the management of the complex relationships involved as "a relationship of dealing" (Holliday, 2007). ...
Article
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Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to propose reflexivity as a means to managing diversity practice in organizations. Reflexivity enables taken for granted assumptions about identities, roles, perspectives, language, meanings and understandings between managers and employees to be explored and redefined in ways that matter to the people in the workplace. It provides insights and examples from a practitioner perspective while engaged in designing and implementing a managing diversity initiative. In addition, it positions the development of relationships between managers and employees as a key ingredient in managing diversity. Design/methodology/approach – This paper is based on a post hoc qualitative reflexive study of a managing diversity project undertaken by the author as a diversity practitioner. Findings – The study suggested that reflexivity can allow both managers and employees to critically examine the conventional ways in which diversity and differences are understood, as this awareness can enable more relational approaches to diversity to be developed. Research limitations/implications – Because of the chosen qualitative research approach, the specific findings cannot be generalized; rather, an example of the potential of reflexivity as practice in organizations is proffered and insights are offered to enable further academic enquiry and practical considerations. Practical implications – Reflexivity stimulates both independent and shared action-learning sense-making processes which support equal participation. This challenges and expands the diversity agendas prevalent in the applied field of managing diversity. For example, by positioning organizational diversity as an inter-subjective and contextual process, meaningful dialogue between employees and managers becomes possible. Moreover, as reflexivity allows for a range of narrative accounts to emerge from such embedded activities, this approach can serve as a model for similar dialogical processes to occur within the wider organization. In addition, this paper provides insight into how reflexivity as practice for both practitioners and researchers can offer a means for more collaborative relationships to develop at the practitioner/researcher nexus. Originality/value – The paper endeavors to make a contribution to both the academic and the practitioner managing diversity fields by demonstrating that reflexive practice can add significant value to managing diversity processes in organizations and research.
... Although, the difference is observed in the focus of the labour market policies and the legislation supporting employment of persons with disabilities (Hansen et al., 2011). CSR and diversity management policies are also different and more strongly represented in the UK than in Norway (Holvino andKamp, 2009, Matten andMoon, 2008). ...
... Secondly, the CSR initiatives undertaken by the selected MNEs were easier to identify on the international than on the national websites, and more visible in the British than in Norwegian companies. One reason might be that diversity initiative were first taken in the UK and then spread over to the Scandinavian countries that signified a historic moment of becoming multicultural societies for these countries (Holvino and Kamp, 2009). Moreover, the role of the national legislation and cultural traditions in eliminating non-discrimination and providing inclusive work environment are highly presented in the USA (international level) and the UK, than in Norway, where legislative documents regulate voluntary company initiatives and high role of social benefits is still observed. ...
Conference Paper
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The paper examines how MNEs integrate ‘inclusive corporate culture’ in order to employ persons with disabilities as a part of their CSR strategies. The article analyses inclusive corporate cultures and CSR policies of 12 MNEs operating in Norway and the UK. The paper is based on the comparative qualitative content analysis of the websites of these MNEs and their CSR reports. The selection of the MNEs is based on the results of the discussion meetings with employers’ organizations in Norway and the UK.
... In our framework, we then show which discursive dynamics shape the construction of diversity subjects on the intersection of these two dimensions. Second, we follow the calls for more context-specific diversity studies (Farndale, Biron, Briscoe, & Raghuram, 2015;Holvino & Kamp, 2009;Jonsen et al., 2011;Klarsfeld, Knappert, Kornau, Ngunjiri, & Sieben, 2019) and specifically contribute to the urgent but marginalized study of diversity in Turkey. The recent centralization of power around the country's president including the silencing of the opposition (Parkinson & Peker, 2016) and the growing influence of religion on the state (Gözaydin, 2008;Somer, 2015), has brought Turkey into the global community's attention (e.g., El Amraoui & Edroos, 2018;New York Times, 2019a) and has raised in particular diversity scholars' concerns that in this ongoing 'nation branding' process, workplace diversity issues will be further pushed to the margins (e.g., Ö zbilgin & Yalkin, 2019; Tatli, Ozturk, & Aldossari, 2017). ...
... For instance, such studies show how the diversity management rhetoric is often related to trends (Oswick & Noon, 2014;Prasad et al., 2010), business case arguments or neoliberal ideologies (e.g. Holvino & Kamp, 2009;Matus & Infante, 2011;Mease & Collins, 2018;Tatli, 2011), hence legitimizing an outcome-oriented perspective on diversity at the expense of rigorously fighting discrimination (Barmes & Ashtiany, 2003;Dickens, 1999;Kramar, 2012;Noon, 2007). ...
... In our framework, we then show which discursive dynamics shape the construction of diversity subjects on the intersection of these two dimensions. Second, we follow the calls for more context-specific diversity studies (Farndale, Biron, Briscoe, & Raghuram, 2015;Holvino & Kamp, 2009;Jonsen et al., 2011;Klarsfeld, Knappert, Kornau, Ngunjiri, & Sieben, 2019) and specifically contribute to the urgent but marginalized study of diversity in Turkey. The recent centralization of power around the country's president including the silencing of the opposition (Parkinson & Peker, 2016) and the growing influence of religion on the state (Gözaydin, 2008;Somer, 2015), has brought Turkey into the global community's attention (e.g., El Amraoui & Edroos, 2018;New York Times, 2019a) and has raised in particular diversity scholars' concerns that in this ongoing 'nation branding' process, workplace diversity issues will be further pushed to the margins (e.g., Ö zbilgin & Yalkin, 2019; Tatli, Ozturk, & Aldossari, 2017). ...
... For instance, such studies show how the diversity management rhetoric is often related to trends (Oswick & Noon, 2014;Prasad et al., 2010), business case arguments or neoliberal ideologies (e.g. Holvino & Kamp, 2009;Matus & Infante, 2011;Mease & Collins, 2018;Tatli, 2011), hence legitimizing an outcome-oriented perspective on diversity at the expense of rigorously fighting discrimination (Barmes & Ashtiany, 2003;Dickens, 1999;Kramar, 2012;Noon, 2007). ...
Article
This study investigates organizational diversity discourses in Turkey – a non-Western, politically relevant, yet underrepresented context. Using a Foucauldian perspective on power and discourse, we scrutinize how power relations in the Turkish context are (re)produced. Based on our analysis of company websites and semi-structured interviews with various actors (e.g., HR managers), we propose a conceptual framework of the discursive construction of diversity subjects at work along the dimensions of (1) visibility of organizational diversity discourses and (2) contestation of meaning within organizational diversity discourses. The combination of these dimensions yields four discursive dynamics as illustrated in our data (Advertising, Avoiding, Disrupting, Tabooing). This framework may inspire future context- and power-sensitive investigations on diversity discourses at the workplace.
... GFP shares with the availability and relevancy arguments an emphasis on the instrumental value of diversity-that is, value to the extent that diversity somehow benefits or supports natural resources. This family of instrumental arguments echoes the reasoning behind diversity management, the prevailing paradigm for organizational diversity efforts in the Untied States since the late twentieth century (Holvino and Kamp 2009, Köllen 2019, Roberson 2019). Diversity management emerged as an offshoot of programs focused on equity and equal opportunity, exemplified in initiatives such as affirmative action that framed increasing institutional diversity (e.g., in professional or educational organizations) as a moral and legal imperative (Köllen 2019). ...
... In this way Lopez and Brown (2011) suggested diversity is desired to promote and perpetuate the values of the dominant value system in wildlife-itself the product of a history of oppression, which has been (and still is) used to promote and perpetuate White male privilege in the United States (Peterson andNelson 2016, Yarbrough 2018). It is deeply problematic to recruit people from non-dominant groups into natural resources, when the goals they are summoned to serve have been defined within a value paradigm that was designed to systematically exclude them (Lorbiecki andJack 2000, Holvino andKamp 2009). First and foremost, this is exploitative, and in that regard unethical. ...
Article
Although there is widespread support for diversity in natural resources, diversity is valued for different reasons. It is important to understand and critically examine these reasons, to ensure diversity efforts express clear thinking and appropriate motivations. We compiled recent (2000–2019) diversity literature in fisheries, forestry, range, and wildlife, and used a qualitative coding procedure to identify reasons articulated in support of diversity. We developed a subset of these reasons into formal arguments to assess their underlying beliefs and assumptions. Our analysis reveals a high frequency of instrumental arguments emphasizing the benefits of diversity for natural resources. Drawing on the large body of interdisciplinary diversity scholarship outside natural resources, we discuss the challenges and potential risks of predicating the case for diversity largely on instrumental arguments. We encourage natural resources communities to expand the diversity discourse by engaging with themes developed in interdisciplinary diversity literatures, including equity, social justice, and intersectionality.
... In this study, we seek to envision alternative DM practices which more effectively foster ethnic equality (cf. Holvino & Kamp, 2009;Litvin, 2006). To do so, we inductively identify practices -formalized organizational system, process, or practice developed and implemented for the purpose of effectively managing a diverse workforce (Yang & Konrad, 2011) -that achieve two key organizational markers of ethnic equality derived from the gender and diversity literature: (1) the valuing of multiple knowledge, skills and competencies of a diverse personnel (rather than valuing solely those of the majority) (Acker, 1990;Zanoni & Janssens, 2004;Zanoni & Janssens, 2007) and (2) the possibility for all employees to bring their entire set of identities to work (rather than having to assimilate to the majority culture) (Cox, 1991(Cox, , 1993Linnehan & Konrad, 1999). ...
... This point throws new light on the debate on whether DM should rest on broad or narrow definition of diversity . Critically oriented diversity scholars have traditionally argued that, to be effective in promoting equality, DM should focus on identity axes along which inequality has historically been structured, such as gender, ethnicity or sexual orientation (Holvino & Kamp, 2009;Liff, 1997;Linnehan & Konrad, 1999). Yet, the problem with a 'target group' policy grounded on existing categories of employees as members of historically subordinate social groups is that it inevitably reproduces reified representations of minority employees (Jones & Stablein, 2006;Litvin, 1997;Zanoni & Janssens, 2004). ...
... The term 'diversity' has its origins in the USA, 'beginning in the 1960s and 1970s with the equal rights and affirmative action legislation aimed at addressing gender and race imbalances in the workplace' (Traavik, 2019, p. 216). With that, diversity management came in the organisation and management discourse in the late 1980s in the USA and in Europe around ten years later, and in Scandinavia around the year 2000 (Holvino & Kamp, 2009). Holvino and Kamp (2009) report that the increased interest amongst academics and practitioners for diversity management in Scandinavia was centred around a debate about including ethnic minorities in the workforce. ...
... With that, diversity management came in the organisation and management discourse in the late 1980s in the USA and in Europe around ten years later, and in Scandinavia around the year 2000 (Holvino & Kamp, 2009). Holvino and Kamp (2009) report that the increased interest amongst academics and practitioners for diversity management in Scandinavia was centred around a debate about including ethnic minorities in the workforce. This discussion was, moreover, concerned with an increase in birthplace diversity in the workforce. ...
Chapter
"It is hardly possible to overrate the value (...) of placing human beings in contact with persons dissimilar to themselves, and with modes of thought and action unlike those with which they are familiar (...) Such communication has always been, and is particularly in the present age, one of the primary sources of progress (Mill, 1848). The quotation by Mill is easily applicable in contemporary society (1), as one of the pivotal strategic challenges in modern work-life is changing the demographics of the workforce (Abramovic & Traavik, 2017). Augmented diversity is a reality across organisations, industries and countries (Mor Barak, 2005); employees in today’s workplaces are more likely than before to engage with people with different backgrounds (Guillaume et al., 2014). This increased diversity stems from increased and more complex migratory patterns (Özden et al., 2011), ageing populations, anti-discrimination measures, more women entering the workforce, educational and skill upgrading of the workforce (Parrotta et al., 2014) and augmented job-hopping (Czaja, 2020). Together, these factors (and more) lead to increased diversity in the contemporary workforce in terms of work-life experiences, gender, educational background and skill mix, birthplace diversity and age, to mention a few. Concomitantly, a vast amount of research has pointed to the benefits of a diverse workforce (eg Cox, 1994; Richard, 2000; Solheim and Fitjar, 2018) and has been highlighted by practitioners (eg Hunt et al., 2015). The commonly painted picture herein is that a diverse workforce boosts creativity and innovation. Past research discusses, on the one hand, diversity bringing new perspectives and ideas (Ottaviano & Peri, 2006), and on the other hand, reducing trust and increasing conflict among actors (Basset-Jones, 2005). Thus, there are mixed and often contradictory results in the context of culturally diverse teams (Stahl et al., 2010). Diversity has, therefore, often been depicted as a ‘double-edged sword' (Miliken & Martins, 1996), or a 'mixed blessing' (Williams & O`Reilly, 1998).
... A preocupação com a diversidade nas organizações sucede com maior alcance geográfico principalmente a partir de 1990, por companhias subsidiárias de empresas norte americanas. Seu surgimento nos Estados Unidos da América foi especialmente uma forma de se afastar da polêmica das ações afirmativas e práticas de equal eployment oportunity posto que a gestão da diversidade teria como base meritocracia e não favorecimento (ALVES; GALEÃO-SILVA, 2004;AGOCS;BURR, 1996;HOLVINO;KAMP, 2009). Assim, "enquanto a mudança da ação afirmativa para a gestão da diversidade forneceu uma forma revisada de prosseguir os objetivos de igualdade previstos nos movimentos de direitos civis, surgiram novas dificuldades, tensões e fortes críticas (HOLVINO; KAMP, 2009, p. 396). ...
... Acredito que a dificuldade com a analítica queer foi por sua complexidade teórica e pelo pouco contato explícito que tiveram com a epistemologia pós-estruturalista durante a graduação. Mas recordamos que uma aluna do noturno também nos ajudou durante a discussão lembrando que não se pode colocar a sexualidade em "caixinhas" pensando na fluidez das identidades, assim evidenciando a desconstrução da heteronormatividade (BUTLER, 2003;HOLVINO, KAMP, 2009;SOUZA, CARRIERI, 2010). ...
Conference Paper
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Resumo: Buscamos trazer uma proposta para discussão sobre diversidade e diferenças nas organizações e no mundo do trabalho e reflexões a partir da experiência de um estágio docência realizado por um mestrando em uma Universidade Federal localizada no Sudeste do Brasil. Abordamos as perspectivas da diversidade e das diferenças nas organizações, nos apoiando em autores organizacionais e da teoria social; tratamos este trabalho em uma vertente qualitativa; e analisamos algumas situações e reflexões que ocorreram no desenrolar da disciplina; por fim, as considerações. A importância deste trabalho está associada a uma visão política em prol da cidadania, da não discriminação, bem como de direitos humanos. Consideramos relevante que esse tipo de problematização seja abordada diretamente nos cursos de graduação em administração de modo a permitir (re)significação e contestação no campo organizacional e acadêmico. Palavras chave: diversidade, diferenças, graduação em administração Abstract: We seek to bring a proposal for discussion about diversity and differences in organizations and in the world of work and reflections from the experience of a teaching internship done by a master's degree at a Federal University located in Southeast Brazil. We approach the perspectives of diversity and differences in organizations, relying on organizational authors and social theory; We treat this work in a qualitative way; And we analyze some situations and reflections that occurred in the course of the discipline; Finally, the considerations. The importance of this work is associated with a political vision for citizenship, non-discrimination, as well as human rights. We consider it relevant that this type of problem is addressed directly in undergraduate courses in administration in order to allow (re) signification and contestation in the organizational and academic field.
... DM studies gained its importance in Europe ten years after its conception in the USA. The introduction of DM was the same in Europe as in the USA (Holvino and Kamp, 2009). DM studies firstly came into force in the UK and then in the Netherlands (Wrench, 2008). ...
Article
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This paper aims at highlighting the theoretical development of diversity management by providing an integrated understanding of how diversity management has made progress and evolved in organisations. The current article adopts a conceptual and critical review to demonstrate the changes and shifts in diversity management research. This study reveals that there are four stages of workforce diversity within the business and management field. These stages are equal employment opportunity/affirmative action, valuing differences, diversity management and global diversity management. Each stage is discussed in greater details within the article. This study contributes to the broader diversity management literature in three main ways: firstly, by shedding some light on the conceptual clarity of the diversity notion itself; secondly, by foregrounding the holistic view of diversity management; thirdly, by reflecting the recent developments in diversity research. The review consistently points to the fact that the current literature on diversity management has been predominantly shaped by a mainstream managerial discourse and neoliberal logic which has mostly a discrimination focus rather than an inclusiveness perspective. The paper also suggests that further research is required on workforce diversity particularly with an emic, an intersectional, a contextual and a relational approach rather than reproducing the existing knowledge by an etic framing of diversity from an instrumental point of view that dominates the extant literature.
... DM studies gained its importance in Europe ten years after its conception in the USA. The introduction of DM was the same in Europe as in the USA (Holvino and Kamp, 2009). DM studies firstly came into force in the UK and then in the Netherlands (Wrench, 2008). ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper aims at highlighting the theoretical development of diversity management by providing an integrated understanding of how diversity management has made progress and evolved in organisations. The current article adopts a conceptual and critical review to demonstrate the changes and shifts in diversity management research. This study reveals that there are four stages of workforce diversity within the business and management field. These stages are equal employment opportunity/affirmative action, valuing differences, diversity management and global diversity management. Each stage is discussed in greater details within the article. This study contributes to the broader diversity management literature in three main ways: firstly, by shedding some light on the conceptual clarity of the diversity notion itself; secondly, by foregrounding the holistic view of diversity management; thirdly, by reflecting the recent developments in diversity research. The review consistently points to the fact that the current literature on diversity management has been predominantly shaped by a mainstream managerial discourse and neoliberal logic which has mostly a discrimination focus rather than an inclusiveness perspective. The paper also suggests that further research is required on workforce diversity particularly with an emic, an intersectional, a contextual and a relational approach rather than reproducing the existing knowledge by an etic framing of diversity from an instrumental point of view that dominates the extant literature.
... Studies that have critically examined emancipatory policies and programs shed light on how non-mainstream families are perceived as 'unknowledgeable' and 'in need of empowerment'. In their wish to "activate those that lag behind" (Van den Berg, 2016) western emancipatory ideals may (unintentionally) dismiss families' own familial and cultural resources; reinforcing assimilation rather than allowing for diversity and family strength (Gillies, 2005;Ghorashi, 2018;Holvino & Kamp, 2009). In addition, neoliberal perspectives increasingly enter the work sphere, holding professionals individually accountable for social work 'failures' (e.g. the Dutch case of Savanna in 2004). ...
Presentation
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In this workshop we illustrate what caring and effective contemporary-empowering family support can look like, by introducing the action research-based work model Het Beschermjassenhuis. In Het Beschermjassenhuis an interdisciplinary and multi-ethnic team welcomes a family and their social worker to explore how to bring the counseling process forward. Starting from a learning question of the social worker, the family and team are invited to search together for answers. Working with biographical-narrative dialogue and 'transcultural resonance' within the team, we embed the family in their familial and cultural resources (Tjin A Djie & Zwaan, 2016) and offer multiple perspectives on the issue (Moro, 1990). As such, Het Beschermjassenhuis creates a collective learning community (Wenger, 2010) among families and professionals. We tackle the urgent questions: Who needs to receive empowerment and who needs to give it? How do we grow our ability to provide space for different perspectives as a resource rather than an obstacle? And what about the empowerment of professionals? Conform our experience-oriented learning approach, we take congress attendants along in a workshop that allows them to experience first-hand how to use their own family and cultural history to learn together, create space for diversity and empower families ánd professionals.
... However, we argue that when organisational inclusion efforts do not acknowledge the inherent inequalities and power imbalances of existing minority/majority constructions, they hold very little potential for levelling the organisational playing field for historically disadvantaged and marginalised groups (Holck and Muhr, 2017;Holvino and Kamp, 2009;Muhr and Salem, 2013;Özbilgin and Tatli, 2011;Tatli, 2011). In fact, such efforts may even complicate the struggle for recognition and redistribution of these groups, because they are more or less complicit with the structural asymmetries between the 'included' (colonised) and the 'includer' (coloniser) (Prasad, 2006). ...
Article
This article discusses the limitations and future possibilities of organizational inclusion theory. Currently, prevailing concepts of inclusion focused on balancing the needs for belongingness and uniqueness don’t seem to pay enough attention to phenomena such as ambiguous, hybrid and in-between qualities of subjectivity and/or social relations. Based on ethnographic data from the Greenlandic Police Force, we intend to look at organizational inclusion (and exclusion) through the lens of fragmented culture. We show that approaching inclusion in terms of a fragmentation perspective allows for the fluid identities needed to perform belongingness and uniqueness in a way that is subject to constant change. Against this background, we aim to develop an alternative – fragmented – perspective on organizational inclusion and the tension between belongingness and uniqueness that is oriented towards an ontology of becoming.
... The report on the changing demography of workforce of United States namely workforce 2000 fuelled it, it later reconsidered on emphasizing the "business case" of productively fit in an increasing dissimilar workforce (Jonsen et al., 2011). In management discourse, diversity entered with a significance distance to its antecedents Equal Employment Opportunities and Affirmative Action promoting a legal emphasis in the later 1960s and early of 1970s (Holvino and Kamp, 2009). Jonsen et al, (2011) states that though the activities of affirmative actions and equal employment opportunities were noticed to decrease the undesirable impact of social stratification and exclusion (in the corporations and on the workforce market) then managing diversity must pave the way for proactively managing dissimilarities by advocating the progressive impacts of inclusion within the institute. ...
Thesis
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Workforce diversity is an emerging phenomenon in almost all kinds of organizations and is globally recognized as a force for increased productivity, creative solutions to complex problems, and human development but at the same time it brings some new challenges to the conventional ways of managing organizations. Researchers and practitioners, therefore, try to develop models for managing diversity. This research aims to find gap in the existing body of knowledge and add to it by studying workforce diversity and its impact on organizational trust and commitment with the moderating role of organizational justice. To test different relevant hypotheses, data was collected from a sample of 239 individuals working in various government organizations in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (Pakistan) through a standardized survey. Descriptive statistics and multiple regression technique were used to make sense of the data. The findings reveal that workforce diversity has a statistically significant impact on different organizational outcomes (such as trust and employee commitment) in the presence of organizational justice. The study suggests some recommendations for managing diversity and provides directions for future research.
... I would reason that, because diversity has increasingly become a buzzword without much focus or force, we need to connect it to the issue of power 37 and disturb its essentializing capacity 38 in research, policy, and practice. Many scholars have criticized the concept of diversity or managing diversity (MD) for eliminating discussions of power and systemic oppression 39 and for providing a dominant economic profit as a rationale. In some European contexts (such as the Netherlands) diversity has lost its economic rationale and has led to stigmatization of ethnic minority groups as weak categories. ...
... Mangfoldsledelse er et begrep som henspiller «på ledelse som vektlegger respekt og toleranse mellom ansatte, fleksibilitet og åpenhet for ulike perspektiver» (Sandal et al. 2013, 7). Holvino og Kamp (2009) diskuterer at mangfoldsledelse ble høyaktuelt i USA rundt 1980-tallet, men ble først aktualisert i Europa et tiår etter og i Skandinavia rundt tusenårsskiftet. Videre skriver de at den økte interessen blant akademikere og bransjefolk for mangfoldsledelse i Skandinavia bar preg av en debatt rundt det at etniske minoriteter må bli inkludert i arbeidsstokken. ...
Article
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Verdien av kjønnsmangfold blir hyppig løftet frem, og flere bedrifter har en tydelig uttalt ambisjon om å øke kjønnsmangfoldet til 30, 40 eller 50 prosent, og å tiltrekke personer med mangfoldsbakgrunn. Dette skjer frikoblet fra å ha kunnskap om hvordan de skal utløse det fulle potensialet i mangfoldet. Hvordan skal en kunne identifisere, koordinere og bruke mangfoldskompetansen blant ansatte? Hvordan skal bedriften utvikle et system, en kultur og en praksis for ledelse av mangfold? Mangfoldsledelse handler om å forstå og utløse verdien i mangfold og likestilling slik at virksomhetens trippelbunnlinje styrkes. Denne artikkelen benytter seg av Seema AS som case for å kunne belyse konkrete verktøy knyttet til mangfoldsledelse. Nøkkelord: mangfold, mangfoldsledelse, konkurransefortrinn, likestilling
... Diversity emerged as a management practice in the United States in the 1980s (Liff, 1999;Tatli, 2011); its premise to position difference as a source of competitive advantage (Liff, 1999). It has been the source of substantial research, from exploring how to manage and leverage performative value from diverse workforces to more critical approaches which have problematized diversity as practice and discourse (Holvino & Kamp, 2009;Tatli, 2011). Critical scholarship has questioned the epistemological basis of mainstream diversity approaches and its obscuration of power. ...
Article
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This paper responds to calls from critical diversity scholars to explore class in context, arguing for a view of classing as a discursive process and adopting Bourdieu's concept of field as a site of discursive struggle. Analysing interview, web and focus‐group data, we address this in the field of UK museum work. We contextualise the field's dynamic nature, highlighting its state of flux and explore three discourses: Distinguishing the field; Disavowing the market; and Gaining recognition through which it is constituted, and classing practiced. Discursive strategies of reinforcing, reframing and re‐valorising were deployed by participants to legitimate their own and other positions in the field. We show how classing is a core process constituting an occupational field, how museum workers are entrapped by and complicit in this process and conclude with wider implications for understandings of class, classed inequality and diversity.
... These policies connect with what is described as a business-case scenario in which diversity is intended to realize organizational goals such as increased innovation, effectiveness, and efficacy (Cox, 1994;Thomas & Ely, 1996). Diversity policies, however, often do not work as intended, showing little progress in organizational effectiveness as well as difficulties in recruitment, selection, and retention of cultural minority professionals (Holvino & Kamp, 2009;Thomas & Ely, 1996). Diversity management is characterized by an instrumental approach to diversity and criticized for ignoring work floor culture and structural inequalities in organizations (Ghorashi & Sabelis, 2013). ...
... This is evident, for example, in BusinessEurope's position paper 'Promoting Diversity in Employment and Workplaces ' (5 November, 2013), which outlines the 'business case' for diversity, and employers' positions on gender balance in corporate boards, where diversity is the key concept. The language of diversity is connected to the corporate-led diversity management approach, which has been criticized for, amongst other things, eliminating discussions on power and structural inequality, and for individualizing and depoliticizing gender inequality (Holvino and Kamp, 2009). Furthermore, the arguments about business benefits that are intricately connected to the diversity approach subsume gender equality to private profit-making, which also legitimizes corporate capitalism (Roberts, 2015). ...
Article
This article explores the role of a hitherto under‐researched set of actors – the European Social Partners – in shaping the European Union's (EU) gender equality policies and their framework conditions. The positions of the social partners are analysed across three key policy issues of importance to gender equality: the initiative on work‐life balance; the European Pillar of Social Rights; and the European Semester. We argue that social partners play a crucial role in shaping in EU gender policy both within and outside social dialogues. They influence the form and instruments of the EU's gender equality policy; shape the meaning of gender equality; and participate in the broader struggle between the EU's economic and social goals which is crucial for the future of the EU's gender policies.
... These policies connect with what is described as a business-case scenario in which diversity is intended to realize organizational goals such as increased innovation, effectiveness and efficacy (Cox, 1994;Thomas & Ely, 1996). Diversity policies, however, often do not work as intended, showing little progress in organizational effectiveness as well as difficulties in recruitment, selection and retention of cultural minority professionals (Holvino & Kamp, 2009;Thomas & Ely, 1996). Diversity management is characterized by an instrumental approach to diversity and criticized for ignoring work floor culture and structural inequalities in organizations . ...
... Enquanto a política de identidade afirma a igualdade, unidade e essência de uma identidade a política de coalizão mantem a identidade sempre aberta, sujeita a ressignificações em razão das múltiplas diferenças que a constituem, sendo possível a constituição de alianças contingentes (Mariano, 2005), pois a ausência de uma identidade essencial não impossibilita a constituição de pontos nodais que possibilitem a construção de múltiplas formas de unidades sem a eliminação dos conflitos e antagonismos inerentes a elas (Mouffe, 1993). Por isso que reconhecer a diferença não exclui o tratamento idêntico ao mesmo tempo que tratamento igual não significa igualdade (Holvino & Kamp, 2009). ...
Article
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Citação: Souza, E. M. de. (2019). Ações afirmativas e estereótipos sociais: Desconstruindo o mito da inferioridade cotista. Arquivos Analíticos de Políticas Educativas, 27(75). https://doi.org/10.14507/epaa.27.3615 Resumo: Ações afirmativas que visam promover o acesso de grupos considerados minoritários nas universidades são importantes para o combate de desigualdades estruturais e promoção de justiça social. Entretanto, apesar de sua importância, as ações afirmativas são frequentemente questionadas por determinados grupos sociais, principalmente grupos socialmente privi legiados, que defendem que tais políticas não são meritocráticas, constituindo estereótipos direcionados a alunos cotistas e não cotistas. Assim, este artigo analisa os possíveis estereótipos direcionados a estudantes cotistas do curso de administração de uma universidade federal brasileira. Para tanto se realizou uma pesquisa qualitativa com a realização de 38 entrevistas semiestruturadas com alunos cotistas e não cotistas do curso de administração e análise documental. Observa-se no discurso dos alunos a construção do mito da inferioridade intelectual e acadêmica de alunos cotistas, constituindo estereótipos sociais que fundamentam a construção de uma identidade essencial sobre quem são os cotistas. Entretanto, existem espaços para resistência e a análise documental do desempenho dos alunos, bem como os discursos dos mesmos, desconstroem o mito da inferioridade cotista e os estereótipos atribuídos a eles. Portanto, para se evitar a construção de estereótipos defende-se que ações afirmativas devam ser concebidas dentro de
... According to Thomas (1990), DM is the preparation of an environment/culture so that everyone can contribute to organizational goals. Some scholars argue that DM has emerged as a reaction against the threat of demographic change (Oswick & Noon, 2014), and as an alternative to the notions of affirmative action and equal opportunities (Holvino & Kamp, 2009), which are connected more strongly with moral arguments and legal measures for diversity (Ahonen, Tienari, Meriläinen, & Pullen, 2014;Oswick & Noon, 2014). ...
Article
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With liberalization, the responsibility for the management of diversity has shifted internationally from the state to organizations. Countries that are prepared for this transition have developed legal measures and supportive discourses to hold organizations responsible for diversity. We provide evidence from a country that has not undertaken such a transition and has neither protective laws nor supportive arguments for diversity. Drawing on a survey with 792 employees from Turkey, our field study examines the awareness and embeddedness of diversity, by considering the gap between discourses and diversity practices in organizations. In this study, we introduce the concept of the toxic triangle, which includes (a) hyperderegulation of diversity, where the legal measures of equality are absent, (b) voluntarism without responsibilization of organizations, and (c) lack of supportive discourses for diversity. Our study shows that diversity is left unattended in the context of a toxic triangle.
... However, given that diversity management related seriousness is in its initial phases in the Indian context, the case is located in a developing country context, where many of the 'diversity' related questions do not have any standard set of answers. The need for contextualizing diversity management initiatives has been emphasized (Holvino& Kamp, 2009). Each organization has to find its own way to effectively define, measure, and monitor the progress of diversity. ...
Article
Employees’ ideas and suggestions are a crucial resource for organizations. Employees are often unable to offer their suggestions for various reasons. This study examines the relationship of overall justice perceptions (OJP) on promotive as well as prohibitive voice behavior through the social ex change lens.
... However, given that diversity management related seriousness is in its initial phases in the Indian context, the case is located in a developing country context, where many of the 'diversity' related questions do not have any standard set of answers. The need for contextualizing diversity management initiatives has been emphasized (Holvino& Kamp, 2009). Each organization has to find its own way to effectively define, measure, and monitor the progress of diversity. ...
Article
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Covid 19 and employee related challenges for the corporate Abstract Sudden lock down and changing norms of workplace has given rise to lot of challenges. The pandemic has thrown open a challenge to the Human Resource(HR) department of the organizations, that are required to facilitate the adaptability and coping up with the sudden changes warranted because of pandemic. HR needs to identify the employee related challenges during and post-pandemic and have to review their strategy to cope up with these times of uncertainty. The objective of the paper is to first, explore the employee related challenges that organizations faced due to pandemic ; secondly, the strategies followed by organization to mitigate the effect or respond to the identified challenges and third, the perception of HR regarding preparedness of the organization and employees to resume work. Employees faced issues related to well-being both physical and mental well-being. Those who ‘worked from home’ found themselves in a problem to manage the work due to lack of proper technical infrastructure and also work life balance issues. Employers took steps to support the employees by implementing policies related to well being, development and engagement. Employers kept contacting their employees to check upon them and also provide information to deal with the situations. Keywords : Covid-19; employee; well-being; counseling; lockdown
... However, we argue that when organisational inclusion efforts do not acknowledge the inherent inequalities and power imbalances of existing minority/majority constructions, they hold very little potential for levelling the organisational playing field for historically disadvantaged and marginalised groups (Holck and Muhr, 2017;Holvino and Kamp, 2009;Muhr and Salem, 2013;Özbilgin and Tatli, 2011;Tatli, 2011). In fact, such efforts may even complicate the struggle for recognition and redistribution of these groups, because they are more or less complicit with the structural asymmetries between the 'included' (colonised) and the 'includer' (coloniser) (Prasad, 2006). ...
Article
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The notion of uniqueness, as articulated at the centre of most organisational inclusion literature, is inextricably tied to Western-centric idea(l)s of the autonomous, individual and self-sufficient subject, stripped of historical inequalities and relational embeddedness. Following a critical inclusion agenda and seeking alternatives to this predominant view, we apply a Bhabhaian postcolonial lens to the ethnographic study of organisational efforts to include indigenous Kalaallit people in the Greenlandic Police Force. Greenland has home rule, but is still part of the Kingdom of Denmark and is subject to Danish defence policy and the police force. With Bhabha’s notion of mimicry, we explore how police officers, through performing ‘Danish’ (Western) culture and professionalism, both confirm and resist colonial stereotypes and even open up pathways towards hybridity. Building on the officers’ experiences, we introduce the term ‘hybrid inclusion’ by which we emphasise two interrelated dimensions necessary for advancing critical inclusion studies: first, a certain understanding of the to-be-included subject as fluid, emergent and thus ontologically singular but at the same time relationally embedded in a collective colonial past and present; second, organisational practices for inclusivity that address and work with the actual impossibility of a ‘happy inclusion story’, free of contradictions and conflicts.
... Tatli (2011, p. 239) describes "diversity management as a complex and contested process" as she identified tensions between diversity discourses and diversity practices. Holvino and Kamp (2009) point to the multiplicity of diversity definitions among employees, while Metcalfe and Woodhams (2012) emphasize the differences between central and local interpretations of diversity management. Diversity management can simultaneously acknowledge differences and homogenize diversity (Swan, 2010). ...
Article
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We address the uncertain outcomes of diversity work in organizations by showing that diversity management does not let itself be reduced to a matter of success and failure. Drawing upon theories of ambiguities in organizations and 2.5 years of longitudinal fieldwork in a Swedish municipality, we show that ambiguities characterize diversity work, including what diversity encompasses, the goals of diversity management, and its outcomes. To account for these ambiguities, we suggest approaching diversity management in terms of trying rather than outcomes. First, focusing on trying emphasizes that working with diversity entails a shifting, relative, and tension‐filled notion. Second, it brings forth the tentative performativity of diversity management. Third, it opens up ways of looking at diversity in the workplace beyond a reductionist dichotomy between success and failure. Diversity work has no clear end, but this lack of an endpoint does not call into question its raison d'être. On the contrary, it makes it a reason to insist on trying to strive for enhancing diversity.
... In an ideal scenario, gender mainstreaming and diversity management could contribute to the development of policies and outcomes that respond to the distinct needs of immigrant men and women. However, previous research has shown the absence of transformative results of gender mainstreaming and diversity management, stressing the difficulties of effective implementation (Roggeband and Verloo 2006) and how well-meaning diversity programmes can marginalize the 'subjects' of diversity by obscuring ethnic and gender-related disadvantages (Holvino and Kamp 2009;Knights and Omanovi c 2016). Despite their good Labour market integration of immigrant women 7 intentions, policy makers are not inclusive enough in practice to connect to the life-world challenges of refugees and migrants, and as a result, their efforts remain at the level of box-ticking exercises (Larruina and Ghorashi 2020). ...
Article
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Sweden may in many respects be regarded as one of the most gender-equal countries in the world today. However, when looking at the situation of immigrant women a more unsettling picture emerges. Employment rates illustrate large gaps between native and immigrant women, as well as significant gender gaps between immigrant men and women. When investigating plausible explanations for underrepresentation of immigrant women in the labour market, scholars have mainly focussed on cultural and individual explanatory factors. In contrast, this article casts our analytical gaze towards institutional factors by examining the experiences of refugee women who, despite expressing a positive attitude and strong willingness to establish themselves on the Swedish labour market, had not succeeded in finding secure employment. Drawing upon in-depth interviews with refugee women, the results suggest that the insufficient institutional support during the first years in Sweden, devaluation of competence and challenges with ‘starting over’ are perceived as central barriers hindering their access to the Swedish labour market. To facilitate higher labour force participation among refugee women in Sweden it is crucial to develop and implement gender-sensitive measures that target different groups of immigrant women and meet their distinct experiences, needs, and interests.
... Several studies suggest that certain types of organizational culture assist or obstruct particular diversity management practices, and that organizational culture significantly influences the outcomes and results of firm diversity (e.g. Dwyer et al., 2003, Guillaume et al., 2017, Holvino and Kamp, 2009). Therefore, the first research question is: ...
Article
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Purpose This paper empirically explores the types and extent of cultural diversity strategies in Sweden, a developed economy with many migrant workers. The role of organizational culture as the context and the association with diversity strategy and the selection of international skilled migrant workers are examined. Design/methodology/approach Empirical data are collected by surveying 249 Swedish large or medium-sized firms. Cluster analysis is used to explore the configuration of organizational culture, cultural diversity strategy (CDS) and selection and development criteria. Findings The authors identify five clusters of organizations. Organizational culture is the main contextual factor that influences the CDS and human resource (HR) approaches for selecting skilled migrant workers. The profile of the clusters including organizational culture, diversity strategies, the selection criteria and firm demographics is presented. The empirical results indicate that organizational culture and demographics are associated with the choice of diversity strategy and, consequently, HR processes. Originality/value This study's main focus is on international skilled migrants, which is among empirically less-studied areas in global mobility literature. Furthermore, until now more attention has been directed toward studying the consequences of diversity than toward understanding the factors that influence choice of diversity strategies and practices. This study focuses on antecedents of diversity and attempts to understand the factors that influence adoption and implementation of different cultural diversity strategies.
... However, given that diversity management related seriousness is in its initial phases in the Indian context, the case is located in a developing country context, where many of the 'diversity' related questions do not have any standard set of answers. The need for contextualizing diversity management initiatives has been emphasized (Holvino& Kamp, 2009). Each organization has to find its own way to effectively define, measure, and monitor the progress of diversity. ...
Article
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The sociological construct of “culture lag” put forth by Ogburn (1922) suggesting that human response always lags behind technological advance can also be extended to the reality-theory and reality-practice context of the world of work. Human resource management and industrial relations theory and practice, discipline and function whose role is to help in understanding and dealing with the reality of work and the reality for workers seem to be in a different world altogether disconnected from today’s reality. This study seeks to examine this lag between today’s reality and yesterday’s theory-practice constructions in the context of the workers and their working conditions in the national garment industry supplier units linked to the global supply chain of international brands.
... It is a way to approach workers who span the multicultural context. The strategy is to include and, at the same time, actively apply all the human resources that diversity represents (Holvino and Kamp 2009). It is worth pointing out as a critical element that one might suspect that the humanistic perspectives in diversity management are a 'shell shelter' for economic goals and motives. ...
Article
Are affinity networks, like women’s, LGBTQ+ and bicultural employee networks, really effective instruments for diversity management? These networks, also called identity networks, diversity networks or employee resource groups, are seen as important means to make organizations more inclusive and to provide spaces for professional development and social networking. However, they also strengthen exclusionary norms and power hierarchies. The identification of three sociological dilemmas shines light on the complexities and the ambiguous effects of identity networks. Through its discourse, activities and organizational structure, a network either supports individual career advancement – while strengthening existing inequalities – or promotes organizational change. Recognizing these dilemmas will help researchers, organizations, diversity practitioners, and affinity networks to make more informed and deliberate choices.
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that creating shared meanings in dialogical communication is a “must” for diversity management if it wants to fulfill the double promise of promoting both business and ethical goals. By way of meeting this challenge, the authors introduce the negotiating reality theory and education program developed by Victor Friedman and Ariane Berthoin Antal, and examine its ethical underpinnings. Design/methodology/approach The paper is a theoretical exploration which combines ethical and intercultural communication perspectives in the context of diversity management. Excerpts from ethnographic research data are used to illustrate the deficiency of intuitive processes in negotiating reality in practice. Findings The negotiating reality program, originally developed for international business, is equally relevant to diversity management, as it serves to deconstruct value hierarchies embedded in diversity categorizations, and hence enhances seamless and productive cooperation. Learning such communication skills involves personal emotional-cognitive growth, which can be analyzed in terms of Aristotle’s notion of virtue. The authors also argue for the interconnected nature of performance and ethical goals in diversity management. Research limitations/implications Since this is a theoretical paper, empirical research is needed to investigate the pedagogical and rhetorical means which inspire people to develop their intercultural communication skills in various diversity contexts. Practical implications This paper challenges managers to introduce means to develop negotiating reality skills and practices for the benefit of the staff and the whole organization. Originality/value This paper suggests that the focus of diversity management should shift to meanings and intercultural communication, and that ethical considerations are an important part of that.
Article
The purpose of this study was to examine how decision makers interpret diversity and inclusion (D&I) within a national sport organisation (NSO). Discourse analysis within the context of Critical Management Studies was established as a framework to investigate how discursive practices can be simultaneously supportive and restrictive to D&I’s development. Eighteen semi-structured interviews were conducted with key personnel at one NSO, New Zealand Rugby. The findings identified five discursive practices related to D&I. These were speech acts, othering, meritocracy, performance, and the role of sport. The discussion illustrates that these discursive practices can be simultaneously supportive, ambiguous, and contradictory. The study also addresses calls to investigate discursive D&I practices in an NSO. Further research is encouraged to further reflect on the critical paradigm and its usefulness in disrupting the status quo of discursive practices related to D&I, and with practitioners to investigate other D&I discursive practices and to understand and challenge their influence in sport organisations.
Chapter
In this chapter, we expand on the links between diversity and identity and on the relevance of considering them jointly in the context of the workplace. The chapter provides the reader with a succinct historical background of diversity management and a reflection on categories and categorization. The chapter also examines how the management of diversity contrasts with how individuals attempt to make sense of their identities in the workplace, thus speaking to the broader intellectual conversation about structure and agency.
Chapter
Gender inequality has been one of the most indisputable facts of our society for years and it remains a major issue even today. There is inequality in social, economic and political realms and all three of them are interconnected. But it is still hard to find the root causes of the persistent gender-inequality in the society. Gender inequality in the corporate sector does not come as a surprise. It remains a major issue in boardrooms across the world with only 19 per cent of women occupying the boardroom seats in 2022. To the surprise of many, some of the world’s most advanced economies such as Japan have only 9 per cent women in the boardrooms. Against this background, the present study provides a comprehensive review of the literature on gendered nature of organizations. It identifies that the literature is predominantly etic in nature. Also, despite several decades of research on gender diversity, there is no systemic feminist theory around women and organizations. The present chapter will also try to understand the key concepts in order to understand the nature of gendered organization.KeywordsGender inequalityGender-quotaBoardroomsGendered organisations
Article
An important but understudied issue in the study of organisational sensemaking concerns how power and politics influence sensemaking processes, specifically the political struggles immanent in collective processes of meaning construction and organising. When people are located at different areas and levels in the organisational hierarchy and they draw on different experiences and areas of knowledge, they often develop conflicting interpretations, which may compete for legitimacy. To capture the dimension of power in sensemaking, we combine the sensemaking perspective with a poststructuralist feminist conception of power, as this allows us to explore the mechanisms through which some sensemaking becomes legitimate whereas others remain marginalised. We specifically explore the ideological resources that shape the terrain within which a diverse workforce interpret, enact and emotionally experience diversity management in a local branch of a global retail chain store. The study used in-depth interviews and participant observations to provide insight into the complex mechanisms that are employed to control the definition of a specific situation, mapping out a hierarchical system of dominant, hidden and forbidden sensemaking of diversity management. The article concludes that the political processes of sensemaking deeply implicate emotions as a central force that facilitates the ongoing reproduction of social order. Our study, therefore, highlights the need to conceive of sensemaking, power and emotions as a complex nexus of the micro-political practices in which certain terrains of action unfold, allowing collective organising to occur.
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Since the beginning of the 21st century, the discourse of othering of non-Western migrants has been growing in many European societies. And since 2015, refugees have become a quite visible component in this discourse. Although, for decades, the dominant image of refugees has been constructed as people ‘at risk’, new competing images of refugee men ‘as risk’ have recently gained ground. For refugee women, however, the image of being victims and ‘at risk’ still prevails. This shows a strong underlying gendered logic of feminine vulnerability and masculine threat. In this article, I show how these images are situated within the dominant Dutch discourse of migration with taken-for-granted taxonomies of the self and the other. Specific in this normalised discourse for refugee women is that their agency is either ignored or their possible position as activists is not acknowledged to exist. Using examples from two studies in which my research team engaged with the method of narrative engaged research, I show the importance of this particular narrative method in unsettling the normalising power of othering. The theoretical argument of this article engages with ongoing discussions on power and agency. It argues that, when the power of exclusion works through repetition and is manifested in the daily normalisation of actions, agency needs to provide an alternative in the same fluid manner. Narratives in dialogue provide an illuminating angle for discussing this specific kind of agency, as I will show through some examples from research.
Technical Report
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Despite the potential benefits of DM programs in reducing costs and improving workplace morale, many organizations in the construction industry appear unable to develop and implement them. Inadequate support and practices at the organizational level affect the degree to which construction workplaces can accommodate disabled workers returning to the workplace with a disability, reinforcing the need to investigate the maturity of existing support and practices. Moreover, there's little empirical evidence in the literature about the disability management performance of the construction industry in general. The research aimed to investigate disability management in the Manitoban construction industry and its relation to safety performance. Specific objectives involved developing and validating a model to evaluate the maturity of construction organizations' disability management practices, and a set of metrics to evaluate their disability management and safety performance. The research also aimed to evaluate the relationship between the maturity of construction organizations' disability management practices, their disability management performance and their safety performance. The research made use of maturity modelling to develop the required model. The developed model, called the Construction Disability Management Maturity Model, benchmarked construction companies' disability management performance using 12 disability management indicators. The weights of importance of these indicators was determined by eight construction experts using an analytical hierarchy process. The model was then applied to a sample of 10 general contractors in Manitoba using an assessment worksheet. The research also involved developing three safety metrics and 13 new disability management metrics and using them to evaluate the safety and disability management performance of the same general contracting companies. The maturity ii model results were correlated to the disability management and safety performance metric results to investigate the relationship between construction organizations' disability management maturity and their disability management and safety performance. The results showed "Return to Work" and "Disability and Injury Management" practices were the most important disability management indicators whereas "Physical Accessibility" and "Claims Management" practices were the least important. The results also showed that the ten construction companies operated at the quantitatively managed maturity level. The findings revealed that smaller-sized companies were more mature on average with respect to disability management than larger companies. "Senior Management Support" and "Disability and Injury Prevention" were found to be the most mature disability management indicators while "Retention and Recruitment" and "Communication" practices were the least mature. The findings also showed that companies with higher disability management maturity tended to record lower recordable injury rates, lower severity rates and lower lost time case rates, and thus have higher safety performance than companies with lower disability management maturity. Nevertheless, the relationships between various indicators of disability management performance and various indicators of safety performance were not statistically significant for the most part, most probably because of the small number of companies evaluated. This research delivered leading indicators of performance in the form of the Construction Disability Management Maturity Model that construction organizations can use to evaluate, benchmark and improve expected disability management performance. It also delivered lagging indicators of performance in the form of new metrics that they can use to evaluate, benchmark and improve actual disability management performance.
Article
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With liberalization, the responsibility for the management of diversity has shifted internationally from the state to organizations. Countries that are prepared for this transition have developed legal measures and supportive discourses to hold organizations responsible for diversity. We provide evidence from a country that has not undertaken such a transition and has neither protective laws nor supportive arguments for diversity. Drawing on a survey with 792 employees from Turkey, our field study examines the awareness and embeddedness of diversity, by considering the gap between discourses and diversity practices in organizations. In this study, we introduce the concept of the toxic triangle, which includes (a) hyper‐deregulation of diversity, where the legal measures of equality are absent, (b) voluntarism without responsibilization of organizations, and (c) lack of supportive discourses for diversity. Our study shows that diversity is left unattended in the context of a toxic triangle.
Article
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The aim of this paper is to critically discuss the current diversity management discourse and examine the problems, dilemmas and potentials of diversity management as an organizational practice. To this purpose, research trends regarding the intercultural nature of organizational activities are outlined and the role of cultural values for a contemporary conceptualization of management is underlined. Furthermore, the problems and challenges emerging while attempting to incorporate diversity management initiatives within an organization are analyzed, along with the practices applied in order to deal with such problems. It is also aspired to emphasize the fact that diversity management practices should not only be part of the rhetorics of contemporary organizations, but they should contribute to organizational change and the empowerment of employees, especially those belonging to disadvantaged groups. Thus, a number of directions for future research are proposed, which are in line with the emerging research trends in this field.
Chapter
Purpose — This contribution is focused on diversity management in the Czech Republic (CR) with a special focus on foreigners and ethnic diversity management. The importance of diversity management, as part of human resources management, in the CR has increased after the integration into the European Union (EU) in 2004. Methodology — The chapter introduces three current cases of companies which demonstrated the implementation of diversity management principles. The author of this text supervised the research where internal documents were studied and interviews with a survey were conducted. Findings — The topic is relatively new both in theory and in Czech practice with the increase in academic publications after the year 2000. It has become an important issue as a consequence of the changing workforce structure due to demographic changes in the Czech society, followed by globalization of the labor market. Foreigners make 5% of the total number of citizens in the CR. Majority of them live in Prague and Middle Bohemia. More than half of foreigners legally residing on Czech territory have permanent stay. The most common nationalities have been for many years Ukrainians, Slovaks, and Vietnamese. Foreigners working in the CR make 9.1% of total employment in the national Czech economy. The most common foreign workers coming to CR to seek for a job are EU citizens, mainly Slovaks, followed by people from Romania, Poland, and Bulgaria. Ukrainians are the most common from the third countries. The number of foreigners in the CR is rising mainly due to foreigners from EU. The main pull factor is work. The most frequent groups are Ukrainians, Slovaks, Vietnamese, and Russians. Three case studies are introduced to show current developments in international companies which are successful in the area of ethnic diversity management. Research Limitations — For further development of the knowledge about recent trends, it is very valuable to collect case studies. I suggest to continue in this activity and collect more studies to have a wider space for comparison. Practical Implications — These selected cases show the developments in the CR (and Slovakia) in the past 20 years. Local branches of multinational companies have been inspired by experiences from the headquarters and the needs where adapted to local conditions. As the second case shows, it can be also a rather different story with an original Czech company which rapidly succeeded not only on the market but also in the implementation of diversity management. Companies are using benefits of diversity by enrichment of working teams using specific features of multi-ethnic composition of workers. Diversity management is used in the broader meaning, respecting national, cultural, gender, and other differences. All these examples of activities, projects, clubs, councils, or reports can be an inspiration to anybody who aims to increase diversity in any organization. Originality — This chapter brings original contribution about current trends in diversity management in the region. It can bring very valuable information to academics, experts in diversity management, managers, students or public in general.
Thesis
Diversity Management und Cultural Fit Assessment wirken auf wesentliche Herausforderungen, die Unternehmen im Rahmen ihrer strategischen Ausrichtung proaktiv gestalten müssen. Ziel dieser Arbeit ist es, die übergreifende Frage zur Beziehung von kultureller Passung und Diversity Management zu prüfen. Dabei lässt sich die Arbeit in zwei Zielrichtungen gliedern. Die erste Zielstellung ist es, bestehende Wirkungszusammenhänge zwischen kulturellerer Passung und Diversity zueinander, aber auch in Hinblick auf Unternehmenskultur zu verstehen. Das zweite Ziel ist es die Konsequenzen und Ableitungen für die Unternehmenspraxis insbesondere für die Umsetzung von Diversity Maßnahmen abzuleiten. Dabei erhebt die Arbeit keinerlei Anspruch auf Vollständigkeit, sondern ist vielmehr als eine theoretische Annäherung zu verstehen. Dies dient als Grundlage für die Erarbeitung eines übergreifenden Ansatzes, der zusätzliche Erkenntnisse und Impulse für die Umsetzung von Diversity Maßnahmen in Unternehmen schaffen soll.
Article
In diesem Beitrag werden Vorstellungen von Diversität und Gleichstellung in vergleichender Organisationsperspektive untersucht. Die Ergebnisse der Analyse zeigen Spannungsfelder von Werte- und Nutzenorientierungen in Organisationen auf, die nicht entlang der Grenze For-Profit und Non-Profit verlaufen. Polarisierende a priori Zuordnungen werden der Komplexität organisationaler Realitäten nicht gerecht. Vielmehr wird eine Koexistenz und Verknüpfung von Business Case und sozialer Gerechtigkeitsdiversitätsdiskursen deutlich, deren Relevanzen situativ verhandelt werden.
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Ever since the Civil Rights Act of 1964 outlawed employment discrimi-nation, governments, colleges, and corporations have tried to understand what the law means.' Employers have tried to integrate workforces, some with more enthusiasm than ~ t h e r s . ~ Change has been slower than1 those who passed the Civil Rights Act might have imagined it would be.3 Given the slow progress in the academy, National Science Foundation ("NSF") deputy director Joseph Bordogna designed the ADVANCE program in 1999 to pro-mote the integration of women in the science and engineering fields that the NSF funds.4 In 2001, ADVANCE, under the leadership of Alice Hogan, considered the first round of applications for grants for institutional ~ h a n g e . ~ The typical grant lasts for five years and provides several million dollars to colleges and universities that propose institutional changes to promote wo-men in science and engineering.'j As with most efforts to reduce gender segregation in the government, academia, and the corporate world,' ADVANCE has been little studied for evidence of its efficacy. Now some twenty programs have been initiated, and we have the opportunity to observe which strategies have succeeded and which have not. Susan Sturm provides the first systematic analysis of a * Frank Dobbin is Professor
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Full-text available
This paper advances a social ecological perspective on the resources necessary to support workplace diversity. It is based on observations from an ongoing organizational case study which used a collaborative inquiry process. We worked with insiders to establish a project steering team, conducted 36 confidential interviews, and met with work units to assess diversity-related concerns. The complex case portrait that emerged illuminates four lessons about the ecology of workplace diversity: (1) the influential role of organizational history and tradition in shaping current diversity dynamics, (2) the importance of understanding how participants' experiences of events may differ, (3) the power of informal organizational processes, and (4) the connections between individual, organizational, and broader cultural values. We discuss these lessons in the context of a three-part definition of support for effective diversity which includes representational, interactional, and cultural components. The goal is to further our understanding of the factors that support or hinder workforce diversity so we may more effectively create settings that are supportive of diversity.
Book
Globalization and its melting pot of different nationalities, ethnicities and cultures is attracting research that is gathering in substance and theory. A dynamic new field that represents a significant focus within management and organisation studies is emerging. This Handbook showcases the scope of international perspectives that exist on workplace diversity and is the first to define this hotly contested field. Part I of the Handbook dissects the theoretical reasons and shows how the study of workplace diversity follows different directions. Part II critiques quantitative and qualitative research methods within the field, while Part III investigates the parallels and distinctions between different workplace groups. Key issues are drawn together in an insightful introduction from the editors, and future directions for research are proposed in the conclusion. The Handbook of Workforce Diversity is an indispensable resource for students and academics of human resource management, organizational behavior, organizational psychology and organization studies.
Book
In 1997, the first Master of Arts degree program in Diversity Management began at Cleveland State University in the Department of Psychology. As a faculty, the authors were in a constant search for materials and resources for this program. The Handbook of Diversity Management is a response to our need; yet, the audience for this handbook is broad I adult learners in human resource management, independent consultants and trainers, school administrators, law enforcement officials, and community leaders. The chapters of the book represent the curriculum of the Diversity Management Program and the field of Diversity Management. They offer something for seasoned and novice diversity practitioners and provide diversity knowledge for general organizational professionals. For the seasoned professional, the handbook serves as a compendium of information that can support fieldwork. For the novice learner, it offers the theories and frameworks to support understanding the practice side of the field. For organizational professionals, the handbook can be used as a reference to aid in the creation of initiatives and support organizational effectiveness The content of the Handbook is divided into three sections: Theoretical Foundations, Skill-Based Learning, and Professional Issues. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
NB: This is not an article by John Wrench! It is a book review by Robyn Mason. Contents: Introducing the issues Diversity management in the USA The background to diversity management in Europe Convergence and constraints in European diversity practice An overview of critiques of diversity management Diversity management and anti-discrimination Diversity and the future Bibliography Index.
Article
Executive Overview Most writing on the subject suggests there is one best way to manage workforce diversity in organizations. We argue that there is no single best way, but that the organization's approach depends on the degree of pressure for diversity, the type of diversity in question, and managerial attitudes. Strategic responses for managing diversity are presented in a framework of proactive, accommodative, defensive, and reactive modes. These responses are discussed in terms of episodic, freestanding, and systemic implementation practices.
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Examining the contours of workplace diversity: Concepts, contexts and challenges Few social phenomena have attracted as much attention in the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries as that of diversity and multiculturalism. Debates and policies regarding both diversity and multiculturalism are to be found in many different social sectors including education, health, government, the media and the workplace. While the United States is often regarded as a pioneer in the diversity movement, its preoccupation with diversity is now echoed across the world in countries ranging from Australia and France to Israel and Jamaica. What was once a concern mainly for so-called ‘new’ immigrant nations such as Canada, Brazil, the United States and New Zealand has increasingly become an issue for ‘older’ countries in Europe, Asia and the Middle East as well. Recent large-scale population movements across the globe (Appadurai, 1990) in the form of refugees, guestworkers and immigrants have changed ...
Article
This paper advances a social ecological perspective on the resources necessary to support workplace diversity. It is based on observations from an ongoing organizational case study which used a collaborative inquiry process. We worked with insiders to establish a project steering team, conducted 36 confidential interviews, and met with work units to assess diversity-related concerns. The complex case portrait that emerged illuminates four lessons about the ecology of workplace diversity: (1) the influential role of organizational history and tradition in shaping current diversity dynamics, (2) the importance of understanding how participants' experiences of events may differ, (3) the power of informal organizational processes, and (4) the connections between individual, organizational, and broader cultural values. We discuss these lessons in the context of a three-part definition of support for effective diversity which includes representational, interactional, and cultural components. The goal is to further our understanding of the factors that support or hinder workforce diversity so we may more effectively create settings that are supportive of diversity.
Article
The value-in-diversity perspective argues that a diverse workforce, relative to a homogeneous one, is generally beneficial for business, including but not limited to corporate profits and earnings. This is in contrast to other accounts that view diversity as either nonconsequential to business success or actually detrimental by creating conflict, undermining cohesion, and thus decreasing productivity. Using data from the 1996 to 1997 National Organizations Survey, a national sample of for-profit business organizations, this article tests eight hypotheses derived from the value-in-diversity thesis. The results support seven of these hypotheses: racial diversity is associated with increased sales revenue, more customers, greater market share, and greater relative profits. Gender diversity is associated with increased sales revenue, more customers, and greater relative profits. I discuss the implications of these findings relative to alternative views of diversity in the workplace.
Article
This paper reports the theory, process, results, and consequences of diagnosing the race relations among managers of a large industrial corporation. A four person diagnostic team consisting of a black female, black male, white female, and white male, aided by a 12-person advisory committee of similar race/sex composition, developed an organic questionnaire and administered it to more than 600 managers. Data were collected and analyzed on general race relations, management groups, hiring, advancement, firing, actions for change, and reactions to the study. Analysis showed that the state of race relations in the company was related to a variety of systemic conditions including the ideas and feelings of individuals, the perceptions and actions of key groups, and the structure of the whole organization. As a result of the diagnosis, management committed itself to an action plan that addressed all the problematic issues uncovered by the diagnosis.
Article
Is diversity management the new tool to combat discrimination in employment, and how is it seen by both employers and union activists? A trend that began in North America, it is now being increasingly incorporated in European businesses. How it relates to equal opportunities, positive action and the priority given to combating racial discrimination in the workplace is closely analysed here. Attractive to employers, it can be a means of evading hard choices about equality and justice at work.
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This article investigates how a group of Danish business actors translated the American practice of diversity management into a novel managerial practice in Denmark. Their translation process unfolded at three levels: (a) individual preference, (b) strategic reframing, and (c) local grounding. The findings contribute to a better understanding of translation processes and have implications for future research and managerial practice.
Article
Since diversity management was introduced in Europe in the late 1990s, it has been debated whether this new concept would act as a catalyst of organizational change in favour of underprivileged groups. This article argues that diversity management is interpreted in a specific societal and organizational context, and indicates how strong institutions make their impact on Danish versions of diversity management. On the basis of a case study of the implementation of diversity management in a specific organization, the authors analyse how discourses of diversity management and corporate social responsibility are combined. The study suggests that this version of diversity management potentially leads to changes in the positions of ethnic minorities, primarily in the form of assimilation, as it maintains a focus on the sameness of people, not on the value of difference or otherness.
Article
The inflation of new management concepts in recent years has triggered a discussion that these concepts should be seen as `management fashions'. Often linked to this perspective is the notion that these concepts are used as rhetorical means to legitimize the organization, and that they remain decoupled from work activities. Subsequently, empirical studies focus on the diffusion of a new management concept or the intensity with which a new concept is discussed in the literature. A systematic analysis of the contents and the conceptual elements of the new concepts, and a systematic comparison of old and new approaches are rarely undertaken. To avoid a lop-sided view of new management concepts, we argue that the discussion of `management fashions' requires an analysis of the core ideas underlying a new concept as well as systematic comparisons of old and newer approaches. Benchmarking (BM) as a new `management fashion' is used as an example to show what such an analysis could look like. An explanation for the upswing of BM will be presented, wherein BM is seen as a continuation of Taylor's concept of scientific management. An analysis of the core elements of BM shows why it is an attractive instrument for management. However, this analysis does not entirely explain the increasing spread of the concept. It is not clear as to what motivates the industry's best to offer themselves as a benchmark for others, and further explanation for this will be given. From a managerial perspective, BM is a method for emulating price and quality competition, as well as increasing employee motivation and performance.
Article
Workplace diversity crystallized as a management sub-field only when members of historically excluded groups became serious contenders for power positions in North American organizations. This article asserts power/dominance relations between identity groups as a central factor driving diversity dynamics in organizations and questions the predominance of the trait model, which locates the fundamental mechanisms driving diversity dynamics within individuals and ignores contextual factors, including power. The author argues that it is important to draw a distinction between diversity scholarship and the individual differences tradition in organizational studies in order to retain a central focus on power relations among identity groups and avoid diluting the diversity construct to the point that any group composed of non-identical individuals becomes diverse by definition.
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Conflict in and among groups often erupts in surprising and unexpected ways. Building upon extant theory regarding the movement of conflict, the authors posit that conflict gets enacted in distinct ways when individuals and groups are heterogeneous. The relative impermeability of identity group boundaries fundamentally changes the patterns of interaction required to achieve a state of balance in three-party interactions. The authors present two cases that explore the movement and transformation of conflict among employees in a large financial institution. The intricate dynamics suggest that organization and identity group memberships spawn layers of interaction that generate, escalate, resolve, and/or conceal conflict among organizational participants.
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This paper seeks to extend and invigorate existing critiques of the aims and claims of diversity management. Four overlapping turns – demographic, political, economic and critical – akin to the broader and critical ‘turns’ in the humanities and social sciences are identified. When existing critiques are reconsidered through the framework offered by these four turns, then diversity management can be seen to: perpetuate rather than combat inequalities in the workplace; diminish the legacy of discrimination against historically repressed minorities in the workplace; continue to prescribe essentialist categories of difference and present problematic dualisms for effecting organizational change.
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“Managing diversity” has emerged as a new and contested vocabulary for addressing issues of difference in organisations. This paper uses a New Zealand case study to exemplify a feminist post-structuralist reading of managing diversity. The paper argues that a feminist post-structuralist approach not only addresses feminist theoretical debates about identity, equality and difference, but also opens up new opportunities for practitioners in managing diversity and equal employment opportunities (EEO) to reflect on their own organisational change practice. The paper presents three readings of managing diversity: a discourse of exploitation which provides oppositional readings of managing diversity as a form of human resource management; a discourse of difference, drawing on refusals of managing diversity in accounts from minority group perspectives; and a discourse of equality where EEO practitioners have questioned managing diversity in the context of EEO.
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Purpose – The paper's aim is to examine how diversity management discourse reproduces heteronormative essentialist notions of identity in organisations. Design/methodology/approach – This is a critical analysis of diversity management discourse that draws upon concepts, frames and the language of queer theory and insights from social identity construction to offer an alternative approach to reconceptualising diversity management. The key question of the paper is: what are the conceptions of identity underpinning the diversity management discourse and how do they reproduce heteronormativity? Findings – The paper unveils the reproduction of binaries in diversity management discourse. Possible counter strategies from queer theory are proposed to alter the diversity management discourse. Originality/value – This paper offers a first reading of diversity management discourse against the grain from a queer perspective and offers possible points of departure for altering diversity management discourse.
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to address the little researched question of how trade unions have interpreted and engaged with the discourse of diversity adopted by many organisations to replace the traditional “equal opportunities” discourse. Design/methodology/approach – Drawing on interviews with national trade union equality officers, the paper presents a discourse‐based analysis, exploring what the shift towards a diversity discourse means for trade unions. Findings – The paper identifies three main features of the diversity discourse, which cause concern from the trade union perspective: its business‐driven nature, its focus on the individual and its positioning as a top‐down managerial activity. The main concern expressed was that the upbeat rhetoric of the diversity discourse diverts attention from the realities of discrimination and disadvantage. However, the discussion concludes that unions believe it is possible to work critically with diversity in order to pursue equality objectives. Originality/value – The paper offers an original perspective on the diversity discourse, and within the field of employment relations, an unusual analytical approach.