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The Garnaut Climate Change Review



Professor Ross Garnaut was commissioned by all of the Governments of Australia’s Federation to examine the impacts of climate change on Australia and to recommend policy frameworks to improve the prospects of sustainable prosperity. The Garnaut Climate Change Review is one of the most important reports to be published in Australia for many years. It examines the impacts of climate change on the Australian economy, the costs of adaptation and mitigation, and the international context in which climate change is experienced and negotiated. It analyses the elements of an appropriate international policy response, and the challenges that face Australia in playing its proportionate part in that response. The Garnaut Climate Change Review is highly relevant to the global problem that is climate change. It considers what policies the international community should adopt in responding to climate change, and urges humanity to act now, and in concert, to develop the required policy response in time.
Final Re p o R t
Th e GarnauT ClimaTe ChanGe review
Ross Garnaut is one of Australia’s most distinguished and well-known economists.
He is an Officer of the Order of Australia for services to education and international
relations, a Fellow of the Australian Academy of Social Sciences, and Honorary
Professor of the Chinese Academy of Social Science. Based in the Research
School of Pacific and Asian Studies at the Australian National University from
1972 to 2008, he was Professor of Economics from 1989 to 2008, and head of
the economics department for much of that time. Professor Garnaut is now Vice-
Chancellor’s Fellow and Professorial Fellow in Economics at Melbourne University
and Distinguished Professor at the Australian National University. He is Chairman
of the International Food Policy Research Institute of Washington DC, Chairman
of Lihir Gold Limited, Chairman of Papua New Guinea Sustainable Development
Limited, Chairman of the editorial boards of the academic journals
Asian Pacific
Economic Literature
and the
Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies
, and a
Director of the Lowy Institute for International Policy.
Professor Garnaut has had periods of secondment to senior positions in
government. He was head of financial and economic policy in Papua New Guinea’s
Department of Finance in the years straddling independence in the mid-1970s, the
principal economic adviser to Australian Prime Minister R.J.L. Hawke in the 1980s,
and Australian Ambassador to China from 1985 to 1988.
The many books of which he has been author, co-author or editor include
Taxation of Mineral Rent; Australian Protectionism
Australia and the Northeast
Asian Ascendancy
Third Revolution in the Chinese Countryside
Democracy in Australia’s Asian Future;
China’s Ownership Transformation
Final Re p o R t
Th e GarnauT
ClimaTe ChanGe
Ross Garnaut
Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, São Paulo, Delhi
Cambridge University Press
477 Williamstown Road, Port Melbourne, VIC 3207, Australia
Information on this title:
The Garnaut Climate Change Review: Final Report © Commonwealth of Australia 2008
The text in the Final Report reproduced in this document (excluding the Garnaut Climate Change Review logo)
may be reproduced free of charge in any format or medium providing it is reproduced accurately and not used
in a misleading context. The material must be acknowledged as Commonwealth copyright and the title of the
document specified.
The Final Report and supporting materials are available free of charge on the Garnaut Climate Change Review
website at <>.
Any inquiries relating to the copyright in this document should be addressed to the Commonwealth Copyright
Administration, Attorney-General’s Department, Robert Garran Offices, National Circuit, Canberra ACT 2600
or posted at <>.
For general inquiries about the Garnaut Climate Change Review, contact the Department of Climate Change,
GPO Box 854, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia.
First published 2008
Editorial and artwork by WHH Publishing
Index by Trevor Matthews
Printed in Australia by Ligare
National Library of Australia Cataloguing-in-Publication entry
Author: Garnaut, Ross.
Title: The Garnaut climate change review/Ross Garnaut.
ISBN: 9780521744447 (pbk.)
Notes: Includes index.
Subjects: Climatic changes—Economic aspects—Australia
Power resources—Economic aspects—Australia
Greenhouse effect, Atmospheric—Australia—Economic aspects
Carbon taxes—Australia
Greenhouse gas mitigation—Australia
Sustainable development—Australia.
Dewey number: 363.738740994
Front cover image: Sidney Nolan,
Rainbow over Pilbara
, 1982
Enamel spray on canvas 121 x 152 cm
Private collection
© The Trustees of the Sidney Nolan Trust/The Bridgeman Art Library
Back cover image: Sidney Nolan,
Storm over Pilbara
, 1982
Enamel spray on canvas 122 x 152.5 cm
Private collection
© The Trustees of the Sidney Nolan Trust/The Bridgeman Art Library
Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of URLs for external or third-party
internet websites referred to in this publication and does not guarantee that any content on such websites is, or will
remain, accurate or appropriate. Information regarding prices, travel timetables and other factual
information given in this work are correct at the time of first printing but Cambridge University Press
does not guarantee the accuracy of such information thereafter.
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Preface xiii
Acknowledgments xiv
Terms of reference xvi
Introduction xvii
Synopsis of key points xxxv
A decision-making framework 1 1
1.1 The costs of mitigation 3
1.2 Risk and uncertainty 7
1.3 Four types of benefits from mitigation 9
1.4 How effective adaptation reduces the costs of climate
change 13
1.5 Measuring the benefits of mitigation against the costs 14
1.6 A graphical representation of the benefits and costs 15
1.7 Valuing the future relative to the present 18
Understanding climate science 22 3
2.1 The earth’s atmosphere 24
2.2 Understanding climate change 27
2.3 Linking emissions and climate change 30
2.4 The task of global mitigation 42
Emissions in the Platinum Age 53 3
3.1 Greenhouse gas emissions by source and country 53
3.2 Recent trends in carbon dioxide emissions from
fossil fuels 55
3.3 Existing emissions projections 58
3.4 The Review’s no-mitigation projections: methodology
and assumptions 59
The Garnaut Climate Change Review
3.5 Results from the Review’s projections and comparisons
with existing projections 62
3.6 The impact of high energy prices 67
3.7 Resource limits 69
Projecting global climate change 74 5
4.1 How has the climate changed? 75
4.2 Understanding climate change projections 83
4.3 Projected climate change for the three emissions cases 87
4.4 Assessing the climate risk 96
Projecting Australian climate change 105 5
5.1 Attributing climate change to humans 106
5.2 How has the climate changed in Australia? 106
5.3 Projected climate change in Australia 113
Climate change impacts on Australia 126 1
6.1 Understanding Australia’s vulnerability to
climate change 124
6.2 Australia without global mitigation 125
6.3 Direct impacts of climate change on Australia 128
6.4 Indirect impacts of climate change on Australia 145
Australia’s emissions in a global context 157 3
7.1 Australia’s emissions profile and international
comparisons 153
7.2 Emissions profiles of Australian industries 165
Assessing the international response 178 3
8.1 The evolving international framework for addressing
climate change 174
8.2 National commitments and policies to mitigate climate
change 177
8.3 Assessment of progress under the Kyoto Protocol 180
8.4 Projections given the current trajectory of
mitigation effort 183
8.5 Accelerating progress 184
Towards global agreement 199 1
9.1 Agreeing on a global goal 192
9.2 What form should national commitments take? 195
9.3 A graduated approach to national commitments 198
9.4 Principles for allocating emissions entitlements
across countries 200
9.5 Modelling a per capita approach to the allocation of
emissions entitlements 205
9.6 Reaching agreement on 550 or 450: is it possible? 212
Deepening global collaboration 2110 7
10.1 International public funding for mitigation 218
10.2 International public funding for adaptation 223
10.3 Promoting collaborative research to assist developing
countries 226
10.4 International trade in emissions rights 227
10.5 Price-based sectoral agreements for the trade-exposed,
emissions-intensive sectors 230
10.6 Climate change and trade policy 232
10.7 International aviation and shipping 234
10.8 Land-use change and forestry 235
10.9 Enforcement mechanisms 239
Costing climate change and its avoidance 2411 5
11.1 The three global scenarios 246
11.2 Comparing the costs of climate change and mitigation 247
11.3 Modelling mitigation 250
11.4 The decision to mitigate 252
11.5 How much mitigation? 268
The Garnaut Climate Change Review
Targets and trajectories 2712 7
12.1 Determining our conditional and unconditional
targets 278
12.2 The benefits of global cooperation 285
12.3 Solving a diabolical problem in stages 287
12.4 Hastening progress towards greater emissions
reductions 289
12.5 Moving from a 550 to a 450 goal 290
12.6 Does Australia matter for global mitigation? 291
12.7 Interim targets 294
12.8 Implications for an Australian emissions
trading scheme 298
An Australian policy framework 2913 9
13.1 Confronting uncertainty: the policy challenges of
climate change 300
13.2 Avoiding the greatest market failure ever seen 307
13.3 Bungling Australia’s emissions trading scheme 314
An Australian emissions trading scheme 3214 1
14.1 The framework to guide efficient scheme design 322
14.2 Elemental design features 324
14.3 Releasing permits into the market 330
14.4 Lowering the costs of meeting targets 334
14.5 Addressing the distortion faced by trade-exposed,
emissions-intensive industries 341
14.6 Transition period: Australia’s emissions trading
scheme to the end of 2012 350
14.7 Governance: institutional arrangements 351
14.8 Addressing the relationships between an
emissions trading scheme and other policies 353
14.9 Summary of design features of an Australian
emissions trading scheme 357
Adaptation and mitigation measures for Australia 3615 3
15.1 Information and understanding 365
15.2 The role of markets and market-based policies 370
15.3 Scaling the challenges: five examples 376
S16 haring the burden in Australia 385
16.1 Effects of mitigation policy in the short term 386
16.2 A framework for government intervention 393
16.3 Long-term impacts and structural change 400
Information barriers to known technologies 4017 3
17.1 The impact of information and agency barriers 404
17.2 Information barriers 406
17.3 Principal–agent problems 413
17.4 Minimum performance standards 415
The innovation challenge 4218 3
18.1 What is innovation? 424
18.2 Ensuring optimal levels of early research 428
18.3 Rewarding early movers 433
18.4 Overcoming barriers from technological lock-in 441
Network infrastructure 4419 5
19.1 The transmission of electricity 446
19.2 The distribution of electricity 451
19.3 Gas transmission infrastructure 453
19.4 The transportation of carbon dioxide 453
19.5 The transport of passengers and freight 455
19.6 Water supply infrastructure 458
19.7 The planning of urban settlements 460
The Garnaut Climate Change Review
Transforming energy 4620 7
20.1 The energy sector today 468
20.2 Drivers of the transformation 472
20.3 The transformation 478
20.4 Modelling results for the energy sector 482
20.5 Major economic impacts 490
20.6 Risks to the transformation 499
Transforming transport 5021 3
21.1 The role of transport and its current structure 504
21.2 Causes of the transformation 505
21.3 Economic modelling results: a possible future? 511
21.4 The path to transformation: a picture of future
transport 517
21.5 Fostering the transformation 526
Transforming rural land use 5322 1
22.1 Drivers of a transformation towards lower emissions 532
22.2 Economic modelling results: a possible future? 537
22.3 An alternative future 542
22.4 Barriers and limits to a low-emissions future 558
Towards a low-emissions economy 5623 5
23.1 The dynamics of economic adjustment with global
mitigation 566
23.2 The economy to and at 550 ppm 570
23.3 The difference between 550 and 450 575
23.4 Australia in the low-emissions world energy
economy 576
23.5 The downside risks 579
23.6 The upside in technology assumptions 580
23.7 The importance of flexible global and national
markets 584
23.8 The importance of education and training 586
23.9 Global mitigation and ongoing prosperity 587
23.10 Australia in a successful world of change 588
Fateful decisions 59124
List of figures and tables 599
List of shortened forms 606
Glossary 608
Index 617
The Garnaut Climate Change Review was initiated in April 2007 by the then Leader
of the Opposition, Kevin Rudd, and by the Premiers of the six states and the Chief
Ministers of the two territories of Australia. It was commissioned by the First
Ministers on 30 April 2007. The Commonwealth Government joined the Review in
January 2008 after Mr Rudd became Prime Minister of Australia.
The Review was required to examine the impacts of climate change on the
Australian economy, and to recommend medium- to long-term policies and policy
frameworks to improve the prospects of sustainable prosperity.
The Review’s secretariat was established in June 2007. Based within the
Victorian Department of Premier and Cabinet, it included members from the public
services of Queensland, Western Australia and South Australia. A secretariat office
within the federal Department of Climate Change was set up in January 2008.
As part of its research and analysis, the Review consulted with a wide range
of experts and stakeholders in Australia and overseas: academics, officials,
government departments and public bodies, business leaders and representatives,
and non-government organisations.
The Review produced four major documents as a basis for public discussion.
An interim report was presented to First Ministers and released in February 2008;
a discussion paper on the proposed emissions trading scheme in March, a draft
report on 4 July and a supplementary draft report on 5 September.
The Review commissioned a number of papers on the impacts of climate
change on Australia, which represent major contributions to the growing body of
knowledge about these impacts. The papers are available on the Review’s website
at <>.
The methodology applied in, and the results of, the Review’s modelling have
generated large volumes of analysis and information, of which this final report
presents only a small proportion. A technical appendix to the report on the
modelling is available on the website.
The Review has benefited substantially from interactions with other
organisations and the community more generally at specialist forums, and
public forums and lectures held around the country between August 2007 and
September 2008. More than 10 000 people participated in these events over the
course of the Review.
A formal submission process was also conducted, which attracted almost 4000
submissions. Interested stakeholders were encouraged to respond to a series of
five issues papers, the discussion paper on the emissions trading scheme and the
interim report, all of which stimulated considerable public discussion and debate
on climate change mitigation and adaptation in Australia.
This final report is the last stage of a wide-ranging process that has transparently
examined how Australia, as a single country, is likely to be affected by climate
change, and how we can best contribute to climate change mitigation and start
to adapt.
The Review’s work, with its scale and complexity, could only be completed through
the generous contributions of many people and organisations in Australia and
across the world.
I had the good fortune of being supported by a management team led by
Ron Ben-David as head of the secretariat, and Ian de Cruz, Kevin Keeffe and
Stephen Howes. I am grateful that Ron took on the job of helping me get it all
together on the day that I was given my presumptuous task. We have worked
together on it every day since. Ian led the states-based team in Melbourne from
the beginning in late June 2007 and Kevin the Commonwealth component of
the secretariat from the time of its establishment in January 2008. Stephen held
together the international work from his base at the Australian National University.
The end product has been the beneficiary of their exceptional skills, capacities and
Thank you to the team members who have been with me from the outset:
Jonathan Chew, Elizabeth Edye, Ana Markulev, Nina Rogers and Karlie Tucker; and
to our team of expert modellers from the Queensland Treasury, led by Greg Watts
and Matt Clark.
It has been a long and hard road, but we have reached the place of which we
spoke and maybe dreamed more than a year ago.
Tony Wood added valuable knowledge of technologies and much else when he
joined me as a private adviser. Frank Jotzo introduced me to areas of economics
in which he was an old hand and I was not.
From earlier this year, the team was strengthened with great professionalism by
Dominic Burke, Alison Carrington, Clare Chick, Peter Corcoran, Charles Edlington,
Kylie Meakins, Helen Morrow, Rob Murray-Leach and Claire Ruedin. During this
time Daniel Adams, James Allen, Jacqueline Boreham, Conrad Buffier, Karen
Dempsey, Darren Gladman, Lana Kelly and Kirsten Mann have all made valuable
contributions to the Review. Anna Freeman managed to keep us in touch with a
high proportion of the extraordinary number of Australians and others who were
interested in the Review’s work. Veronica Webster held together the threads of
my absurd program of commitments against all the odds.
Many of the individuals mentioned above, and some others, made exceptional
and particular intellectual and other contributions to the work. It would be invidious
of me to single out those contributions here, but I will find ways of acknowledging
these exceptional contributions in more personal ways.
My thanks go to several Commonwealth and state government agencies. The
secretariat began its work in the Victorian Department of Premier and Cabinet,
where the former Secretary, Terry Moran, made sure that things started strongly,
and the current Secretary, Helen Silver, continued the excellent support. The
Review became a joint Commonwealth–states project from early 2008, with
the Commonwealth Department of Climate Change and its Secretary, Martin
Parkinson, as its central point. The Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource
Economics provided strong professional support for the work from the beginning
in 2007, with special contributions from the modelling team led by Don Gunasekera,
ably supported by Helal Ahammad. The Review’s joint work on modelling with the
Australian Treasury team, led by David Gruen and Meghan Quinn, has broken
fertile ground that will be cultivated by Australians for many years. Thanks also to
the Office of Economic and Statistical Research in the Queensland Treasury for
its ongoing support through the dedication of staff to the Review. The Australian
Academy of Science and Academy of Technological Science and Engineering made
significant contributions.
I am grateful for the assistance, services and information throughout the Review
provided by the staff at the Australian Bureau of Statistics (particularly Steve Gelsi
and Sandra Waters); Roger Jones and his many colleagues at the Commonwealth
Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation; the Bureau of Meteorology; the
Productivity Commission; Philip Adams at the Centre of Policy Studies (Monash
University), who made large contributions directly and through the joint modelling
with Treasury; the Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research at
Melbourne University; and WHH Publishing (especially but not only Virginia Wilton
and Larissa Joseph).
Over the last 16 months, my team and I have held thousands of conversations
with leaders in their fields in Australia and internationally, and received countless
emails and letters offering advice, support and criticism. It is simply not possible
to acknowledge all of these contributions. But many have been instrumental in
informing the ideas and proposals presented in this Report, and some have been
immensely important. Many of you will recognise your influence.
To Jayne, and to the partners and families of all members of my team, I thank
you for your patience over many months, and your willingness to bear the demands
of this project.
Ross Garnaut
Canberra and Melbourne
30 September 2008
... Then, converting the calculated organic carbon to CO 2 equivalents by using the converting factor of 3.67 (Dittmann et al., 2016;Hiederer and Viñas, 2018) results in an estimation of 2790 tons of CO 2 buried per year within PV coastal marsh. If a value of USD 30 per ton of CO 2 is used for carbon credits calculation (Garnaut, 2008;Dittmann et al., 2016;Hiederer and Viñas, 2018), the carbon burial of the whole PV coastal marsh area represents approximately USD 83600 per year in carbon credits or USD 300 per hectare. Our study demonstrates the value of the PV coastal marsh systems to reduce net anthropogenic carbon emissions. ...
Full-text available
This research assessed carbon and nutrient burial during the past ~60 years within a Peruvian coastal marsh ecosystem affected by anthropogenic activities, by examining total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN) and isotopes (δ 13 C and δ 15 N) tracers in two dated sediment cores. Significantly higher TOC and TN burial, up to 416.4 ± 65.0 and 0.7 ± 0.1 g m − 2 year − 1 respectively, were observed after an uncontrolled urban expansion starting in the early 1970's to the 1990's. The TOC and TN burial rates were up to twofold higher than those observed for preserved coastal marshes. Furthermore, the decreased δ 13 C values (− 16.1 ± 0.6 ‰) and increasing δ 15 N values (+10.6 ± 2.6 ‰) indicate higher deposition of algal material and urban sewage during the same period. The higher burial rates during 1970's-1990's and reduced rates thereafter evidenced the role of coastal marsh ecosystems plays in sequestering carbon and nutrients.
... Both the Mitigation Scenario and the Revolution Scenario generated by the dynamicstrategy theory are very different to the conventional growth scenarios suggested by the historicist and neoclassical general equilibrium (i.e. static) models, which have been modified to include assumptions about climate change by IPCC, Stern (2007), Garnaut (2008), and others. The conventional scenarios considerably overestimate the growth of the mitigation (or command) economy, as they completely overlook the lock-in effect of an exhausting/exhausted industrial technological paradigm (even one modified by low-carbon technologies); and they massively underestimate the growth of the non-mitigation (strategic or free enterprise) economy, because their models cannot capture the technological pathway or the technological paradigm shift. ...
Full-text available
Human society has reached a critical crossroad in history. The global dynamic process that has driven the prosperity and freedoms embodied in Western Civilization is grinding to a halt. The narrowing opportunities for humanity as population presses on technologically defined resources is generating protests, ugly competition, disputes, wars, and a loss of confidence in our political and social institutions. How the world reacts to this crisis over the next few decades will determine the fate of both Western Civilization and the rest of the world. Prospects, however, are not bright. Not because the underlying dynamic mechanism of global change is malfunctioning, but because so-called "progressives"--who are really metaphysical interventionists--are attempting to reshape the world using pseudo-science, which is unable to realistically interpret the dynamics of human society. These radical interventionists are engaged in mythmaking rather than reality construction. If they have their way--and they are currently enjoying major successes--the world will experience the the establishment of a global command system that will block the natural transition to a new and higher state of technological achievement. I call this outcome the "Dutch windmill syndrome". The outcome will be a massive reduction in material prosperity, the loss of individual liberty, and a huge loss of life. Essentially, it will involve "the dying of the light". There is, however, a better way, which is outlined in this paper from the INSTITUTE OF GLOBAL DYNAMIC SYSTEMS (Canberra). Note: unfamiliar terms and concepts are explained in the Appendix.
... dodatnie wymuszanie radiacyjne), a w konsekwencji przyczynia się do globalnego ocieplenia. Najważniejszym składnikiem zabójczej dla ziemskiej ekosfery mieszanki antropogenicznych gazów cieplarnianych jest dwutlenek węgla (Garnaut 2008). Związana głównie z nim mitygacja zmian klimatycznych obejmuje zarówno przyczyny (np. ...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Indicators of ecosystem potential, flow and unmet demand in urban ecosystems at the national level on the example of Poland.
... Najważniejszym składnikiem mieszanki antropogenicznych gazów cieplarnianych jest dwutlenek węgla (Garnaut, 2008). Związana głównie z nim mitygacja zmian klimatycznych obejmuje zarówno przyczyny (np. ...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Indicators of ecosystem service potential, flow and unmet demand in urban ecosystems on the example of Warsaw
... Further challenges will be placed on primary producers to meet global food demand as climate change continues (Campbell et al., 2016). Australian primary industries are particularly vulnerable to climate change (Beilin et al., 2019;Farmar-Bowers et al., 2013;Garnaut, 2008;Stokes and Howden, 2010) with adaptation and mitigation actions required for the ongoing security of the sector. In response, substantial research investigating climate change impacts on Australia's primary industries has been conducted. ...
Australia’s primary production sector operates in one of the world’s most variable climates with future climate change posing a challenge to its ongoing sustainability. Recognising this, Australia has invested in understanding climate change risks to primary production with a substantial amount of research produced. Recently, focus on this research space has broadened, with interests from the financial sector and expanded scopes of works from government and industry. These expanded needs require sector- and country-wide assessments to assist with the implementation of climate strategies. We considered the applicability of the current research body for these needs by reviewing 188 peer-reviewed studies that considered the quantitative Powered by Editorial Manager® and ProduXion Manager® from Aries Systems Corporation impacts of climate change on Australia’s primary industries. Our broad review includes cropping, livestock, horticulture, forestry and fisheries and biosecurity threats. This is the first such review for Australia, and no other similar country-wide review was found. We reviewed the studies through three lenses, industry diversity, geographic coverage and study comparability. Our results show that all three areas are lacking for sector- and country-wide assessments. Industry diversity was skewed towards cropping and biosecurity threats (64% of all studies) with wheat in particular a major focus (25% of all studies). Geographic coverage at a state level appeared to be evenly distributed across the country; however, when considered in conjunction with industry focus, gaps emerged. Study comparability was found to be very limited due to the use of different historical baseline periods and different impact models. We make several recommendations to assist with future research directions, being (1) co-development of a standard set of method guidelines for impact assessments, (2) filling industry and geographic knowledge gaps, and (3) improving transparency in study method descriptions. Uptake of these recommendations will improve study application and transparency enabling and enhancing responses to climate change in Australia’s primary industries.
... Climate change mitigation is now a major political issue in Australia's public policy discourse [8,9]. In contrast to the base year (1990), carbon-emissions-related global warming is predicted to lift Australia's annual average temperature by 2 • C by 2030 [10]. Australia has recently experienced reduced levels of average annual rainfall, as well as prolonged and more intense bushfires and weather conditions. ...
Full-text available
This paper examines the effect of two Australian environmental regulatory changes, specifically the Clean Energy Act (CEA) 2011 and the National Greenhouse and Energy Reporting (NGER) Act 2007 with reference to voluntary corporate carbon disclosure practices. In doing so, it describes the brief history of this carbon-related regulatory change, its scope, enforcement criteria and corporations’ disclosures. This is a longitudinal analysis of 219 annual reports of 73 listed corporations in Australia which were subjected to carbon tax and report carbon emissions as per the CEA 2011 and NGER Act 2007 accordingly. Any corporation or facility that emitted scope 1 emissions of 25,000 tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2-e) or more were liable for a carbon tax in accordance with CEA 2011. Drawing on stakeholder theory and legitimacy theory, this study uses content analysis to examine corporate carbon disclosure. The findings suggest there is a considerable increase in the number of carbon-related disclosures following these regulations being enacted as law. In addition, carbon-specific communication has become much more prevalent and accounts for a larger proportion of the sampled organisations’ reported environmental information. The results of this study enrich the validity of the hypothesis that organisations would seek to legitimise their operations to stakeholders by increasing their environment-related declarations. The evidence presented in the analysis confirms the assertion that government environmental legislation/regulation has a positive impact on corporate behaviour and accountability. These findings have significant consequences for the government, decision-makers and the accounting profession, indicating that regulatory guidance enhances both mandatory and voluntary disclosure. It also offers key insights into the possible impacts of the carbon regulatory change for future research to consider.
Full-text available
Environmental finance has gained considerable attention globally as an emerging interdisciplinary research area. This study uses bibliometric analysis to systematically review major studies on environmental finance-related areas published since the 1970s. Through a bibliometric analysis of 892 environmental finance-related articles sourced from the Web of Science database, we identified the main research streams and illustrated the trending research themes of environmental finance. We find that publications related to environmental finance have increased exponentially over the past decade. Current research streams include corporate and social responsibility (CSR), climate negotiations, natural gas price volatility, national policy, and cost comparisons. Further analysis of the recent five years of literature shows that emerging research topics include climate finance, sustainable finance, firm value, climate risk, and green bonds. Finally, we conclude with a future research agenda for environmental finance.
The following chapter examines major policies and mitigation mechanisms designed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions including market-based and command and control mechanisms. In the context of climate change mitigation where policy makers pursue long-term fundamental behavioural change among a large group, taxes and emissions trading arguably could be more beneficial than direct regulations or other non-price instruments. It also discusses the background, development and adverse effects associated with the introduction of market-based mechanisms to mitigate emissions.
The Asia-Pacific region has been experiencing rapid development in the past 30 years, and issues relating to sustainable development will become increasingly important in the coming decades. This comprehensive overview presents sustainable development from the perspectives of Asia and the Pacific, with contributions from more than 70 leading international experts. The first part focuses on the theories and practices of sustainable development, including national and regional perspectives, as well as international policies and law concerning climate change. The second part highlights the challenges and opportunities of sustainable development and poverty reduction amid the changing ecological, social, cultural, economic, and political environment in this region. These include issues such as the importance of science for sustainable development and related areas, including sustainable energy, stratospheric ozone depletion, climate change, land-use change, biodiversity, and disaster risk reduction. The volume is an invaluable reference for all researchers and policy makers with an interest in sustainable development.
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