ArticlePDF Available

Analyzing the Main Changes in New Consumer Buying Behavior during Economic Crisis

  • Bucharest University of Economic Studies, Bucharest, Romania


The negative social effects caused by consumerism and especially hiperconsumerism leaded, in the recent years, to the emergence and rapid growth of economic importance of new types of consumer - the new consumer - whose attitudes, aspirations and purchasing patterns are different from those existing in the past. The paper outlines at first, a portrait of the new consumer, highlighting its main features, derived primarily from the need for authenticity, which distinguishes it from the so-called traditional consumer. Amid global economic crisis, which turned out to be not only a financial crisis, but also one of capitalism, the new consumer behavior has encountered a series of changes. The recession has led the consumers to look for new landmarks: they became more economical, more responsible and more demanding. Research conducted in different countries showed that the recession had a strong economic and social impact on consumers. The paper analyze the results of some research realized in different countries in the recession period in order to highlight the main changes occurred in the new consumer buying behavior and to draw a portrait of him after the economic crisis.
International Journal of Economic Practices and Theories, Vol. 1, No. 1, 2011 (July)
Analyzing the Main Changes in New Consumer Buying Behavior
during Economic Crisis
Lelia Voinea, Alina Filip
Bucharest Academy of Economic Studies
Abstract. The negative social effects caused by consumerism and especially hiperconsumerism leaded, in the recent years, to the
emergence and rapid growth of economic importance of new types of consumer - the new consumer - whose attitudes,
aspirations and purchasing patterns are different from those existing in the past. The paper outlines at first, a portrait of the new
consumer, highlighting its main features, derived primarily from the need for authenticity, which distinguishes it from the so-
called traditional consumer. Amid global economic crisis, which turned out to be not only a financial crisis, but also one of
capitalism, the new consumer behavior has encountered a series of changes. The recession has led the consumers to look for new
landmarks: they became more economical, more responsible and more demanding. Research conducted in different countries
showed that the recession had a strong economic and social impact on consumers. The paper analyze the results of some research
realized in different countries in the recession period in order to highlight the main changes occurred in the new consumer
buying behavior and to draw a portrait of him after the economic crisis.
Key words: changes, consumerism, consumer behavior, economic crisis, new consumer.
JEL classification: P 46, M 31
1 Introduction
Consumer behaviour has changed greatly over the
last 25 years, but it has been evolutionary and the
seeds of change have been apparent for
generations (Kar, 2010).
Mutations occurring in the new consumer’s
perception of goods quality should not be
understood as a quickly process or easy to locate
in time.
In any case, we believe that the origin of these
changes in consumer behavior is found through
the introduction of the US Consumer Bill of
Rights in 1963, which gave the consumer a higher
status, because the Government took on the
responsibility of protecting his rights: the right to
safety, the right to be informed, the right to
choose and the right to be heard.
From that moment, manufacturers could no
longer simply produce, because the consumer
needs and wants needed to be taken into account.
Consumers had choice for the first time and were
aware of it (Kar, 2010).
Underlying the consumption choices is a desire to
feel good, not only physical, but also emotionally.
But, in the last decades, consumers have faced an
explosion of product choices and it is causing so
called “consumer vertigo.” The consumer became
increasingly anxious about choices and
sometimes he chooses not to buy something for
fear he will make the wrong selection.
What makes people feel good emotionally is
changing now. Thus, the consumers are seeking
more purposeful pleasures that last longer and
offer deeper satisfactions. Impulse shopping gives
way to a more considered and conscientious form
of consumption. All these announce a new era:
the era of mindful consumption and of new
In this paper is realized first a literature review in
order to identify the determining factors of the
emergence of new consumer and to highlight the
main features of this one. Further, through a
International Journal of Economic Practices and Theories, Vol. 1, No. 1, 2011 (July)
research from secondary sources, it was analyzed
the main changes occurred in the new consumer
buying behavior during economic crisis.
2 The failure of consumerism and the
emergence of the new consumer
Few decades ago, the driving force behind
consumption was the desire of individuals to
improve their social condition through possession
of material goods, which ensured middle-class
But consumerism proved unable to make people
happier, especially by the fact that it did not cause
an increase in welfare in other ways than the
psychological ones. Excessive consumption that
has created so-called "paradox of happiness",
which is that once a basic level is provided,
happiness does not increase with income above
this limit (Drakopoulos, 2008: pp.303-315).
Hyperconsumerism has failed to satisfy the
consumer, leaving him unhappy and alienated
from others and from the natural world. A
paradox of modern consumerism is that even as
those who have come to own more, had less.
Consumers are experiencing feelings of
emptiness and disconnectedness. In response,
they began to want real and authentic
experiences. They are seeking more: more
meaning, more connections, more substance,
more satisfaction, more purpose (Euro RSCG
Worldwide, 2010b).
That’s why in recent years we have witnessed the
emergence and rapid growth of the economic
importance of new typologies of consumer - the
new consumer - whose attitudes, aspirations and
purchasing patterns are different from those
existing in the past.
Because the new consumer largely exhausted the
things he must bought, he is focusing instead on
what he wants to buy and is therefore looking for
opportunities and experiences that could make
life happier and more satisfying.
New consumer focuses even more on the original
products, innovative and distinctive and on the
services. As a result, it tends to reject goods
produced and sold in mass for products and
services that can claim to be authentic in some
If in the past every major aspect of a transaction,
from the price paid to distribution channels
available, was dictated by the manufacturers and
suppliers in the new context of market, power is
transferred more and more to consumers who are
increasingly able to dictate not only what they’ll
buy, but how and where the goods they purchase
are made and even for some products, what they
are willing to pay for it. The new consumer has
become a major player in an increasingly
fragmented market, contributing also to the
increasing in its fragmentation.
While traditional consumer was usually not
involved in production, conformist, and most
often uninformed, the new consumer is
individualistic, involved, independent and
generally well informed.
Lewis and Bridger (2000) show that mutations in
the new consumer behavior derives mainly from
its desire to purchase authentic, stressing that the
main difference between these two types of
consumers is that, while the consumption
behavior of traditional consumer was largely
motivated by a need for comfort, the new
consumer behavior is determined by looking for
Authenticity is the new consumer mind
equivalent to that level of quality able to produce
him fascination. It has become a new quality
standard, and manufacturers must strive ever
more to achieve it, in order to ensure the
authenticity of their products that the new
consumer seeks.
The search for authenticity determined the new
consumer to become individualistic. New
customer assumes the freedom to seek those
subtle differences that distinguish an authentic
product from one produced in series. For the
International Journal of Economic Practices and Theories, Vol. 1, No. 1, 2011 (July)
uninitiated, subtle differences might go
unnoticed. For new customer, however,
differences are a source of pride and self-
assertion, because in his view, it symbolizes not
only belonging to an exclusive group, but is also
a stamp of authenticity.
To ensure authenticity of products and that what
he are buying exactly matches its needs, the new
consumer is often more closely involved in the
production and/or consumption process, this
approach aimed at health protection of his family
and respect of certain ethical principles.
Traditional customers, although sometimes
engages in production or consumption, are
generally detached and more likely to accept what
they offer. They addressing quality as according
to a referential (standard, technical regulation),
trust that producers provides them goods that will
meet their expectations, without having to enter
the depth of things.
Information is the fuel that operates the new
consumer. Due to expansion of information
technology and the Internet, information is now
cheaper and more accessible than ever to
consumers. The permanent need of the new
consumer to be informed is justified by the fact
that information, opening many ways to choose,
permits him to make more careful judgments
about future purchases, and thus providing greater
control over expenditure. New customer check
labels and study the content of products, compare
prices, review brands promises, weighing options,
puts pertinent questions and knows his legal
All these pave the way for a consumer to become
better, more active and more responsible.
In recent decades, new information and
communication technologies in the world have
been suffered dramatic changes, more
pronounced in recent years with developments in
information technology which increasingly
transformed reality into a virtual world.
Currently, the new consumer is characterized
primarily by cynical attitude manifested for
classical advertising (which tell him to buy
something, but not to explain why) and Internet
addiction, the media that enjoyed a growing
confidence on the part of consumers and from
which it gets information that it directs the buying
decision (Onete et al., 2010).
We note therefore the obvious tendency of
decreased consumer’s confidence in brands,
displayed simultaneously with that of increasing
their confidence in the opinions of others.
Consumers credit less and less the brand message
transmitted through TV commercials, they are
more inclined to take into account what others tell
them, with which interact in different
environments, especially online. These are the
conclusions drawn from the study "The New
Consumer Study", conducted in 2009 by the Euro
RSCG Worldwide, showing that the new
consumer clearly have increasingly higher
confidence in online content generated by their
peers and therefore uses the most of online tools
to connect with others and to document in order
to make the best purchase.
Consumer choices are made increasingly more
and more on the basis of social media
information. In addition to deciphering the
advertising message and reading the websites of
companies, consumers use different online
formats (forums, chats, blogs, etc.) to share ideas,
to form communities and to contact their peers.
As pointed by Kozinets (2010) social media is
increasingly seen as a more objective source of
information and all these communities have a real
existence to their members and therefore have
effect on many aspects of behavior, including
buying behavior.
3 Mutations in new consumer buying behavior
during the economic crisis
The global economic crisis has determined many
changes in the new consumer behavior and has
led the vast majority of consumers to look for
new landmarks: they became more economical,
International Journal of Economic Practices and Theories, Vol. 1, No. 1, 2011 (July)
more responsible and more demanding. Many
market researches realized in the last three years
showed that.
An U.S. study realized in 2009 by Booz &
Company, which involved a total of 2000
consumers, confirmed that a “new frugality”
appear at the beginning of the recession and
highlighted the first two years of declining
consumption per capita, was so strongly rooted
among American consumers and it changed their
consumption patterns in such a manner that is
expected to persist even if the economy recovers.
This new frugality, characterized by a strong
awareness of the value that dictates compromises
in terms of price, brand and comfort, became the
dominant mentality among U.S. consumers, as
shown by M. Egol, A. Andrew Clyde and K .
Rangan (2010).
The study mentioned above revealed that 65% of
American consumers increasingly using coupons
more often, preferring to buy at low prices at the
expense of comfort shopping, focusing on saving.
The new frugality and value consciousness,
which now directs consumer behavior, does not
apply to products such as “opening price point”
(OPP) (produced with the lowest prices at
branded retailers).
Consumers continue to buy the products at
different prices, in turn they need more reasons to
justify the purchase, regardless of price segment
of which the product belong. They refuse to buy
at higher price unless they clearly perceive
quality advantage. If they are loyal to some
brands, they prefer to wait for a price drop, by
promotions or discount coupons. Inherent
behavioral differences in this new frugality are
reinforced by demographics, including income,
gender, ethnicity and age. For example, although
in general, consumers buy products in different
price categories, there are certain segments of the
population (such as women, people with low
income, middle-aged people) seeking to make
savings, buying products at reduced prices (Egol
et al., 2010).
A study made in 2009 on a sample of 2400
people in France, U.S. and UK, by Euro RSCG
C&O, in partnership with Harris Interactive, was
aimed at understanding the factors that influence
preferences and consumer choices and sketching
a portrait of him after the crisis. The study
showed that most consumers surveyed changed
their consumption behavior by adopting a logical
standby or a replacement, distinguishing their
purchases or dropping different brands.
Thus, before being interested in the price of
products, consumers are asking questions about
their usefulness (64% of respondents wonder
whether they really needed, 60% if the product
could not find a lower price elsewhere and 59% if
they can afford to acquire). In the context of
crisis, perhaps contrary to many expectations,
quality is what comes first for the new consumer
before the lower price. Consumers surveyed
defined quality by: looking for healthy products
(42%), looking for strong and sustainable
products (47%) and for responsible products
So, we notice that the place of the reckless
consumer was taken by the temperate consumer,
doing permanent arbitration. New consumer
seems to have understood that true progress is to
consume better, not more.
Research conducted by Euro RSCG has found
that in the countries surveyed, the crisis has
caused a net slowdown in consumption. Apart
from modifications in the priorities of consumers,
the crisis has substantially changed the perception
and representation they have on brands and their
The results of an online survey, realized by
Market Probe International (in 2009 and 2010),
on 5700 adults in 7 markets (SUA, Brazil, UK,
France, Netherlands, Japan, China) show three
keys to understanding the relationship between
consumers and society in the post-crisis period :
A high sensitivity to risk. Although economies
of the developed countries are on the rebound,
the consumer anxiety remains high and it has
International Journal of Economic Practices and Theories, Vol. 1, No. 1, 2011 (July)
its roots not so much in today’s reality as in
imagining what tomorrow might bring. The
consequences of this sensitivity are: reticence
to make long-term decisions, avoiding risk
will be the main reason in taking decisions,
consumer orientation towards the brands that
manage this risk.
Consumer depression echoes societal
problems. According to David G. Myers
(Hope College psychologist) young adults
nowadays grown up with more plenty, less
happiness and a greater risk of depression and
assorted social pathology. The widespread
discontent of modern life on both a personal
and societal level affects the mental health.
Consumers have forgotten the essential in
their endless search to consume more with
less effort.
Consumers seek for change and know they
can rely only on themselves. Recession is an
opportunity to step back and think deeply.
They will look for something “bigger than
self”, from “active pessimism to “proactive
mindfulness”. Despite their anxiety, people
are changing the status quo and take greater
control of their present lives and futures. A
primary way in which they will do this is
through their consumption choices. Their
strongest means of power and influence it is
the advent of “proactive mindfulness”.
4 Conclusions
Each feature of the socio-economic situation has
substantially changed not only the way the new
consumer purchases, but especially what they are
buying and why they are buying. In developed
countries, new consumers are more economical,
more responsible and more demanding than
traditional consumers. Currently, new consumers
are increasingly aware of all aspects involved in
purchase of products, from design, safety, origin,
to their social and economic impact.
Thus, consumers have become more vigilant new
and more aware of their ability to influence the
world with their consumer choices (Salzman and
O'Reilly, 2010).
During the economic crisis a series of parallel
steps have made their presence, resulted in the
new consumer orientation on organic products or
on fair trade products. Thus, a particular point of
view, the crisis served as a mini - electric shock,
announcing a new era, maybe the era of
responsible consumption.
In Mansoor (2011) opinion, the main changes in
the new consumer behavior, which are the result
of economic recession could be summarized as
The need for simplicity: during recession
consumers are accustomed to limited offers
and tend to simplify their demands, so that
after the crisis is expected that they will
continue to accept simple offers, but with
greater utility.
Temperance: even rich people save, although
they are not required to do so. This is one way
they show their dissatisfaction on excessive
consumption. They began to recycle and to
teach children traditional values.
Smart consumption: consumers today are
"agile" and act quickly to price changes, with
the ability to change brands looking for the
lowest price, sacrificing the quality and
Green consumerism: this trend slowed during
the recession because people are not willing
to pay more for certain products that can be
substituted with others with cheaper price.
The demand for environmentally friendly
products has declined during the economic
crisis, but anticipated a recovery after the
Ethical consumerism: people are less willing
to charity actions, because they are more
concerned about the welfare of their families.
In this case, is expected to rebound slowly.
International Journal of Economic Practices and Theories, Vol. 1, No. 1, 2011 (July)
This work was cofinanced from the European
Social Fund through Sectorial Operational
Programme Human Resources Development
2007-2013 project number POSDRU
89/1.5/S/59184 „Performance and excellence in
postdoctoral research in Romanian economics
science domain”.
Drakopoulos, S.A. (2008), The paradox of happiness:
towards an alternative explanation, Journal of Happiness
Studies, Volume 9, No. 2, pp.303-315;
Egol, M., Andrew Clyde, A., Rangan, K. (2010), The New
Consumer Frugality, www.strategy-, Accessed 2/06/2011
Flatters, P., Willmott, M. (2009), Understanding the post-
recession consumer, Harvard Business Review, 7(8), 106-
Kar, M. (2010), Consumer behaviour over the last 25 years,
Oxirm Research Themes, Oxford Institute of Retail
Management, The Retail Digest, pp 46-53;
Kozinets, R. (2010), The Field Behind the Screen: Using
Netnography For Marketing Research in Online
Communities, Journal of Marketing Research, Number 39,
pp. 61-72;
Lewis, D., Bridger, D. (2000), The Soul of the New
Consumer: Authenticity What We Buy and Why in the New
Economy, Nicholas Brealey Publishing, London;
Mansoor, D. (2011), The Global Business Crisis and
Consumer Behavior: Kingdom of Bahrain as a Case Study,
International Journal of Business and Management, Vol. 6,
No. 1; January 2011, pp. 104-115;
Onete, B., Voinea, L., Dina, R. (2010), Dimensions and
Evolutions of the New Consumer Concept in Romania,
Current Issues in Business and Law Journal, nr. 5 (2),
2010, Vilnius, Lituania, pp. 341-355;
Salsberg, B. (2010), Japanese New Consumer, McKinsey
Quarterly, Issue 2, p80-87;
Salzman, M. şi O'Reilly, A. (2010),10 Trends in Mindful
mindful-consumption/, Accessed 24/05/2011
Ulvoas-Moal, G. (2010), Exploring the Influence of
Spirituality: A New Perspective on Senior Consumers’
Behavior, Advances in Consumer Research (Volume 37),
pp. 917-919;
***Research and marketing. (2009). The global economic
crisis: the impact on consumer attitudes & behaviour in the
United States,
port id= 1057010&q=The Global Economic Crisis: The
Impact On Consumer Attitudes & Behaviour s in the United
States&p=l, Accessd 16/05/2011;
***Euro RSCG Worldwide (2010)a, The New Consumer in
the Era of Mindful Spending, Prosumer Report, volume 8,
***Euro RSCG Worldwide (2010)b, The Emergence of the
New Consumer, Prosumer Report, volume 11, summer
responsables.html, Accessed 20/05/2011
Authors description
Lelia Voinea, Ph.D. is a Lecturer in Business, Consumer Sciences and Quality Management Department,
Academy of Economic Studies from Bucharest, Faculty of Commerce. Her research and teaching covers
Food Science, Fundamentals of Commodity Science, Design and aesthetics of merchandise.
Alina Filip, Ph.D. is a Lecturer in Marketing at the Marketing Department, Faculty of Marketing, The
Bucharest Academy of Economic Studies, Romania. Her research and teaching interests encompass
relationship marketing, customer relationship management, business to business marketing and
international marketing. She has participated in research projects and various publications in the field of
... As a result of the 2008 economic crisis new trends in consumer behaviour have been identified (Flatters and Willmott, 2009;Voinea and Filip, 2011;Mansoor, 2011): a) consumers tend to simplify demand and become discretionarily thrifty and frugal; b) even many affluent people economise, recycle and avoid excess consumption and waste; c) consumers switch brands looking for the lowest price, sacrificing quality and loyalty; d) green consumerism slows and demand for green products declines because people are not willing to pay more for products that have cheaper close substitutes; e) ethical consumerism declines as consumers focus on their families' welfare and reduce their support for social causes. ...
... Frugality becomes a common predecessor of purchasing in situations of economic constraint (Lastovicka et al., 1999). Consumers are more aware of the environmental impact of their actions, but at the same time they are more restrained and buy products at lower prices as they are unwilling to pay more for a product if they do not see a clear advantage or utility in it (Voinea and Filip, 2011). ...
... The greater tendency towards materialistic values in times of crisis (Abou-Chadi and Kayser, 2017) may explain the greater importance of EI found in this study for such times, as lost post-materialistic values must be remembered (Cotta and Memoli, 2020). This, added to the facts that consumers tend to minimise the advantages of green products in times of crisis (Voinea and Filip, 2011), that economic motivations do not override environmental motivations (Zavali and Theodoropoulou, 2018) and that attitudes are highly influential on ecological behaviour, as determined by the present study, suggest that environmental information policies may be more influential as an activating element for pro-environmental attitudes, i.e. EI could help to keep pro-environmental attitudes at the same level both during a crisis and afterwards. ...
There are few studies on the impact of economic cycles on green purchasing (GP) and green activism (GA). This study investigates whether times of well-being and crisis have different effects on internal factors (psychographic factors (PF), motivations, attitudes and perceived consumer effectiveness (PCE)) and external factors (environmental information and marketing mix) that influence ecological behaviours (GA and GP). To that end, a longitudinal analysis is carried out in Spain distinguishing between times of economic crisis (2008–2012) and times of well-being (2014–2019). Our findings show a clear influence of the economic context, which acts as a moderating variable in the link between internal and external factors and ecological behaviour. PF and GA influence GP, and that influence is more pronounced in times of economic crisis. The PF with the greatest influence on GA and GP in times of crisis is motivation, followed by PCE, while in times of well-being context the effects of both these top factors are similar. Within marketing variables, product and price have more influence on GP than promotion and place in times of economic crisis, and price has no effect in times of well-being. The influence of environmental information (EI) is also greater in times of crisis than in times of well-being. Thus, during economic crises the dissemination of EI among consumers plays an important role in environmental attitudes, which in turn influence GP positively. However, high prices of green products affect GP negatively in times of crisis, which could explain the lower levels of GP found. These findings are useful for public bodies, companies and educational institutions, which need to take the economic cycle into account when developing actions and strategies to encourage ecological behaviour.
... On a less abstract level, this is because among all types of economic agents, many find reason to change their values, beliefs, preferences-and, ultimately, behaviors-as a result of a crisis. For example, producers may find new reasons to innovate (Wang et al., 2020) or change their work organization (Hacker et al., 2020); consumers may spend less, more, or differently (Voinea & Filip, 2011); employees may become more prone to change their job or career (Porto Bellini et al., 2019;Revalet et al., 2017) and investors may likewise change their strategies (Ortmann et al., 2020). Furthermore, crises often trigger policy changes (Hogan & Feeney, 2012). ...
... Enabling mechanisms typically arising from crises are demand creation, -expansion orsubstitution regarding the venture's offerings, even if total spending in the economy goes down or stays level. While often a gradual shift this can in a global market be sufficient to make a radical difference, such as when the Great Recession increased demand for less expensive alternatives offered by Uber and Airbnb (and indirectly by Groupon) through the height of that crisis (e.g., Voinea & Filip, 2011). ...
Conference Paper
Building on the External Enabler Framework and prior research on digital entrepreneurship and innovation, we develop new theory of how entrepreneurial ventures can leverage societal crises to realize the extreme scaling potential enabled by digital technologies. Our theory posits a general pattern through which a) digital technologies provide baseline potentialities for venture scaling, b) crises provide venture-level additive enabling mechanisms, c) ventures’ task environments provide further positive feedback effects , and d) media discourse adds aggregate-level power effects, which cumulatively yield increasingly potent and non-linear scaling effects that also become progressively concentrated to a few, hyper-scaling ventures. We then outline how different development stages, market positions, and resource endowments make different hyper-scalers follow slightly different routes through the general pattern to achieve extreme outcomes. Through this work we take a major step forward in external enablement theorizing which we hope will inspire others to conduct empirical research and provide further theoretical refinements in this domain.
... Among these, cultural factors varying according to countries and markets show the widest and deepest impact (Kotler and Keller, 2018). In addition, adverse developments such as wars, internal conflicts, economic crises, natural disasters, epidemics and unemployment, which deeply affect the national economies on a global scale, can negatively and similarly affect consumer purchasing behaviour and cause economic problems and ultimately economic stagnation (Kotler and Armstrong 2012;Voinea and Filip, 2011). ...
Full-text available
Periods of economic recession unsettle businesses all over the world. Excluding no sector or commercial discipline, businesses develop strategies to be prepared for situations such as economic recession and economic crisis. In this context, it is observed that businesses in some sectors (cosmetics, beauty centres, personal care products/services) are more fortunate than others. It is also observed that the concept of "Lipstick Effect" is significant in these sectors deemed as privileged. First, it is essential to understand the advantages of the lipstick effect in terms of marketers and to determine the strategies to be developed in terms of management. The aim of the study is to reveal the advantage of the lipstick effect when developing the strategies of the businesses in the cosmetics sector during a crisis or recession period. In the study, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 7 general managers in the cosmetics industry to reveal the relationship between the lipstick effect and economic recession, and it is concluded that customers under the lipstick effect have a mitigating effect during difficult periods (economic crisis, recession, etc.) of businesses. JEL: M30, M31, M1, M19
Ekonomik durgunluk dönemleri, Dünya’nın her yerindeki işletmeleri, tedirgin etmektedir. Hiçbir sektör ve iş kolu ayırmaksızın, ekonomik durgunluk, ekonomik kriz gibi durumlar karşısında işletmeler hazırlıklı olmak adına stratejiler geliştirmektedir. Bu bağlamda bazı sektörde yer alan işletmelerin (kozmetik, güzellik merkezleri, kişisel bakım ürünleri/hizmetleri) diğerlerine göre daha şanslı oldukları görülmektedir. Şanslı olarak ifade edilen sektörlerde ‘‘Ruj Etkisi’’ kavramının önemi olduğu görülmektedir. Öncelikle pazarlamacılar açısından ruj etkisinin ifade ettiği avantajları anlamak ve yönetimsel açıdan geliştirilecek stratejileri belirlemekte faydalanmak gerekmektedir. Bu çalışmanın amacı; ruj etkisinin, işletmelerin kriz ya da durgunluk dönemlerindeki stratejilerini geliştirirken, sağladığı avantajı ortaya koymaktır. Yapılan çalışmada, ruj etkisi ve ekonomik durgunluk ilişkisini ortaya koyabilmek adına, kozmetik sektöründe yer alan 7 yönetici ile sıkı yapılandırılmış mülakat çalışması yapılmış olup, ruj etkisinin işletmelerin zorlu dönemlerinde (ekonomik kriz, resesyon vb.) hafifletici etkisi olduğu sonucuna ulaşılmaktadır.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Abstract The educator in modern society interacts with a diverse group of children/students when she/he works with or teaches extremely heterogenous groups of individuals who may be characterised by diversity that is not only cultural and linguistic in nature, but also moral. A similar situation arises in terms of moral customs, modes of behaviour and habits. A whole range of lifestyles and normative opinions converge at school and in the classroom. Consequently, educators need methods and sound knowledge in order to be able to address moral and ethical problems. According to Banks, Stárek, the most controversial area of ethics in helping professions is the conflict between ethical values and principles. The job of educators is becoming more and more complicated and demanding. Educators have to increasingly take into account the voice and reaction of parents. Students are more diverse. School management is becoming more professional and more administratively complex. Schools and other institutions are newly defined and there are changes in legislation and key documents. Consequently, educators have to work strategically in a field that is increasingly more determined by the social and personal interests of higher positions along with cashflow/economy, legal frameworks and political power. On the other hand, it is becoming increa+63singly clear that the core of the teaching profession includes not only teaching but also the relationship with students and parents. Educators can barely cope with the speed of changes in the teaching profession when they have to protect its core and sometimes even fight for it, not only in schools but even in society, where the issue of teacher status is often addressed. Educators can better protect themselves and have a professional space to defend the quality of their profession. Professional ethics can play an important role in this task. For the teacher, it is not a top-down ethics but the ethics of educators that frames what governs and interconnects teaching professionals. The research sample consisted of teaching staff working at a primary school in Prague. The teachers work in the first stage of primary school. The selected primary school has a code of ethics as an internal regulation. In total, five interviews with teachers were conducted. Respondents agreed that the Code of Ethics and Ethical Decision-making Model are good support for their professional practice. They are primarily useful in the communication process, especially when talking to children, colleagues and parents.
Online food delivery services (OFDs) have gained the attention of researchers due to the rapid growth of society. With COVID-19 wreaking havoc on markets worldwide, it compelled retailers and service providers to adjust their way of doing business drastically. OFD's emerged as an option either due to consumers' inability to cook, fear of exposure to Covid if they leave the house, monotony of eating home-cooked meals, and safety measures practiced by them. Hence, during this pandemic, the OFDs created a win-win situation for restaurant owners and consumers. However, the current literature does not clearly picture the factors influencing customers' behavioural intentions while using hospitality services in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic. The primary objective of our study is to understand the factors influencing customer satisfaction during the pandemic. In addition, explore the mediating role of consumer resilience and consumer attitude to strengthen the relationship between product involvement and customer satisfaction in the OFDs context. We have used the social cognitive theory as the theoretical framework for framing our hypotheses. The present study focuses on Indian consumers who have used OFDs during the pandemic. We employed a cross-sectional survey method to test the proposed research model. Two hundred forty valid questionnaires were collected to empirically test the research model using tools like confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) using AMOS-28, direct and indirect relationships were tested using SPSS PROCESS macro. The results indicate that all the proposed hypotheses were supported. Theoretical and Practical implications of the study along with limitations are discussed.
In response to grocery shortages during COVID-19, UK supermarkets limited the number of products consumers could buy, to keep products on the shelves for longer, discourage stockpiling, and help fairer distribution. The effectiveness of this strategy has been questioned, as shortages continued for months and reappeared during further waves of the virus. To better understand the consumer perspective, primary data collected online from over 400 respondents during the UK’s initial lockdown period has been analyzed. By drawing on key concepts from hoarding and scarcity literature, such as commodity theory, the bandwagon effect, and regret theory, we identify factors that influence the effectiveness of the pandemic rationing policies. The broader themes of consumer (dis)empowerment, routine disruption, and emotional fallout are considered, with recommendations for future strategies provided. The findings highlight the importance of timing, consistency, and communication for implemented strategies, and the need to consider the difference between ‘equal’ and ‘fair’ product distribution.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The objective assigned to this study is to analyse the determinants influencing the decision of farmers to take out agricultural insurance in Turkey. To achieve this goal, the 2019 agricultural database was used and supplemented by a national survey of 115 farmers. Thus a logistic regression analysis was done to study the insurance habits of producers. The results of the study show that the socio-economic characteristics, in particular the age of the producers, the level of income and education, the size of the family and of the farm, the membership of a cooperative, the presence of tractors and the use of credit are factors that significantly influence the decision of farmers to purchase agricultural insurance. As a result, the actions to be developed to further facilitate farmers' adherence to insurance underwriting will involve a reduction in insurance premiums to farmers, an increase in agricultural credit and raising awareness among farmers on the importance of agricultural insurance.
Full-text available
Nowadays we participate in the crystallization of a new generation of consumers emerging with the development of the Internet, which is primarily a product of information society. The new generation bases its knowledge largely on the possibilities of an informational and communicational nature offered by it, with all its advantages and limitations, and practically forms its consumer behavior in this way. Thus, if from the traditional perspective, the consumer defined a product’s quality through the product’s compliance with a standard and production and trade organizations evaluate quality by means of standardized methods, the new consumer perceives and values quality in a different way - him being strongly influenced by the social media which form his behavioral matrix. This paper is the first one that studies the evolution of blogs and forums in respect of different categories of goods in Romania over the period of 2000–2010 and explains that the evaluation of the goods is based on the Internet.
Full-text available
research technique for providing consumer insight. “Netnography ” is ethnography adapted to the study of online communities. As a method, “netnography ” is faster, simpler, and less expensive than traditional ethnography, and more naturalistic and unobtrusive than focus groups or interviews. It provides information on the symbolism, meanings, and consumption patterns of online consumer groups. The author provides guidelines that acknowledge the online environment, respect the inherent flexibility and openness of ethnography, and provide rigor and ethics in the conduct of marketing research. As an illustrative example, the author provides a netnography of an online coffee newsgroup and discusses its marketing implications.
Full-text available
There is a common empirical finding in many countries that substantial increases in real per capita income do not correspond to equivalent increases of individual happiness. These findings have puzzled many economists that some have called the “paradox of happiness”. There have been a number of explanations regarding this paradox. This paper attempts to tackle the paradox of happiness by employing the idea of hierarchical choice. The hierarchical approach implies that there are some basic human needs which must be satisfied before non-basic needs come into the picture. The paper argues that the hierarchical structure of needs implies that the satisfaction of basic needs provides substantial increases to individual happiness compared to the subsequent satisfaction of secondary needs. This might also be an alternative explanation of empirical findings showing a positive relationship between income and happiness up to certain level of income.
How will consumers behave as we emerge from this downturn? Though recessions differ in their causes, depth, and duration, it's possible to anticipate the way consumers will act by understanding their behavior and motivation in previous recessions and analyzing current trends. Flatters and Willmott trace the paths of eight trends as they entered the recession and project their trajectories into the recovery. The authors' analysis paints a picture of chastened new consumers who will seek simplicity in products and services; take companies' boardroom ethics into account in purchase decisions; pursue "discretionary" thrift (virtuous but not essential cost cutting); flit capriciously from brand to brand; make green consumption more a matter of reducing waste than purchasing premium products; and steer away from frivolous, extreme leisure experiences in favor of wholesome, authentic ones. Like their great-grandparents, who grew up in the Great Depression, young consumers today, the authors say, will be permanently changed by coming of age during a profound economic downturn. Reprint R0907P
The consumer is the most elemental basis for any business organization; hence, their core behaviour is also ofgreat importance and significance for a successful marketing experience and financial affluence. However,consumer purchasing behaviour can vary severely and has a very intricate trend. Consumer buying behaviour hasbeen attracting the studies and interest of a large amount of commercial and academic faction for a long time.The level of intricacy of the process where the consumer buying can relate to has made the trend greatly difficultto be predicted and managed. This research aims to study the impact of the Global Business Crisis on Bahrainiconsumers, investigate their perception of this problem and whether their consumption behaviour has changed asa result.As known, the current financial downturn had a huge influence on the economic and social aspects of consumersaround the globe. Different behaviour has been shifted through different level of economies, one of which, theBahraini culture purchasing pattern. For this reason, this research is aimed to focus on the changing trends inconsumer buying behaviour in the present global business crisis.
The New Consumer Frugality,
  • M Egol
  • A Andrew Clyde
  • K Rangan
Egol, M., Andrew Clyde, A., Rangan, K. (2010), The New Consumer Frugality,, Accessed 2/06/2011
Consumer behaviour over the last 25 years, Oxirm Research Themes, Oxford Institute of Retail Management, The Retail Digest
  • M Kar
Kar, M. (2010), Consumer behaviour over the last 25 years, Oxirm Research Themes, Oxford Institute of Retail Management, The Retail Digest, pp 46-53;
  • G Ulvoas-Moal
Ulvoas-Moal, G. (2010), Exploring the Influence of Spirituality: A New Perspective on Senior Consumers' Behavior, Advances in Consumer Research (Volume 37), pp. 917-919;
Understanding the postrecession consumer
  • P Flatters
  • M Willmott
Flatters, P., Willmott, M. (2009), Understanding the postrecession consumer, Harvard Business Review, 7(8), 106-112;