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A frequent refrain during recent debates on welfare cuts and tax increases has related to the need to “protect the vulnerable”. However, it is far from clear that a consensus exists on which individuals or groups are to be included under this heading with a consequent lack of clarity for the policy implications of pursuing this goal. In this paper, operating with a conception of social exclusion that incorporates notions of dynamics and multidimensionality, we make use of EUSILC 2008 data for Ireland to clarify the distinction between income poverty and economic vulnerability. We then proceed to consider the relationship between these outcomes and multiple deprivation, financial pressures and perceptions of recent and future economic prospects. Our analysis is then extended to compare patterns of risk for poverty and vulnerability in relation to key socio-economic groups. Finally, we will consider the relationship between poverty and vulnerability and the distribution of welfare dependence. Our analysis suggests that the vulnerable but non-poor group may need to be a key focus of policy attention in the future.
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... The term was used again a decade and a half later in the context of the II European Poverty Programme to refer to the multidimensional and dynamic character of poverty (Room, 1989;Robbins, 1991), and became afterwards one basic topic in social research. The quotation of publications from Ireland (Whelan & Maître, 2010), in Spain (Laparra, et al., 2007;Serrano, 2013;Gutiérrez, 2014), Greece (Kassimati, 1998;Katsas, 2013), Portugal (Almeida et. all., 1992), and Germany (Kronauer, 2002), in the RESCuE's National Reports shows how proeminent the notion of social exclusion became. ...
... strategic support to assure assistance for stable life projects at a material, relational and emotional level; and belonging to communities where scarcity, marginality, violence and poverty prevail. Besides not having access to the income necessary for a life with dignity (Whelan & Maître, 2010;Laparra, et al., 2007;Serrano, 2013;Gutiérrez, 2014;Kassimati, 1998;Katsas, 2013;Almeida et. all., 1992;Kronauer, 2002). ...
Technical Report
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The use of the notion of “social resilience” in political and social sciences has increased considerably in the context of the crises started in 2007/2008. However, the import of the notion to the study of social relations must be done carefully and critically. Indeed, the first appropriations of the resilience by the social sciences have tended to define it as the ability that individuals have of “thriving against the odds”. This “heroic” concept of resilience incurs simultaneously in the pitfalls of ethnocentrism, normativism and individualism. To counter it, we present in this chapter a detailed analysis of statistical data on the effects of the crisis on a sample of European countries. We also propose an alternative concept of resilience grounded on sociological theory and poverty studies. We define social resilience as an open-ended process of reconstruction of ways of life following systemic shocks. Resilience processes are composed by two major dimensions - mobilization of resources and shifting of risks - both necessary occurring along the lines of major social structuring processes such as class, gender or ethnicity. We end by calling for a sociological research agenda for resilience, emphasizing the studying of the key role played on resilience processes by the welfare state, the family and third sector institutions.
... Sin embargo, las políticas públicas tienen un efecto importante para reducir la vulnerabilidad; siempre y cuando se conozca el riesgo (Sarewitz et al., 2003). Por otro lado, Whelan & Maitre (2010) argumentaron que la vulnerabilidad puede centrarse en la comparación de patrón de pobreza con relación a los grupos socioeconómicos claves, no obstante, un grupo puede ser vulnerable pero no pobre. ...
Article
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En el contexto de la crisis mundial y nacional por la pandemia del SARS-CoV-2 se realizó el presente análisis espacial, para determinar, las tendencias y los posibles efectos sobre la vulnerabilidad social que la enfermedad ha producido en los diferentes espacios territoriales de Guerrero, México. Para el análisis se utilizaron datos abiertos sobre el COVID 19 generada por la entidad oficial mexicana y se determinaron para el periodo de marzo de 2020 a febrero de 2021 sus indicadores epidemiológicos, así como las tendencias y niveles de vulnerabilidad social en los diferentes municipios afectados. Enlos grandes centros urbanos se detectó el mayor número de contagios y defunciones. Lavulnerabilidad social frente a COVID 19, en el municipio de Acapulco mostró ser Muy Alta, dándose el mismo caso los principales centros urbanos en cada región.
... Different economic and social systems in EU countries are decisive for achieving a certain income level in the country. The population's income situation is also influenced by the frequency of economic crises (Whelan and Maître 2010). The standard of living is often associated with the inhabitants' income situation and has a social and cultural dimension (Nolan and Whelan 2010). ...
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One of objectives of the Common Agricultural Policy is to ensure an appropriate living standard for agricultural households. The paper uses EU-Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) data to assess the income situation and living conditions of agricultural households. The agricultural household income does not reach the average household income in any of the EU countries. Multidimensional cluster analysis is applied to classify EU countries according to the income situation of agricultural households. The cluster analysis revealed five segments and the fact that living conditions at a satisfactory level can be achieved irrespective of the economic status of the agricultural household, although it depends on an appropriate setting of agricultural policy. The index of living conditions is constructed and used for the comparison. Based on the analysis results, the variables included in the assessment of the living standard of agricultural households should be taken into account when fulfilling the objectives of the Common Agricultural Policy, especially the part that relates to improving the living conditions of agricultural households. The current EU-SILC database is appropriate for the evaluation of the household income situation. However, it does not reflect the specifics of agricultural households, so additional measurement is needed.
... The manner in which poverty may sustain itself for intellectually disabled young people and their families, through deteriorating familial functioning, is however complex. Flynn (2017b) suggests that deprivation indicators provide a nonmonitory methodology for measuring poverty (Whelan & Maitre, 2010). Consider that in 2010 post-recession data found that 20.9% of schoolchildren in Ireland had reported going to bed or school feeling hungry because there was not enough food to eat in their household (Callaghan, 2012;Flynn, 2017b). ...
Thesis
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This study presents an original contribution to knowledge through investigating the impact and lived experience of economic recession for intellectually disabled young people and their families in Ireland, who use services from the disability sector. This is important because in 2008, Ireland was hit with the greatest period of economic recession since the great depression of the 1930s. As the longevity of the recession played out, research evidences that the nation’s children may have been hardest hit, rendered significantly poorer, and within this, disabled children and their families were a particularly vulnerable socio-economic group, at significantly enhanced risk of poverty. Yet, in the context of a relative wealth of statistical data on the equality impacts of recession, little attention within research has been given to the lived reality, voices and experiences of disabled young people and their families in recessionary Ireland (Flynn, 2011; Flynn, 2017b). In this way, this study interjects into a comprehensively investigated sphere, albeit maintaining exceptionality, by way of focusing on voices and lived experiences. This study used the purest or most classic application of the Biographical Narrative Interpretative Method (BNIM) from initial interviewing through to completion of the ten stage data analysis process. BNIM draws on the assumption that individuals construct meaning in their lives through narrative. Rather than impose categories for exploration, this method allows themes to be engendered by way of participant’s preference. Self-biographising narrative accounts were elicited through BNIM from a sample of 4 intellectually disabled young people (one constituting a pilot study), 4 of their parent/guardians, and 4 disability social work staff members. Congruent with the conventions of BNIM, a smaller sample of 3 cases were chosen for in-depth analysis. The remaining 8 were analysed through a Framework Method that offered a contextual framework of themes and subthemes. In terms of theoretical and epistemological concerns, the study takes up an Affirmative Non- Tragedy Model that situates itself overall within the broad field of Critical Disability Studies. Among study findings, evidence is presented that lived reality for intellectually disabled young people and their families of the impact of recession is a complex and individualistic amalgam of cultural, material and psycho-social factors. These factors, rather than simply co-existing within a static matrix; incited, aggravated and alleviated one another. This interactive process was complex and temporal, but to an extent was predictable. The combined existential experience (or lived reality) of these factors was subjectively felt to be misunderstood by those in positions of power, leading families to seek comfort in the expertise of one another. Findings were numerous, for instance, insufficient cohesion of view points between families, and those perceived to be in power, may be alleviated by better data and a partnership approach that is meaningfully perceptible on the ground level. Furthermore, austerity appeared in reality to galvanise some backward regression in disability service delivery towards more outdated and inappropriate models. Overall, it is hoped that findings from this study can be put to practical usage for disabled young people, their families, and their allies, through both the increment of academic knowledge, and their application as a technology of advocacy. Furthermore, recommendations made by this study outline the specific contribution to knowledge and future practice made by this study, for instance, related to the development of the existing partnership approach to practice, or the generation of more qualitative data.
... Meanwhile, the woman was more likely than was the man to reside in privately owned housing. However, such residence might not represent or generate resources, as it can be a liability, such as in the case of mortgage payment for housing (Whelan and Maitre 2010). Even though homeownership reflects the resources of the Sustaining Resilience through Caring and Its Gender Differential 29 owner, it may not give resources to other household members. ...
Chapter
The link among health, well-being and social support is well known. Social support represents an important protective factor against stress both directly (see the main effect hypothesis) and as a mediator (see the stress-buffering hypothesis; Beckman & Syme, 1979; Cohen, 2003). Nevertheless, it fosters health but at the same time may create a burden for those who work as caregivers and perceive the strain of their professional responsibility. Moreover, the relationship between health and social support implies the consideration of gender differences and gender roles. Indeed, in most societies women more often than men offer support, as mothers, daughters, wives, but also in voluntarism and social participation. Therefore, if health is a common good and social support contributes to this phenomenon, it is important to identify processes and mechanisms that favor the development of social networks to functional well-being and to analyze the social conditions that may improve the health status of groups and people. Basic questions should be considered: how do people consider health? Which factors can promote it and what are the causes of disease in the mind of caregivers? How do male and female caregivers consider the health needs referred both to persons to help and to themselves? This contribution presents some theoretical consideration about health and social support from a gender perspective. Then a qualitative research is described. The study involved 35 volunteers in the health domain (51.43% men) who were interviewed about the meaning of health and illness and being in health/illness. Data are presented in order to describe gender differences in the representation of health and illness and to investigate the role social support, both received and given, plays in this representation.
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Resumen En el contexto de la crisis mundial y nacional por la pandemia del SARS-CoV-2 se realizó el presente análisis espacial, para determinar, las tendencias y los posibles efectos sobre la vulnerabilidad social que, la enfermedad producirá en los diferentes espacios territoriales de Guerrero, México. Para el análisis se utilizaron datos abiertos sobre el COVID 19 generada por la entidad oficial mexicana y se determinaron para el periodo del 13 de marzo al 19 de mayo, sus indicadores epidemiológicos, así como las tendencias y niveles de vulnerabilidad social en los diferentes municipios afectados. Sólo en el caso de los grandes centros urbanos se detectó una tendencia positiva. En cuanto a vulnerabilidad social frente a COVID 19, en el municipio de Acapulco mostró ser Muy Alta, dándose el mismo caso los principales centro urbanos en cada región. Abstract In the context of the global and national crisis caused by the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, this spatial analysis was carried out to determine the trends and possible effects on social vulnerability that the disease will produce in the different territorial areas of Guerrero, Mexico.
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At the beginning of the 2000s, Switzerland went through two global recessions: the Dot-com crisis and the Great Recession. Even though Switzerland experienced milder effects compared to its European neighbours, the Swiss unemployment rate increased considerably compared to its status quo. This paper explores the resilience of vulnerable groups to these economic downturns using both objective (income poverty and material deprivation) and subjective (wellbeing and satisfaction with the financial situation) indicators of quality of life. To analyse how quality of life evolved since the early 2000s, we use a longitudinal database: the Swiss Household Panel. Studying both objective and subjective indicators, results suggest that the dot-com crisis had a stronger negative effect than the Great Recession on vulnerable groups. This was particularly true for single parents and large families. Disadvantaged groups during the first crisis reacted in different ways during the second crisis. Some groups (the unemployed, the low-educated and the solo self-employed) experienced some scarring effects sometimes only according to objective indicators; others were resilient and continued with their normal trends (migrants and the young), whereas the most strongly affected groups during the first crisis (single parents and large families) registered an improvement in their conditions in the second crisis. These results point to a combination of subjective and objective indicators to evaluate the effects of recurrent crises on vulnerable groups.
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In 2008, the Republic of Ireland descended into the deepest period of economic recession since the Great Depression of 70 years before. In the aftershock of recession, research suggests that it has been the nation’s children who have been hit hardest. Within this, intellectually disabled children are considered a particularly vulnerable socio-economic group. Nonetheless, the impact and experience of the recession for intellectually disabled children has received little specific attention within policy and literature, and as a consequence remains poorly understood. This article aims to expand upon discussions by drawing out a number of key themes through a review of the relevant literature. Lessons learned from the review are then used to inform a discussion around policy implications. It is suggested that better pathways to justice and an improved presence of the voices of intellectually disabled children, and their families, at a macro-political level are required moving forward.
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