Article

Phytochemical screening and evaluation of antimicrobial activities of in vitro and in vivo grown plant extracts of Lobelia Inflata L.

Authors:
  • Center for Incubation, Innovation, Research and Consultancy (CIIRC), Jyothy Institute of Technology
  • JAIN (Deemed-to-be University)
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Abstract

Lobelia inflata L. is a medicinally important herb used in the treatment of respiratory problems. The objectives of this present study were phytochemical screening and evaluation of antimicrobial activities of aqueous, ethanolic and methanolic extracts of different parts of the plant such as leaf, root, stem and inflorescence. Extracts of in vitro grown callus of the leaf, obtained after 4 weeks of incubation on 1X MS medium containing 1mg/ml 2, 4-D and 1mg/ml Kinetin were also screened. Fifteen extracts revealed the presence of phytochemicals such as alkaloids, carbohydrates and phytosterols. The methonolic extracts of root showed alkaloid (0.50 mg/ml) and stem showed carbohydrate (1.76 mg/ml). The ethanolic leaf extract showed phytosterols (3.68 mg/ml). Antimicrobial activities revealed that among all the extracts, the highest sensitivity was recorded for the methanolic and ethanolic extract of inflorescence against Klebsiella pneumonia and Staphylococcus aureus respectively. The ethanolic extract of root and stem showed the highest zone of inhibition against Serratia marcescens. None of the aqueous extracts exhibited any antimicrobial activity. The methanolic extract of the callus was found to inhibit Cryptococcus neoformans among the various fungal pathogens. This study may provide the scientific basis for the use of this plant for various therapeutic purposes.

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... Studies on the therapeutic properties and isolation of active principles began in 1885, and it triggered several references for other studies on alkaloid-producing species [1,3,4]. They are a valuable source for the extraction of pharmacologically active compounds, in particular, piperidine alkaloids, which have several pharmacological properties [5][6][7][8][9]. ...
... Since ancient times, Lobelia species have been used in folk medicine worldwide in the form of infusions and tinctures for the treatment of various diseases. The most commonly cited traditional use of Lobelia inflata L. (known as "Indian Tobacco") is smoking cessation and for the treatment of respiratory diseases such as asthma and bronchitis [1,4,5,[24][25][26]. ...
... The ethanolic extract of the root was active against S. marcescens and S. aureus. The methanolic extract of the callus inhibited the growth of Cryptococcus neoformans among the various pathogenic fungi [4]. ...
... It is known that Lobelia inflata is a plant belonging to the family Campanulaceae, known as Indian tobacco, popularly widely used because of its emetic, hypnotic, anti-asthmatic, astringent and tobacco substitute properties in alternative therapies. This species is a source of alkaloid substances that motivated studies since its isolation in 1885, when its therapeutic properties was thought to be understood [7]. There are a lot of other substances isolated in the genus Lobelia such as piperidine alkaloids including lobeline, lobelane, lobelanidine, norlobelanine, and lobelanine. ...
... The results of the present study are in agreement with the previous findings that methanolic plant extracts give higher antimicrobial activities as stated by Soniya et al. (2013). The higher antimicrobial activity of the callus extract could be either related to the production of a compound/group of compounds produced only in undifferentiated callus cells or may be produced in higher amounts in these cells when compared to differentiated cells as reported in the previous studies (Nagananda et al., 2012), suggesting that in vitro cell cultures contain potential active antimicrobial components. Elicitation also played a remarkable role in elevating the antibacterial activity of callus extracts in many cases. ...
Chapter
Lobelia inflata, this old species of the New World, has retained its importance as a resource of chemical compounds suitable to treat various maladies. The herb lobelia originally used by Native Americans in the New England region was subsequently popularized by Samuel Thomson (1769–1843). Its English name, “Indian tobacco”, refers to the saga according to which the dried leaves of Lobelia inflata were originally smoked by native Americans (Penobscot tribes), in the New England region, as an alternative/substitute to tobacco. The genus Lobelia comprises ca. 360–400 species, with a sub-cosmopolitan distribution. Lobelia inflata L. is native to several states of North America. It is found in open woods or occasionally in gardens, as weed, from the West Coast to Minnesota, south to Georgia and Mississippi. Lobelia inflata has a milky sap containing piperidine/pyridine alkaloids that suffuse all parts of the plant. The alkaloid fraction is rich in piperidine alkaloids and has a great potential for the treatment of disorders of the Central Nervous System. In addition, they have demonstrated antitumor and anti-inflammatory activities. Biological and chemical studies of Lobelia inflata alkaloids and, in particular, (–)-lobeline, have increased over the last few years. Lobeline might serve as a useful lead for the development of new therapeutic agents that act on nAChR (nicotinic acetyl-choline receptors) in a novel fashion.
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