Self-Reported Academic Grades and Other Correlates of Sugar-Sweetened Soda Intake among US Adolescents

Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4770 Buford Highway, NE, Mailstop K26, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA.
Journal of the American Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (Impact Factor: 3.47). 06/2012; 112(1):125-31. DOI: 10.1016/j.jada.2011.08.045
Source: PubMed


High consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks has been associated with obesity and other adverse health consequences. This cross-sectional study examined the association of demographic characteristics, weight status, self-reported academic grades, and behavioral factors with sugar-sweetened soda intake among a nationally representative sample of US high school students. Analysis was based on the 2009 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey and included 16,188 students in grades 9 through 12. The main outcome measure was daily sugar-sweetened soda intake (eg, drank a can, bottle, or glass of soda [excluding diet soda] at least one time per day during the 7 days before the survey). Nationally, 29.2% of students reported drinking sugar-sweetened soda at least one time per day. Logistic regression analyses showed factors significantly associated with sugar-sweetened soda intake at least one time per day included male sex (adjusted odds ratio [OR]=1.47), Hispanic ethnicity (vs whites; OR=0.81), earning mostly B, C, and D/F grades (vs mostly As; OR=1.26, 1.66, and 2.19, respectively), eating vegetables fewer than three times per day (OR=0.72), trying to lose weight (OR=0.72), sleeping <8 hours (OR=1.18), watching television >2 hours/day (OR=1.71), playing video or computer games or using a computer for other than school work >2 hours/day (OR=1.53), being physically active at least 60 minutes/day on <5 days during the 7 days before the survey (OR=1.19), and current cigarette use (OR=2.01). The significant associations with poor self-reported academic grades, inadequate sleep, sedentary behaviors, and cigarette smoking suggest research should examine why soda consumption is associated with these behaviors to inform the design of future nutrition interventions.

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Available from: Sohyun Park
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    • "A study among Spanish adolescents also showed increased odds of a high academic score among girls, but not boys, who had two servings of fruit a day or more [15]. Furthermore, a study among 16,188 American adolescents demonstrated a significant association between the consumption of sugar- sweetened soda and poor academic score [22], while a recent study of first-year Belgian university students reported that a low academic achievement was associated with a high consumption of soda, French fries and alcohol [23]. In addition, a high intake of sweets, salty snacks and fast foods were inversely related, whereas a high intake of fruit and vegetables was positively associated with a high academic achievement in adolescents in Iceland [24, 25]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background While healthy lifestyle habits are generally assumed to be important for high academic achievement, there has been little research on this topic among adolescents. The aim of this study was therefore to examine the associations between several lifestyle habits and academic achievement in adolescent girls and boys. Methods The study included 2,432 Norwegian adolescents, 15–17 years old. A self-report questionnaire was used to assess dietary-, physical activity-, smoking- and snuffing habits and academic achievement. Logistic regression models were adjusted for body mass index (BMI) and parental education. Results In both girls and boys, high academic achievement was associated with a regular consumption of breakfast (AOR: 3.30 (2.45-4.45) and AOR: 1.76 (1.32-2.34), respectively) and lunch (AOR: 1.44 (1.08-1.93) and AOR: 1.43 (1.09-1.89), respectively), and in boys, with a regular consumption of dinner (AOR: 1.44 (1.16-1.79)) and a regular meal pattern in general (AOR: 1.50 (1.10 – 2.03)). In both girls and boys, high academic achievement was associated with a high intake of fruit and berries (AOR: 2.09 (1.51-2.88) and AOR: 1.47 (1.04-2.07), respectively), and in girls, with a high intake of vegetables (AOR: 1.82 (1.30-2.53)). In both girls and boys, high academic achievement was associated with a high leisure time physical activity level (AOR: 1.51 (1.10-2.08) and AOR: 1.39 (1.05-1.85), respectively) and use of active commuting (AOR: 1.51 (1.10-2.08) and AOR: 1.72 (1.26-2.35), respectively). In both girls and boys, high academic achievement was associated with a low intake of lemonade (AOR: 0.42 (0.27-0.64) and AOR: 0.67 (0.48-0.94), respectively), and in girls, with a low intake of sugar-sweetened soft drinks (AOR: 0.47 (0.35- 0.64)) and salty snacks (AOR: 0.63 (0.47-0.85)). Lastly, high academic achievement was inversely associated with smoking and snuffing in both girls (AOR: 0.18 (0.12-0.25) and AOR: 0.25 (0.17-0.37), respectively) and boys (AOR: 0.37 (0.25-0.54) and AOR: 0.51 (0.36-0.72), respectively). Conclusions A regular meal pattern, an intake of healthy food items and being physically active were all associated with increased odds of high academic achievement, whereas the intake of unhealthy food and beverages, smoking cigarettes and snuffing were associated with decreased odds of high academic achievement in Norwegian adolescents.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · BMC Public Health
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    • "e l s e v i e r . c o m / lo c a t e / s l e e p and soft drinks [35] [36], as well as low intakes of fruits and vegetables among children and adolescents [21]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective To investigate the prevalence of short time in bed (<8 h/day) and to examine the association between time in bed, overweight/obesity, health-risk behaviors and academic achievement in adolescents. Methods This study included a sample of adolescents (n = 2432) aged 15–17 years in the southern part of Norway (participation rate, 98.7%). A self-report questionnaire was used to assess time in bed, body mass index, dietary habits, physical activity habits, sedentary behavior, smoking and snuffing habits, and academic achievement. Results A total of 32.3% of the students reported short time in bed (<8 h/day) on an average school night. Several health-risk behaviors were associated with short sleep duration, including not being physically active for ⩾60 min for ⩾5 days/week (adjusted odds ratio, 1.33; 95% confidence interval, 1.05–1.68); using television/computer >2 h/day (1.63; 1.23–2.17); being a current smoker (2.46; 1.80–3.35) or snuffer (2.11; 1.57–2.85); having an irregular meal pattern (1.33; 1.05–1.68); intake of sweets/candy ⩾4 times/week (0.51; 0.32–0.83) and poor academic achievement (1.62; 1.26–2.09). All odds ratios were adjusted for sex, age and parental education. Conclusions In Norwegian adolescents, short time in bed is associated with several health-risk behaviors and poor academic achievement.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Sleep Medicine
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    • "Consistent with previous studies [11,26], overweight and obese adolescents in the present study were 60% and 50% less likely to be low water consumers compared with normal weight adolescents. Park and colleagues [11] noted that obese adolescents might try to limit energy intake from beverages by substituting plain water for SSBs, and this tactic is supported by evidence from two studies that found that those who were trying to lose weight were less likely to drink SSBs compared to students who were not trying to do anything about their weight [27,28]. Although the present study did not find a significant association between low water intake and high soda intake, plain water may play a role in decreasing energy intake when it is substituted for SSBs and possibly reducing the risk of obesity [2]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Water is essential for life and plain water instead of sugar-sweetened beverages is one approach for decreasing energy intake. Due to limited data on characteristics associated with water intake among Korean adolescents, this study examined associations of demographic and behavioral characteristics with plain water intake by using nationally representative sample of South Korean adolescents. The data (2007-2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) for 1,288 high school-aged adolescents (15-18 years) were used. Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (OR) for factors associated with low water intake (< 4 cups/day) and very low water intake (< 2.5 cups/day). Nationwide, 38.4% and 19.0% of adolescents reported drinking water < 4.0 cups/day and < 2.5 cups/day, respectively. The mean plain water intake was 5.7 cups/day for males and 4.1 cups/day for females. Females had significantly higher odds for drinking water < 2.5 cups/day (OR = 2.2) than males, whereas adolescents with low milk consumption had significantly lower odds for drinking water < 2.5 cups/day (OR = 0.7). Factors significantly associated with a greater odds for drinking water < 4 cups/daywere being female (OR = 2.8) and not meeting physical activity recommendations (≥ 20 min/day on < 3 days/week) (OR = 1.6). Being underweight, overweight, and obese were significantly associated with reduced odds for drinking water < 4 cups/day (OR = 0.7, 0.4 and 0.5, respectively). However, intake of soda, coffee drinks, fruits, vegetables, and sodium and eating out were not significantly associated with low or very low water intake. These findings may be used to target intervention efforts to increase plain water intake as part of a healty lifestyle.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · Nutrition research and practice
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