Disseminated Microsporidiosis in an Immunosuppressed Patient

Article (PDF Available)inEmerging Infectious Diseases 18(7):1155-8 · July 2012with32 Reads
DOI: 10.3201/eid1807.120047 · Source: PubMed
Abstract
We report a case of disseminated microsporidiosis in a patient with multiple myeloma who had received an allogeneic stem cell transplant requiring substantial immunosuppression. The causative organism was identified as Tubulinosema acridophagus, confirming this genus of microsporidia as a novel human pathogen.

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    • "Members of family Tubulinosematidae appear to possess opportunistic properties that would allow them to grow and develop in mammal cells. Three species (Anncaliia vesicularum, A. algerae , T. acridophagus) have been detected in humans (Franzen et al., 2005b; Meissner et al., 2012; Solter et al., 2012 ), whereas a complete lifecycle of T. ratisbonensis has also been successfully achieved by Franzen et al. (2005b) in Vero cells. A salient feature of this new species seems to be the ability to induce the formation of cyst-like bodies in the adipose tissue, the presence of which was confirmed in almost all cases. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bumble bees of the genus Bombus, social insects with three castes (queens, workers, males) and an annual life cycle, have a remarkable importance as pollinators (Goulson, 2010). Ubiquitous Bombus atratus is one of eight native species known to occur in Argentina (Abrahamovich et al., 2007). Palaearctic, non-native B. terrestris and B. ruderatus have recently invaded the country from the West into northern Patagonia after introductions in Chile (Schmid-Hempel et al., 2014). Despite their central role as pollinators, knowledge about the sanitary condition of bumble bees in South America has only begun to emerge in recent years (Plischuk, 2013). During surveys on pathogen diversity in Bombus from Argentina, an undescribed microsporidium was detected and isolated from B. atratus. Based on morphological and molecular grounds we describe this new microsporidium as Tubulinosema pampeana sp. n.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015
    • "kingi, Burnett and King 1962, Kramer 1964; T. ratisbonensis, Franzen et al. 2005). Their generalist nature is further confirmed by high infectivity rates and successful transmission of T. maroccanus (Krylova and Nurzhanov 1989) and T. acridophagus (Henry and Oma 1974 ) from their orthopteran hosts to lepidopteran larvae as well as by two cases of recent isolation of T. acridophagus from immunosupressed patients with disseminated microsporidiosis (Choudhary et al. 2011, Meissner et al. 2012). The members of the family Tubulinosematidae demonstrate therefore evolutionary expansion into rather diverse taxa of invertebrate and vertebrate hosts. of infection: Adipose tissue; infection of other tissues (connective or muscular) is presumed. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adults of beet webworm Loxostege sticticalis were collected in Western Siberia in 2009 and 2010. A microsporidium was found infecting 12 of 50 moths in 2010. The parasite develops in direct contact with host cell cytoplasm, sporogony is presumably disporoblastic. The spores are ovoid, diplokaryotic, 4.2 × 2.4 μm in size (fresh), without a sporophorous vesicle. Electron microscopy showed: (a) tubules on the surface of sporoblasts and immature spores; (b) slightly anisofilar polar tube with 10–14 coils, last 2–3 coils of lesser electron density; (c) bipartite polaroplast with anterior and posterior parts composed of thin and thick lamellae, respectively; (d) an indentation in the region of the anchoring disc; (e) an additional layer of electron-dense amorphous matter on the exospore surface. The spore ultrastructure is characteristic of the genus Tubulinosema. Sequencing of small subunit and large subunit ribosomal RNA genes showed 98–99.6% similarity of this parasite to the Tubulinosema species available on Genbank. A new species Tubulinosema loxostegi sp. n. is established.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2013
    • "cuniculi, E. hellem, E. intestinalis and E. bieneusi) are specific to mammals, while others (e.g. Vittaforma corneae, T. hominis, T. anthropophthera, A. algerae, Tubulinosema spp., Endoreticulatus-like microsporidium, and several organisms assembled under the collective genus Microsporidium) are opportunists that have been acquired by humans from insects or unknown hosts (Anane and Attouchi, 2010; Cali and Takvorian, 2004; Canning and Lom, 1986; Coyle et al., 2004; Curry et al., 2005; Didier, 2005; Didier et al., 2004; Didier and Weiss, 2006; Cali et al., 2010; Choudhary et al., 2011; Fan et al., 2012; Field et al., 2012; Juarez et al., 2005; Mathis et al., 2005; Meissner et al., 2012; Suankratay et al., 2012; Vávra et al., 1998), or as in the case of Pleistophora ronneafiei, probably from fish (Cali and Takvorian, 2003 ). The ability of some mammalian microsporidia to infect insect hosts (and thus possibly be of insect origin) has been experimentally proved (Vávra et al., 2011; Weidner et al., 1999a). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Parasitism, aptly defined as one of the 'living-together' strategies (Trager, 1986), presents a dynamic system in which the parasite and its host are under evolutionary pressure to evolve new and specific adaptations, thus enabling the coexistence of the two closely interacting partners. Microsporidia are very frequently encountered obligatory intracellular protistan parasites that can infect both animals and some protists and are a consummate example of various aspects of the 'living-together' strategy. Microsporidia, relatives of fungi in the superkingdom Opisthokonta, belong to the relatively small group of parasites for which the host cell cytoplasm is the site of both reproduction and maturation. The structural and physiological reduction of their vegetative stage, together with the manipulation of host cell physiology, enables microsporidia to live in the cytosolic environment for most of their life cycle in a way resembling endocytobionts. The ability to form structurally complex spores and the invention and assembly of a unique injection mechanism enable microsporidia to disperse within host tissues and between host organisms, resulting in long-lasting infections. Microsporidia have adapted their genomes to the intracellular way of life, evolved strategies how to obtain nutrients directly from the host and how to manipulate not only the infected cells, but also the hosts themselves. The enormous variability of host organisms and their tissues provide microsporidian parasites a virtually limitless terrain for diversification and ecological expansion. This review attempts to present a general overview of microsporidia, emphasising some less known and/or more recently discovered facets of their biology.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2013
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