A New Marine Ciliate, Metaurostylopsis antarctica nov spec. (Ciliophora, Urostylida) from the Antarctic Ocean

Acta protozoologica (Impact Factor: 0.84). 12/2011; 50:289–300. DOI: 10.4467/16890027AP.11.026.0063


In this study, a new marine urostylid ciliate, Metaurostylopsis antarctica nov. spec. collected from the Antarctic Ocean was investigated using morphological, morphometrical, and molecular methods. Metaurostylopsis antarctica nov. spec. is characterized as follows: slender to ellipsoid form in body shape; two types of cortical granules, ellipsoid large one (type I, yellow-green, 1.5 × 1 μm) in rows along dorsal kineties and cirri, circular small one (type II, colourless, 0.3 μm in diameter) scattered throughout whole body; 19–24 adoral membranelles, 4 frontal cirri, 2–5 frontoterminal cirri, 1 buccal and 2 transverse cirri; 3–5 midventral pairs, 10–15 cirri of midventral row; 1 right and 2 left marginal rows; 3 dorsal kineties; about 43 macronuclear nodules. This new species mainly differs from the congeners by the number of marginal rows (1 vs. 3 or more on right side; 2 vs. 3 or more on left side). In addition, proter’s oral primordium developed on the right side of the oral cavity (vs. in center of oral cavity), and the rightmost anlage splits into two parts, namely, the frontoterminal cirri and a transverse cirrus (vs. only frontoterminal cirri). Inter-specific dissimilarities of the SSU rRNA gene between the congeners range from 3.3 to 4.4%.

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Available from: Jae-Ho Jung
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    • "The PCR products were purified using a QIAquick ® PCR Purification Kit (Qiagen, Hilden, Germany ). Two internal primers were used for sequencing: 18Sþ810 and 18S-300 (Jung et al., 2011). DNA sequencing was performed using an ABI 3700 sequencer (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA, USA). "
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    • "The TaKaRa LA Taq polymerase was used according to the manufacturer's instructions with EuKA and ReV2 primers (Table S1). PCR amplifications for the SSU-partial LSU rDNA gene were modified from Jung et al. (2011) with the following conditions: denaturation for 2 min at 94 °C, followed by 37 cycles of denaturation for 30 s at 95 °C, annealing for 40 s at 50 °C, extension for 4 min at 72 °C, and a final extension at 72 °C for 10 min. The PCR product was purified using the Gel Extraction Kit (QIAGene, Chatsworth, CA) and sequenced on an ABI 3700 sequencer (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA). "
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    • "Subsequently, eight further species of Metaurostylopsis have been described and assigned, namely Metaurostylopsis rubra Song & Wilbert, 2002, M. salina and M. songi Lei et al., 2005, M. sinica and M. struederkypkeae Shao et al., 2008, M. cheni Chen et al., 2011, M. antarctica Jung et al., 2012, and M. flavicana Wang et al., 2011 (under the name M. flavicans in Song et al., 2011). Among these, the phylogenetic positions of M. flavicana and M. songi are designated incertae sedis according to Song et al. (2011) (Song et al., 2001, 2011; Song & Wilbert, 2002; Lei et al., 2005; Shao et al., 2008a, b; Chen et al., 2011; Wang et al., 2011; Jung et al., 2011). In addition, Song et al. (2011) proposed that M. sinica Shao et al., 2008 should be assigned to a new genus Apourostylopsis , arguing that M. sinica lacks the Metaurostylopsisdiagnostic midventral row and possesses only two frontoterminal cirri but several pretransverse cirri. "
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