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Abstract

Used a sample of 207 single-parent families residing in 104 small, Midwestern communities to test hypotheses regarding the link between community context and adolescent conduct problems and psychological distress. For boys, community disadvantage had a direct affect on psychological distress, while it indirectly boosted the probability of conduct problems by disrupting parenting and increasing affiliation with deviant peers. Community disadvantage was unrelated to the deviant behavior or emotional well-being of girls. Proportion of single-parent households in the community had a direct effect on girls' conduct problems. It also contributed indirectly to girls' conduct problems by increasing the probability of involvement with deviant peers. Possible explanations for these gender differences are provided.

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... It is worth noting that the two mediators, neighborhood characteristics and social networks, are seen to be closely related in previous studies (Haynie et al., 2006;Kelly et al., 2012;Simons et al., 1996). The cultural transmission model, rooted in the subcultural perspective within urban and criminological theory (Anderson, 1999;Fischer, 1975;Shaw & McKay, 1969;Wilson, 1996), hypothesizes that social networks in neighborhoods where social control is lax constitute a key social process through which neighborhood characteristics affect deleterious behaviors, including sexual risk behaviors (Baumer & South, 2001;Browning & Olinger-Wilbon, 2003;Haynie et al., 2006;Kelly et al., 2012;Simons et al., 1996). ...
... It is worth noting that the two mediators, neighborhood characteristics and social networks, are seen to be closely related in previous studies (Haynie et al., 2006;Kelly et al., 2012;Simons et al., 1996). The cultural transmission model, rooted in the subcultural perspective within urban and criminological theory (Anderson, 1999;Fischer, 1975;Shaw & McKay, 1969;Wilson, 1996), hypothesizes that social networks in neighborhoods where social control is lax constitute a key social process through which neighborhood characteristics affect deleterious behaviors, including sexual risk behaviors (Baumer & South, 2001;Browning & Olinger-Wilbon, 2003;Haynie et al., 2006;Kelly et al., 2012;Simons et al., 1996). The literature on adolescents and youth highlights the power of peers and youths' proximal friends in the transmission of norms through networks and communities (Warner et al., 2011). ...
... For instance, a higher level of hedonistic subcultural beliefs that prioritize immediate satisfaction and pleasure-seeking was found in more homogeneous networks among rural-urban migrants (Yang & Yang, 2019). In addition, prior research has documented that social networks (peer-dominated networks) mediated the association between neighborhood characteristics and numerous social ills, such as adolescent violence (Haynie et al., 2006), adolescent problem behavior (Simons et al., 1996), and sexual risk behaviors among men who have sex with men (MSM) (Kelly et al., 2012). Taken together, exploring the relationship between neighborhoods and social networks is worthwhile in order to better understand the association between migration and sexual risk behaviors. ...
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The sex ratio imbalance in China since the 1980s has resulted in a large number of involuntary bachelors in rural China. Previous studies have found an association between migration and HIV sexual risk behaviors among involuntary bachelors, but how migration affects these bachelors’ HIV sexual risk behaviors remain poorly understood. Using data from a cross-sectional survey in 2017 (a sample of 740 male respondents who had rural household registration, had never been married, and were aged 28–49 years), we investigated the relationship between migration and HIV sexual risk behaviors. Logistic regressions show that migration, neighborhood characteristics, and social networks were significantly associated with commercial sex and multiple sex partners, whereas only neighborhood characteristics and social networks were positively correlated with sexual partnership concurrency. Neighborhood characteristics and social networks mediated the relationships of migration with commercial sex and migration with multiple sex partners. Social networks mediated the association between neighborhood characteristics and concurrency. Multiple-step mediation analysis showed that the indirect effect of migration on commercial sex and multiple sexual partners through neighborhood characteristics and social networks was significant. Our findings suggest that further interventions should address neighborhood characteristics and social networks together.
... Research consistently reveals the adverse effect of low socioeconomic status 1 in a community on the mental health of children and adolescents (Chase-Lansdale & Gordon, 1996;Leventhal & Brooks-Gunn, 2001). For example, a majority of the studies of community effects on child and adolescent behavior problems found that the presence of low SES in a community (i.e., poverty, unemployment, male joblessness, and high levels of welfare recipients) was associated with an increase in maternal reports of child externalizing behavior problems Duncan et al., 1994), peer-reported aggression (Kupersmidt, Griesler, DeRosier, Patterson, & Davis, 1995), delinquent and criminal behaviors such as truancy, running away from home, or drinking problem (Briggs, 1997;Loeber & Wikstrom, 1993;Peeples & Loeber, 1994), as well as internalizing problems such as anxiety or depression (Simons, Johnson, Beaman, Conger, & Whitbeck, 1996). In addition, high rate of residential instability was found to be associated with juvenile delinquency and crime, particularly property crimes (Sampson & Groves, 1989). ...
... Although it is still unclear how neighborhood disadvantage or social disorganization becomes linked with child development, several empirical studies suggest that neighborhood characteristics are linked to parenting practices, which in turn affects both the prosocial and the problematic adjustment of children Greenberg, Lengua, Coie, & Pinderhughes, 1999;Simons, et al., 1996). For example, lower maternal warmth was found to be related to family residing in poorer neighborhoods . ...
... This result extends previous findings that the negative influence of community disadvantage on adolescent psychological distress was mediated by the overall quality of parenting, e.g. warmth/support and harsh discipline (Simons et al., 1996). This result also extends previous studies in that it recognizes that the effect of village SES on child problems may depend on other village characteristics. ...
Article
In this dissertation, guided by the conceptual framework of the ecological model, I investigated (1) the relationship between parental behaviors and children's psychological well-being in the contexts of family and community; and (2) the intermediate role that parental behaviors play in linking children's and other familial characteristics with children's mental health in a sample of 2000 children in rural northwest China. The hypotheses leading this study are that (1) the effects of parental behaviors on children's psychological adjustment differ depending upon familial and communal characteristics; (2) characteristics of children, families, and communities affect parenting behaviors, which, in turn, are directly linked to children's psychological adjustment. This dissertation is composed of a general introduction, three articles, and a general conclusion. Using multiple regression analysis, I inspected the relationships between parental behaviors and child psychological maladjustment in the first article. In the second article, multilevel regression analysis was used to examine the impacts of community SES and community environment of parenting on child maladjustment and on the parenting-child-development relationships. In the third article, I used structural equation modeling to test the mediating role of parental behaviors in connecting the paths from child characteristics and family variables to child internalizing and externalizing problems. Each article has its own abstract. This study is one of the first studies using a large-scale survey data to investigate the effect of parenting practices on children's psychological adjustment in a poor, rural population. The findings from this study not only contribute additional insight to our view of the variability that characterizes parental behaviors and children's developmental trajectories, but also serve as a guide for integrating family processes and communal contexts in prevention and intervention directed at children and adolescent psychological health in this under-studied population.
... As mentioned above, they are most vulnerable to negative peer influences, which previous research linked to criminal activities and substance use (Case and Katz 1991;Simons et al. 1996;Trucco et al. 2014;Chung and Steinberg 2006;Deutsch et al. 2012). Growing up in areas where a high percentage of adults are unemployed, it was found, gives teenagers few positive role models and diminishes the perceived returns to education (Wilson 1987). ...
... Furthermore, the effects of neighbourhood environment and type of community relations on youths were found to be mediated through family-level factors, such as parenting styles, parents' stress levels, support networks, and the home learning environment (Elder et al. 1995;Linares et al. 2001;Klebanov et al. 1997;Simons et al. 1996;Greenberg et al. 1999;Booth and Shaw 2020). ...
... Empirical evidence showed that subpopulations (age groups, ethnic background, SES, gender, etc.) have discrepant subjective perceptions and experiences of their neighbourhoods (Rabinowitz et al. 2020;Ho et al. 2020;Levy 2019;Satariano 2019). For example, evidence from the US showed that the positive relationship between neighbourhood poverty and low educational attainment and delinquent behaviour is more pronounced among young males and European Americans compared to girls and African Americans, respectively (Leventhal and Brooks-Gunn 2000;Simons et al. 1996). In Germany, delinquency among teenagers from immigrant backgrounds was less strongly associated with neighbourhood poverty compared to native adolescents. ...
Thesis
In the past two decades Britain, along with other countries in the western world, has pursued urban regeneration policies that encourage the demolition of social housing estates and their replacement with mixed tenure developments. The aim is to create communities of residents with a mix of income levels and break down spatial concentrations of poverty. Growing up in the latter is evidenced to have a negative impact on individual life chances. Young people are thought to be among the most disadvantaged by these adverse neighbourhood deprivation effects. It is believed that the presence of more affluent households will improve their outcomes by exposing them to aspirational peers and role models, building their social capital, revitalising local economies and improving area reputations. However, there is limited academic evidence of these pathways in the UK context. This thesis explores the mechanisms by which the wellbeing of low-income teenagers is influenced by mixed income social housing regeneration. The capability approach is adopted as an analytical framework, whereby wellbeing is defined in terms of people’s capabilities or freedoms to be and do the things they value in life. To achieve this, the thesis undertakes a case study of a council estate in London that has been redeveloped into a mixed income neighbourhood. Guided by the principles of youth-centred research, a mix of ethnographic and participatory methods, semi-structured interviews and document analysis is adopted. A total of 76 people participated in the study, 40 of which were aged between 12 and 19 years, while the remaining 36 were adult community stakeholders. Data was analysed thematically using a hybrid process of inductive and deductive coding. The thesis does not find evidence of the hoped-for benefits of replacing social housing with mixed income communities. Instead, empirical findings show that there are four pathways through which young people’s valued capabilities are influenced. These are (1) dispossession, (2) social division and inequality, (3) stigmatisation and exclusion, and (4) community breakdown. While the effect of these mechanisms varied by age, relative disadvantage, gender, ethnic background, and personal circumstances, overall young people experienced restrictions on many of the things they value being and doing, with negative implications on their wellbeing.
... As indicated in Table 2, seven studies recruited participants from rural areas, 30 studies recruited participants from urban areas, 18 studies recruited participants from both urban and rural areas, and in four studies recruitment location was unclear. Twelve studies focused exclusively on African American families (Budescu & Taylor, 2013;Grant et al., 2000;Gutman, McLoyd & Tokoyawa, 2005;Hurd, Stoddard & Zimmerman, 2013;Landers-Potts et al., 2015;Li, Nussbaum & Richards, 2007;McLoyd, Jayaratne, Ceballo & Borquez, 1994;Seaton & Taylor, 2003;Taylor, Budescu, Gebre & Hodzic, 2014;Taylor, Rodriguez, Seaton & Dominguez, 2004;Wilson, Foster, Anderson & Mance, 2009), five studies focused exclusively on Hispanic and Latino Americans (Loukas & Prelow, 2004;Loukas, Prelow, Suizzo & Allua, 2008;Loukas, Suizzo & Prelow, 2007;Prelow, Loukas & Jordan-Green, 2007;White, Liu, Nair & Tein, 2015), two studies focused exclusively on Asian Americans (Kiang, Andrews, Stein, Supple & Gonzalez, 2013;Mistry, Benner, Tan & Kim, 2009), four studies focused exclusively on Whites in America (Conger, Conger, Matthews & Elder, 1999;Conger et al., 1992;Gault-Sherman, 2013;Simons, Johnson, Beaman, Conger & Whitbeck, 1996), and one focused on a mixture of racial or ethnic minorities (Tama Leventhal & Brooks-Gunn, 2004). Three studies were limited to single parent families (Lehman & Koerner, 2002;McLoyd et al., 1994;Simons et al., 1996), three studies were limited to families with two caregivers (Conger et al., 1992;Landers-Potts et al., 2015), and one study was limited to students with disabilities (Wagner, Newman & Javitz, 2014). ...
... Twelve studies focused exclusively on African American families (Budescu & Taylor, 2013;Grant et al., 2000;Gutman, McLoyd & Tokoyawa, 2005;Hurd, Stoddard & Zimmerman, 2013;Landers-Potts et al., 2015;Li, Nussbaum & Richards, 2007;McLoyd, Jayaratne, Ceballo & Borquez, 1994;Seaton & Taylor, 2003;Taylor, Budescu, Gebre & Hodzic, 2014;Taylor, Rodriguez, Seaton & Dominguez, 2004;Wilson, Foster, Anderson & Mance, 2009), five studies focused exclusively on Hispanic and Latino Americans (Loukas & Prelow, 2004;Loukas, Prelow, Suizzo & Allua, 2008;Loukas, Suizzo & Prelow, 2007;Prelow, Loukas & Jordan-Green, 2007;White, Liu, Nair & Tein, 2015), two studies focused exclusively on Asian Americans (Kiang, Andrews, Stein, Supple & Gonzalez, 2013;Mistry, Benner, Tan & Kim, 2009), four studies focused exclusively on Whites in America (Conger, Conger, Matthews & Elder, 1999;Conger et al., 1992;Gault-Sherman, 2013;Simons, Johnson, Beaman, Conger & Whitbeck, 1996), and one focused on a mixture of racial or ethnic minorities (Tama Leventhal & Brooks-Gunn, 2004). Three studies were limited to single parent families (Lehman & Koerner, 2002;McLoyd et al., 1994;Simons et al., 1996), three studies were limited to families with two caregivers (Conger et al., 1992;Landers-Potts et al., 2015), and one study was limited to students with disabilities (Wagner, Newman & Javitz, 2014). ...
... As a result, the preexisting gender gap no longer existed. Gender was also identified by several studies as a moderator of the relationship between community SES and other psychosocial outcomes (Chang, Foshee, Reyes, Ennett & Halpern, 2015;Osypuk et al., 2012;Simons et al., 1996). A 2-year longitudinal study found that neighborhood SES links to dating violence was dependent on gender, with females (but not males) showing an increased risk of being a perpetrator of dating violence if they resided in low SES communities. ...
Article
This study evaluated self-esteem and emotional regulation as possible mediators of the relationship between authoritative parenting and sociopolitical control in 240 low socioeconomic youths, aged 10 to 16 years (M = 12.48 years, SD = 1.33 years; 122 males, 118 females). Participants completed self-report questionnaires assessing their self-esteem, emotional regulation, perception of sociopolitical control, and perceptions of their parents’ supportive parenting and behavior monitoring. The relationship between authoritative parenting and perception of sociopolitical control was mediated by self-esteem and emotional regulation cognitive reappraisal skills. The relationship between authoritative parenting and self-esteem was moderated by gender, in that, authoritative parenting was more predictive of self-esteem in male youth than female youth. This research identifies the importance of family interventions designed to increase authoritative parenting for youth from low socioeconomic communities, and highlights the need to identify other factors that may be important for the development of sociopolitical control in female youth.
... As indicated in Table 2, seven studies recruited participants from rural areas, 30 studies recruited participants from urban areas, 18 studies recruited participants from both urban and rural areas, and in four studies recruitment location was unclear. Twelve studies focused exclusively on African American families (Budescu & Taylor, 2013;Grant et al., 2000;Gutman, McLoyd & Tokoyawa, 2005;Hurd, Stoddard & Zimmerman, 2013;Landers-Potts et al., 2015;Li, Nussbaum & Richards, 2007;McLoyd, Jayaratne, Ceballo & Borquez, 1994;Seaton & Taylor, 2003;Taylor, Budescu, Gebre & Hodzic, 2014;Taylor, Rodriguez, Seaton & Dominguez, 2004;Wilson, Foster, Anderson & Mance, 2009), five studies focused exclusively on Hispanic and Latino Americans (Loukas & Prelow, 2004;Loukas, Prelow, Suizzo & Allua, 2008;Loukas, Suizzo & Prelow, 2007;Prelow, Loukas & Jordan-Green, 2007;White, Liu, Nair & Tein, 2015), two studies focused exclusively on Asian Americans (Kiang, Andrews, Stein, Supple & Gonzalez, 2013;Mistry, Benner, Tan & Kim, 2009), four studies focused exclusively on Whites in America (Conger, Conger, Matthews & Elder, 1999;Conger et al., 1992;Gault-Sherman, 2013;Simons, Johnson, Beaman, Conger & Whitbeck, 1996), and one focused on a mixture of racial or ethnic minorities (Tama Leventhal & Brooks-Gunn, 2004). Three studies were limited to single parent families (Lehman & Koerner, 2002;McLoyd et al., 1994;Simons et al., 1996), three studies were limited to families with two caregivers (Conger et al., 1992;Landers-Potts et al., 2015), and one study was limited to students with disabilities (Wagner, Newman & Javitz, 2014). ...
... Twelve studies focused exclusively on African American families (Budescu & Taylor, 2013;Grant et al., 2000;Gutman, McLoyd & Tokoyawa, 2005;Hurd, Stoddard & Zimmerman, 2013;Landers-Potts et al., 2015;Li, Nussbaum & Richards, 2007;McLoyd, Jayaratne, Ceballo & Borquez, 1994;Seaton & Taylor, 2003;Taylor, Budescu, Gebre & Hodzic, 2014;Taylor, Rodriguez, Seaton & Dominguez, 2004;Wilson, Foster, Anderson & Mance, 2009), five studies focused exclusively on Hispanic and Latino Americans (Loukas & Prelow, 2004;Loukas, Prelow, Suizzo & Allua, 2008;Loukas, Suizzo & Prelow, 2007;Prelow, Loukas & Jordan-Green, 2007;White, Liu, Nair & Tein, 2015), two studies focused exclusively on Asian Americans (Kiang, Andrews, Stein, Supple & Gonzalez, 2013;Mistry, Benner, Tan & Kim, 2009), four studies focused exclusively on Whites in America (Conger, Conger, Matthews & Elder, 1999;Conger et al., 1992;Gault-Sherman, 2013;Simons, Johnson, Beaman, Conger & Whitbeck, 1996), and one focused on a mixture of racial or ethnic minorities (Tama Leventhal & Brooks-Gunn, 2004). Three studies were limited to single parent families (Lehman & Koerner, 2002;McLoyd et al., 1994;Simons et al., 1996), three studies were limited to families with two caregivers (Conger et al., 1992;Landers-Potts et al., 2015), and one study was limited to students with disabilities (Wagner, Newman & Javitz, 2014). ...
... As a result, the preexisting gender gap no longer existed. Gender was also identified by several studies as a moderator of the relationship between community SES and other psychosocial outcomes (Chang, Foshee, Reyes, Ennett & Halpern, 2015;Osypuk et al., 2012;Simons et al., 1996). A 2-year longitudinal study found that neighborhood SES links to dating violence was dependent on gender, with females (but not males) showing an increased risk of being a perpetrator of dating violence if they resided in low SES communities. ...
Article
Socioeconomic status (SES) is a significant risk factor for negative adolescent development outcomes. Identifying the pathways between SES and these outcomes may inform interventions for adolescents from this demographic. We conducted a systematic literature review of eight databases for studies investigating pathways between SES and adolescent psychosocial outcomes. A total of 59 articles met inclusion criteria. Significant risk factors identified include economic stress, chaos in the home, and violence in the community. These risk factors appear to be mediated through parent depression, conflict between parents, parenting practices, and adolescent resilience. Interventions focusing on the identified risk factors are recommended.
... This hypothesis was tested with a trajectory of DVV from grade 8 to 12 as the outcome, which made it possible to determine whether the hypothesized synergistic effects varied across adolescence. The study also examined whether the hypothesized synergy varied by sex of the adolescent; the preponderance of DVV studies find similar prevalence rates of DVV for boys and girls, 40 and sex differences have been found in family influences, 41,42 neighborhood influences, [43][44][45] and their synergy, 46,47 though little consistency has been found across studies in sex differences. Because of the long-held misconception that rural areas are idyllic crime-and violence-free communities, little violence research has been conducted in rural communities. ...
... The percentages of participants who were black (38.1%), living below the poverty level (20.4%), and unemployed (9.0%) were higher in study counties than in the state (21.6%, 12.3%, and 5.5%, respectively) and the U.S. (12.9%, 12.4%, and 4.8%, respectively). 45 Four waves of data were collected between 2003 and 2005 in school from adolescents enrolled in the public school systems in the two counties. Adolescents were in grades 8-10 at Wave 1 and 10-12 at Wave 4; response rates ranged from 76.9% to 72.8%. ...
Article
Rural adolescents are at high risk for dating violence victimization (DVV), which has serious negative consequences. Understanding more about the conditions that increase DVV risk for rural adolescents is needed to inform prevention efforts. In response to calls for examining the influence of upper levels of the social ecology on adolescent dating violence, this study examined whether associations between the family context and physical DVV were conditioned by the characteristics of the neighborhoods in which the family resided. Data were from a multi-wave longitudinal study of 3,236 rural adolescents nested in 65 block groups, which defined neighborhoods. Data were collected between 2003 and 2005. Multilevel growth curve modeling was conducted in 2014 to test hypothesized synergistic effects of the family and neighborhood on trajectories of physical DVV from grade 8 to 12. Low parental closeness was a DVV risk in residentially stable (p<0.001), but not unstable, neighborhoods. Family aggression was a DVV risk, regardless of neighborhood characteristics (p=0.001). Low parental monitoring and rule setting were not DVV risks and their effects were not moderated by neighborhood characteristics. Neighborhood ethnic heterogeneity was significantly (p<0.05) positively associated with DVV, but neighborhood economic disadvantage, social disorganization, and violence were not associated with DVV. None of the effects varied by sex of the adolescent, across time (grade), or by the combination of sex and time. Findings demonstrate the importance of considering the family and neighborhood, and particularly their synergistic effects in efforts to prevent adolescent DVV. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... Furthermore, several studies have found that the socioeconomic structure of the neighbourhood affects parental strategies. For example, a number of studies have shown that socially disadvantaged neighbourhoods are associated both with higher levels of harsh, inconsistent, and more punitive parenting (Kohen et al. 2008;Leventhal and Brooks-Gunn 2000), and with less parental monitoring, warmth and communication (Simons et al. 1996;Simons et al. 1997). In line with this, Stern and Smith (1995) found that when parents perceive higher levels of neighbourhood disadvantage, they are more likely to report lower levels of involvement with, and monitoring of, their children. ...
... These findings in the present study provide support for research arguing that families living in disadvantaged neighbourhoods seem to monitor their children less (e.g. Pratt et al. 2004;Simons et al. 1996Simons et al. , 1997. The case may also be vice versa, that parents with more effective parenting strategies also tend to live in less risky (here less disordered) neighbourhoods (e.g. ...
Article
Full-text available
Children are nested in families, and families are nested within communities (e.g. neighbourhoods). This implies that the behaviour of both children and their parents is influenced by external and contextual factors. The aim of the present study was to explore the relationship between parental monitoring and neighbourhood disorder and collective efficacy from the perspective of the adolescent and to investigate how perceived monitoring and neighbourhood characteristics were related to and interact in predicting adolescent offending. The characteristics of the adolescent’s neighbourhoods were assessed using two different data sources: adolescents’ own perceptions and an independent, aggregated measure from a community survey. The analyses showed that the adolescents’ perceptions of neighbourhood level of disorder and collective efficacy were associated with both adolescent-perceived parental monitoring and adolescent offending, while the corresponding measures from the community survey were not. As regards the prediction of offending, adolescent-perceived parental monitoring is the most important predictor. Neither collective efficacy nor disorder appear to interact with parental monitoring in explaining adolescent offending. Future research would contribute to the field by examining the effect and interaction between the study variables in a sample with younger adolescents as well as by including parents’ perceptions. As to practical implications, our results indicate that families living in disadvantaged neighbourhoods may benefit from targeted support aimed at handling negative neighbourhood influences.
... delinquentes Verhalten scheinen Stadtteileigenschaften allerdings auch Wirkung auf andere individuelle Einstellungen und Verhaltensweisen zu entfalten, die eher als Prädiktoren gewalttätigen Verhaltens gelten. So konnten beispielsweise Simons et al. (1996) zeigen, dass die Benachteiligung im Stadtteil zumindest bei Jungen einen negativen Effekt auf die Qualität der elterlichen Erziehung (u. a. Kontrollverhalten, Zuwendung) hat und sowohl direkt als auch indirekt über die Zuwendung zu devianten Peers abweichendes Verhalten beeinflusst (vgl. ...
... Dieser Befund untermauert Ergebnisse früherer Untersuchungen auf diesem Gebiet (vgl. Brody et al. 2001, Elliott et al. 1996, Simons et al. 1996. Direkte Effekte der sozialen Benachteiligung eines Stadtteils auf gewalttätiges Verhalten können bei Haynie et al. durch die Berücksichtigung der delinquenten Freundesnetzwerke erklärt werden, was die auf lern-und subkulturtheoretischen Annahmen beruhenden Ansteckungsmodelle zur Rolle der Peers im Stadtteil für delinquentes Verhalten stützt. ...
Chapter
Die Frage nach dem Einfluss der Wohnumgebung auf delinquentes Verhalten hat in den vergangenen zwei Jahrzehnten sowohl in der Öffentlichkeit als auch in der Wissenschaft zunehmend an Aufmerksamkeit gewonnen.
... The process through which the family affects delinquency becomes less recognizable when factors outside the family environment have demonstrable effects on delinquency (Beyers, Bates, Pettit, & Dodge, 2003;Chung & Steinberg, 2006;Gorman-Smith, Tolan, & Henry, 2000;Patterson & Dishion, 1985;Simons, Simons, Burt, Brody, & Cutrona, 2005;Slocum, Rengifo, Choi, & Herrmann, 2013). For example, research has revealed that supportive parenting reduces the probability that discrimination will lead to violence because it can diminish anger and hostile views of relationships triggered by discrimination (Burt, Simons, & Gibbons, 2012;Simons, Johnson, Beaman, Conger, & Whitbeck, 1996; Burt, Drummund, Stewart, Brody, & Cutrona, 2006). Likewise, the competing effect between families and peers has been documented in a number of studies (Agnew, 1991;Jang & Thornberry, 1998). ...
Article
Full-text available
Using longitudinal data from the Iowa Youth and Families Project (IYFP), this study examines the role of the family in the generation of delinquency by overcoming two limitations: the prevalent use of the cross-sectional design in estimating the effect of family variables on delinquency and the neglect of incorporating parental subjective states of family life to the analysis. Due to advancements in theory and methods, those two limitations can now be overcome. The statistical limitation is overcome by using more sophisticated methods and the theoretical issue by considering parental subjective dimensions of family life. Results suggest that the change in subjective family experiences of both fathers and mothers is associated with the change in the risk of their children's delinquency; that is, the more satisfactory and easier parents are feeling about their family life over time, the less likely their children are to participate in delinquency. It is also found that the fathers' impact is larger than mothers'. Implications of this study for theory development and policy formulation are discussed.
... This may be an even more salient risk factor for indigenous youth growing up in small and impoverished reservation communities. Although social network research is still lacking for indigenous youth, disadvantaged communities, even rural ones, are less equipped to prevent deviant peer group formation [79]. Furthermore, the higher density of acquaintances in small communities [34] may reduce anonymity, making the reputations of juveniles more public. ...
Article
Full-text available
PurposeNorth American indigenous (American Indian/Canadian First Nations) adolescents are overrepresented in the juvenile justice systems in the USA and Canada. One explanation advanced for disproportionate numbers of racial and ethnic minorities in the justice systems is the unequal distribution of risk factors across groups. The purpose of this study is to investigate the prevalence of and risk factors for first arrest within a population sample of indigenous adolescents. Methods The data come from an 8-year longitudinal panel study of indigenous youth (n = 641) from the northern Midwest and Canada, spanning ages 10 to 19 years. We used a discrete-time survival model to estimate the overall hazard of first arrest and change in the arrest hazard over time and included both time-invariant and time varying risk factors. ResultsThe risk of arrest increased over time, although the largest increase occurred between waves 3 and 4, when the adolescents averaged 13.1 and 14.3 years, respectively. The youth had a 55 % probability of being arrested at least once by the end of the study. Of the time-invariant risk factors, exposure to violence, parent arrest, age, and income were associated with overall risk of first arrest. Three time-varying risk factors (alcohol use, marijuana use, and peer delinquency) were associated with changes in the risk of first arrest. Conclusions Being arrested carries significant repercussions for young people, including involvement in the juvenile justice system as well as consequences into adulthood. Communities must go beyond programs that target problem behaviors because community, family, and peer factors are also important.
... Theories of stress also provide a broad explanation for the link between disadvantaged neighborhood conditions and increased use of parental spanking. An extension of the family stress model suggests that economic hardship at the family or neighborhood level acts as a severe stressor in the family context and eventually, may easily impair parent functioning and deteriorate the parent-child relationship (Conger, Rueter, & Conger, 2000;Kohen et al., 2008;Simons, Johnson, Beaman, Conger, & Whitbeck, 1996). This family distress is likely to pose a risk for coercive and punitive parenting, which in turn, are associated with elevated levels of adverse child outcomes (Conger et al., 2002). ...
Article
Using multilevel modeling on a sample of 2472 families in the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, this study explored the simultaneous role of neighborhood collective efficacy and maternal spanking on externalizing and internalizing problems in early childhood. Mediation analyses tested whether maternal spanking mediates the effect of neighborhood collective efficacy on behavior problems. Results indicated the direct influences of neighborhood collective efficacy and maternal spanking on externalizing and internalizing behavior problems, even after controlling for earlier behavior problem scores and a comprehensive set of child, family, and neighborhood level covariates. The indirect associations between neighborhood collective efficacy and behavior problems through maternal spanking was not significant, after considering the covariates. These findings demonstrate the importance of a multilevel framework that concurrently promotes positive neighborhood and parenting processes for desirable child outcomes.
... Yet, results are inconsistent for how a neighborhood's context affects parenting behavior, making it difficult to understand the risk and protective factors for adolescent outcomes within specific ecological frameworks. For example, some research demonstrates neighborhood disadvantage is related to decreased parental monitoring (Simons et al., 1996). Using proxy measures of neighborhood crime (i.e. ...
Article
Full-text available
Robust research shows that poor parenting practices are related to adverse outcomes among adolescents; however, few have examined the interaction between parenting variables and adolescent outcomes within the context of exposure to relentless crime. The current study examined the combined effects of parental monitoring and discipline on marijuana involvement and deviant peer affiliation among adolescent males living in Los Angeles neighborhoods with concentrated crime. For this study, areas with higher-than-average crime rates were selected based on census data, published statistics, and law-enforcement data. The study included 349 males between 13 and 17 years of age, mostly Latino (70.2%) and African American (28.4%). Data were collected using questionnaires to interview participants and analyzed using logistic regression. Results suggest that among adolescent males in geographic areas of high violence and crime, the interaction between parental monitoring and discipline was significantly related to marijuana involvement and deviant peer affiliation. Follow-up analyses showed parental monitoring was only an effective tool at higher levels of consistent parental discipline. In the absence of consistent discipline, good parental monitoring was ineffective at preventing marijuana involvement and affiliation with deviant peers. Results suggest that if time and resources are limited, clinicians should consider focusing on the use of consistent discipline with parents residing in high-crime neighborhoods.
... One neighborhood characteristic that affects delinquency is the level of concentrated disadvantage, as it creates a space where criminogenic behaviors and interactions flourish (Elliott et al., 1996;grunwald, Lockwood, Harris, & Mennis, 2010;Haynie, Silver, & Teasdale, 2006;Rankin & Quane, 2002). given some evidence that adolescents in disadvantaged neighborhoods are more likely to form ties with deviant youth (Simons, Johnson, Beaman, Conger, & Whitbeck, 1996), we address the extent that neighborhood level disadvantage affects the social ties an adolescent forms in a dynamic network model. Furthermore, we test whether residence in a disadvantaged neighborhood has an additional effect on delinquent behavior beyond the influence effect of an adolescent's closest friends. ...
Article
This study uses National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) data to explore the co-evolution of friendship networks and delinquent behaviors. Using a stochastic actor–based (SAB) model, we simultaneously estimate the network structure, influence process, and selection process on adolescents in 12 small schools (N = 1,284) and 1 large school (N = 976) over three time periods. Our results indicate the presence of both selection and influence processes. Moderating effects were tested for density, centrality, and popularity, with only a weak interaction effect for density and influence in the small schools (p < .10). Contexts outside the school affected school networks: adolescents in the large school were particularly likely to form ties to others from equally disadvantaged neighborhoods, and adolescents in the small schools with more outside of school ties increased their delinquency over time. These findings support the importance of delinquency in peer selection and influence processes.
... Several studies suggest that parenting behaviors are influenced by the neighborhood (Elder, Eccles, Ardelt, & Lord, 1995;Leventhal & Brooks-Gunn, 2000;Sampson et al., 2002;Simons, Johnson, Beaman, Conger, & Whitbeck, 1996). In particular, living in a disadvantaged neighborhood can trigger more restrictive parenting strategies in an effort to protect children from danger (Brooks-Gunn, Duncan, Klebanov, & Sealand, 1993;Burton & Jarrett, 2000;Furstenberg, 1993;Furstenberg, Cook, Eccles, Elder, & Sameroff, 1999;Gonzales et al., 2011;Jarrett, 1999;White, Roosa, Weaver, & Nair, 2009). ...
Article
The present study examines the relationship between neighborhood quality and parental monitoring of youth aged 10 to 18 (N = 1,630) from the Child Development Supplement of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. Multiple measures of the neighborhood, including parents’ perceptions of quality, structure (i.e., poverty and affluence), and social organization (i.e., collective efficacy), are examined to gain a deeper understanding of how neighborhoods influence parenting. Parental monitoring is assessed through two separate measures: parents’ knowledge of their youth’s friends and whereabouts and having rules to regulate after-school activities. Bivariate models show that parents’ perceptions of neighborhood quality are differentially related to each aspect of parental monitoring, but these relationships are accounted for by child/family characteristics. Collective efficacy, however, remains positively tied to both aspects of parental monitoring. Social organization is also more strongly associated with parental monitoring than neighborhood structure. The policy implications of these findings for youth are discussed.
... Although approximately one-fifth of the US students reside in rural communities or small towns (e.g., less than 25,000 people; Strange, Johnson, Showalter, & Klein, 2012), few studies of youth conduct problem behaviors focus on rural populations. While some studies comparing rural and urban populations on rates of behaviors such as delinquency and other conduct behavior problems have found that youth in urban settings may have higher rates (Farrell, Sullivan, Esposito, Meyer, & Valois, 2005;Hope & Bierman, 1998), others have shown similar rates in rural and urban settings (Simons, Johnson, Beaman, Conger, & Whitbeck, 1996). Further, many barriers to evidence-based intervention in rural areas have been identified, including challenges to accessibility and limited sustainability over time (Spoth, 2008). ...
Article
We report long-term effects of the PROSPER delivery system for universal evidence-based preventive interventions on adolescent conduct problem behaviors (CPBs). A cluster randomized trial included 28 school districts assigned to PROSPER or a control condition. Community-based teams in PROSPER condition school districts selected evidence-based interventions-a family-focused intervention in sixth grade and a school-based intervention the next year; follow-up assessments were conducted through 12th grade. CPBs were measured with 12 self-report items derived from the National Youth Survey. Intervention-control differences were tested via a multi-level Zero-Inflated Poisson (ZIP) model. Differences were significant from 9th through 12th grades; Relative Reduction Rates were between 10.1% and 14.5%. The intervention group was delayed in reaching a 10th grade reference level of CPBs by 10.7 months. Moderation analyses indicated stronger effects for early substance initiators. Findings suggest that the PROSPER delivery system has the potential to reduce CPBs in general populations.
... Here, delinquency emerges early in the life course, remains relatively stable over time, and is an important 2 Z. McGee component to the empirical connection between the child health and development (Sampson, 1998). Although many are able to avoid problem behavior despite increased exposure to violence, research also suggests that a substantial number of "at-risk" youth are unable to adapt to such situations and are more likely to experience school failure and to participate in crime, particularly when there is less parental supervision in the home (for example, see Brady et al., 2008;Elliott et al., 1998;Sloan-Power et al., 2013;Simons, Johnson, Beaman, Conger, & Whitbeck, 1996). Gender differences in response to such critical events become paramount in this regard, as girls who witness violence are more likely to internalize their symptoms, especially when their guardians cannot protect them from the increased violence in their communities (Rosario et al., 2008). ...
Article
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Drawing on extant literature on the impact of risk and protective factors on externalizing and internalizing behavior, this research explores the relationship between sociodemographic and family background characteristics, exposure to violence, and victimization as risk factors and the moderating effects of coping strategies as protective factors utilized by 453 African-American adolescents exposed to community violence drawn from a larger sample of survey data on 500 youth. Findings suggest a linkage between the indicators of exposure to violence and victimization, symptomatology, and coping strategy among youth. Implications for future research are addressed.
... Here, delinquency emerges early in the life course, remains relatively stable over time, and is an important 2 Z. McGee component to the empirical connection between the child health and development (Sampson, 1998). Although many are able to avoid problem behavior despite increased exposure to violence, research also suggests that a substantial number of "at-risk" youth are unable to adapt to such situations and are more likely to experience school failure and to participate in crime, particularly when there is less parental supervision in the home (for example, see Brady et al., 2008;Elliott et al., 1998;Sloan-Power et al., 2013;Simons, Johnson, Beaman, Conger, & Whitbeck, 1996). Gender differences in response to such critical events become paramount in this regard, as girls who witness violence are more likely to internalize their symptoms, especially when their guardians cannot protect them from the increased violence in their communities (Rosario et al., 2008). ...
... Parents who raise children in deprived, high-risk neighbourhoods can face numerous challenges and obstacles that parents who live in less deprived neighbourhoods do not have to deal with, such as crime, a lack of safety, negative peer pressure and a lack of good quality institutions. It is not surprising, therefore, that a large number of studies have shown that neighbourhood deprivation affects many aspects of family functioning, including parents' approaches to parenting (Roosa et al., 2003;Simons et al., 1996). ...
Article
A considerable number of researchers have now recognised the importance of parental strategies in mediating or moderating neighbourhood effects on children. Their studies, however, provide little insight into the diversity of the neighbourhood perceptions, the role of the involvement or non-involvement of both parents and children in local social networks, and how these result in different local parenting cultures. To provide insight into these issues, we conducted in-depth interviews with 21 parents and 26 youths (13–18 years) living in a low-income, multi-ethnic district of Rotterdam. We found that parents living under similar neighbourhood conditions had diverse views about their neighbourhoods as places for their children to grow up in, ranging from negative to mostly positive. This is mostly related to their involvement in neighbourhood social networks and the extent to which these networks form a source of social capital. We distinguished three local parenting cultures: (1) protective parenting, which was characterised by little local involvement, higher levels of fear and more restrictions on children’s independent mobility; (2) similarity seeking, which was based on high levels of local involvement, informal social control in the community and relatively high levels of autonomy of the children; and (3) selective parenting, which was based on mixed opinions about the neighbourhood, which resulted in being selective about local involvement, relying on social capital resources partly inside and partly outside the neighbourhood.
... This notion has been studied in relation to family life (e.g., Garbarino, 1976), with studies consistently confirming that poverty and economic stress are associated with reduced levels of family functioning (e.g., negative interactions; Gamel, Tinsley, Parke, & Clark, 1998) and problems for parents (e.g., Conger & Elder, 1994). Studies have shown that economic hardship is related to heightened family conflict, negative parent-child interactions, and overall unhealthy family interactions (Behnke et al., 2006;Simons, Johnson, Beamon, Conger, & Whitbeck, 1996;Simons, Whitbeck, Conger, & Melby, 1990). ...
... gr. Byrnes et al., 2011; Leventhal y Brooks-Gunn, 2000; Simons et al., 1996; Stern y Smith, 1995) puede deberse también a un artificio metodológico que involucra tanto a las medidas y constructos como a la fuente de información elegida en esta investigación. ...
Article
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Este estudio explora el papel mediador de la conducta parental y el grupo de amigos desviados en la relación entre comunidad y delincuencia juvenil. Para ello, se analiza una muestra venezolana de 1011 adolescentes escolarizados de 11 a 19 años de edad. Los resultados derivados de un Análisis de Estructuras de Covarianzas indican que la relación del desorden social y la eficacia colectiva con la delincuencia juvenil está mediada en parte por la conducta parental y el grupo de iguales desviados.
... Furthermore, the correlation between affiliation with antisocial peers and these outcomes also seems stronger for boys (Van Lier, Vitaro, Wanner, Vuijk, & Crijnen, 2005). However, not all studies found such sex-differences for poor social preference (Coie, Terry, Lenox, Lochman, & Hyman, 1995;Dodge et al., 2003;Van Lier et al., 2005) and affiliation with deviant peers (Moffitt et al., 2001;Simons, Johnson, Beaman, Conger, & Whitbeck, 1996). Regarding the link between an inflated social selfperception and antisocial behavior and substance use, previous studies have generally found no sex-differences (Brendgen et al., 2004;Hughes, Cavell, & Prasad-Gaur, 2001). ...
Article
This study investigated 3 developmental pathways involving the peer environment that may explain how certain temperamental dispositions in childhood may become manifested in later antisocial behavior and substance use. A total of 411 (52% boys) Canadian children were followed annually from ages 6 to 15 years. The study tested whether the temperamental traits approach, negative reactivity and attention (assessed at ages 6-7 years), were associated with overt antisocial behavior, covert antisocial behavior and illicit substance use (assessed at ages 14-15 years), via poor social preference among peers, inflated social self-perception and antisocial behavior of peer-group affiliates (assessed throughout ages 8-13 years). Results indicated that negative reactivity was indirectly associated with overt antisocial behavior and substance use via poor social preference. Specifically, negative reactivity in earlier childhood predicted poor social preference in later childhood and early adolescence. This poor social standing among peers, in turn, predicted more engagement in overt antisocial behavior but less substance use in later adolescence. Over and above the influence of social preference, negative reactivity predicted engagement in all 3 outcomes via children's antisocial behavior in childhood and early adolescence. Inflated social self-perception and antisocial behavior of peer-group affiliates did not mediate the link between temperament and the outcomes under scrutiny. No sex differences in developmental pathways from temperament to the outcomes were found. To further our understanding of the developmental link between childhood temperament and later antisocial behavior and substance use, we need to recognize the role of peer environmental factors, specifically poor preference among peers. (PsycINFO Database Record
... Developmental studies of conformity (e.g., Berndt, 1979;Santor et al., 2000) suggest that adolescents in disadvantaged contexts have closer ties to peers and rely more on peer networks for informal support. While peer networks make adolescents in disadvantaged contexts feel better about themselves socially, they may also induce greater pressure among adolescents to conform with deviant behaviors, such as substance abuse and illicit drug use (Case and Katz, 1991;Chuang et al., 2005;Pals et al., 2016;Simons et al., 1996). The formative aspect of deviant behaviors could be reinforced further through a socioeconomically homogenous peer network in adolescents' local communities and schools (Blakemore and Mills, 2014). ...
Article
The number of youths who experience mental distress has been increasing over the past years. Adolescents with mental health problems also show high rates of co-occurring substance-related behaviors such as illicit drug use. This study leverages large-scale and nationally representative Add Health data to evaluate whether the risks conferred by neighborhood and school socioeconomic disadvantages adversely impact adolescents’ mental and behavioral health (i.e., depressive symptoms and illicit drug use). We further investigate whether levels of perceived social support from friends, parents, and teachers moderate the associations between contextual disadvantages and adolescents’ mental and behavioral outcomes. Results from cross-classified multilevel modeling analysis suggest that neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantages, and to a lesser degree, school socioeconomic disadvantages, uniquely and simultaneously predict mental and behavioral outcomes of adolescents. Although social support is likely to offset the mental and behavioral consequences of disadvantaged social context to all, high levels of social support is most protective for adolescents of least disadvantaged neighborhoods. This study highlights the possibility that structural disadvantage— within both the school and neighborhood contexts—may adversely impact adolescents’ mental well-being and increase their risk for illicit drug use.
... All measures were subjected to extensive review with representatives of the communities to ensure that they were culturally appropriate. Harsh-inconsistent parenting was measured by aggregating caregivers' responses to subscales (Simons et al., 1996) that have been used in prior research, with demonstrated reliability and validity. The four-item Harsh Discipline subscale assessed the extent to which the caregivers used disciplinary techniques such as shouting and hitting. ...
Article
Attachment theory posits that parenting plays akey role in children’s attachment and subsequent development. Given the normativity of racial discrimination on everyday life experiences of African American families, there is a need to integrate historical and socio-environmental processes in studies to understand how minoritized parents raise secure and stable children. Results from the current study revealed direct associations between mothers’ reports of discrimination and heightened depression and anxiety. Maternal discriminatory experiences were indirectly associated with more negative parenting and compromised parent-child relationship quality, through mothers’ psychological functioning. Elevated emotional and behavioral management problems among youth were directly associated with exposure to racial discrimination. Exposure to discrimination during middle childhood facilitated adapted or learned strategies to manage similar situations as youth transitioned into adolescence, with reduced patterns of depressive symptomology. No significant gender effects emerged. Implications for theoretical advancement and future research are provided.
... A large proportion of single-parent families in the community may also strengthen the association between family structure and secondary exposure to violence. This community factor has been linked to a number of adolescent problem behaviors (Simons et al. 1996;Cleveland and Gilson 2004), likely due to fewer number of adults available for supervision (Sampson 1987). Reduced parental monitoring at the neighborhood level, in addition to the family level, promotes unstructured socializing among youth (Osgood and Anderson 2004), raising the risk of secondary exposure to violence (Zimmerman and Messner 2013). ...
Article
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Secondary exposure to violence in the community is a prevalent developmental risk with implications for youths’ short- and long-term socioemotional functioning. This study used longitudinal, multilevel data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods to consider how family structure, including parental instability, is associated with youths’ secondary exposure to violence across diverse neighborhood contexts. Results showed that both living in a stable single-parent household and experiencing parental instability were associated with greater secondary exposure to violence compared with living in a stable two-parent household. The associations between having a single parent or experiencing parental instability and secondary exposure to violence were especially strong in neighborhoods with high levels of crime and strong neighborhood ties.
... Several studies have shown that a high SES has a positive effect on the outcomes of school achievements during childhood and adolescence [65][66][67][68]. In contrast, a low SES has a negative influence on teenagers' behaviors (aggression, use of drugs, delinquent behaviors) [69,70]. According to the Yonkers project evaluation, adolescents who live in a low-SES context are more likely to be involved in risky conduct, such as becoming substance users [71]. ...
Article
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Transgressive conduct and opposition towards the rules often characterize adolescence. During the development, antisocial and aggressive behavior could be a way to grow personally and to be independent. According to previous studies results, the family has a high impact on teens' aggressive behaviors and moral disengagement. Our research involved 2328 Italian adolescents (13-19 years old) who have filled in the following questionnaires: deviant behavior questionnaire; aggression questionnaire; family communication scale; moral disengagement scale; the multidimensional scale of perceived social support. Our study investigated the role of family structure on deviance propensity through family climate and anger dysregulation joint influence. We conducted a mediation analysis to reach this goal using structural equation modeling (SEM). We have also conducted a multigroup analysis in order to evaluate gender differences in the SEM. Results showed that both family climate and anger dysregulation mediated the relationship between family structure and deviance propensity. The multigroup analysis revealed that the indirect relationship between variables through family climate is significant for both boys and girls (higher in females); variables indirect relationship through anger dysregulation was significant only for girls. These data could be useful for prevention and intervention programs on children-parent relationships and to reduce antisociality and teenager's aggressive behavior.
... Brooks-Gunn et al., 1993;Leventhal & Brooks-Gunn, 2000;Owens et. al., 2008;Sampson et. al., 1997;Simons et. al., 1996;Yi et. al., 2009) ,近年來則逐漸將範疇擴大至青少年 的正向福祉,而從人格心理學或精神醫學的角度來討論人格特質或偏差性格對青少年 快樂感的影響 (如 Bradford et. al., 2002;Cheng & Furnham, 2002;Crawford, et. al., 2004; Edwards et. al., 2002;Furnham & Cheng, 2000;Mahon& Yarcheski, 2002) ;亦有由家 庭與學校的影響觀點來檢視其間關係者(Chang et. al., 2008) 。 與快樂感相關之因素包括社會文化、經濟發展、個人社經變項、以及社會心理因 素等等,其中以個人健康狀況與快樂感最為息息相關(Argyle, 19 ...
Article
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This study attempts to depict the growth curve of adolescents’ self-rated health and happiness within different periods by using survey data from a panel study--Taiwan Youth Project. Latent growth curve model(LCGM)is employed to examine the trajectories of adolescent self-rated health and happiness while examining the influence of each other at corresponding time point. The result of piecewise LCGM indicated that self-rated health had significantly positive effect on happiness at each time point. Also, the quadratic growth rate of self-rated health was positively associated with that of happiness for the first piece of LGCM. Gender had significant impacts on the initial status and the growth rates of health status but not on those of happiness. Unlike the previous studies that focused on the detrimental outcomes on individual well-being of adolescents, this study shed light on the positive consequences. By using panel data, the non-linear relationship between self-rated health and happiness among adolescents has been revealed. Future research may take into account more time-(in)variant factors to further understand the subjective well-being of adolescents.
... A longitudinal study found that children from census tracts with a higher percentage of residents with less than a high school education had lower reading scores . In addition to effects on educational attainment, community disadvantage is associated with psychological distress and internalizing problems (Leventhal & Brooks-Gunn, 2011;Simons et al., 1996), as well as perceived stress and exposure to stressful life events (Attar et al., 1994;Roosa et al., 2005). Living in a disadvantaged neighborhood may also impart lasting physical health consequences for the developing child (Jutte et al., 2015). ...
Article
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This article examines whether heart rate stress reactivity interacts with neighborhood disadvantage to predict antisocial behavior. Antisocial behavior was assessed in a community sample of 445 males and females ( M age = 11.92 years), using respondent and parent measures of antisocial behavior. Heart rate stress reactivity interacted with neighborhood disadvantage to predict parent-reported antisocial behavior. Specifically, the relationship between neighborhood disadvantage and antisocial behavior was stronger among children with lower heart rate reactivity. This study is the first to find that heart rate stress reactivity interacts with the neighborhood environment to predict antisocial behavior. Findings demonstrate the importance of examining biological factors in conjunction with the broader environmental context to understand the development of antisocial behavior.
... Harsh parenting. Parents' reports of verbally and physically harsh parenting were assessed using a four-item scale [20]; parents responded to this measure when the youth were 16 and 17 years of age. A sample item was, "When [Youth] does something wrong, how often do you blow up at [him/her]?" (1 = never; 5 = always). ...
Article
Purpose: The current study was designed to investigate the unique, long-term effects of family routines during adolescence on multiple developmental domains in young adulthood for rural African-Americans. Methods: Prospective data were collected annually for 6 years from 504 rural African-American youth and their parents, beginning when the youth were 16 years of age. Results: Results indicated that youth whose primary caregivers reported more family routines during adolescence (e.g., regularly eating together as a family, consistent bedtime) reported less alcohol use, greater emotional self-regulation, lower epinephrine levels, and higher rates of college/university enrollment in young adulthood. These effects were evident for all outcomes controlling for socioeconomic risk, sex, and available baseline (age 16 years) measures; for a subset of outcomes, the effects of family routines persisted even after taking into account levels of supportive parenting, harsh parenting, and household chaos. Conclusions: Findings substantiate the benefits of consistent, predictable family environments for healthy development and suggest that family routines constitute an important, yet understudied, factor for adolescents' long-term development.
Thesis
Single mothers’ insurmountable life challenges and stressors may negatively influence the quality of the mother-child relationship and family functioning and may lead to child maltreatment or possibly maternal filicide. A theo-educational-based parenting experience (TPE) intervention may be beneficial in decreasing negative outcomes for the child(ren) that are exposed to the mothers’ high-risk behaviors. However, high-risk single mothers do not engage in spiritual/religious (S/R) processes that will help them navigate through risk contexts to address problematic parenting. This study evaluated the effects of a TPE through a 12-week group parenting session process for high-risk single mothers of children less than 8 years old that focused on enhancing the mothers’ self-awareness, attitudes, thinking, and understanding of their parental role.
Chapter
Equal opportunity and equal rights have long been important parts of this country’s ideological heritage. Support for these ideals, however, was not widespread until the latter part of this century. The modern civil rights and women’s movements emerged in the 1960s, along with the widespread resistance to the Vietnam war. During this same turbulent period community psychology was “officially born.” The Division of Community Psychology was formally organized in 1965 at a conference in Swampscott, Massachusetts. According to Walsh (1987), “the clamor of oppressed U.S. citizens demanding full societal participation” was “a key aspect of the social context for the subdiscipline’s founding” (p. 524)
Chapter
The social environment strongly affects cardiovascular (CV) health during childhood and adolescence (1,2). An extensive scientific literature suggests that family living conditions and social and economic resources influence children’s access to health care, their quality of care, and the development of behavior patterns (e.g., smoking, poor nutrition and weight control, sedentary lifestyle, emotional stress) that increase risk of hypertension (HTN) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Among the known behavioral risk factors, environmentally induced emotional stress responses are perhaps the most provocative and least well understood contributors to CVD (2). Recent research with urban adolescents provides promising insights into psychological mechanisms linking neighborhood environments with chronic stress and elevated blood pressure (BP). New evidence suggests that exposure to neighborhood poverty, disorder, and violence may undermine youths’ social competence and encourage forms of interpersonal behavior that, although responsive to environmental demands, may impair emotion regulation capabilities, undermine social ties, and contribute to persistent CV stress and related illness.
Article
Objective: This study intended to classify subtypes of Korean adolescents with suicidal ideation based on mental health problems and to explore the relationship between such subtypes and individual-, school- and community-level factors. Method: Data from high school freshmen who participated in the 2013 school-based mental health screening test and data about school and community variables obtained from public sources were combined and analyzed. A multilevel latent profile analysis using mental health issues as class indicators that included several predictors was conducted. Results: Three latent profiles were identified: Group 1 (6.5%) had high scores for both the internalizing and externalizing problems; Group 2 (40.2%) had high scores for internalizing problems, such as depression and mood related symptoms; and Group 3 (53.3%) had lower scores for all mental health problems compared to Groups 1 and 2. Gender, peer conflict, family conflict and academic problems were significant predictors at the individual level; school dropout rate was a significant school-level variable; and percent of youth in the total population, availability of mental health services, number of social welfare facilities and percentage of the total budget devoted to education/welfare were significant community-level variables. Conclusion: The present findings suggest that adolescents with suicidal ideation can be classified into several distinct subtypes based on mental health problems. These profiles and their associated covariates will aid in the establishment of youth suicide prevention policies.
Chapter
It is hard to isolate any one factor and assert that it invariably causes deviance/offence by children. It relies on a mix of individual traits, family experiences, school experiences, peer influences and the community where he or she lives. The empirical results and the secondary literature suggest, however, that lack of attachment, a negative environment and wrong role models which children observe and experience in life have an adverse influence on them, contributing to their growth and maturation into unacceptable behaviour. By contrast, if children remain attached to their family, school and community they are less likely to be lured into deviant behaviour. A self-account of the children in conflict with the law has been presented in this chapter, highlighting the factors that pushed and pulled them to deviant behaviors and how they ended up in detention centres.
Article
Associations among neighborhood structure, parenting processes, and the development of externalizing behavior problems were investigated in a longitudinal sample of early adolescents (from age 11 to 13). Mothers' reports of parental monitoring (at age 11), mothers' and youths' reports of the amount of youths' unsupervised time (at age 11), and youths' reports of positive parental involvement (at age 12) were used to predict initial levels (at age 11) and growth rates in youths' externalizing behavior as reported by teachers. Census‐based measures of neighborhood structural disadvantage, residential instability, and concentrated affluence were expected to moderate the effects of parenting processes (e.g., parental monitoring) on externalizing behavior. Hierarchical linear modeling results revealed that less parental monitoring was associated with more externalizing behavior problems at age 11, and more unsupervised time spent out in the community (vs. unsupervised time in any context) and less positive parental involvement were associated with increases in externalizing behavior across time. Furthermore, the decrease in externalizing levels associated with more parental monitoring was significantly more pronounced when youths lived in neighborhoods with more residential instability.
Article
Despite the rapid growth of research on neighborhood influences on children, little of this research may be useful to prevention scientists. Most studies have ignored processes by which neighborhood conditions influence individual outcomes. To encourage neighborhood research that can better guide the development of preventive interventions, we propose a model that focuses attention on mediating and moderating processes, is appropriate for studies interested in individual differences in outcomes, acknowledges the transactions between residents and neighborhoods, and is sensitive to how neighborhood influences may differ for children at different developmental stages. Furthermore, we argue that greater attention to several methodological issues also can make neighborhood research more useful for the next generation of prevention programs to help low‐income urban families and children cope successfully with the challenges posed by their neighborhoods.
Article
Objectives Examine the relationships among structural disadvantage, friendship network age composition, and violent offending by investigating the contextual and individual etiology of affiliating with older friends and exploring the mechanisms that link friendship network age composition to violent offending. Method Hierarchical linear models analyze 8,481 respondents distributed across 1,485 census tracts from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. Social network data are used to construct a measure of the proportion of a respondent’s friendship network that is at least one grade older than the respondent. Results Consistent with hypotheses, structural disadvantage increases affiliations with older friends, older friendship networks report higher levels of violence, and affiliating with older friends increases violence among respondents. Contrary to expectations, the influence of affiliating with older friends on respondent violence decreases, rather than increases, as levels of violence in the friendship network increase. Conclusions The results shed light on the inextricable linkages among social context, friendship network composition, and sociobehavioral outcomes among youth. The findings inform peer mentoring program evaluations observing iatrogenic effects via peer deviancy.
Article
Although there is now a large body of empirical research on neighbourhood effects, we know relatively little about the causal mechanisms responsible for relationships between neighbourhood attributes and individual outcomes. A list of 15 potential causal pathways which may lead to neighbourhood effects is given, grouped into four categories: social-interactive mechanisms, environmental mechanisms, geographical mechanisms, and institutional mechanisms. The ultimate goal of neighbourhood effects research is not only to identify which mechanisms are responsible for neighbourhood effects, but also to quantitatively ascertain their relative contributions to the outcome under investigation. A pharmacological metaphor of dosage-response is used to understand how the theoretical mechanisms could be causally linked to individual outcomes. This metaphor refers to questions regarding the composition and the administration of the neighbourhood dosage, and the neighbourhood dosage-response relationship. This chapter concludes that despite the ever growing literature on neighbourhood effects, there is far too little scholarship to make many claims about which causal links dominate for which outcomes for which people in which national contexts and any conclusions on the existence of such effects should be treated as provisional at best. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. All rights reserved.
Article
Introduction The majority of studies on antisocial behaviour have focused on causes and risk factors. Thanks particularly to prospective longitudinal studies, we now have a pretty good understanding of the characteristics of youngsters who are at risk of becoming serious offenders (e.g., Loeber and Farrington, 1998). Developmental models such as Moffitt’s (1993a) taxonomy of adolescence-limited and life course-persistent antisociality, the distinction between early and late starters (Patterson et al., 1991), or the three pathways model of overt, covert, and authority conflict from Loeber and Hay (1994) offer explanations for the onset, persistence, and aggravation of various forms of antisocial behaviour. Although researchers do not agree about the number and structure of different pathways to serious delinquency (Loeber and Stouthamer-Loeber, 1998; Nagin and Tremblay, 1999), children who show both overt and covert antisocial behaviour and early official delinquency seem to be particularly at risk for chronic offending (Farrington and Loeber, 2001; Patterson et al., 1998). However, most research on persistent antisociality focuses on risks, deficits, and negative behavioural trends. Much less attention is paid to processes of abstaining or desistance (Farrington, 1994; Loeber and Stouthamer-Loeber, 1998; Nagin and Tremblay, 1999). Such processes are no rarity: for example, in the Kauai Study (Werner and Smith, 1992; see below), one out of three high-risk children grew into a competent, confident, and caring young adult. Robins (1978) and Moffitt et al. (1996) have shown that about one half of children with conduct disorders or extreme antisociality did not go on to serious criminal outcomes. © Cambridge University Press 2004 and Cambridge University Press, 2009.
Chapter
From its earliest beginnings, “the reciprocal relationships between individuals and the social systems with which they interact” (Bennett, Anderson, Cooper, Hassol, Klein, & Rosenblum, 1966, p. 7)—the study of persons in ecological context—has been a central theme for community psychology. Much of the thinking in this field has been predicated on the assumption that the behavior of individuals can be better understood when contextual factors are considered, a proposition well explicated by Lewin (1935) and Bronfenbrenner (1979, 1995), but translated into research and action in only limited ways. For at least 75 years ecological context has been silently recognized as an essential dimension for understanding human behavior, but most research in psychology has followed a strategy of studying individual variation with context held constant. descriptive understanding of patterns of relationship and the rules that determine those relationships
Chapter
Several decades of research demonstrate a link between neighborhood residence and human development throughout the life course. This chapter goes beyond enumerating studies that have found such connections between neighborhoods and development; we focus on synthesizing findings from methodologically rigorous research to lay a foundation of what we know about how and why neighborhoods matter for children during the first two decades of life. We begin the chapter with an overview of the history and context of neighborhood research, with special attention to the intersections of research and policy. We next turn our attention to defining the neighborhood context for children. By addressing issues of theory and measurement in neighborhood research, we provide a framework for the third section on approaches to studying neighborhood influences on children's development. The fourth section presents a review of the current state of research in the field, integrating multiple aspects of the neighborhood context and synergies with related contexts and individual characteristics. The fifth section then considers the neighborhood as a unit of intervention. Finally, we offer a dynamic framework for the study of neighborhoods and child development before presenting our conclusions.
Chapter
A central theme of community psychology is the idea that people live in a variety of social settings that influence their well-being. Any explanation of individual behavior without reference to these influential contexts is incomplete and may lead to misdirected efforts at social change. The term “Community Psychology” itself implies a junction of setting (“Community”) and individual (“Psychology”) processes. At the time it was founded, the concept of studying “persons within settings” was advanced as one that was central to the field. Inquiry and action should address social system structures as a means to attaining the goal of prevention of mental health disorders (Bennett et al.,1966, Chapter 5, this volume).
Article
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In the current study, two mediational mechanisms, parenting practices and children's beliefs about aggression, were hypothesized to account for the relationship between perceived neighborhood danger and childhood aggression. Using structural equation modeling, data were analyzed from an inner‐city school‐based sample of 732 predominantly African American 5th graders. Results suggested that perceived neighborhood danger was associated with strong positive beliefs about aggression, which in turn was associated with high levels of aggression. The hypothesized mediating role of parenting practices (restrictive discipline, parental monitoring, and parental involvement) on the relation between perceived neighborhood danger and child aggression was not supported. However, the current findings suggest that children's positive beliefs about aggression mediated the relationship between restrictive discipline and aggression. Directions for future research are discussed.
Conference Paper
This study tested the independent and interactive influences of classroom (concentrations of peer prosocial behaviors and victimization), family (household moves, mothers' education), and school (proportion of students receiving income assistance) ecologies on changes in children's social competence (e.g., interpersonal skills, leadership abilities), emotional problems (e.g., anxious, withdrawn behaviors), and behavioral problems (e.g., disruptiveness, aggressiveness) in first grade. Higher classroom concentrations of prosocial behaviors and victimization predicted increases in social competence, and greater school disadvantage predicted decreases. Multiple household moves and greater school disadvantage predicted increases in behavioral problems. Multiple household moves and low levels of mothers' education predicted increases in emotional problems for children in classrooms with few prosocial behaviors. Greater school disadvantage predicted increases in emotional problems for children in classrooms with low prosocial behaviors and high victimization. Policy implications of these findings are considered.
Chapter
What is exceptional in one culture may not be considered so in another. What is considered “problem” behavior in one context may not be considered so in another. Problems are defined by their context, especially behavior in the psychosocial domain. Our response to exceptional conditions, be they mental retardation or giftedness, is a function of our values and our frames of reference. Exceptionality is a matter of culture and perception (Noblit, Paul, & Schlechty, 1991). Thus, it is important to consider social and cultural perspectives in the study of exceptionality. This chapter provides an overview of the theory and research underlying an understanding of the psychosocial correlates of exceptionality from both a social and a cultural perspective. The topics to be addressed are: the meaning of a social-cultural perspective; the arguments for a social-cultural perspective; peer relationships of exceptional children; the media; and implications for assessment, intervention, and prevention.
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A community-peer model of delinquency shows how family, school, and neighborhood variables affect adolescent peers groups, which then affect the likelihood of juvenile delinquency. The findings on culture and gender presented in the studies in this volume are discussed in relation to this model. Overall, the findings support the community-peer model for males across the various cultural groups. Incarcerated females, however, attributed their delinquency more to family than to peers. Additional research is needed to clarify this difference. Implications for assessment, prevention, and intervention are discussed.
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This article examines the effects of neighborhood, family, and individual characteristics on teenage males' premarital sexual and contraceptive behaviors and on their experiences with pregnancy or fatherhood, using data from the 1988 National Survey of Adolescent Males and the 1980 census. It also systematically compares the effects of related personal and neighborhood traits in multilevel analysis, including employment, income, education, welfare receipt, family composition, and race/ethnicity. Young men who worked more hours were more sexually active and also were more likely to have made someone pregnant. However, higher neighborhood unemployment rates were also independently associated with greater risk of impregnation. Thus, greater financial resources at the personal level may enable teenage males to attract more partners and, therefore, may heighten their risk of impregnating someone, while more limited economic opportunities at the community level may also heighten the risks of paternity.
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This study explores the role of community characteristics in determining two critical features of adolescent nonmarital sexual activity: the timing of first intercourse and contraceptive use at that event We specify a conceptual model describing the mechanisms by which the community context affects adolescent behaviors, focusing on the influence of community social and economic characteristics on teenagers' expectations about their adult lives. We test hypotheses derived from this model using a multilevel strategy incorporating both aggregate- and individual-level data for a national sample of white women. The results suggest that the behaviors of adolescents are shaped by the local opportunity structure and normative environment. Social disintegration, socioeconomic status, and the availability of employment opportunities for women emerged as particularly important influences on young women's reproductive choices.
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In this study, I explore the role of neighborhood characteristics in determining race differences in the nonmarital sexual activity of adolescents. I use individual- and aggregate-level data to examine the association between race differences in the risk of intercourse and selected neighborhood characteristics in a national sample of adolescent women. The impact of neighborhood characteristics on the race difference in sexual activity is posited to be a function of the pervasive racial segregation characterizing housing patterns in the United Stares. The results suggest that the race difference in the risk of first intercourse reflects race differences in access to economic resources and exposure to successful adult role models. The absence of cross-level race interactions indicates that black and white teenage women respond similarly to structural constraints and opportunities.
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The effects of neighborhood characteristics on the development of children and adolescents are estimated, using two data sets, each of which contains information gathered about individual children and the families and neighborhoods in which they reside. There are reasonably powerful neighborhood effects-particularly the effects of the presence of affluent neighbors-on childhood IQ, teenage births, and school-leaving, even after the differences in the socioeconomic characteristics of families are adjusted for. The study finds that white teenagers benefit more from the presence of affluent neighbors than do black teenagers.
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Structural equation modeling was used with a sample of 451 2-parent families to test an elaboration of J. Belsky's (1984) model of the determinants of parental behavior. Results largely support the model. Economic pressure disrupted parenting by increasing depression and undermining access to spouse support. Spouse support had both a direct effect on parenting and an indirect influence through depression. For mothers, spouse support moderated the impact of economic strain on parenting by reducing the disruptive impact of depression on parental behavior. Social network support only influenced parenting indirectly through depression. There was no support for the idea that social network support serves to buffer parental behavior against the adverse consequences of economic strain, nor was there evidence that it can compensate for low spouse support. The findings indicated, however, that spouse support is a more powerful determinant of quality of parenting when social network support is low. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Concurrent and predictive relations among aggression, peer rejection, and self-reported depressive symptoms were examined in 521 third-, fourth-, and fifth-grade children at three time points over 1 year. Increases in aggression were significantly associated with increases in depression, and this relation was mediated, in part, through increases in peer rejection. The relation between peer-reported rejection and depression was mediated by perceived rejection. Finally, we found support for the cognitive diathesis-stress model of depression in children. Controlling for initial levels of depression and peer rejection, the interaction between stress (increases in peer rejection) and a depressogenic attributional style contributed significantly to the prediction of self-reported depressive symptoms 1 year later.
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Differences between 101 popular and unpopular 3rd and 4th graders were assessed by teacher reports, classroom observations, the Peabody Individual Achievement Test, the Children's Depression Inventory, ratings on role-play situations, interviews that elicited information on Ss' knowledge of social skills, and responses to hypothetical situations. Unpopular Ss were perceived as being more depressed and deviant by teachers than were popular Ss. Classroom observations indicated that unpopular Ss spent significantly less time on-task than popular Ss and engaged in significantly more negative interactions. There was a trend for popular Ss to perform at a higher academic level than unpopular Ss, and the latter Ss were more depressed than Ss in the former group. (9 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).
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A sample of 76 white, middle-class couples from a rural midwestern county was used to examine the effects of method variance on models linking family economic pressure, marital quality, and expressions of hostility and warmth. Reports of hostility and warmth were obtained from three sources: self-report, spouse's report, and observer ratings from videotapes of family interactions. Using observer reports of hostility and warmth yielded results consistent with previous literature linking economic pressure to marital quality indirectly through interactional processes such as hostility. When the models were based on information obtained from self-reports or spouses' reports, however, it was difficult empirically to separate the interactional processes of hostility and warmth from the distinct concept of marital quality.
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Research presented here tests hypotheses derived from social control (Hirschi 1969) and strain (Merton 1938, 1957) theories to explain patterns of sexual activity among race- and gender-specific subgroups of adolescents. Using longitudinal data from a nationally representative sample of adolescents aged 11 to 17, several significant findings emerge. Family structure and neighborhood characteristics are found to account for race differences in the sexual activity of females, but not of males. However, race-specific analyses indicate that different factors are relevant for explaining within-group differences. In general, social control variables (e.g., attachment to family, educational aspirations) are found to be significant predictors of sexual activity among white youth while strain variables (e.g., perceived inability to achieve educational goals) account for variation in the sexual behavior of black females. The sexual activity of black male youth was not explained by either social control or strain factors.
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Simplistic either/or notions of "culture versus social structure" have impeded the development of a broader theoretical context from which to examine questions raised by the continuing debate on the "ghetto underclass." In this paper I present a framework that integrates social structural and cultural arguments. I hope elaboration of this framework can move social scientists beyond the narrow confines of the underclass debate in two ways: (1) by outlining empirical and theoretical issues that guide further research, and (2) by suggesting variables that have to be taken into account to arrive at a satisfactory explanation of one of the most important domestic problems in the last quarter of the twentieth century--the rise of social dislocations in inner-city ghettos.
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A model was developed regarding direct and indirect effects of socialization and spousal attitudes upon athe supportive parenting and harsh discipline of husbands and wives. The data used to test the model were collected as part of the first two waves of the Iowa Youth and Families Project, a longitudinal study of 451 two-parent families living in the midwest. As hypothesized, quality of parenting received as a child, satisfaction with the parent-child relationship, education, and various parenting beliefs predicted the parenting practices of both mothers and fathers. Emotional well-being influenced parenting indirectly through its impact upon satisfaction with the parent-child relationship. Also, as expected, wives' parenting beliefs and degree of satisfaction with the child influenced the quality of parenting of their husbands, whereas the reverse was not the case.
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The present study used panel data on 207 divorced women and their children to examine the influence of mothers' parenting practices, involvement of nonresidential fathers, and parental conflict on the adjustment of adolescents living in mother-headed households. In addition, the study investigated the possibility that child adjustment problems may be a cause, as well as a consequence, of parental behavior. Quality of parenting by nonresidential fathers was related to externalizing problems for boys and girls, although the results differed somewhat depending on the source of data used to assess father's parenting. Quality of mother's parenting showed an association with externalizing problems of boys and girls, and was also related to internalizing problems for boys. Parental conflict was associated with internalizing problems for boys but not girls. Finally, adolescent externalizing problems appeared to reduce the quality of mother's parenting for both boys and girls, and to diminish father involvement in parenting in the case of boys.
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The effects of neighborhood and family poverty and other components of socioeconomic status on maternal psychological and behavioral characteristics are estimated using data from an eight-site study of 3-year-olds and their mothers (n = 895). Three measures of the home environment (physical environment, provision of learning experiences, and warmth of the mother) and three maternal characteristics (depression, social support, and coping) were assessed. Neighborhood poverty (proportion of neighbors with incomes less than $10,000) was associated with a poorer home physical environment and with less maternal warmth, controlling for family conditions. The home environment also was adversely affected by family poverty, large household size, female headship, and low maternal education, although the largest effects were evidenced for family poverty. Of the maternal characteristics, social support was adversely affected by family poverty and female headship status, while active coping was positively associated with mother's education.
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A model that incorporates both socioenvironmental and psychological factors was developed in an attempt to explain adolescent suicide ideation. A sample of 407 high school students was used to test the model. Most of the previous research on the causes of adolescent suicidal behavior has not used multivariate data analysis techniques and has failed to explore sex differences. Results of the present study suggest that these are important omissions. Although significant at the zero-order level, factors such as self-esteem and interpersonal problems at school were not related to suicide ideation when the effects of the other explanatory variables were controlled. The incidence of suicide ideation was higher for females. Emotional problems and involvement in delinquent behavior were important predictors of ideation for females, while employment problems were the most potent predictor for males.
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This special issue of SMR is about the analysis of data collected at different levels of observation such cu: groups and individuals within these groups, and about the methodological problems that are present when natural experimentation and observations nested within existing social groups are the object of study. The methodological problems are summarized in the term multilevel problems. A multilevel problem is a problem that inquires into the relationships between a set of variables that are measured at a number of different levels of a hierarchy. This article discusses some traditional approaches to the analysis of multilevel data and their statistical shortcomings. The random coefficient linear model is presented, which resolves many of these problems, and the currently available software is discussed. Next, some more general developments in multilevel modeling are discussed. The authors end with an overview of this special issue.
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The Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory is a widely employed multidimensional measure of aggression. Two studies, each involving the administration of both two-choice and seven-choice response format versions of the instrument, were conducted to determine if (1) the theoretical scales could be reproduced empirically, (2) the change in response format either changes or improves the structure, and (3) the structure of either response format replicates across administrations. The two-choice version provided some support for the present theoretical scoring but was not very stable across administrations. The seven-choice version resulted in a structure that was different from both the two-choice structure and theoretical scoring but was more stable across administrations.
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Why are the social problems of ghettos so bad? This article proposes that ghettos are communities that have experienced epidemics of social problems. One important implication of this theory is that the pattern of neighborhood effects on social problems should be nonlinear in large cities. As neighborhood quality decreases, there should be a sharp increase in the probability that an individual will develop a social problem. The jump should occur somewhere near the bottom of the distribution of neighborhood quality. This hypothesis is tested by analyzing the pattern of neighborhood effects on dropping out and teenage childbearing. The analysis strongly supports the hypothesis, with exceptions for certain subgroups. Even after controlling for individual characteristics, black and white adolescents are exposed to sharp increases in the risk of dropping out and having a child in the worst neighborhoods in large cities.
Article
Renowned American sociologist William Julius Wilson takes a look at the social transformation of inner city ghettos, offering a sharp evaluation of the convergence of race and poverty. Rejecting both conservative and liberal interpretations of life in the inner city, Wilson offers essential information and a number of solutions to policymakers. The Truly Disadvantaged is a wide-ranging examination, looking at the relationship between race, employment, and education from the 1950s onwards, with surprising and provocative findings. This second edition also includes a new afterword from Wilson himself that brings the book up to date and offers fresh insight into its findings. “ The Truly Disadvantaged should spur critical thinking in many quarters about the causes and possible remedies for inner city poverty. As policymakers grapple with the problems of an enlarged underclass they—as well as community leaders and all concerned Americans of all races—would be advised to examine Mr. Wilson's incisive analysis.”—Robert Greenstein, New York Times Book Review
Article
The goal of this study was to observe the development of sociometric status in children's peer groups over time. 48 previously unacquainted second-grade boys were brought together in 6 play groups of 8 boys each. Play groups met under supervision for 1 hour per session for 8 sessions in a single room. Observers recorded the free-play interactive behaviors of each boy using a complex event-recording system developed for the investigation. Video cameras also recorded boys' behaviors for later analysis. At the conclusion of the eighth session of each play group, sociometric interviews were conducted with each boy. Status groups of popular, rejected, neglected, controversial, and average boys were identified according to previously established criteria. The behaviors of these groups were analyzed in an effort to determine the behavioral antecedents of peer status. Boys who became rejected or neglected were those who engaged in inappropriate behaviors. They socially approached peers quite frequently, particularly in early sessions, but were rebuffed at relatively high rates in those approaches. Rejected boys engaged in physical aggression more than any other group. Popular boys refrained from aggression and were received quite positively by the peers whom they approached. Controversial boys engaged in high frequencies of both prosocial and antisocial behaviors. The data thus pointed toward the critical roles of social approach patterns and peer-directed aggression in determining peer status.
Article
Differences between 101 popular and unpopular 3rd and 4th graders were assessed by teacher reports, classroom observations, the Peabody Individual Achievement Test, the Children's Depression Inventory, ratings on role-play situations, interviews that elicited information on Ss' knowledge of social skills, and responses to hypothetical situations. Unpopular Ss were perceived as being more depressed and deviant by teachers than were popular Ss. Classroom observations indicated that unpopular Ss spent significantly less time on-task than popular Ss and engaged in significantly more negative interactions. There was a trend for popular Ss to perform at a higher academic level than unpopular Ss, and the latter Ss were more depressed than Ss in the former group. (9 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This 4-yr longitudinal study of 191 girls and 185 boys living in intact families in the rural Midwest examines the trajectories of life events and depressive symptoms in adolescence. The trajectories of depressive symptoms differ between boys and girls. Compared with boys, girls experienced a greater number of depressive symptoms after age 13. Changes in uncontrollable events are associated with the increases in girls' but not boys' depressive symptoms. Latent growth curve analyses show that, over 4 yrs, (1) depressive symptoms for girls changed according to a curvilinear pattern that is associated with changes in stressful events; (2) the level of depressive symptoms is related to the level of life events for both boys and girls; and (3) change in depressive symptoms is significantly related to change in stressful events only for girls. Girls living with less supportive mothers are more vulnerable to negative life changes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Addresses the centrality of the self-efficacy mechanism (SEM) in human agency. SEM precepts influence thought patterns, actions, and emotional arousal. In causal tests, the higher the level of induced self-efficacy, the higher the performance accomplishments and the lower the emotional arousal. The different lines of research reviewed show that the SEM may have wide explanatory power. Perceived self-efficacy helps to account for such diverse phenomena as changes in coping behavior produced by different modes of influence, level of physiological stress reactions, self-regulation of refractory behavior, resignation and despondency to failure experiences, self-debilitating effects of proxy control and illusory inefficaciousness, achievement strivings, growth of intrinsic interest, and career pursuits. The influential role of perceived collective efficacy in social change and the social conditions conducive to development of collective inefficacy are analyzed. (21/2 p ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved). © 1982 American Psychological Association.
Article
A major task for research on the social costs of economic stress is to trace how macrosocial changes affect increasingly smaller social units and ultimately those microsocial phenomena that directly influence children in their families. In this paper, we specify linkages between macroeconomic change and children's development by tracing deprivational effects through family adaptations in the household economy and in personal relationships. Our findings from research on children and families of the Great Depression are discussed in relation to an interactional model of the process by which families adapt to stressful times.
Article
This paper tests hypotheses concerning differences in the determinants of involvement with the criminal justice system for adolescents who show early versus late onset of delinquency. Four waves of data collected on 177 adolescent boys living in small towns in the midwest were used to test the hypotheses. For late starters, quality of parenting predicted affiliation with deviant peers, which was associated in turn with criminal justice system involvement. Oppositional/defiant behavior was unrelated both to affiliation with deviant peers and to involvement with the criminal justice system. For early starters, on the other hand, quality of parenting predicted oppositional/defiant behavior. This behavior pattern predicted affiliation with deviant peers, which in turn predicted criminal justice system involvement. Further, we found evidence of an interaction effect for early starters: criminal justice system involvement was highest for those youths who both were oppositional/defiant and had deviant friends. Overall the findings support the idea of different routes to criminal behavior and arrest for early versus late starters.
Article
It is well known that high rates of crime and deviance can persist in specific neighborhoods despite repeated, complete turnovers in the composition of their populations. That this occurs suggests that more than “kinds of people” explanations are needed to account for the ecological concentration of deviance—that we also need to develop “kinds of places” explanations. This essay attempts to codify more than a century of ecological research on crime and deviance into an integrated set of 30 propositions and offers these as a first approximation of a theory of deviant places.
Article
After a period of decline in the discipline, the social disorganization model of Shaw and McKay is again beginning to appear in the literature. This paper examines five criticisms of the perspective and discusses recent attempts to address those issues and problems that are still in need of resolution.
Article
We consider 3 questions regarding the effects of economic deprivation on child development. First, how are developmental outcomes in childhood affected by poverty and such poverty correlates as single parenthood, ethnicity, and maternal education? Second, what are the developmental consequences of the duration and timing of family economic deprivation? And, third, what is the comparative influence of economic deprivation at the family and neighborhood level? We investigate these issues with longitudinal data from the Infant Health and Development Program. We find that family income and poverty status are powerful correlates of the cognitive development and behavior of children, even after accounting for other differences—in particular family structure and maternal schooling—between low- and high-income families. While the duration of poverty matters, its timing in early childhood does not. Age-5 IQs are found to be higher in neighborhoods with greater concentrations of affluent neighbors, while the prevalence of low-income neighbors appears to increase the incidence of externalizing behavior problems.
Chapter
Analysis of Ordinal Categorical Data Alan Agresti Statistical Science Now has its first coordinated manual of methods for analyzing ordered categorical data. This book discusses specialized models that, unlike standard methods underlying nominal categorical data, efficiently use the information on ordering. It begins with an introduction to basic descriptive and inferential methods for categorical data, and then gives thorough coverage of the most current developments, such as loglinear and logit models for ordinal data. Special emphasis is placed on interpretation and application of methods and contains an integrated comparison of the available strategies for analyzing ordinal data. This is a case study work with illuminating examples taken from across the wide spectrum of ordinal categorical applications. 1984 (0 471-89055-3) 287 pp. Regression Diagnostics Identifying Influential Data and Sources of Collinearity David A. Belsley, Edwin Kuh and Roy E. Welsch This book provides the practicing statistician and econometrician with new tools for assessing the quality and reliability of regression estimates. Diagnostic techniques are developed that aid in the systematic location of data points that are either unusual or inordinately influential; measure the presence and intensity of collinear relations among the regression data and help to identify the variables involved in each; and pinpoint the estimated coefficients that are potentially most adversely affected. The primary emphasis of these contributions is on diagnostics, but suggestions for remedial action are given and illustrated. 1980 (0 471-05856-4) 292 pp. Applied Regression Analysis Second Edition Norman Draper and Harry Smith Featuring a significant expansion of material reflecting recent advances, here is a complete and up-to-date introduction to the fundamentals of regression analysis, focusing on understanding the latest concepts and applications of these methods. The authors thoroughly explore the fitting and checking of both linear and nonlinear regression models, using small or large data sets and pocket or high-speed computing equipment. Features added to this Second Edition include the practical implications of linear regression; the Durbin-Watson test for serial correlation; families of transformations; inverse, ridge, latent root and robust regression; and nonlinear growth models. Includes many new exercises and worked examples.
Article
Thesis (M.S.)--University of Georgia, 1980. Directed by Rex L. Forehand. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 51-58).