Development of a Hamburger Patty with Healthier Lipid Formulation and Study of its Nutritional, Sensory, and Stability Properties

Food and Bioprocess Technology (Impact Factor: 2.69). 01/2009; 5(1):200-208. DOI: 10.1007/s11947-009-0268-x


A modified beef hamburger patty enriched in polyunsaturated n−3 fatty acids and α-tocopherol was developed using technological procedures. Raw meat was obtained from low-cost parts of
beef carcasses (brisket and flank) to which visible fat and connective tissue was manually eliminated and substituted by a
mixture of pre-emulsified olive, corn, and deodorized fish oil. The developed product was analyzed and compared to conventional
beef hamburger patties for their proximate composition, fatty acid profile, and consumer acceptability. The effects of cooking
on the fat content and fatty acid profile of the developed product were investigated. Additionally, the lipid oxidation and
surface color stability of modified and conventional hamburgers were investigated during 8days of refrigerated storage while
packaged in a modified atmosphere (20%/80% CO2/O2) and subsequently cooking. The developed product showed significantly lower total fat, cholesterol, sodium, and calorie content
than beef hamburger patties manufactured using conventional procedures. In addition, the polyunsaturated fatty acids/saturated
fatty acids and n−6/n−3 ratios matched nutritional recommendations more closely. No evidence of lipid oxidation was found for the modified hamburger
patties during 8-day storage period, and surface color, especially redness, was more stable than in conventional ones. Additionally,
consumer acceptability of the developed patty after it was cooked was acceptable and similar to that of conventional products.
The modified hamburger patty developed by technological methods is viable and can be considered a useful food to preclude
nutritional disorders or to assist in nutritional regimens.

KeywordsHamburger–Patty–Meat product–Beef–Fatty acid–Modified atmosphere–α-Tocopherol–Healthy food

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    • "Liver paste products present some negative health concerns related to their high fat content and relative high amount of saturated fatty acids. Several articles have been published on the reduction of the fat content and/or replacing the animal fat to improve the fatty acid profile (D'Arrigo et al. 2004; Delgado-Pando et al. 2011; Hong et al., 2004a; b; Kaack and Pedersen 2005; Kaack et al. 2006; Martinez et al. 2012; Martin et al. 2008; Morales-Irigoyen et al. 2012). Most of the articles however give only slight attention to the underlying mechanisms of the observed effects. "
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of salt and liver/fat ratio on the viscoelastic characteristics of liver paste and its intermediates (liver batter and liver paste batter) were evaluated by applying dynamic oscillatory tests in order to obtain detailed insight into the structural organisation of those products and how the characteristics of the intermediates are related to those of the end product. Liver paste batters were prepared at liver/fat ratios of 35/35 (w/w) and 20/50 (w/w). Salt was added at 0 and 1.8 % at each ratio. Stress sweeps and frequency sweeps were executed to characterise the viscoelastic properties of liver batter, liver paste batter and liver paste. Both intermediates and liver paste were characterised as weak gel-like emulsions with G′ greater than G″. G′ and G″ of liver paste were higher in magnitude compared with both intermediates due to structure building during pasteurisation and cooling. Generally, the values of the viscoelastic parameters of liver paste batter and liver paste increased with the addition of salt. With salt, a stronger and more stable liver paste was obtained. This effect may be attributed to solubilisation of salt soluble proteins, making more liver proteins available to act as emulsifier. However, salt affected the viscoelastic properties of liver batter in the opposite way: a weaker structure was formed with salt. A higher liver/fat ratio (35/35 versus 20/50) only increased the viscoelastic properties of liver paste batter while liver paste was not affected. This is probably due to the crystallisation of the fat in the liver paste with a high fat/liver ratio, which besides the liver proteins, also aid to structure building of liver paste. However, a higher liver/fat ratio did increase the critical stress (σc) in both liver paste batter and liver paste with the formation of a more stable structure.
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