Article

What Are the Differences between Happiness and Self-Esteem?

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Abstract

The present study investigated theoretically and empirically derived similarities and differences between the constructs of enduring happiness and self-esteem. Participants (N=621), retired employees ages 51–95, completed standardized measures of affect, personality, psychosocial characteristics, physical health, and demographics. The relations between each of the two target variables (happiness and self-esteem) and the full set of remaining variables were assessed through a series of successive statistical analyses: (1) simple Pearson’s correlations, (2) partial correlations, and (3) hierarchical regression analyses. The results revealed that happiness and self-esteem, while highly correlated (r=0.58), presented unique patterns of relations with the other measured variables. The best predictors of happiness were the following: mood and temperamental traits (i.e., extraversion and neuroticism), social relationships (lack of loneliness and satisfaction with friendships), purpose in life, and global life satisfaction. By contrast, self-esteem was best predicted by dispositions related to agency and motivation (i.e., optimism and lack of hopelessness). Implications for the understanding of happiness and self-esteem are discussed.

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... Mental wellbeing refers to a broad concept covering both positive and negative aspects of mental health, such as feelings of depression and being able to cope with these (Maitland et al., 2021). Self-esteem is an evaluative attitude toward the self, indicating self-worth (Luhtanen and Crocker, 1992), and is associated with concepts such as optimism and self-confidence (Rosenberg et al., 1995;Lyubomirsky et al., 2005). Studies have noted both lower mental wellbeing and self-esteem in autistic adults compared to the non-autistic population (Nguyen et al., 2020;Maitland et al., 2021). ...
... We entered control variables into the first step, specifically autistic characteristics (RAADS-14), wellbeing (WEMWBS), gender (female vs. male only, due to small n of non-binary/other genders), and recency and age of diagnosis. We analysed self-esteem and wellbeing as two separate outcome variables: although there is shared variance between these variables, these concepts can be viewed as distinct, with discriminant validity between the two (Robins et al., 2001;Lyubomirsky et al., 2005), and we aimed to understand how identity contributed to each one uniquely. We thus controlled for wellbeing/self-esteem in the regression analysis predicting the other to ensure that variance explained by these interrelated concepts was taken into account in the model. ...
... This study particularly highlights the experiences of autistic people who were diagnosed late, and demonstrates relationships between autistic personal identity, self-esteem, wellbeing, and diagnostic timing. Self-esteem and wellbeing can both be understood as closely related to broader psychological health and functioning (Lyubomirsky et al., 2005). Although the correlational nature of the current study design inhibits the ability to determine causation, our results suggest that exploring potential identity-based support for psychological health should be a priority for future research. ...
Article
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Adults are increasingly seeking autism diagnoses, although less is known about their experiences of diagnosis and personal identity (i.e., autism as part of “me”), and how this relates to self-esteem and wellbeing. One-hundred and fifty-one autistic adults completed an online survey including measures of self-esteem, psychological wellbeing, and autistic personal identity, which considered whether participants took pride in or were dissatisfied with being autistic. Fifty-four participants answered a qualitative question about the impact of receiving an autism diagnosis on their sense of self. Regression analyses found that greater time elapsed since diagnosis related to less dissatisfaction with autistic personal identity. We also found that more dissatisfaction with autistic personal identity predicted lower self-esteem, and more autism pride predicted higher self-esteem. Content analysis of participants’ experiences supported the quantitative findings and was suggestive of an emotive post-diagnostic adjustment process. Future research should aim to identify ways to promote the development of a positive autistic personal identity post-diagnosis in adulthood.
... These personality traits are self-fulfilling, thereby encouraging happy people to experience more positive events and more satisfying relationships, which can promote well-being. (Hill et al., 2014;Lyubomirsky et al., 2006). Therefore, instead of assuming that happiness is just a reflection of innate temperament, it is argued that personality determines people's way of thinking and behaviour about the world. ...
... Lastly, there is an inverse relationship between happiness and strong desire for money. That is, people with strong desire for money are happier than people who do not have such strong desire (Lyubomirsky et al., 2006;Ryan & Deci, 2001). This demonstrates the role of individual aspirations. ...
... As with income, findings from cross-sectional studies often differ from those of longitudinal studies (thus a 'paradox'). Many studies support the existence of connection between happiness and social relationship in forms of friendship, marriage, intimacy, social support and culture (Bartram, 2011;Conzo et al., 2017;Lyubomirsky et al., 2006;Mikulincer & Florian, 1998;Neville, 2017;Ryan & Deci, 2001;Senik, 2014). Social relationship is so important that some scholars have described it as an essential human need for well-being (Baumeister & Leary, 1995) and some others have suggested that an individual with stable, satisfying relationships will enjoy more happiness across the lifespan (Mikulincer & Florian, 1998). ...
Chapter
Happiness as a psychosocial reality has both objective and subjective dimensions. These traits make happiness varied, temporal, yet concrete as individuals and social categories transit from one stage of growth and development to another. Happiness is indispensable for personal and collective survival across relationships and spaces. As such, staying happy is considered beneficial, helpful and worth pursuing by individuals and groups. In the words of Abraham Lincoln, ‘Folks are usually about as happy as they make their minds up to be’. As much as individuals possess the capability to deploy their individual agencies to experience happiness and transit the same at different degrees in their network of relations and circumstances, society shapes and positions her members in diverse ways to conceive and express happiness in different spaces. The intersections between structures and individual agencies is central in sociological theorising and body of knowledge about the human society. Thus, happiness is one among the different emotional and relationship realities that has attracted the attention of a handful of sociologists. This chapter brings to the fore happiness as a sociological phenomenon. The Chapter starts with a conceptualisation of happiness and proceeds with an overview of early contributions from social philosophers and sociologists to our understanding of happiness. Other sections of the Chapter are devoted to the elements of happiness, the objectivity and subjectivity and an overview of empirical evidence on happiness from a biopsychosocial stance. The last section concludes the Chapter and justifies the need for sociologists to pay more attention to the social dynamics of happiness as well as subjective well-being from a life course position.
... For people who feel lonely it may be more difficult to find solutions to their interpersonal problems than for people who do not have those feelings; loneliness might, therefore, negatively affect self-esteem (Horowitz et al., 1982), which in turn is connected to personal well-being (Hewitt, 2009). Lyubomirsky et al. (2006) have found that happiness (a positive affect) and self-esteem (as the overall evaluation of self-worth) are fundamental indicators of positive emotional well-being. Self-esteem, a person's overall evaluation of a sense of worth, is linked to feelings of being competent or worthy alongside other emotions such as pride, triumph, despair and shame (Hewitt, 2009). ...
... Previous research has also shown that social exclusion has a connection with loneliness amongst adolescents, and that it also can be a contributing reason for loneliness later in life (Rönkä et al., 2018). Having satisfying social contacts and being happy increases the experience of positive events which lowers the risk of experiencing loneliness and depressive symptoms (Lyubomirsky et al., 2006). This finding correlates with Baran et al. (2015) who have revealed that a student with high levels of loneliness also has high levels of hopelessness. ...
Article
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Loneliness in adolescents is related to common mental health issues, and as a major global concern it is important to investigate loneliness from their own perspectives. The aim of this study was to explore how adolescents experience and describe negative and positive sides of loneliness. Data was collected through interviews with fifteen young Swedish-speaking Finns. Two main themes and seven subthemes were found. Negative experiences of involuntary loneliness were stressful and paralysing giving rise to physical symptoms, emptiness, anxiety, fear and invisibility. Other negative experiences resulting from involuntary loneliness were shame, self-blame and self-contempt, as well as meaninglessness, hopelessness and exclusion. Positive experiences from self-chosen solitude were freedom, calmness and recovery, creativity and meaningfulness as well as reflection, recharging and personal growth.
... Prior research found that the content of nostalgia often contains self-defining moments and momentous life events characteristic of a redemptive narrative (Abeyta et al., 2015;Hepper et al., 2012). Experiencing nostalgia could enhance people's selfesteem (e.g., Wildschut et al., 2006Wildschut et al., , 2010, which is linked with a sense of mastery and control of one's environment (Lyubomirsky et al., 2006). At the same time, by strengthening feelings of self-esteem, nostalgia enhanced specific growth-oriented behavioral intentions, such as strengthening momentary work effort (Van Dijke et al., 2019). ...
... Although nostalgia enhances both self-esteem and other psychological benefits (including positive affect, meaning in life, social connectedness, and self-continuity), self-esteem plays the only significant mediating role in the effect of nostalgia on the sense of control. This is because that nostalgia contains many self-defining moments and momentous life events (Abeyta et al., 2015;Hepper et al., 2012), which are linked with a sense of mastery and control of one's environment (Lyubomirsky et al., 2006). This finding provides a more complete picture of the positive functions of nostalgia, and future research could focus on whether nostalgia can help us to cope with more threats based on its likelihood of increasing people's sense of control. ...
Article
In the era of technology, smartphone use occupies an important position in our lives. The present research focused on the psychological consequence of frequent smartphone use and possible way to remedy it. We proposed that frequent smartphone use could damage people’s sense of control and in turn trigger nostalgia. Moreover, nostalgia could directly compensate for the low sense of control induced by frequent smartphone use. Five studies ( N = 918) were conducted. Study 1 found through a field study that frequent smartphone use increases nostalgia. Studies 2 and 3 found through 14-day tracking and a laboratory experiment that frequent smartphone use decreased people’s sense of control and then triggered nostalgia. Furthermore, nostalgia could enhance the low sense of control, and it worked by increasing self-esteem (Studies 4 and 5). The findings show the negative impact of frequent smartphone use, and nostalgia is an effective way to remedy it without preventing people from using smartphones.
... Self-esteem helps to increase experiences and achievements which are related to motivation indirectly (Hutz et al., 2014). They were found complementing one another where individuals with higher levels of motivation and enthusiasm to achieve would have predominantly higher experiences gained, which in turn leads to higher levels of self-esteem and happiness (Kamkar et al., 2012;Lyubomirsky et al., 2006). Self-esteem has also been found to be closely associated with optimism and lack of hopelessness which are the constructs under motivation (Kamkar et al., 2012;Lyubomirsky et al., 2006). ...
... They were found complementing one another where individuals with higher levels of motivation and enthusiasm to achieve would have predominantly higher experiences gained, which in turn leads to higher levels of self-esteem and happiness (Kamkar et al., 2012;Lyubomirsky et al., 2006). Self-esteem has also been found to be closely associated with optimism and lack of hopelessness which are the constructs under motivation (Kamkar et al., 2012;Lyubomirsky et al., 2006). Also, youths experience more positive emotions when they have a higher commitment to school, a good level of self-esteem, proper communication skills and the motivation to attain success (Yi et al., 2014). ...
Article
Adolescence is the developmental process of becoming an adult. This journey of physical and psychological maturation is filled with challenges and hormonal chaos, and teenagers experience unhappiness at times. From a psychological perspective, this study aimed to examine the association between motivation, self-esteem and happiness; and to explore the mediating role of motivation in the association between self-esteem and happiness among adolescents in Malaysia. 480 secondary school students were recruited using a multistage cluster sampling method and answered the Malay versions of the Subjective Happiness, Brief Motivation and Rosenberg Self-esteem scales. Both self-esteem and motivation were found positively correlated to happiness. The hypothetical mediating role of motivation on the association between self-esteem and happiness was also supported, indicating that individuals with higher self-esteem have higher motivation which may result in greater happiness. Since the direct association between self-esteem and happiness remained significant, a partial mediation of adolescents’ motivation between self-esteem and happiness is indicated. The results showed that perceived self-esteem plays a role in predicting happiness and the presence of motivation enhances happiness, providing an insight to nurture happier adolescents for parents and educators in Malaysia.
... Among these, consistent evidence points to the protective role played by self-esteem (e.g., Hobfoll and Freedy, 1993;Janssen et al., 1999;Alarcon et al., 2009;Alessandri et al., 2017), defined as a global subjective judgment of personal worth and self-acceptance (Rosenberg, 1965;Marsh and O'Mara, 2008). Individuals with high self-esteem are usually more satisfied with their life and more optimistic, have a clearer self-concept, are more likely to experience positive emotions, and have a high sense of mastery (Lyubomirsky et al., 2006). In addition, they are less vulnerable to anxiety and depression (Lyubomirsky et al., 2006). ...
... Individuals with high self-esteem are usually more satisfied with their life and more optimistic, have a clearer self-concept, are more likely to experience positive emotions, and have a high sense of mastery (Lyubomirsky et al., 2006). In addition, they are less vulnerable to anxiety and depression (Lyubomirsky et al., 2006). In the workplace, self-esteem proved to be a valuable resource, as it was found to be associated with career success, better working conditions and outcomes, better quality of relationships with colleagues, and low levels of exhaustion (e.g., Janssen et al., 1999;Kammeyer-Mueller et al., 2008;Kuster et al., 2013;Orth and Robins, 2013;Perinelli et al., 2021). ...
Article
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Global self-esteem represents a protective personal resource lowering the risk of psychological distress. Research conducted in the work setting has confirmed the psychosocial benefits of high self-esteem. However, research linking self-esteem to neurobiological adaptability appears quite scarce. In this study, we propose a theoretical model in which self-esteem predicts work-related exhaustion indirectly, through the mediation of HRV and negative affect at work. Moreover, we explore the relationship between self-esteem and HRV. From one side, one would expect a positive link between self-esteem and HRV, signaling higher autonomic adaptability. However, recent studies have shown that in women such associations become more complex, with even reversed patterns compared to men. Thus, we included sex as a moderator of the relationship between HRV and self-esteem. The model was tested on a sample of 110 individuals working in the relational professions (54% males; Mage = 42.6, SD = 13.73), followed for an entire workday. Results confirmed the protective role of self-esteem against the experience of negative affect and (indirectly) work-related exhaustion. Symptoms of exhaustion at work were also negatively predicted by HRV, and HRV acted as mediators of the relationship between self-esteem and work-related exhaustion. Notably, sex differences emerged in the association between global self-esteem and cardiac vagal tone at work: in women, self-esteem was negatively related to HRV, which in turn led to higher work-related exhaustion, whereas in men no evidence of this indirect effect appeared. Burnout prevention programs should not ignore important sex differences in how individuals respond to work-related stress.
... Longitudinal studies indicate that the relationship is in the direction of self-esteem to happiness (Baumeister et al., 2003;Lyubomirsky et al., 2006;Margolis and Lyubomirsky, 2018). Researchers have debated whether personal trust has any influence on important life outcomes (Baumeister et al., 2003;Swann et al., 2007Swann et al., , 2008Krueger et al., 2008), yet several studies suggest that strengthened individual self-esteem increases well-being through improved social relationships (Johnson and Galambos, 2014;Marshall et al., 2014;Mund et al., 2015), mental health (Orth et al., 2008(Orth et al., , 2016Sowislo and Orth, 2013;Wouters et al., 2013;Sowislo et al., 2014;Steiger et al., 2014), school and education (Trzesniewski et al., 2006;von Soest et al., 2016), work (Trzesniewski et al., 2006;Orth et al., 2012;Kuster et al., 2013;von Soest et al., 2016), and physical health (Trzesniewski et al., 2006;Orth et al., 2012;Orth and Robins, 2013). ...
... One explanation may be that this previous study examined long-term effects, whereas the current study could only estimate short-term effects. Finally, although a close relationship between high self-esteem and well-being has been reported (Baumeister et al., 2003;Lyubomirsky et al., 2006;Margolis and Lyubomirsky, 2018), the greater relative importance of personal trust, as opposed to the other forms of trust, has not been reported. ...
Article
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Background: In light of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and its large economic consequences, we used a three-layer nested structural model (individual, community, and country), each with a corresponding measure of income, trust, and satisfaction, to assess change in their interrelationships following a global crisis; which, in this study, is the 2008/2009 financial crisis. Methods: With multilevel techniques, we analyzed data from two waves (2006 and 2012) of the European Social Survey (ESS) in 19 countries (weighted N = 73,636) grouped according to their levels of trust. Results: In high trust countries, personal life satisfaction (LS) was not related to personal, community, or national income before or after the crisis. In contrast, in low trust countries, LS was strongly related to all three forms of income, especially after the crisis. In all country groups, personal, social, and political trust moderated their respective effects of income on LS (“the buffer hypothesis”). Political trust moderated the effects of income more strongly in low trust countries. The moderating effect of political trust increased sharply after the crisis. After the crisis, national-level factors (e.g., political trust, national income) increased their importance for LS more than the factors at the local and individual levels. However, the relative importance of all the three forms of income to LS increased after the crisis, to the detriment of trust. Conclusion: Economic crises seem to influence personal LS less in high trust countries compared with low trust countries. Hence, high trust at a national level appears to buffer the negative impact of a financial crisis on personal satisfaction. Overall, the factors at the national level increased their impact during the financial crisis. When facing a global crisis, the actions taken by institutions at the country level may, thus, become even more important than those taken before the crisis.
... However, PSU is unconditional self-esteem in that the individual feels unique, regardless of any other personal characteristics (Koydemir et al., 2020). Lyubomirsky et al. (2006) argued that PSU contributes to the individual's happiness, as self-love is one of the strongest indicators of happiness. Other studies have also offered support for the positive effect of PSU on wellbeing indicators such as hope, happiness, resilience, and basic psychological needs (Koydemir et al., 2013;. ...
... The results indicated that all paths were statistically significant, with the structural model explaining 35.3% of the variance of HH, 53.8% of the variance of EH, 4.7% of the variance of CC, and 7.8% of the variance of IC. The findings provided support for H1and H2, showing that PSU had a significant positive effect on HH (path coefficient = 0.594, p < 0.001) and on EH (path coefficient = 0.733, p < 0.001), reinforcing the findings of previous studies Koydemir et al., 2020;Lyubomirsky et al., 2006;. Support was also found for H3 since the effect of PSU is higher on EH. ...
Article
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The Personal sense of uniqueness (PSU) is positively associated with subjective well-being and has been recently shown its correlation with happiness, influencing consumer's experience behavior. However, the effects of hedonic and eudaimonic experience on conspicuous and inconspicuous (consumer's need for status and inner fulfillment) are unknown. The purpose of this research is to address a gap existing in the literature by testing the effects of PSU on hedonic and eudaimonic leisure experiences and how happiness leisure experiences effects conspicuous and inconspicuous consumption. The relationships hypothesized in the model are tested using partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) and bootstrapping procedure. Data was gathered using a self-administrated survey, answered by 200 consumers based on consumers' leisure experiences. The findings of this study suggest that (i) PSU positively and significantly influence hedonic and eudaimonic happiness; (ii) the effect of PSU on eudaimonic happiness is higher than in hedonic happiness; (iii) eudaimonic happiness positively and significantly influence conspicuous and inconspicuous consumption; and (iv) hedonic happiness negatively and significantly influence conspicuous and inconspicuous consumption. This study helps fill a gap in the literature by introducing and testing the effect of hedonic and eudaimonic leisure experiences and the relationship between these constructs and PSU and (in) conspicuous consumption.
... Following the call to take a multidimensional perspective on life transitions (Wagner et al., 2020), we studied the links between work transitions and two key indicators of psychological adjustment that predict physical and psychological health (Diener, 2009;Orth & Robins, 2014): self-esteem and life satisfaction. These two constructs are correlated (r = 0.58), but also distinct (Lyubomirsky et al., 2006). The distinction between both constructs holds both conceptually (self-esteem is a person's evaluation of their personal value, life satisfaction is a person's overall evaluation of their life) as well as empirically (unique patterns of relations with the other measured variables). ...
Article
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Transitions in and out of work are common experiences with major repercussions for people’s lives. The complex link between work transitions and psychological adjustment is not well understood, however. In this preregistered study, we analyzed 11 waves of longitudinal data from a representative sample of 13,671 Dutch participants to examine the transactional effects between repeated work transitions (employment and unemployment) and psychological adjustment (self-esteem and life satisfaction). We investigated change trajectories before and after the transitions and tested whether event-related characteristics moderated transition effects. Participants with higher levels of self-esteem and life satisfaction were less likely to experience unemployment and more likely to experience employment, indicating selection effects. Participants decreased in their self-esteem and life satisfaction before the beginning of unemployment indicating anticipatory effects, with larger decreases in self-esteem for participants who ended up experiencing longer unemployment. We found no effects of employment on changes in life satisfaction or self-esteem (except when accounting for unemployment), but participants entering more satisfying jobs showed larger increases in life satisfaction. Results were mostly robust when accounting for gender, age, socioeconomic status, and the Big Five traits, and when using propensity-score matching. Effects did not differ among multiple experiences of the same transition. Together, these findings point to dynamic transactions between employment/unemployment and self-esteem/life satisfaction. Findings highlight the importance of closely assessing the specific timing of pre- and post-transition changes and the existence of large individual differences in reactions to work transitions that seem to be partly explained by event-related characteristics.
... Hedonic wellbeing is most frequently assessed via self-report, in which participants report on their affective states (positive and/or negative), their level of satisfaction with life, or both. Self-report measures can be deployed cross-sectionally at a single point in time (e.g., Lyubomirsky et al., 2006) or in experience sampling designs multiple times per day over a period of time (e.g., Csikszentmihalyi and Hunter, 2003). Popular self-report measures of hedonic wellbeing include the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS; Diener et al., 1985), the Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS; Lyubomirsky and Lepper, 1999), the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (Watson et al., 1988), the Scale of Positive and Negative Experience (SPANE; Diener et al., 2009b), and the Affect Intensity Measure (Larsen et al., 1986). ...
Article
What does it mean to be “well” and how might such a state be cultivated? When we speak of wellbeing, it is of ourselves and fellow humans. When it comes to nonhuman animals, consideration turns to welfare. My aim herein is to suggest that theoretical approaches to human wellbeing might be beneficially applied to consideration of animal welfare, and in so doing, introduce new lines of inquiry and practice. I will review current approaches to human wellbeing, adopting a triarchic structure that delineates hedonic wellbeing, eudaimonic wellbeing, and social wellbeing. For each, I present a conceptual definition and a review of how researchers have endeavored to measure the construct. Drawing these three domains of research together, I highlight how these traditionally anthropocentric lines of inquiry might be extended to the question of animal welfare – namely by considering hedonic welfare, eudaimonic welfare, and social welfare as potentially distinguishable and complementary components of the broader construct of animal welfare.
... We should note that self-esteem and well-being are conceptually distinct and differ in their relationships with other variables, yet self-esteem is often found to be moderately to strongly correlated with subjective (Kashdan, 2004;Lyubomirsky et al., 2006) and psychological well-being (Paradise & Kernis, 2002). When combined with other indicators of wellbeing in a factor analysis (e.g., affect balance, optimism, happiness, selfactualization), self-esteem loads along with indicators thought to tap subjective well-being (Compton et al., 1996). ...
Article
We examined whether intragroup helping mediates the relationship between identification with one’s fandom and self-esteem and psychological well-being in three different samples of fans: bronies (fans of the television series My Little Pony: Friendship is Magic), anime fans (fans of Japanese animation and graphic novels), and furries (fans of anthropomorphic art and stories). Fans completed measures of ingroup identification, intragroup helping, and self-esteem (Studies 1 & 2) or psychological well-being (Study 3). Across all studies, the results tended to support intragroup helping as a mediator of the relationship between identification and self-esteem (Studies 1 & 2) and psychological well-being (Study 3). The results highlight a possible mechanism contributing to the benefits of belonging to fan groups and illustrate the possible benefits of helping others within one’s fan group.
... From the first years of life, it is an individual's total personal values that she/he develops with family, peer group, and other people (Beumeiter et al., 2003;Ross, 2014). People with high self-esteem are resistant to depression and anxiety and have more positive values (Lyubomirsky, Tkach, & Dimatteo, 2006). A strong self-esteem has a preventative function against depression (Lee, Dickson, Conley, & Holmbeck, 2014), social exclusion, and similar negative psychological outcomes (Arslan, 2019). ...
Article
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The aim of this study is to examine the mediating role of self-esteem in university students in association with loneliness and psychological and subjective well-being. The study consisted of 340 university students, including 118 males and 222 females. The age range of participants is between 18 and 27. Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Flourishing Scale, Satisfaction with Life Scale and UCLA Loneliness Scale were used in the study. Results of the study showed that loneliness was significantly and negatively associated with self-esteem, psychological well-being, and subjective well-being. Self-esteem was significantly and positively related to psychological well-being and subjective well-being. In this study, compared to male students, female students tended to report greater self-esteem, psychological and subjective well-being while they reported lower loneliness. Mediation analysis revealed that loneliness was a significant and negative predictor of self-esteem, psychological and subjective well-being. Self–esteem partially mediated the association between loneliness and well-being outcomes; and it significantly and positively predicted psychological wellbeing and subjective well-being. In university students, loneliness, and self–esteem, together, accounted for 38% of the variance in psychological well-being, while subjective well-being was 25%. Researchers can conduct new research to investigate the positive aspects of university students, and psychological counsellors working in schools can work towards strengthening the positive aspects of students.
... As for happiness, Frey (2008) makes happiness a product of a fit life that results from long-term satisfaction with life. It can also be said that the sense of happiness is a multidimensional indicator of an unconscious, cognitive, and motivational process that is unique and spatial in how people interpret and judge life (Anic and Toncic, 2013;Lyubomirsky et al., 2006). Happiness is a feeling that has a general relationship with life's pleasure (Sharma and Malhotra, 2010), and those feelings that relate to happiness provide a mechanism for a happy life (Carver, 2003). ...
Article
The aim of this study is to identify and evaluate the indicators of the happy city in affordable housing projects. The Aftab town in Tehran, Iran, has been chosen as a case study. The research method of this study is descriptive analytic. To collect the research data, the field survey method (including the completion of household questionnaires) has been used. T-tests, factor analysis and multivariable regression, were applied in SPSS-22 software for data analysis. The results showed that the status of indicators of a happy city in the Mehr Housing project of Aftab town of Parand is not favourable. Furthermore, the identified indicators of the happy city, respectively, have a priority effect on the happiness of the inhabitants, including the sense of happiness regarding physical and spatial interactions, the local government's support of local residents, the quality of the business environment, the quality of local services, the quality of the artificial and natural environment, the sense of happiness as a result of social and work relationships. According to the results, the most important indicator on the level of happiness for residents in the Mehr housing projects in Parand city is the physical and spatial interactions.
... What is less clear is why higher levels of income promote life satisfaction. Some studies have suggested that higher income increases life satisfaction because it affords people more positive experiences that foster greater positive affect (i.e., greater happiness; see Cohn et al., 2009;Gamble & Gärling, 2012;Lyubomirsky, Tkach, & DiMatteo, 2006). One problem with this reasoning is that the relationship between income and positive affect is much less robust than the relationship between income and life satisfaction (Hudson, Lucas, Donnellan, & Kushlev, 2016;Kahneman & Deaton, 2010;Lindqvist et al., 2020). ...
Article
Although income is an important predictor of life satisfaction, the precise forces that drive this relationship remain unclear. We propose that financial resources afford individuals a path to reducing the distressing impact of everyday hassles, in turn increasing one’s life satisfaction. More specifically, we hypothesize that financial scarcity is associated with greater distress intensity in everyday life. Further, we propose that lower perceived control helps explain why financial scarcity predicts higher distress intensity and lower life satisfaction. We provide evidence for these hypotheses in a 30-day daily diary study (522 participants, 13,733 observations). A second study (N=376) further suggests that, although everyone relies on social support to ease stress, financial scarcity shrinks the sense one can use economic resources to reduce the adverse impact of daily hassles. While money may not necessarily buy happiness, it reduces the intensity of stressors experienced in daily life—and thereby increase life satisfaction.
... According to self-affirmation theory, higher self-esteem acts as a buffer against stressful experiences and failures (Steele, 1988). Self-esteem is a significant antecedent for happiness and is positively associated with feelings of happiness (DeNeve & Cooper, 1998;Lyubomirsky & Lepper, 2006). Positive perspective regarding own self advances happiness and mental health of an individual (Taylor & Brown, 1988). ...
Article
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The present study attempted to determine the level of self-esteem and psychological well-being among Indian college students and examine the gender differences associated with these variables. The study further assessed the relationship between self-esteem and psychological well-being and investigated whether self-esteem is a significant predictor of psychological well-being. Data were collected from 122 Indian college students living in Delhi-NCR region belonging to age group of 18-28 years using purposive sampling technique. Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (RSES) and Psychological General Well-Being Index (PGWBI) were used for measuring self-esteem and psychological well-being respectively. IBM SPSS ver. 20 was used for statistical analysis. The findings revealed that the college students reported moderate level of self-esteem and psychological distress. A significant positive relationship between self-esteem and psychological well-being was determined. No significant differences were found in self-esteem and psychological well-being level of college students based on gender which suggests a significant change in Urban India providing equal opportunities and resources to male and female college students. Further, regression analysis showed that self-esteem significantly predicted psychological well-being. Psychological distress among college students can be dealt by providing counseling in college premises regarding mental health problems and other difficulties experienced by students in their routine lives. Given that the self-esteem is a significant determinant of psychological well-being, healthy self-esteem development is crucial for enhancing positive mental health outcomes among college students.
... Istilah ini lebih dipilih untuk digunakan oleh para ilmuwan. Subjective well-being atau kesejahteraan subjektif merupakan gabungan dari kepuasan hidup dan keseimbangan afek positif serta afek negatif (Lyubomirsky, Tkach, Dimatteo, 2006). ...
Article
Kebahagiaan merupakan salah satu kondisi yang ingin dicapai setiap orang. Berbagai situasi kehidupan seperti sulitnya memenuhi kebutuhan hidup dan tidak harmonisnya relasi sosial kadangkala menghambat pencapaian kebahagiaan. Penelitian ini mengkaji bagaimana gambaran kebahagiaan pada para mustahik yang ada di Pekanbaru. Sampel penelitian berjumlah 180 orang, merupakan para mustahik yang mendapat bantuan dari lembaga amil zakat dan mengikuti program pendampingan/pemberdayaan di 3 lembaga amil zakat. Alat ukur kebahagiaan yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini dimodifikasi dari Oxford Happines Questionnaire (OHQ) yang dikembangkan oleh Argyle, Martin & Crossland. Berdasarkan hasil analisis data ditemukan bahwa kebahagiaan para mustahik berada pada kategori tinggi. Selanjutnya hasil analisis one-way anova menemukan bahwa tidak terdapat perbedaan tingkat kebahagiaan para mustahik berdasarkan jenis bantuan yang diterima. Begitu pula halnya dengan jenis kelamin, usia, dan pekerjaan. Hal ini berarti bahwa para mustahik mempersepsikan kondisi kehidupannya secara positif sehingga mampu menerima dirinya, menunjukkan perasaan senang dan optimis, memiliki harga diri yang baik, serta meyakini kemampuannya dalam menghadapi kehidupannya masing-masing
... Similarly, Chinese health workers engaged in the care of patients with COVID-19 reported feeling proud that they were meeting the task at hand despite challenges . Thus, helping boosts positive perceptions of oneself (e.g., self-esteem), which is related to happiness (Lyubomirsky et al., 2006). Second, Chinese health workers engaged in the care of patients with Fig. 7 The indirect effect of health work (vs. ...
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During the COVID-19 outbreak, many people rose to the occasion by engaging in volunteerism and health work. We conducted two nationwide surveys in the United States (n = 2931) and China (n = 2793) assessing volunteers' and health workers' levels of mental distress and happiness. In spite of data being collected at different phases of the COVID-19 outbreak and across two different cultures, the results converged. Volunteers and health workers reported higher mental distress (e.g., depression, anxiety, somatization) than the comparison group. However, volunteers and health workers also reported more happiness than the comparison group. More importantly, in a follow-up in China (n = 1914) one month later, health workers still reported heightened happiness but were no longer more distressed than the comparison group. The changes in distress were partially mediated by happiness at the first time point, pointing to the potential role of happiness in coping with distress. In sum, the emotional landscape of volunteers and health workers was complicated-they experienced higher distress but also higher happiness than comparison groups. Future research would do well to include longer follow-up periods to examine how experiencing happiness during highly stressful situations predicts mental health over time. Supplementary information: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s40167-021-00100-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
... Participants reporting a higher sense of flourishing are expected to have a higher score on self-efficacy. Higher self-esteem is also linked to higher levels of mastery and self-efficacy [28]. "Self-esteem can be defined as an evaluation of one's self-concept, which is heavily dependent on reflected appraisals, social comparisons, and self-attribution" [29]. ...
Article
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Background: Games for health are increasingly used as (part of) health interventions and more effect research into games for health is being done. This online experiment questions expectancies of games for health by investigating whether a game for health prompt might be considered arousal congruent cognitive reappraisal and as such positively effects self-efficacy before gameplay. Objective: The aim of this study experiment is to test whether a game for health prompt effects self-efficacy and other well-being measurements, as a first step into investigating if a game prompt is a form of arousal congruent cognitive reappraisal. Methods: This study used an online, 2D, between-subjects experimental survey design with self-efficacy as the main dependent variable. Stimulus is an assignment for health-related problem solving concerning living with diabetes type II, introduced as a game (n=125) versus the same assignment introduced as a task (n=107). Measurements after prompting the game/task assignment include self-efficacy, positive and negative affect, expected difficulty, flourishing, and self-esteem. Results: The results indicate a small negative effect from prompting the game assignment on self-efficacy, compared with prompting a task assignment. This effect is mediated by the expected difficulty of the health game/task. No differences between the game and task groups were found in affect, flourishing, or self-esteem. Conclusions: This experiment provides no support for the notion that a game for health prompt might be seen as arousal congruent cognitive reappraisal.
... Participants reporting a higher sense of flourishing are expected to have a higher score on self-efficacy. Higher self-esteem is also linked to higher levels of mastery and self-efficacy [28]. "Self-esteem can be defined as an evaluation of one's self-concept, which is heavily dependent on reflected appraisals, social comparisons, and self-attribution" [29]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Games for health are increasingly used as (part of) health interventions and more effect research into games for health is being done. This online experiment questions expectancies of games for health by investigating whether a game for health prompt might be considered arousal congruent cognitive reappraisal and as such positively effects self-efficacy before gameplay. Objective The aim of this study experiment is to test whether a game for health prompt effects self-efficacy and other well-being measurements, as a first step into investigating if a game prompt is a form of arousal congruent cognitive reappraisal. Methods This study used an online, 2D, between-subjects experimental survey design with self-efficacy as the main dependent variable. Stimulus is an assignment for health-related problem solving concerning living with diabetes type II, introduced as a game (n=125) versus the same assignment introduced as a task (n=107). Measurements after prompting the game/task assignment include self-efficacy, positive and negative affect, expected difficulty, flourishing, and self-esteem. Results The results indicate a small negative effect from prompting the game assignment on self-efficacy, compared with prompting a task assignment. This effect is mediated by the expected difficulty of the health game/task. No differences between the game and task groups were found in affect, flourishing, or self-esteem. Conclusions This experiment provides no support for the notion that a game for health prompt might be seen as arousal congruent cognitive reappraisal.
... Present findings are also aligned with the research work done by Baumeister et al. (2003) which suggested academic achievement to be significant predictor for happiness. Whereas, some studies do suggest that self-esteem not as a valid predictor of happiness (Lyubomirsky et al., 2006) which is similar to the current findings of non-orphan children. Lastly, the present research also confirmed the moderating role of self-esteem between happiness and academic achievement in Table 4. Present result outcomes were also consistent with previous literature as well (Alokan et al., 2014;Hassanzadeh & Mahdinejad, 2013;Quinn & Duckworth, 2007). ...
Article
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The primary purpose of the study was to compare the difference between the level of academic achievement, happiness and self-esteem among orphan and non-orphan children based on their gender and institution in Pakistani cultural context. Additionally, to assess whether self-esteem, observed to be lower in orphan children, acts as a moderator between their academic achievement and happiness. A cross-sectional quantitative method was used in the present study using Children Happiness Scale and Rosenberg Self-esteem scale to measure happiness and self-esteem. Whereas, students last year’s final exam results were used to measure academic achievement. The sample for the present study comprised 1000 participants (boys = 515, girls = 485) with age ranged between 10 and 14 years. Combined sample consisted of four equal groups (each of n = 250) including non-orphans in private schools; non-orphans in government schools; orphans in private orphanages and orphans in government orphanages for comparative analysis. The results yielded significant difference among orphans and non-orphan children based on gender (F (3,990) = 14.6, p < .005, Wilk’s ƛ = .958, ηp² = .042) and institutions (F (9,2409) = 788.617, p < .005, Wilk’s ƛ = .035, ηp² = .672). The findings also suggested that both academic achievement (β = .159) and self-esteem (β = .715) significantly predict happiness. Self-esteem displayed a significant moderating role (F (3,996) =11.681, p = .00, B = .033, R² = .495) in the relationship between academic achievement and happiness. The research was successful in its endeavour to explore the relationship between study variables and can be used in devising policies which can focus to work on increasing the quality of education for orphan children providing them the chance to be on par with non-orphan children and achieve a similar level of happiness.
... (Hwang et al., 2016;Luthans et al., 2007a;Skaalvik & Skaalvik, 2017). In contrast to hopeful individuals, optimistic people associate more with constructive actions which toughens their self-esteem and morale (Lyubomirsky et al., 2006). They are more likely to give-in or give-up which suggests that they display positive tendencies in difficult situations, thus, increasing their level of job satisfaction (Mishra et al., 2016b). ...
Article
The goal of this research is to figure out the moderating act of ethical leadership on the effects of job satisfaction and psychological capital of employees. The Hotel industry in Northern Cyprus has been preferred with this respect. The study was conducted within the appropriate literature. Research-oriented data collection tools designed and used in accordance with the purposes of the research, research questions and hypotheses are surveyed. The findings of the study revealed the moderating role of ethical leadership (EL) on psychological capital (PsyCap) and job satisfaction (JS). It was also found that the participants were on the idea of working under equal conditions adopted via ethical leadership factors. The current study is a new era for the developmental issues of hospitality in terms of management and it is hoped that it will yield basic basements for further studies.
... Kepuasan pertemanan mengacu pada persepsi seseorang tentang kualitas keseluruhan atau hubungan dengan teman ( Anak-anak yang berhasil dalam hubungan sosial dengan teman sebayanya memiliki tingkat kepuasan hidup yang tinggi (Proctor et al., 2010). Perasaan positif kedekatan dan kepuasan diantara pertemanan penting untuk kebahagiaan pribadi (Lyubomirsky et al., 2006). Hubungan sebaya memainkan peranan penting dalam perkembangan anak dan sosialisasi serta dapat berdampak baik maupun buruk bagi kesejahteraan (Vitaro et al., 2009) seperti hubungan yang menyenangkan diantaranya mengobrol dan bermain bersama dengan teman sebaya menimbulkan afek positif, dan jika hubungan pertemanan yang didapat tidak menyenangkan seperti perundungan berdampak afek negatif terhadap SWB (Huebner et al., 2004). ...
Conference Paper
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The study was to compare friendship and subjective well being (SWB) to the youth orphanage in Bandung before and during the Covid-19 pandemic. In 2020's early pandemic study, there has been a significant impact between friendship satisfaction and SWB. Today in Indonesia during the Covid-19 pandemic that affectd everyone, including foster children, all the children who lived in the orphnage had little chance of interaction with other friends. The study was longitudinal research so the population and samples that ware used ware similar sampels to previous year's research. The participants (N= 97% girl's 60,8% and boy's 39.2%). Data retrieval is being conducted using a cluster random sampling technique. The study used measuring (CW-SWBS) and friendship satisfaction. Database fuling is using questionnaires. The data was analysed using compare means analysis. The results of the study have shown no significant difference in the charitabl and social discontent of before and at this time of the Covid-19 pandemic, meaning that the continuous Covid-19 doesn't affect the teenager children of orphanages in Bandung. Abstrak-Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk membandingkan kepuasan pertemanan dan subjective well being (SWB) pada anak remaja panti asuhan di Bandung pada sebelum dan saat masa pandemi covid-19. Pada penelitian tahun 2020 sebelum masa pandemi menunjukan terdapat pengaruh signifikan antara kepuasan pertemanan terhadap swb. Sekarang di Indonesia terjadi masa pandemi covid-19 yang berdampak terhadap semua orang termasuk anak remaja panti asuhan, seluruh anak remaja yang tinggal didalam panti asuhan menjadi kurang memiliki kesempatan berinteraksi dengan teman-teman yang lainnya. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian longitudinal sehingga populasi dan sampel yang digunakan merupakan sampel yang sama dengan penelitian tahun sebelumnya. Partisipan penelitian ini (N = 97; perempuan 60.8% dan laki-laki 39.2%). Pengambilan data dilakukan mengunakan teknik cluster random sampling. Penelitian ini menggunakan alat ukur subjective well being(CW-SWBS) dan kepuasan pertemanan. Pengambilan data menggunakan kuisioner. Data dianalisis menggunakan analisis compare means. Hasil penelitian menunjukan tidak ada perbedaan siginifikan kepuasan pertemanan dan SWB pada sebelum dan saat masa pandemi covid-19 artinya bahwa masa pandemic covid-19 yang sedang terjadi sekarang tidak berpengaruh terhadap anak remaja panti asuhan di kota Bandung. Kata Kunci-Kepuasan Pertemanan , Panti Asuhan , Remaja , Subjective well being. PENDAHULUAN Coronavirus adalah kelompok virus yang dapat menyebabkan penyakit pada hewan dan manusia. Terdapat beberapa jenis coronavirus dapat menyebabkan infeksi pada saluran nafas manusia seperti batuk pilek hingga Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) dan Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS). Coronavirus ditemukan menyebabkan penyakit covid-19. covid-19 adalah penyakit menular yang disebabkan oleh jenis coronavirus. Virus baru dan penyakit yang disebabkannya ini mulai ditemukan di Wuhan, Tiongkok, bulan Desember 2019. Covid-19 sekarang menjadi sebuah pandemi yang terjadi di seluruh dunia (WHO, 2020). Dampak dari covid-19 dirasakan oleh semua orang, termasuk pada anak remaja panti asuhan. Sebeleum terjadi pandemi covid-19 anak remaja panti asuhan banyak menghabiskan waktu diluar lingkungan panti asuhan dengan teman-temannya. Namun, ketika pandemi covid-19 terjadi anak remaja panti asuhan banyak menghabiskan waktu didalam lingkungan panti asuhan, sehingga jarang berinteraksi dengan teman-teman yang lainnya. Panti sosial asuhan adalah suatu lembaga usaha kesejahteraan sosial untuk anak terlantar dengan memberi pelayanan untuk menngganti orang tua atau keluarga anak yang bertanggung jawab untuk memenuhi kebutuhan fisik, mental, dan social, serta memberikan kesempatan untuk pengembangan kepribadiannya sesuai dengan yang diharapkan sebagai bagian dari generasi penerus cita-cita bangsa (Depatemen sosial RI, 2004:4). Anak yang tinggal dipanti asuhan banyak yang sudah tidak memiliki keluarga baik kehilangan ibu, ayah atau keduanya. Dijelaskan dalam (Q.S Al Maun 1-7) bahwa orang orang yang mendustakan agama adalah orang-orang yang menghardik anak yatim, bersikap sewenang-wenang terhadap anak yatim dan tidak memberi makan kepada anak yatim. Maka dari itu kita dianjurkan untuk bisa memberikan pertolongan, bantuan dan memuliakan anak anak yatim.
... Following the call to take a multidimensional perspective on life transitions (Wagner et al., 2020), we studied the links between work transitions and two key indicators of psychological adjustment that predict physical and psychological health (Diener, 2009;Orth & Robins, 2014): self-esteem and life satisfaction. These two constructs are correlated (r = 0.58), but also distinct (Lyubomirsky et al., 2006). The distinction between both constructs holds both conceptually (self-esteem is a person's evaluation of their personal value, life satisfaction is a person's overall evaluation of their life) as well as empirically (unique patterns of relations with the other measured variables). ...
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Transitions in and out of work are common experiences with major repercussions for people's lives. The complex link between work transitions and psychological adjustment is not well understood, however. In this preregistered study, we analyzed 11 waves of longitudinal data from a representative sample of 13,671 Dutch participants to examine the transactional effects between repeated work transitions (employment and unemployment) and psychological adjustment (self-esteem and life satisfaction). We investigated change trajectories before and after the transitions and tested whether event-related characteristics moderated transition effects. Participants with higher levels of self-esteem and life satisfaction were less likely to experience unemployment and more likely to experience employment, indicating selection effects. Participants decreased in their self-esteem and life satisfaction before the beginning of unemployment indicating anticipatory effects, with larger decreases in self-esteem for participants who ended up experiencing longer unemployment. We found no effects of employment on changes in life satisfaction or self-esteem (except when accounting for unemployment), but participants entering more satisfying jobs showed larger increases in life satisfaction. Results were mostly robust when accounting for gender, age, socioeconomic status, and the Big Five traits, and when using propensity-score matching. Effects did not differ among multiple experiences of the same transition. Together, these findings point to dynamic transactions between employment/unemployment and self-esteem/life satisfaction. Findings highlight the importance of closely assessing the specific timing of pre- and posttransition changes and the existence of large individual differences in reactions to work transitions that seem to be partly explained by event-related characteristics. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).
... It also influences physical and mental health outcomes (Kessler et al., 2003). Furthermore, It also helps enhance individuals' adaptability and knowledge (Sutcliffe & Vogus, 2003), skills and style of attachment (Bonanno et al., 2002), and self-esteem (Dutton & Brown, 1997;Lyubomirsky et al., 2006), which helps individuals achieve their targets (i.e. project success) (Mitroff, 2005). ...
Article
The psychological distress of the employees is a global issue that affects project success in many organizations. Based on the conservation of resources theory, our study highlights the importance of employees’ psychological resources, specifically resilience and mindfulness, to mitigate the detrimental effects of psychological distress on project success. Using purposive sampling, data were collected from 336 respondents working in various project-based organizations of Pakistan. Our findings suggest that employees’ resilience and mindfulness act as buffers against the negative impact of psychological distress on project success. Therefore, the current study proposed directions to minimize psychological distress among project employees and ultimately bring attention to the successful completion of the project. Theoretical and practical implications of the study are also discussed.
... The tested model manifests the role of self-esteem as a personality trait that reflects the subject's potential to be productive and positive in their professional life (Lyubomirsky et al., 2006), an assumption consistent with the view that self-esteem is formed at an early stage of personality development (Cvencek et al., 2016), with continuous development across childhood (Cimpian et al., 2017). A secondary purpose of the tested path model is to quantify the effects of age and urban area on self-esteem, burnout and depression. ...
Article
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The aim of this cross-sectional study is to investigate the effect of self-esteem on burnout symptoms and depression, using a path analysis approach. A total of 396 Greek police officers, 145 female and 251 male, with a mean age of 37.7 years, participated in the study. The questionnaire included: (a) social–demographic characteristics, (b) Rosenberg's self-esteem scale, (c) Zung's depression scale, and (d) Maslach's burnout scale. Analysis of variance was applied to find whether the demographic variables of gender, age and urban/rural location had a significant effect on the examined psychometric scales. A path model was then tested, aiming to quantify the direct and indirect effects of age, working location and self-esteem on depression and burnout symptoms. Emotional exhaustion and personal accomplishment scores were found to have a direct effect on depression and completely explained the effect of urban area on depression. Self-esteem was found to be a significant regressor on depression and the three burnout subscales, while older and more experienced officers had significantly lower burnout symptoms. The findings of the study confirm the protective role of self-esteem. The findings also confirmed that police officers working in an urban environment are at a greater risk of developing burnout and depression symptoms, while the depressed feelings of police officers in an urban area are completely explained by increased feelings of burnout. The ability of police officers to counteract the psycho-emotional pressure of their profession as they age in service is demonstrated. The need for initiatives aiming to support young officers and police personnel working in large cities is indicated.
... Decades of research on self-esteem has revealed support for the idea that it is beneficial for one's affective well-being (e.g., Lyubomirsky et al., 2006). While some theories posit that self-esteem is directly beneficial for affective well-being, others suggest that selfesteem serves as a protective factor, buffering against the negative emotions evoked by stressors. ...
Article
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Research suggests that self-esteem could be a protective factor in stressful or unfavorable situations. However, little research has been done on the buffering role of self-esteem in the context of daily stressors on affective reactivity. Three daily diary studies (of which two were conducted in Singapore and one in the United States) were carried out to examine this relationship. In all three studies, trait self-esteem was measured at baseline. Subsequently, daily assessment was conducted on exposure to daily stressors, and positive and negative affect for seven to eight days. Multilevel modeling showed that trait self-esteem did not moderate the relationship between daily stressor exposure and daily affect. An internal meta-analysis aggregating the findings of all three studies was also consistent with our findings. These findings are contrary to previous literature surrounding the stress-buffering role of self-esteem.
... Existe evidencia de que para las personas LGB, la familia puede ser una fuente de discriminación y prejuicio, más que de apoyo (Red Nacional de Oficinas de Diversidad, Inclusión y No Discriminación, 2020; Universidad Alberto Hurtado, 2020). Estudios sobre el apoyo social de amistades, por otro lado, sugieren que estas tienen una importante influencia en el bienestar subjetivo de las personas, sin importar la orientación sexual y de la edad de las personas (Lyubomirsky et al., 2006); y que los pares son la fuente de apoyo más inmediata en el día a día, tanto para personas heterosexuales como LGB (Frost et al., 2016). ...
Article
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Objetivo. Examinar las relaciones entre el apoyo social percibido, actitudes hacia la sexualidad y satisfacción vital entre estudiantes universitarios heterosexuales y lesbianas, gay y bisexuales (LGB), en Temuco, Chile. Método. Muestra no probabilística de 281 estudiantes universitarios (70.8% heterosexual, 29.2% LGB), quienes respondieron un cuestionario en línea. Resultados. No hubo diferencias según orientación sexual en las actitudes hacia la sexualidad y la satisfacción vital. Estudiantes heterosexuales reportaron mayor apoyo social general y por parte de la familia y otros significativos que estudiantes LGB; ambos grupos reportaron igual apoyo de sus amistades. Únicamente, el apoyo social fue predictor de satisfacción vital. Estos resultados resaltan la importancia de fortalecer fuentes de apoyo para contribuir al bienestar de estudiantes de distintas orientaciones sexuales.
... Secara sekilas, self-esteem yang tinggi tampaknya membawa banyak keuntungan. Self-esteem yang positif terkait dengan kepuasan hidup, kebahagiaan, dan dukungan sosial (Diener & Diener, 1995;Diener & Seligman, 2002;Lyubomirsky et al., 2006). Individu dengan self-esteem yang rendah cenderung menderita gejala depresi dan seringkali tidak memiliki strategi mengatasi yang efisien untuk mengelola situasi stres (Baumeister et al., 2003). ...
Thesis
Media sosial sudah menjadi kebutuhan primer bagi Generasi Milenial dan Generasi Z di Indonesia. Intesitas penggunaan media sosial pada kedua generasi ini mengasumsikan bahwa Generasi Milenial dan Z di Indonesia memiliki Conspicuous Consumption pada gaya hidupnya, salah satu bentuk Conspicuous Consumption adalah pembelian barang mewah. Melihat trend Platform media sosial yang saat ini digandrungi Generasi Milenial dan Z adalah Youtube. Penelitian yang dilakukan ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh Conspicuous Online Consumption yang diukur melalui beberapa variabel seperti Social Media Usage, Self-Image Congruity, dan Self-Esteem. Penelitian dengan metode kuantitatif dengan jenis Penelitian Deskriptif dipergunakan dalam penelitian ini. Generasi Milenial atau Z yang memiliki akun Youtube dan pernah membeli barang mewah yang tidak diketahui jumlahnya menjadi Populasi dalam penelitian ini. Sampel dalam penelitian ini secara keseluruhan berjumlah 420 responden dengan proporsi 210 sampel per generasi. Nonprobability sampling dan dan teknik convenience sampling menggunakan rumus Maximum likelihood menjadi metode sampling. Analisis data yang digunakan menggunakan PLS- SEM. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa 4 dari hipotesis yang dibangun didukung dan satu ditolak. Temuan dari penelitian ini menunjukan Social media Usage berpengaruh positif dan signifikan terhadap Self-Image Generasi Milenial dan Z di Indonesia, Social Media juga secara positif dan signifikan berpengaruh terhadap Conspicuous Online Consumption, Self-Image secara positif dan signifikan berpengaruh pada Conspicuous Online Consumption pada Generasi Milenial dan Z di Indonesia, Dari pengaruh mediasi ditemukan bahwa Self-Image Congruity memediasi hubungan Social Media Usage terhadap Conspicuous Online Consumption dengan signifikan. Terakhir, dari pengaruh moderasi, Self-Esteem gagal dalam memoderasi hubungan Social Media Usage terhadap Conspicuous Online Consumption.
... (Hwang et al., 2016;Luthans, et al., 2007b;Skaalvik & Skaalvik, 2017). In contrast to hopeful individuals, optimistic people associate more with constructive actions which toughens their self-esteem and morale(Lyubomirsky et al., 2006). They are more likely to give-in or give-up suggesting that they display positive tendencies in difficult situations. ...
Article
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Maintaining an effective workflow is crucial to obtain a mediating role among various concepts to boost the efficacy and performances of the employees in a workplace. The current study aims to investigate the effects of the psychological capital on the high-performance system and the job satisfaction levels of migrant employees in the hotel industry of Northern Cyprus. As objectives, the role of psychological capital in high-performance system and the job satisfaction levels of immigrant /migrant employees, and interactive manners among psychological capital, high-performance system, and the job satisfaction are considered. The setting of the current study is North Cyprus, a small, unrecognized island with a tremendously developed tourism and hospitality industry flourishing in the last decade. Regarding the methodology, the quantitative approach was adopted, and the convenience sampling method was chosen to get the facts and relations about PsyCap, JS and HPWS among immigrant employees at the hotels of North Cyprus. The data collection tools were questionnaires comprised of three parts, including different items adopted from well-known sources, and there were 400 migrant employees at 18 hotels in North Cyprus. The analysis was conducted via IBM statics covering SPSS and AMOS and included descriptive, factor, and statistical regression analyses. The results reveal that psychological capital has a mediating role between high-performance work systems and job satisfaction of migrant employees in the hotel sector of North Cyprus. Furthermore, the results highlighted the positive impact of psychological capital as almost all of the respondents were more eager to work under equal conditions brought by psychological capital factors. It is hoped that this study will posit influential data for obtaining efficient manners in workplaces and holds a sample for further academic studies.
... The attention in the topic of happiness has been present in every culture (Lyubomirsky, 2006) and recently, this interest has grown considerably. According to the World Health Organization health is a state that involves mental wellbeing (along with physical and social) that can be promoted by happiness. ...
Conference Paper
The Several studies have shown that happy individuals are successful across multiple life domains including friendship, income, marriage, work performance, and health. This paper explores factors in determining happiness among university students. Some of the variables or factors that have correlation with increasing the happiness of the university students are discussed in this paper. It is important to notice these factors, since, if we identify them, we will be able to deal with the improvement of happiness using accurate planning.The results can be used by students themselves and as a starting point for university policies which aim to raise the level of happiness among students. KEYWORDS: happiness, university students, education, factors
... Tout d'abord, un·e travailleur·se heureux·se semble être un·e travailleur·se productif·ve. Nombre d'études ont en effet mis en évidence le lien entre les états affectifs positifs et différents indicateurs de performance et de fonctionnement optimal au travail, notamment la coopération et les comportements prosociaux, la créativité et la résolution de problèmes ou encore la santé et l'ajustement au stress (voir par exemple Lyubomirsky, Tkach, & DiMatteo, 2005 ;Roberts, Caspi, & Moffitt, 2003). ...
Book
La formation professionnelle remplit divers objectifs selon les contextes nationaux, les périodes historiques ou encore les publics considérés: former à un métier, insérer sur le marché du travail, inclure les plus fragiles ou encore permettre la poursuite vers les études supérieures. Cet ouvrage, destiné tant à des chercheur·e·s qu’à des acteurs et actrices de terrain, met en exergue les attentes formulées à l’égard de la formation professionnelle et les lignes de tension qui la traverse. S’inscrivant dans des contextes historiques et nationaux variés (France, Espagne, Suisse), les différents chapitres réunis proposent des regards croisés et interdisciplinaires sur cette filière de formation, souvent considérée comme le «parent pauvre» de la recherche. Ils livrent une analyse des enjeux politiques et économiques de la formation professionnelle et portent une attention particulière aux parcours de formation, aux rapports à l’emploi et à l’insertion, mais aussi aux usages que font les acteurs et les actrices de cette voie professionnelle et de ses diplômes. https://www.antipodes.ch/telechargement-des-produits/?url=https://www.antipodes.ch/wp-content/uploads/2021/10/kuehni-lamamra-rey_finalites-et-usages-de-la-formation-professionnelle_978-2-88901-196-4_10.33056-ANTIPODES.11964.pdf&reference=7913
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BACKGROUND: Happiness as a measure of well-being has been gaining importance in the last decade. However, the modern world imposes more and more demands on individuals, promoting high levels of anxiety, depression and stress, which in turn can negatively influence happiness. AIM: To identify the levels of happiness, anxiety, depression and stress of teachers, non-teaching staff and students of higher education; to identify relationships between happiness and anxiety, depression and stress. METHODS: Cross-sectional, descriptive, correlational and inferential study. Sample of 732 individuals from polytechnic institutes: 189 teachers; 121 non-teaching staff; and 422 students. An online questionnaire was used, with socio-professional questions, one part with the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire, and the third with the Anxiety, Depression and Stress Scale. RESULTS: It was verified that the students are those with lower levels of happiness and higher levels of Anxiety, Depression and Stress. The group with the highest levels of happiness is the group of teachers (M = 4.26, SD = .663), as well as in terms of Anxiety (M = 2.56, SD = 3.022), Depression (M = 3.32, SD = Stress (M = 5.94, SD = 4.109). There were statistically significant differences for happiness among several of the groups and low to moderate negative correlations between the level of happiness and the dimensions of mental health under study. CONCLUSIONS: There was a relationship between levels of anxiety, depression and stress and the level of happiness. We propose that this study should be deepened to identify the possible causes that cause the low level of happiness and the high levels of anxiety, depression and stress of the students.
Article
This aim of the study is to examine the varying functions of basic needs satisfaction in predicting happiness, self-esteem, and creative personality among university students using a choice theory-based perspective. A sample of 1100 university students completed self-report scales of happiness, self- esteem, creative personality, and University Students’ Basic Needs Scale. Multiple regression analysis revealed that satisfying the need for survival, freedom, fun or entertainment, love and belonging, contribute to self-esteem and happiness among university students. Furthermore, satisfying the need for freedom, power, entertainment, love and belonging, contribute to creative personality. The findings provided supportive evidence for the major hypothesis of the choice theory, demonstrating that happiness increases as the satisfaction of basic needs increases. Furthermore, the basic needs satisfaction contributes to self-esteem and creative personality.
Article
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The main objective of the study is to examine the effects of population density on individuals’ subjective well-being (SWB). The physical characteristics of the built environment have recently received more attention regarding their role in influencing well-being. The research is based on two waves of a representative survey EU-SILC (2013: N = 12,791 and 2018: N = 14,665). The study focuses on the emotional domain of SWB and uses a score based on the Mental Health Inventory (MHI-5). In order to remove the potential problem of reverse causality, a two-stage least squares regression model with instrumental variables is used. It shows that population density positively affects the SWB score. The results reported in this study can be useful for urban planning aimed at optimizing spatial structure while taking into account the factors which positively affect subjective well-being. The findings can also be beneficial for assessing the resilience and vulnerability of cities.
Article
The subject of the study of this article is the characteristic of physiological indicators and individual personality characteristics of students under exam stress. The main role in stress resistance is played by individual psychological characteristics of the individual and a number of vital physiological indicators, indicators of functional state. The aim of the study was to compare students in different functional states according to the Robinson index, according to the ratio of individual-personal characteristics and physiological indicators during examination stress. As psychological indicators, character traits identified through the questionnaire "Standardized multifactorial method of personality research" (SMIL – L. N. Sobchik) were taken, and the methodology "Determining the level of anxiety" (Ch. D. Spielberg, Y. L. Khanin) was also taken. The Robinson Index and omega potential are used as physiological indicators. The analysis of averages and correlation analysis were carried out. The study involved 100 students aged 18-22 years. According to the Robinson Index, an integral objective indicator of the severity of psychoemotional stress, two groups were obtained: the first group – without stress and the second group – with moderate stress. The following conclusions were obtained. Two groups of students with different types of reaction to exam stress were identified. The students of the first group had normative indicators of the processes of cardioregulation and super-slow physiological processes of the brain. The students of the second group showed an increase in the processes of cardioregulation and super-slow physiological processes of the brain. A comparative analysis of the profile obtained by SMIL showed that in the first stress-free group, the indicators are in the relative norm corridor. The second group with moderate stress has an increased profile with the main motivational focus on avoiding failure and impulsivity. Different interrelations of psychological and physiological indicators were also obtained for each of the groups we identified.
Book
This book addresses the sustainability of happiness and well-being in Chinese societies. It starts by introducing the various conceptions of well-being, particularly in the Chinese sociocultural context. The book then proceeds with the examination of the sustainability of well-being by scrutinizing the effects of sociocultural, contextual, and personal factors on well-being. The contextual factors are the aggregates or averages of personal factors at the contextual levels of the regions and colleges in Mainland China, its special administrative region, and Taiwan. These factors cover personality traits, strengths, orientations, beliefs, values, and idolizing. By bringing together empirical studies and theoretical perspectives applied to Chinese societies, this book offers researchers in social science and humanities a valuable reference work on happiness and well-being in Chinese societies.
Article
پژوهش حاضر با هدف بررسی رابطه خوش‌بینی، عزت نفس و رضایت از زندگی با شادکامی انجام شد. طرح پژوهش، توصیفی و از نوع همبستگی بود. بدین منظور 356 نفر از جامعه طلاب و دانشجویان شهر قم در سال تحصیلی 1397-1396 به روش نمونه‌گیری در دسترس انتخاب و به پرسش‌نامه‌های خوش‌بینی نوری، عزت نفس روزنبرگ(RSES)، رضایت از زندگی داینر(SWLS) و شادکامی آکسفورد(OHI) پاسخ دادند. در تحلیل داده‌ها از آزمون همبستگی و تحلیل رگرسیون چندگانه گام به گام استفاده شد. یافته‌ها نشان داد بین همه متغیرهای پیش‌بین و مولفه‌های آن با شادکامی ارتباط مثبت و معناداری وجود دارد. نتایج تحلیل رگرسیون نشان داد که خرده مولفه‌های توجه به جنبه‌های مثبت زندگی و انتظار مثبت از خوش‌بینی اسلامی و همچنین متغیرهای رضایت از زندگی و عزت نفس در مجموع 55 درصد از واریانس شادکامی را تبیین می‌کنند. این یافته‌ها به خوبی نقش مهم خوش‌بینی، عزت نفس و رضایت از زندگی در پیش‌بینی شادکامی را نشان می‌دهد.
Due to increased business competition, customer happiness has drawn significant interest in recent times. With customer happiness at authorized workshops in mind, workshops are trying hard to give the best services to customers so that they feel happy and return even after free services. However, customers are not using regular maintenance services properly although their vehicles are still under warranty. Literature shows that there is a direct relationship between company performance and customer happiness. However, no literature is available related to sustaining customer happiness and improving retention after free services. Therefore, the study aims to identify the drivers of customer happiness at authorized automotive workshops and prioritize them, allowing service providers to improve services to help in improving customer retention even after free services. To achieve this aim, a two-phased research methodology was used. In the first phase, an extensive literature review was carried out to list drivers of customer happiness; and finalized the drivers empirically. Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) was employed in the second phase to prioritize the drivers. The ‘technological’ driver has been reported as the most important sustainable driver of customer happiness followed by ‘social’ driver. This study will help service providers to plan resources effectively and increase customer happiness at authorized workshops; this will improve retention even after free services. To check the robustness of results, sensitivity analysis is performed.
Article
This study examined characteristics of students who reported the highest level of happiness in “the happiest country in the world” (Helliwell et al., 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021), Finland. The study included 556 Finnish university students’ (of which 75% female) self-reported happiness level, relative to their self-esteem, social and academic competence, as well as demographic factors. According to the results, school success was not a condition for great happiness, whereas the students’ living situation proved to be an important factor. As predicted, a strong connection between a high level of happiness and high self-esteem was found, as well as a significant relationship between being socially skilled and very happy. The study also included an analysis of the students’ free self-descriptions, grouped into the McCrae and Costa’s (1991) Five-Factor Model of Personality. Theoretical as well as practical implications of the results are discussed.
Preprint
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Transitions in and out of work are common experiences with major repercussions for people’s lives. The complex link between work transitions and psychological adjustment is not well understood, however. In this preregistered study, we analyzed 11 waves of longitudinal data from 13,671 participants (representative of the Dutch population) to examine the transactional effects between repeated work transitions (employment and unemployment) and psychological adjustment (self-esteem and life satisfaction). Specifically, we investigated change trajectories before and after the transitions and tested whether moderator variables predicted individual differences in change. Participants with lower levels of self-esteem and life satisfaction were more likely to experience unemployment and less likely to experience employment transitions, indicating selection effects. Participants decreased in their self-esteem and life satisfaction before the beginning of the unemployment transition, indicating anticipatory socialization effects. These effects did not differ for multiple experiences of the same transition. Participants showed larger increases in life satisfaction in response to employment transitions when they experienced higher levels of job satisfaction. Participants showed larger decreases in self-esteem before unemployment transitions when they experienced a longer duration of unemployment. Our findings point to bidirectional effects between work transitions and self-esteem and life satisfaction, which is consistent with transactional theories. They also highlight the importance of the timing of changes before and after work transitions, the dynamic nature of the transition-adjustment link, and the existence of individual differences in psychological adjustment to work transitions that were linked to characteristics of the corresponding transition.
Book
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Describes technological methods and tools for objective and quantitative assessment of quality of life (QoL) Appraises technology-enabled methods for incorporating QoL measurements in medicine Highlights the success factors for adoption and scaling of technology-enabled methods
Chapter
Self-esteem, a person’s overall evaluation that she is valued and accepted vs. devalued and rejected by others, is crucial for people quality of life. As such, self-esteem has been central in the social-psychological literature since the late eighteenth century. However, its relevance is coupled with lack of agreement on how self-esteem is best conceived and assessed. Here we review definitions and measures of self-esteem in relation to quality of life in order (a) to understand how self-esteem has been defined, operationalized and assessed, and (b) to clarify which facets of self-esteem have been overlooked and need further study. Although we found multiple definitions of self-esteem, which led to a series of measures ranging from single item to multi-dimensional measures of state, trait and contingent self-esteem, the motivational component of self-esteem and its in-context behavioral correlates have yet to be operationalized. What follows, is that whether people think, feel, or behave in particular ways is caused by, concomitant with, or causes self-esteem, is still not understood. Because self-esteem is an emotionally laden system monitoring one’s relational value to others, we suggest that future research could use new technology-based research methods and eventually grasp real-time self-report and behavioral assessment of self-esteem. This appears a promising approach to overcome the limitations of self-esteem’s current theorizations and operationalizations. Thus, a new line of research considering the momentary experience of self-esteem, its behavioral components and its social context, could potentially unveil novel processes and mechanisms linking self-esteem and quality of life that have yet to be discovered and understood.
Chapter
This chapter focuses on presenting a series of concepts related to happiness, life satisfaction, health and political self-determination. Based on the relevant literature, it seems that people’s happiness is associated with all these concepts. Thus, a theoretical analysis is presented for the above concepts, and also a description of the evolution of the attitudes of the Greeks, as well as the combinations of these issues from 2002 to 2020. Also, it is being examined whether the recent crisis (Financial and Covid-19) affected severely or not the level of happiness or not, trying to give answers on how economic evolutions are correlated with happiness and human prosperity in the Greek society.
Article
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It is imperative to have an understanding of one's emotions to function in all aspects of life. In order to explore its underpinnings for student population, this study explored the relationship between emotional intelligence and self-esteem among undergraduate students. Sample of (N=150) students (18-28years; M=21.54&SD=2.63) recruited from universities of Karachi through convenience sampling and scales of Self-Esteem (Rosenberg, 1965) and Emotional Intelligence (Schutte et al., 1998) were administered. Results showed a positive correlation between emotional intelligence and self-esteem (r=.445**, p<.01), and meaningful gender differences for variables, men were found to have higher self-esteem (t=-2.015, df= 149, p<0.05) and women exhibited significantly higher levels of emotional intelligence (t=-2.012, df= 149, p<0.05). Implications and limitations of study were discussed.
Article
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This paper studies how discriminationexperienced by the Nagasof Nagaland, in the urban cities in India and other parts of the world has created diasporic consciousness on them. The Nagas are an indigenous community of India and belonged to the North- East region of the Nation. The Naga identity issue is one major anxiety that many Nagas have been experiencing for decades and to this day the issue has not resolved, thus it is necessary to contest and negotiate on the matter. The anxiety of identity often tends to create a diasporic consciousness on individuals that is experienced through alienation, racism, and othering. In the wake of the Covid-19 Pandemic in India, there are multiple cases of racism and discrimination against people from North�East India. The paper brings forth the experience of Nagas from North East India and their plight using Avinuo Kire and Limaonen Imchen stories. This paper used fictional stories and personal experience of the author on racism and discrimination to create awareness about the contemporary racial discrimination amid the COVID-19 pandemic in India. “Nigu’s Red T Shirt” instigates racist experience among contemporary Nagas and the impact of this on the self, whereas “Indian but not Indians”, casts a paradoxical statement on the idea of being an ‘Indian’. Keywords: Diaspora, Identities, Urban cities, Naga Diaspora, Alienation, Othering, Food.
Chapter
Research has shown that personality has a strong effect on happiness, subjective wellbeing, and positive mental health. More specifically, research has shown that subjective wellbeing is positively related with traits such as extraversion, self-esteem, positive affective disposition, mindfulness, optimism, locus of control, expectancy of perceived control, pollyannaism, and resilience. Subjective wellbeing is also negatively related with many forms of psychopathology—neuroticism, anxiety, and depression. The positive traits predispose people to seek positive situations and respond to them is ways that enhance their subjective wellbeing, while the negative traits have the opposite effect. Also, people who are mindful of their surrounding tend to report higher levels of subjective wellbeing, especially using measures that focus on the here and now. From positive psychology we learn that people who have certain character strengths (signature strength: hope, zest, gratitude, love, and curiosity) are likely to experience higher levels of wellbeing compared to those who lack these strengths. The effect of personality on wellbeing and positive mental health can be explained by instrumental theory, temperament theory, top-down theory, set-point theory, the genotype theory of happiness, dynamic equilibrium theory, and homeostatically-protected mood theory.
Article
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Two studies examined the rank-order stability of self-esteem from age 6 to 83: Study 1 was a meta-analysis of 50 published articles (N = 29,839) and Study 2 analyzed data from 4 large national studies (N = 74,381). Self-esteem showed substantial continuity over time (disattenuated correlations ranged from the .50s to .70s), comparable to the stability found for personality traits. Both studies provided evidence for a robust developmental trend: Self-esteem stability was low during childhood, increased throughout adolescence and young adulthood, and declined during midlife and old age. This trend could not be explained by age differences in the reliability of self-esteem measures, and generally replicated across gender, ethnicity, self-esteem scale, nationality (U.S. vs. non-U.S.), and year of publication.
Chapter
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Proposes a model of subjective well-being (SWB) with 2 levels: The background level and the agentic level with the latter mediating the effects of the former. Given the potential importance of sociocultural factors in the production of SWB in adolescents, we examine whether particular predictors of SWB (i.e., strain, global control expectancy, emotion-oriented coping, problem-oriented coping) differ across sociocultural contexts and thus, test the generality of our 2-level model. A cross-cultural study including Eastern and Western European countries and the US represents a unique opportunity to test the generality of the proposed model, because these countries represent a comparative framework with a sufficient amount of both similarities and differences on various dimensions. The measures used include: the Berne Questionnaire on Adolescents' Well-Being, the Strain Inventory, the Coping Reactions Questionnaire, and the Bernese Questionnaire on Adolescents' Perception of Control. This study supports the generality of the 2-level model of SWB in adolescence by providing evidence of its cross-cultural invariance. There were consistent patterns in predictive effects from the variables of both levels (background and agentic) on SWB in adolescents across all of the samples.
Book
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******This 2007 listing pertains to a 1992 book for which the full text is already on ResearchGate under the same title****** This volume brings together several authors from different areas of psychology and the neighbouring social sciences. Each one contributes their own perspective on the growing interest topic of subjective well-being. The aim of the volume is to present these divergent perspectives and to foster communication between the different areas. Split into three parts, this volume initially discusses the general perspectives of subjective well-being and addresses fundamental questions, secondly it discusses the dynamics of subjective well-being and more specific research issues to give a better understanding of the general phenomenon, and thirdly the book emphasizes the social context in which people experience and report their happiness and satisfaction. The book will be of great interest to social and clinical psychologists, students of psychology and sociology and health professionals.
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Article
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A conceptual model was developed and tested that examined the relationships between respondent characteristics, stressors, psychological well-being measures, and intervening life domain appraisals. The model was tested using data from elderly members of a Detroit area HMO. An innovative focus of the study was comprehensive consideration of the array of stressors impinging on the elderly. Stressors examined included recent negative life events, cumulative life crises, living with an ill family member, and social isolation. Domain appraisals in the model concerned satisfaction with activities, relationships, health, and income. Support was found for the hypothesis that stressors affect well-being indirectly through domain satisfactions.
Article
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The role theory of aging and the maturational perspective differ with regard to whether aging is a problematic or positive process. This article looks at the self-concept and self-evaluation of men and women over the adult life course, using data from a large national probability sample. The evidence indicates that as persons age their self-concepts, while not qualitatively different from that of younger persons, contain more positive attributes, fewer negative attributes, and become better integrated. Age is also associated with a positive self-evaluation, as indicated by life satisfaction, self-esteem, and an index of meaninglessness. Ther are some odest gender differences in these age relationships, but, overall, males and females appear to experience aging in similar ways. The general impression is that as persons age they become increasingly comfortable with themselves and their situation. Because it is unlikely that these relationships are due primarily to cohort, period, or compositional effects, t...
Article
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Neuroticism, extraversion, and openness to experience have been shown to have systematic effects on psychological well being. The remaining dimensions in the five-factor model of personality-agreeableness and conscientiouness-may also contribute to increased life satisfaction and happiness. Self-reports and spouse ratings on the NEO Personality Inventory, a measure of the five factors, were correlated with three measures of psychological well-being in a sample of 429 adult men and women. Consistent with previous rescarch, neuroticism was negatively, and extraversion was positively, related to well-being. Both agreeableness and conscientiousness were also significant independent predictors. Personality dispositions appear to have temperamental, experiential, and instrumental effects on psychological well-being.
Article
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This chapter reviews the literature on life satisfaction. Six questions are considered: 1) What is the point of studying life-satisfaction? 2) What is life-satisfaction? 3) Can life-satisfaction be measured? 4) How satisfied are we? 5) What causes us to be satisfied or dissatisfied with life? 6) Can the level of life-satisfaction be increased? These questions are considered at the individual level as well as the societal level. In the concluding section a general overview is given of the work presented in this book.
Book
I: Background.- 1. An Introduction.- 2. Conceptualizations of Intrinsic Motivation and Self-Determination.- II: Self-Determination Theory.- 3. Cognitive Evaluation Theory: Perceived Causality and Perceived Competence.- 4. Cognitive Evaluation Theory: Interpersonal Communication and Intrapersonal Regulation.- 5. Toward an Organismic Integration Theory: Motivation and Development.- 6. Causality Orientations Theory: Personality Influences on Motivation.- III: Alternative Approaches.- 7. Operant and Attributional Theories.- 8. Information-Processing Theories.- IV: Applications and Implications.- 9. Education.- 10. Psychotherapy.- 11. Work.- 12. Sports.- References.- Author Index.
Article
The literature on subjective well-being (SWB), including happiness, life satisfaction, and positive affect, is reviewed in three areas: measurement, causal factors, and theory. Psychometric data on single-item and multi-item subjective well-being scales are presented, and the measures are compared. Measuring various components of subjective well-being is discussed. In terms of causal influences, research findings on the demographic correlates of SWB are evaluated, as well as the findings on other influences such as health, social contact, activity, and personality. A number of theoretical approaches to happiness are presented and discussed: telic theories, associationistic models, activity theories, judgment approaches, and top-down versus bottom-up conceptions.
Article
A relationship between marital status on the one hand and various indicators of well-being and mental health on the other has been found in a large number of studies. Typically, that the currently married have been shown to enjoy the most favorable position, the divorced and widowed are generally worst off, and the never married in an intermediate position. This paper provides an analysis of the consistency and generality of this relationship: To what extent are there national differences? Is the relationship stronger for men than for women, as has been suggested by several authors? And is there evidence for such a relationship whatever measure of psychological well-being we use? Comparable interview data from 19 countries, including a few non-western ones, are used. The data are analyzed by ordinary linear regression methods, representing marital status by means of dummy variables and controlling for age and parenthood. At least some evidence of differences in psychological well-being between the currently married on the one hand and the previously married and the never married on the other are found in practically all countries. On average the relationship between marital status and well-being is quite similar for men and women. More striking differences are found between well-being measures. The relationship with marital status is weakest for positive affect and strongest for self-reported happiness, with the results for negative affect and overall life satisfaction falling in between.
Article
Eighteen years of research using the Happiness Measures (HM) is reviewed in relation to the general progress of well-being measurement efforts. The accumulated findings on this remarkably quick instrument, show good reliability, exceptional stability, and a record of convergent, construct, and discriminative validity unparalleled in the field. Because of this, the HM is offered as a potential touchstone of measurement consistency in a field which generally lacks it.
Article
This article examines the association between evaluative and knowledge components of the self. Four studies tested the hypothesis that the self-concepts of low-self-esteem (LSE) people are characterized by less clarity or certainty than those of high-self-esteem (HSE) people. LSE Ss exhibited less extremity and self-reported confidence when rating themselves on bipolar trait adjectives (Study 1), less temporal stability in their trait ratings over a 2-month interval (Study 2), less congruence between their self-concepts and their subsequent perceptions of situation-specific behavior and memory for prior behavior (Study 3), and less internal consistency, lower self-rated confidence, and longer reaction times when making me/not me responses to pairs of opposite traits (Study 4). Alternative accounts of the results and the implications of self-concept clarity for understanding the pervasive impact of self-esteem on behavior are discussed.
Article
This article reports the development and validation of a scale to measure global life satisfaction, the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS). Among the various components of subjective well-being, the SWLS is narrowly focused to assess global life satisfaction and does not tap related constructs such as positive affect or loneliness. The SWLS is shown to have favorable psychometric properties, including high internal consistency and high temporal reliability. Scores on the SWLS correlate moderately to highly with other measures of subjective well-being, and correlate predictably with specific personality characteristics. It is noted that the SWLS is suited for use with different age groups, and other potential uses of the scale are discussed.
Article
Level of agreement between self-reports and other-reports obtained from a large two-wave study of older adults was examined. Various measures of subjective well-being (affect, happiness, and life satisfaction) and behavioral manifestations (smoking and sleep quality) were assessed. Results indicate that the SWB measures were highly stable over a 9-month period, and that good agreement between the self- and other-reports was found for the SWB measures. In addition, SWB was related to behavioral manifestations and that these ratings were corroborated through the other-reports. This study furthers the support for the reliability of SWB over time and advances the criterion validity of SWB measures through use of collateral assessments.
Article
The SWLS consists of 5-items that require a ratingon a 7-point Likert scale. Administration is rarely morethan a minute or 2 and can be completed by interview(including phone) or paper and pencil response. The in-strumentshouldnotbecompletedbyaproxyansweringfortheperson.Itemsofthe SWLSaresummedtocreatea total score that can range from 5 to 35.The SWLS is in the public domain. Permission isnot needed to use it. Further information regardingthe use and interpretation of the SWLS can be foundat the author’s Web site http://internal.psychology.illinois.edu/∼ediener/SWLS.html. The Web site alsoincludes links to translations of the scale into 27languages.
Article
Stability and change in self-esteem and its reported sources were investigated in a sample of older people re-interviewed 10 and 13 years after initial study. Most indicated a continuing high to medium-high level of self-esteem, and apart from an increase in mention of interest activities their pattern of illustrations also remained consistent. Variables in the initial study which predicted a maintained high level of self-esteem included number of hobbies, number of types of outings, self perceived activity level, and mention of people other than family members as sources of self-esteem. The usefulness of collecting data on expressed sources is exemplified in two case histories. Consideration is given to the implications of these findings for conceptualising identity processes in later life.
Article
A flood of new studies explores people's subjective well-being (SWB) Frequent positive affect, infrequent negative affect, and a global sense of satisfaction with life define high SWB These studies reveal that happiness and life satisfaction are similarly available to the young and the old, women and men, blacks and whites, the rich and the working-class Better clues to well-being come from knowing about a person's traits, close relationships, work experiences, culture, and religiosity We present the elements of an appraisal-based theory of happiness that recognizes the importance of adaptation, cultural world-view, and personal goals
Article
This study investigated the personality correlates of three dimensions of subjective well-being (S WB): Positive affect, negative affect, and life satisfaction. Participants in two samples completed daily mood reports and a number of relevant personality inventories. Interpersonal competencies were found to correlate most strongly with positive affect, internal emotional states with negative affect, whereas the correlates of life satisfaction included both interpersonal competencies and internal emotional states. In general, results supported Costa and McCrae's (1980) model postulating two different sets of personality traits that influence positive and negative affect separately.
Article
Reports an error in the original article by E. Suh et al (Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1996 [May], Vol 70 [5], 1091–1102). On page 1097, the headings for the second and third columns of Tables 4 and 5 were incorrectly labeled R–2 and R–2 change. The headings should read R and R change, respectively. (The following abstract of this article originally appeared in record 1996-01753-014.) The effect of life events on subjective well-being (SWB) was explored in a 2-year longitudinal study of 115 participants. It was found that only life events during the previous 3 months influenced life satisfaction and positive and negative affect. Although recent life events influenced SWB even when personality at Time 1 was controlled, distal life events did not correlate with SWB. SWB and life events both showed a substantial degree of temporal stability. It was also found that good and bad life events tend to covary, both between individuals and across periods of the lives of individuals. Also, when events of the opposite valence were controlled, events correlated more strongly with SWB. The counterintuitive finding that good and bad events co-occur suggests an exciting avenue for explorations of the structure of life events. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The preceding comments from studies of young people by myself and colleagues are personally very distressing. Theoretically, they are perplexing. It is commonly asserted in the literature that the self-concept is a theory, a cognitive construction, and that its architecture—by evolutionary design—is extremely functional (see Allport, 1961; Bartlett, 1932; Brim, 1976; Damon & Hart, 1988; Epstein, 1973, 1981, 1991; Greenwald, 1980; Harter, 1983; Kelly, 1955; Lecky, 1945; Lynch, 1981; Markus, 1980; Piaget, 1965; Rogers, 1951; Sarbin, 1962). One such widely touted function is to maintain high self-esteem. Considerable evidence now exists that most people do exhibit a modest self-enhancing bias (Taylor & Brown, 1988).
Article
• As the title suggests, this book examines the psychology of interpersonal relations. In the context of this book, the term "interpersonal relations" denotes relations between a few, usually between two, people. How one person thinks and feels about another person, how he perceives him and what he does to him, what he expects him to do or think, how he reacts to the actions of the other--these are some of the phenomena that will be treated. Our concern will be with "surface" matters, the events that occur in everyday life on a conscious level, rather than with the unconscious processes studied by psychoanalysis in "depth" psychology. These intuitively understood and "obvious" human relations can, as we shall see, be just as challenging and psychologically significant as the deeper and stranger phenomena. The discussion will center on the person as the basic unit to be investigated. That is to say, the two-person group and its properties as a superindividual unit will not be the focus of attention. Of course, in dealing with the person as a member of a dyad, he cannot be described as a lone subject in an impersonal environment, but must be represented as standing in relation to and interacting with another person. The chapter topics included in this book include: Perceiving the Other Person; The Other Person as Perceiver; The Naive Analysis of Action; Desire and Pleasure; Environmental Effects; Sentiment; Ought and Value; Request and Command; Benefit and Harm; and Reaction to the Lot of the Other Person. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved) • As the title suggests, this book examines the psychology of interpersonal relations. In the context of this book, the term "interpersonal relations" denotes relations between a few, usually between two, people. How one person thinks and feels about another person, how he perceives him and what he does to him, what he expects him to do or think, how he reacts to the actions of the other--these are some of the phenomena that will be treated. Our concern will be with "surface" matters, the events that occur in everyday life on a conscious level, rather than with the unconscious processes studied by psychoanalysis in "depth" psychology. These intuitively understood and "obvious" human relations can, as we shall see, be just as challenging and psychologically significant as the deeper and stranger phenomena. The discussion will center on the person as the basic unit to be investigated. That is to say, the two-person group and its properties as a superindividual unit will not be the focus of attention. Of course, in dealing with the person as a member of a dyad, he cannot be described as a lone subject in an impersonal environment, but must be represented as standing in relation to and interacting with another person. The chapter topics included in this book include: Perceiving the Other Person; The Other Person as Perceiver; The Naive Analysis of Action; Desire and Pleasure; Environmental Effects; Sentiment; Ought and Value; Request and Command; Benefit and Harm; and Reaction to the Lot of the Other Person. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Reviews the literature since 1967 on subjective well-being (SWB [including happiness, life satisfaction, and positive affect]) in 3 areas: measurement, causal factors, and theory. Most measures of SWB correlate moderately with each other and have adequate temporal reliability and internal consistency; the global concept of happiness is being replaced with more specific and well-defined concepts, and measuring instruments are being developed with theoretical advances; multi-item scales are promising but need adequate testing. SWB is probably determined by a large number of factors that can be conceptualized at several levels of analysis, and it may be unrealistic to hope that a few variables will be of overwhelming importance. Several psychological theories related to happiness have been proposed; they include telic, pleasure and pain, activity, top–down vs bottom–up, associanistic, and judgment theories. It is suggested that there is a great need to more closely connect theory and research. (7 p ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)