African immigrant damnation syndrome: The case of Charles Ssenyonga

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The category AIDS criminal arose in the early 1990s with the transference of the innocent victim/guilty carrier binary from theology and epidemiology into the domain of law. The case of Charles Ssenyonga, a Ugandan immigrant who became Canada’s most notorious AIDS criminal, reveals the revival of nineteenth-century racist and heterosexist discourses in the War on AIDS in the late twentieth century. Though Ssenyonga died in 1993 before a legal judgment could be rendered in his case, Canadian journalist June Callwood (1995a) condemned him on moral grounds in her bestseller Trial Without End: A Shocking Story of Women and AIDS. As a Black version of the legendary lady-killer Don Giovanni, Ssenyonga emerged from Callwood’s feminist fable as an incarnation of “African AIDS.” The discursive isolation of Ssenyonga as an exotic “other” in media coverage of his trial corresponded to the biological isolation of his potently African strain of HIV.

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... (CCRHC, 2017) 3 Most research on HIV nondisclosure is socio-legal in nature and aims to problematize the application of law in these cases, but there is an emerging body of work demonstrating that nondisclosure cases are subject to intense and sensational media coverage that consistently overemphasizes the dangerousness of PLWHA and fails to accurately capture the risks of transmission. Media coverage often portrays accused persons as hypersexualized deviants, racialized 'Others' and AIDS criminals who threaten the (inter)national body politic (Kilty, 2014;Miller, 2005;Mykhalovskiy et al., 2016;Persson and Newman, 2008;Shevory, 2004). Conversely, the 'victims' in these cases are portrayed as innocent (predominantly) women who were betrayed by monstrous men, which reinforces the idea that all HIV-positive people are potential criminal subjects. ...
... Emotions have been shown to shape media content in nondisclosure cases (Miller, 2005;Shevory, 2004), as well as in legal narratives and judicial decision-making more broadly (Abrams, 2015;Abrams and Keren, 2010;Bandes, 2009aBandes, , 2009bBandes, , 2016Blumenthal, 2005). Sedgwick describes emotions and affects as 'free radicals' that: ...
... Racialized men are disproportionately represented and demonized in media accounts of HIV nondisclosure cases (Miller, 2005;Mykhalovskiy et al., 2016;Shevory, 2004) and are likewise overrepresented in the criminal justice and correctional systems (Maynard, 2017). Given these facts and the tense race relations in the current western political landscape, it is especially pertinent to consider how mediated emotions (rather than medical evidence of the risks of transmission, intent to infect or actual transmission) contribute to fostering punitive mentalities and potentially harsher applications of the law (Machado and Santos, 2009). ...
More than 180 people in Canada have faced criminal charges related to HIV nondisclosure. Media coverage is often sensational and commonly portrays people living with HIV as hypersexualized threats to the (inter)national body politic. This article analyzes mainstream news media coverage of four HIV nondisclosure cases to examine how the accused (two men, two women) are constructed as sexual predators, which we found occurs through two key discursive moves. First, by tying the narrative to stereotypical conceptualizations of hegemonic and toxic masculinity and pariah femininity to construct the individual as promiscuous, hypersexual and dangerous. Second, by crafting a narrative that evokes complex moral emotions; notably, these include the ‘negative’ emotions of anger, disgust and fear. Given that racialized men are disproportionately represented and demonized in media accounts, and the tense race relations in the current western political landscape, it is important to consider how emotions (rather than medical evidence of the risks of transmission, intent to infect or actual transmission) might contribute to shaping punitive mentalities and the harsh application of the law. By examining how race, gender, class and sexuality are mobilized to construct narratives of Black masculinity as inherently toxic and women’s sexual freedom as exemplifying pariah femininity, and the ways in which the coverage evokes negative moral emotions, we contend that media coverage shores up moralized discourses about sexuality, masculinity and femininity and HIV/AIDS.
... Scholarly critiques of media reports of HIV criminalization also demonstrate that media rely on sensational language, reproduce negative stereotypes of offenders, and exaggerate the threat that people living with HIV pose to the general public (Flavin 2000;Patton 2005). This trend has shown to be particularly stark when such cases involve defendants who are immigrants or refugees (Miller 2005;Persson and Newman 2008;McKay et al. 2011;Kilty and Bogosavlijevic 2019). ...
... What is unique about coverage of Trevis Smith's case is that he was already a well-known Black athlete playing for the Roughriders at the time of his criminal charge. This means that unlike news coverage of other criminal cases (Miller 2005;Persson and Newman 2008;McKay et al. 2011;Kilty and Bogosavlijevic 2019), headlines about Trevis Smith do not simply introduce him to the public as a criminal. Instead, many headlines refer to Smith as a former, failed Saskatchewan Roughrider. ...
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This paper studies how HIV criminalization is portrayed in the mainstream Canadian press by examining news representations of Trevis Smith. Smith’s case is the most reported case of criminal HIV non-disclosure in Canadian history. Our analysis is based on a corpus of 271 articles written about Smith between 2005 and 2012. Our analysis shows that coverage of Smith’s case is distinct from reportage of other criminal HIV non-disclosure cases because he was a well-known Black athlete playing for the Saskatchewan Roughriders at the time of his criminal charge. We argue that news articles represent Smith as a particular kind of threatening racialized “other” through forms of writing that link crime reporting with sports reporting. Our analysis of headlines and quotation patterns emphasizes how news articles construct Smith as a blameworthy outsider and produce Canada as an imagined white settler nation.
... As observed in Australia (Persson and Newman 2008 ), the United Kingdom (Weait 2007 ), and the United States (Clarke 2006 ), the pattern of criminal prosecutions, and the media coverage of those prosecutions, have tended to reinforce a moral hierarchy of deserving and undeserving "victims" defi ned in particular by race and gender. Criminal law and media attention have fallen most heavily on (usually heterosexual) men of African descent (Miller 2005 ), while women oft en fi nd themselves divided between "the 'good' woman [who] is a woman who had kept herself chaste, and unfortunately trusted the wrong man [and] the 'bad' woman, [who] by contrast, is one who deliberately neglected all warnings and succumbed to her base desires" (Jiwani 2014 ). Gay men and accused persons who use(d) drugs, on the other hand, tend to be relegated to the abject category of the always, already guilty. ...
... Other high-profi le cases have also attracted considerable, oft en sensational, media coverage, portraying the HIV-positive accused in graphic terms as sexually irresponsible, at best, or even as reckless or malicious predators, but these were not explicitly referenced by interviewees. Th ese include the Ssenyonga case in the early 1990s, discussed at length by Miller ( 2005 ), in which a Black man of African descent, whose race and immigrant status featured prominently in the media coverage, was charged in relation to HIV non-disclosure to several (white) female partners. More recent cases have included the prosecution of an HIV-positive woman, in relation to sexual encounters with willing soldiers at an Ontario army base, who was subsequently prosecuted in Barrie, Ontario, notwithstanding her undetectable viral load, including for briefl y receiving oral sex, a proceeding that attracted condemnation and courthouse protests by HIV activists (Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network et al., 2013 ). ...
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The largest survey to date of people living with HIV regarding attitudes toward criminalization of HIV non-disclosure, this study investigates: sources of legal information available to HIV-positive people; perceptions of how criminal prosecutions and media coverage affect understanding of rights and responsibilities of self and others; and where HIV-positive people themselves stand on the role the criminal justice system should play. While mainstream media constructions of criminal iconography do affect PHA views, those who have higher levels of formal education, are active in the dating scene, and have been living longer with HIV hold less punitive views than those who do not. While the overall pattern of agreement on where to draw the line in criminal prosecution holds regardless of demographic characteristics, there is some statistically significant variation in degree of punitiveness according to sexual orientation and gender as well.
... The majority of these transmissions are through heterosexual contact [13]. Various reasons are attributed to the higher infection rates among heterosexual Black men which are not limited to being reckless, oversexed, cultural norms, beliefs about masculinity, to mention a few [13], [14]. However, very few studies such as [1], [5], [15] have linked mass media and popculture with risky sexual behaviors, which may lead to HIV vulnerability. ...
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Mass media and pop culture have contributed to unhealthy sexualities and irresponsible sexual behaviors. In these platforms, casual sex is normalized while minimizing its serious social and health consequences. Sexual contents and activities hype unhealthy sexual attitudes, which feed into African, Caribbean, and Black (ACB) men’s stereotypes as hyper-sexualized, irresponsible, reckless, and incapable of dealing with issues affecting their health. Based on 3 focus group discussions with 31 self-identified heterosexual ACB men, aged 16 years and above, the paper explores how mass media and pop-culture have impacted young heterosexual ACB men's social, and sexual attitudes and behaviors in Windsor, Ontario. The results suggest that exposure to sexual content and materials influence unhealthy and irresponsible sexual behaviors, especially among young heterosexual ACB men. Also, the negative portrayal of ACB men in the media and pop culture define and shape how ACB men conduct themselves.
... In preventing accidental disclosure of their HIV serostatus to their community, particularly for those living in a transnational space, they are reluctant to seek treatment or follow a strict medication regime when they test positive. Intersected with race, the discourses of heterosexual ACB men as active transmitters of HIV in the context of North America, including Canada, as observed by Miller [56] may have distanced members of this community from actively being engaged in seeking preventive health care (see Geary [57]). Earlier findings by Loutfy et al. [58], that the intersection of race, ethnicity, and gender play an essential role in experiences of HIV-related stigma in Ontario led to the call for differently targeted approaches for specific racial minority groups, particularly ACB people in reducing HIVrelated stigma, instead of a generalized approach. ...
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Background In Canada, heterosexual African, Caribbean, and Black (ACB) men’s heightened risk of HIV infection has been linked to behavioral characteristics, including practices of hegemonic masculinity that discourage the use of HIV preventive services. However, this framing is bereft of the role of structural factors that may be contributing to new HIV infections. This paper examined the underlying factors limiting access to health services among heterosexual ACB men in London, Ontario Canada. Methods A convenient sampling technique was used to recruit thirty-seven ( n = 37) self-identified heterosexual ACB men and service providers. Four focus groups (FG) were conducted; three with ACB participants of similar age category (i.e., 16–24; 25–38; 39+), and one with service providers. The FGs focused on the barriers to using health services and interrogated the ease of access to HIV intervention programs by ACB men respectively. Recurring themes from the FGs were probed further using in-depth interviews ( n = 13). FGs and in-depth interviews complemented each other in reducing uneven power dynamics, fact checking, and allowing for detail discussion of the topic under study. Data analyses were done in NVivo using a mixed inductive-deductive thematic analyses approach. Results Most ACB men lacked information on HIV and were unaware of their increased risk of infection. Contrary to the notion that behavioral characteristics keep ACB men away from health services, we found that most ACB men were unaware of the availability of these services. Those that had some knowledge about the services reported that they were not appropriately tailored to their needs. In addition, stereotypes and stigma about the etiology of HIV among Blacks, and systemic neglect served as significant barriers to ACB men’s use of services. Conclusion The findings suggest that, to enhance preventive health service use among heterosexual ACB men, there is the need to remove structural barriers. Engaging ACB men in the design and implementation of policies may be useful at improving access to HIV information, testing, and treatment services. Increased information dissemination to ACB men would create awareness of the availability of HIV services. Finally, service providers should be conscious of ACB men’s concern about experiences of discrimination and racism at service centers.
... This othering effect is amplified by the use of post-colonial tropes that represent Africa as a mysterious, dangerous and hopeless place (Crewe and Aggleton 2003) that threatens the safety and stability of an imagined Canada. One way such 'threats' are produced is through accounts of 'rare' strains of HIV that have 'exotic' African origins (Miller 2005). In the coverage of Ssenyonga's case, his representation as a 'dangerous other' is amplified by ascribing a foreign, national identity to the HIV in his body. ...
This paper explores newspaper coverage of HIV non-disclosure criminal cases in Canada in which defendants are Black immigrant men living with HIV. We base our analysis on a corpus of 1680 English-language Canadian newspaper articles written between 1989 and 2015. For the first time ever, we present quantitative evidence of the dramatic overrepresentation of Black men in such coverage. We also provide an analysis of the racialised regime of representation found in this material. We emphasise how ‘writing in criminal justice time’ operates as a first-order objectification within which are embedded strategies that link constructions of moral blameworthiness with representations of racialised difference. The result is a type of popular racial profiling in which HIV non-disclosure is treated as a crime of Black men who are represented as dangerous, hypersexual foreigners who threaten the health and safety of the public and, more broadly, the imagined Canadian nation.
... This schism reflects a problematic dichotomy between two distinct subjectivities-the innocent, unwitting HIV victim and the always-already guilty HIV perpetrator, the latter of which is often characterized in legal and media discourses as a sexual predator (Kilty, 2014;Miller, 2005). It also underscores the historical layering of longstanding discourses about clean versus unclean bodies, safe versus risky sexual practices (Douglas, 1966;Lupton, 1995Lupton, , 2003 and moral versus immoral HIV subjectivities (Lupton, 1994) that together constitute part of Foucault's (1978Foucault's ( , 1985Foucault's ( , 1986) broader conceptualization of the 'apparatus of sexuality'. ...
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This research highlights how frontline workers in the HIV/AIDS sector in Canada mobilize the confessional as a technology of governance to encourage changes in the sexual health and safety and disclosure practices of HIV-positive men and women. The ways in which frontline workers counsel clients are especially important in light of Canada’s aggressive growth in criminal prosecutions against individuals for failing to disclose their HIV status to sexual partners. Drawing on 62 semi-structured interviews with AIDS service organization (ASO) staff from across Canada, we suggest that the work performed by ASO workers constitutes a form of bioethics on the ground, which is rooted in both the worker’s and the client’s lived experiences of HIV. It can be especially fraught if the lived experience is mobilized in ways that are ultimately disempowering for clients who do not relate to the individual’s disclosure narrative.
... Concerns about the criminal law and HIV stigma have also been raised in a third body of research focused on the popular representation of HIV criminal cases. Drawing on cultural studies and related theoretical insights, scholars have explored the rhetorical devices through which HIV, criminality, sexual assault, gender, race, and sexual orientation have been linked in mainstream HIV crime stories (McKay, Thomas, Holland, Blood, & Kneebone, 2011;Miller, 2005;Persson, 2014;Persson & Newman, 2008). This body of work suggests how media representations of HIV-related criminal cases complicate HIV prevention efforts by creating a new public discourse of fear about HIV and people living with HIV infection. ...
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While public health remains the primary site of authority for preventing HIV transmission, recent shifts in the biopolitics of HIV have heightened tensions in the institutional and discursive relations through which the sexual lives of people living with HIV and broader HIV epidemics are regulated. Most notably, over the past decade, criminal justice responses to HIV have gained considerable traction. The growing use of the criminal law to regulate perceived HIV transmission risks has occasioned considerable controversy among people living with HIV, community-based AIDS organizations, health-care providers, public health authorities, prosecutors, judges, and the legal community. This article introduces a special section of Critical Public Health focused on the public health implications of HIV criminalization. The article reviews past and current work on the topic, situates the contributions made by the articles published in the special section, and outlines directions for future inquiry.
... HIV/AIDS-related stigma experienced by newcomers from African and Caribbean countries has been the focus of several studies in Canada, as well as the United States and England (Cyr, Thompson, Gilmore, Duchesneau, & Ankouad, 2006; Gardezi, Calzavara, Lawson et al., 2006; Mitra, Jacobsen, O'Connor, & Tugwell, 2006). One of the most common themes found in the experiences of participants in these studies was the racialization of HIV as a Black or " African disease " because Black and African people are portrayed in the media and public institutions as carriers of the virus (Miller, 2005). This racialization was described as a negative factor preventing individuals from seeking prevention and intervention services (Gardezi et al., 2006; Husbands, 2006). ...
... As Rhon Reynolds of the African HIV Policy Network has pointed out, the ethnicity and migration status of appellants in these cases also contributes to the general increase in hostility toward migrants in the UK, as out of the five current convictions, three have been against African men who were seeking or had already obtained refugee status and another was against a migrant from Portugal (Reynolds' contribution in A Elliott 2005). It has been clearly documented that migrants and members of ethnic minorities are disproportionately prosecuted (and subsequently deported) for HIV transmission and exposure throughout a range of European jurisdictions (Nyambe & Gaines 2005), with similar concerns being noted elsewhere (R Elliott 2002, Bray 2003, Miller 2005). ...
... Media coverage of HIV non-disclosure typically focuses on criminal cases involving male defendants, particularly Black men, offering narratives of their betrayal of heterosexual relationships and their "predatory" sexual behaviours. 35 There is no available research exploring any differences in how police respond to complainants from different genders, sexual orientations, and race and class backgrounds in HIV non-disclosure cases. However, the established research literature does draw attention to racist and homophobic practices within police work cultures and problematic relationships between police and gay and Black communities that may discourage some individuals from making complaints. ...
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The use of criminal-law powers to respond to people with HIV who place others at risk of HIV infection has emerged as a focal point of AIDS advocacy at global, national, and local levels. In the Canadian context, reform efforts that address the criminalization of HIV non-disclosure have been hampered by the absence of data on the contours, scale, and outcomes of criminalization. This article responds to that gap in knowledge with the first comprehensive analysis of the temporal trends, demographic patterns, and aggregate outcomes of Canadian criminal cases of HIV non-disclosure. The authors draw on insights into the role that rendering social phenomena in numerical terms plays for the governance of social life in order to make criminalization “visible” in ways that might contribute to activist responses. The article examines temporal trends, demographic patterns, and outcomes separately. In each instance, the pattern or trend identified is described, potential explanations for findings are offered, and an account is given of how the data have informed efforts to reform criminal law. Particular attention is paid to the following key findings: a sharp increase in criminal cases that began in 2004; the large proportion of recent criminal cases involving defendants who are heterosexual Black, African, and Caribbean men; and the high proportion of criminal cases resulting in conviction. The article closes with suggestions for future research.
... I developed a sense of almost a déjà vu—that these papers related to cases that were marked by the cultural logic of a particular time. Some of them, such as James Miller's (2005) treatise on Charles Ssenyonga or Cindy Patton's (2005) narrative on Edward Savitz, seemed to arise from earlier days in our understanding of HIV and AIDS, and I felt that by now these were to be read as instructive historical examples of the creation and characterization of folk devils—instructive, yes, but nevertheless historical. ...
... Who receives attention as an 'AIDS criminal' is influenced by culturally specific ideas of morality and by local prejudices and fears (Worth et al. 2005: 8-9). In a contemporary world where globalisation and transnational migration have given new fuel to 'old habits of xenophobia and nationalism' (Worth 2002: 66), it is not surprising that HIV-positive African men involved in HIV-related criminal cases have been especially 'singled out for hostile stories' in the UK (Bickerstaff 2007: 8), and also in Canada (Miller 2005), and in New Zealand (Worth 1995), while one of the most publicised cases in the US involved an African-American man (Shevory 2004). In the UK, although the majority of criminal prosecutions has involved white people (11 of 15 cases between 2001 and 2007), cases involving African men have received disproportionate attention by the media ). ...
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In the early HIV epidemic, Western media coverage encouraged the idea that infection was linked to 'other' identities located outside the 'mainstream'; outside 'proper' heterosexuality. Today, however, HIV has become repositioned as a global heterosexual epidemic. Analyses show that since the 1990s Western media have shifted away from blame and hysteria to an increasingly routinised reporting of HIV as a health story and social justice issue. But recent years have seen the emergence of a new media story in many Western countries; the criminal prosecution for HIV-related offences, and with it a reframing of old discourses of 'innocence' and 'guilt', but now with heterosexuals in focus. We examine this story in recent domestic media coverage in Australia, a country where heterosexual HIV transmission is rare by global comparison. Echoing similar stories in other Western media, in Australian coverage the idea of criminal intent converges with the symbolic weight of black sexuality and African origins to produce a 'monstrous' masculinity, which at the local level taps into contemporary racial tensions and, in so doing, conjures an imagined Anglo-heterosexuality at once vulnerable to and safe from HIV in a globalised epidemic and world.
Media coverage of HIV criminal cases has deployed sexualized and racialized tropes, and portrayed defendants as villains. Several media analyses of HIV criminal trials have been conducted, though only one was in the US, and none involved young Black gay men, who are disproportionately impacted by HIV. We conducted content and textual analyses of 91 media stories focused on the 2015 case of Michael Johnson, a Black gay college student living with HIV who was convicted under Missouri’s HIV non-disclosure laws. To capture both dominant and resistant meanings in news stories, we included mainstream news outlets, as well as HIV-related, African American and GLBT community-oriented outlets. Open and axial coding were carried out by a team of four researchers and thematic analysis was used to explore how media framed Johnson, his sexual activities, condom use, and alleged nondisclosure. Results showed that media stories portrayed Johnson as dishonest and sexually predatory by drawing on narratives of deception and framing him as the sole agentic actor in his sexual encounters. We argue that these media frames, coupled with what is included and excluded in media coverage negatively impacts public opinion of PLWH, reinforces HIV criminalization ideologies, and performs a disciplinary function in the lives of PLWH.
Objectives: Heterosexually active Black men are alleged to endorse masculine norms that increase their and their female partners’ vulnerability to HIV. These norms include Black men’s inability or reluctance to productively engage their own health-related personal and interpersonal vulnerabilities. We draw on data from the iSpeak research study in Ontario, Canada, to assess whether and how heterosexual Black men cope with personal and inter-personal vulnerability, namely that heterosexual Black men: avoid emotionally supportive relationships with other men (and women), which diminishes their capacity to productively acknowledge and resolve their health-related challenges; are reticent to productively acknowledge and address HIV and health on a personal level; and are pathologically secretive about their health, which compounds their vulnerability and precipitates poor health outcomes. Design: iSpeak was implemented in 2011 to 2013, and included two focus groups with HIV-positive and HIV-negative self-identified heterosexual men (N = 14) in Toronto and London, a focus group with community-based health promotion practitioners who provide HIV-related services to Black communities in Ontario (N = 6), and one-on-one interviews with four researchers distinguished for their scholarship with/among Black communities in Toronto. Participants in the men’s focus group were recruited discretely through word-of-mouth. Focus groups were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Team members independently read the transcripts, and then met to identify, discuss and agree on the emerging themes. Results: We demonstrate that iSpeak participants (a) engage their personal and interpersonal vulnerabilities creatively and strategically, (b) complicate and challenge familiar interpretations of Black men’s allegedly transgressive masculinity through their emotional and practical investment in their health, and (c) demonstrate a form of resourceful masculinity that ambiguously aligns with patriarchy. Conclusion: We conclude with a range of actionable recommendations to strengthen the discursive framework for understanding heterosexual Black men in relation to HIV and health, and substantively engaging them in community responses to HIV.
In Australia, most women with HIV were infected through heterosexual sex, echoing global patterns. In media coverage, these women are typically portrayed as having been deceived by men they trusted, or as victims in criminal cases against HIV-positive men from high-prevalence countries. Heterosexuals are clearly overrepresented in such cases, a pattern consistent across high-income countries. It has been suggested that the victim/perpetrator distinction that defines criminal cases and media stories has some resonance among heterosexuals because of gender power dynamics. But less attention has been paid to the ways women themselves make sense of heterosexual transmission of HIV. Drawing on qualitative interviews from two larger studies, this article shows how the victim-culprit binary is challenged by women's own accounts of acquiring HIV. None presented themselves as "victims" in any straightforward sense, or placed the blame squarely on the men, including men who had not disclosed HIV. Instead, their narratives revealed themes of "mutual vulnerability" and far more ambivalent allocations of responsibility. I conclude that the tendency to position women who become infected with HIV in a victim discourse obscures the complex realities of sexual practice and gender that play a part in the epidemic in any cultural context and that have implications for HIV prevention.
In a reassessment of an earlier analysis of the Edward Savitz case (Patton, 1992a) that relied on a moral panic theory framework to the exclusion of the class and geographical elements of the story, this essay offers an explanation for the preeminence of moral panic analysis in the first decade of AIDS and demonstrates the utility of an alternative form of analysis for the Savitz case that would take those previously overlooked elements into account.
There have been increasing numbers of prosecutions and convictions of HIV-positive persons worldwide. This article reviews laws in a variety of countries used to prosecute HIV-positive people for HIV-related offenses and gives descriptions of some of the more common terms used in these prosecutions. It examines the types of criminal codes, most often not HIV-specific, that have been applied to criminal cases, legislation passed specifically to deal with HIV, as well as some central legal cases. In addition, the paper offers warnings about the continued application of criminal law to HIV/AIDS, either through current statutes or through new HIV-specific legislation. Most experts in the field call for a review of current laws and for the necessary reforms to ensure basic human rights.
Previously we have reported population differences in sexual restraint such that, higher socio-economic status greater than lower socio-economic status, and Mongoloids greater than Caucasoids greater than Negroids. This ordering was predicted from a gene-based evolutionary theory of r/K reproductive strategies in which a trade-off occurs between gamete production and social behaviors such as intelligence, law-abidingness, and parental care. Here we consider the implications of these analyses for sexual dysfunction, including susceptibility to AIDS. We conclude that relative to Caucasians, populations of Asian ancestry are inclined to a greater frequency of inhibitory disorders such as low sexual excitement and premature ejaculation and to a lower frequency of sexually transmitted diseases including AIDS, while populations of African ancestry are inclined to a greater frequency of uninhibited disorders such as rape and unintended pregnancy and to more sexually transmitted diseases including AIDS.
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