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α-process Elements in the Galaxy: A Possible GAIA Contribution

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α-process Elements in the Galaxy: A Possible GAIA Contribution

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The sensitivity of stellar spectra to α/Fe abundance changes is investigated with the aim to be detected photometrically and employed for the scientific goals of the GAIA mission. A grid of plane parallel, line blanketed, flux constant, LTE model atmospheres with different [α/Fe] ratios was calculated. As a first step, the modeled stellar energy fluxes for solar-type stars and giants were computed and intercompared. The spectral sensitivity to α/Fe abundance changes is noticeable and has to be taken into account when selecting photometric filters for GAIA. The Ca II H and K lines and Mg I b triplet are the most sensitive direct indicators ofα/Fe abundance changes.
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α-PROCESS ELEMENTS IN THE GALAXY:
A POSSIBLE GAIA CONTRIBUTION
GRAŽINA TAUTVAIŠIEN
˙
E
Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astronomy, Goštauto 12, Vilnius 2600, Lithuania
E-mail: taut@itpa.lt
BENGT EDVARDSSON
Department of Astronomy and Space Physics, Uppsala Astronomical Observatory, Box 515,
SE-751 20, Uppsala, Sweden
Abstract. The sensitivity of stellar spectra to α/Fe abundance changes is investigated with the aim
to be detected photometrically and employed for the scientific goals of the GAIA mission. A grid
of plane parallel, line blanketed, flux constant, LTE model atmospheres with different [α/Fe] ratios
was calculated. As a first step, the modelled stellar energy fluxes for solar-type stars and giants were
computed and intercompared. The spectral sensitivity to α/Fe abundance changes is noticeable and
has to be taken into account when selecting photometric filters for GAIA. The Ca
II HandKlines
and Mg
I b triplet are the most sensitive direct indicators of α/Fe abundance changes.
1. Introduction
The evolution of a galaxy is closely related with a gradual chemical enrichment.
The enrichment and spatial distribution of the chemical elements depend on vari-
ous galactic and stellar processes. In particular, the star formation (SF) history,
time delay between SF and enrichment of the interstellar medium (ISM), metal
dependency of the nucleosynthesis, galactic gas flows, and mixing processes in
the ISM are important. Since the individual elements are produced at various sites
and on different time scales, the observed abundances are very useful in describing
galactic evolution. The main archeological tracers of the chemical evolution are
the elements produced on a short time scale (10
7
years) by massive stars ending as
core-collapse supernovae (SN II) and on a longer time scale (10
9
years) by Type Ia
(SN Ia) supernova events. SNe II contribute to the enrichment of the interstellar
medium mainly with elements produced by the capture of α-particles (α-elements)
and from the r-process, and SNe Ia predominantly produce elements belonging
to the Fe peak. Consequently, one of the basic tools to constrain the evolution
of a galaxy is the analysis of relations between the ratios of [α-element/Fe] and
Fe abundances [Fe/H] for stars born at different times and in different parts of
a galaxy. For instance, theoretical evolutionary model of the Milky Way galaxy
recently proposed by Chiappini et al. (2001) predicts a slight decrease with distance
in the average [α/Fe] ratios in stars born in the Galactocentric distance range of
4–10 kpc and an increase with distance of this ratio in the range of 10–18 kpc.
Astrophysics and Space Science 280: 143–150, 2002.
© 2002 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands.
144 G. TAUTVAIŠIEN
˙
E AND B. EDVARDSSON
A rst glance at the variation of α-elements shows that most of the metal-
poor stars in the Galaxy appear to have been formed with enhanced abundances
of oxygen and other α-elements (i.e., Ne, Mg, Si, S, Ar, Ca and Ti). For stars
with [Fe/H] ≤−1, the mean value of [α/Fe] lies between +0.3and+0.4, with
no discernible dependence on metallicity (cf. Pagel and Tautvaišien
˙
e, 1995; Sam-
land, 1998). A more precise analysis shows that there is a significant population
of eld stars with [α/Fe] 0.0 (see Figure 4 by Nissen and Shuster, 1997). Sur-
veys by Shuster et al. (1993) and Carney et al. (1996) report evidence for about
0.1 0.2 dex variations in [α/Fe] at fixed [Fe/H]. Carney et al. (1997) have found
that the high-velocity subgiant with the apogalacticon over 20 kpc BD +80
245
has < [α/Fe] >=−0.29 ± 0.02 despite to its low metallicity, [Fe/H] =−1.86. At
the same time there are metal deficient giants with [α/Fe] of +0.7 dex as reported by
Giridhar et al. (2001). It is important to map the abundance pattern of α-elements
in the Galaxy and understand the origin of variations.
A central element of the GAIA mission is the determination of the star forma-
tion histories, as described by the temporal evolution of the star formation rate, and
the cumulative numbers of stars formed in the bulge, inner disk, Solar neighbour-
hood, outer disk and halo of our Galaxy (Perryman et al., 2001). Such information,
together with the kinematic information from GAIA, and complementary chemical
abundance information, again primarily from GAIA, may give us the full evolu-
tionary history of the Galaxy. Information on α/Fe abundance ratios in stars is very
important for their age determination (cf. VandenBerg et al., 2000; Salasnich et al.,
2000). In our study, a first attempt is made to investigate the sensitivity of stellar
spectra to α/Fe abundance variations and their detectability by GAIA photometry.
2. Model Atmospheres with Enhanced α/Fe Ratios
A grid of plane parallel, line blanketed, flux constant, LTE model atmospheres with
enhanced [α/Fe] ratios was calculated with the updated version of the MARCS
code (Gustafsson et al., 1975) using continuous opacities from Asplund et al.
(1997) and including UV line blanketing as described by Edvardsson et al. (1993).
The grid contains model atmospheres with effective temperatures 4500 T
eff
6500 K, 1.5 log g 4.5, 2 ≤[Fe/H]≤0and0.0 [α/Fe] 0.4.
3. Sensitivity of Stellar Spectra to α/Fe Changes
In order to see what spectral regions are most sensitive to α/Fe changes, as a first
step, we computed stellar surface uxes with a wavelength sampling of R 20 000
for solar type stars and giants and investigated their ratios. For instance, Figure 1a
shows the smoothed ratio of the flux distributions with T
eff
= 5500 K, log g = 4.0,
[Fe/H] =−0.4 and two different [α/Fe] ratios: 0.3 and 0.0 dex. The approximate
α-PROCESS ELEMENTS IN THE GALAXY 145
.9
1
1.1
OH
CN
Ca II
CH
Mg I
Ca II
Flux ratio
a)
.9
1
1.1
Flux ratio
b)
.9
1
1.1
Flux ratio
c)
3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000
.8
.9
1
Flux ratio
d)
Figure 1. Sensitivities of the modelled surface energy flux ratios to the variations in fundamental
parameters and chemical abundances. The standard model has T
eff
= 5500 K, log g = 4.0,
[Fe/H] =−0.4and[α/Fe] = 0.0. See Section 3 for more explanations.
146 G. TAUTVAIŠIEN
˙
E AND B. EDVARDSSON
.8
1
1.2
1.4
OH
CN
Ca II
CH
Mg I
Ca II
CN CN
Flux ratio
a)
.6
.8
1
1.2
Flux ratio
b)
.8
1
1.2
Flux ratio
c)
Ca I
3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000
.6
.8
1
1.2
Flux ratio
d)
Figure 2. Sensitivities of the modelled surface energy flux ratios to the variations in fundamental
parameters and chemical abundances. The standard model has T
eff
= 4500 K, log g = 3.0,
[Fe/H] =−0.4and[α/Fe]= 0.0. Notice that the vertical scaling differs from that in Figure 1.
α-PROCESS ELEMENTS IN THE GALAXY 147
Figure 3. The ratio of modelled surface energy uxes with [α/Fe]=+0.3forT
eff
= 5500 K,
log g = 4.0and[Fe/H]=−0.4, plotted together with the indication of filter positions of the three
photometric systems proposed for GAIA. See Section 3 for more explanations.
difference of 0.3 dex was found between thin disk and thick disk stars in the solar
vicinity (cf. Fuhrmann, 1998; Tautvaišien
˙
e et al., 2001). The major wavelength
features directly sensitive to α/Fe in dwarf stars are Ca
II H and K lines and the IR
triplet, OH bands around 3100 Å and also Mg I b triplet region. The latter region is
also affected by MgH molecular bands in cool stars. These features are indicated
below the curve in panel a. There is also an indirect effect of the α-element abund-
ances which is seen on the carbon molecular bands: the higher oxygen abundance
binds more free carbon into CO, which weakens other carbon molecular bands.
The strongest examples are indicated above the curve in panel a. It is obvious that
these secondary effects are quite dramatic and should be taken into account while
using carbon features for photometry.
In Figure 1b, the effect of decreasing the surface gravity by 1.0 dex is shown.
The effects are qualitatively similar to those of the α-element abundance increase in
several wavelength regions. A clear difference starts only bluewards of 3800 Å. The
strong gravity effect on the Ca
II lines makes their use for α-element determinations
quite dependent on a precise log g determination. It is interesting to notice the op-
posite gravity effects on Ca
II and Mg I features. The former are radiation damped
(thus not pressure-sensitive) and strengthened by the decreasing H
continuous
opacity and increasing degree of ionization, while the latter are pressure-broadened
and thus weakened both by the weaker gas pressure and higher degree of ionization.
The sensitivity of the spectrum to changes in metallicity and effective temperature
are shown in Figures 1c and 1d, respectively. The prominent feature of CN near
3850 Å is dependent on very many parameters, including the nitrogen abundance,
which is known to vary during stellar evolution.
Figure 2 shows sensitivities of the modelled surface flux ratios to the variations
in fundamental parameters and chemical abundances for a giant star with the stand-
148 G. TAUTVAIŠIEN
˙
E AND B. EDVARDSSON
ard model of T
eff
= 4500 K, log g = 3.0, [Fe/H] =−0.4and[α/Fe] = 0.0. As it
is seen from the vertical scales, in giants the effects of [α/Fe] abundance changes
and other parameter variations are considerably larger than for the dwarfs.
In Figure 3 we display the three medium-band photometric systems proposed
for GAIA: 2A by Munari (1998), 3G by Høg et al. (2000), and 1F by Grenon et
al. (1999, the wide filters F 33, F 57 and F 67 are not displayed) along with the
modelled ratio of surface energy uxes with [α/Fe]=+0.3forT
eff
= 5500 K,
log g = 4.0and[Fe/H]=−0.4. Figures 1–3 show that the lter centered at 3450 Å
in the 3G system is very useful in determining surface gravities, the lter centered
at 3750 Å may evaluate the CN feature, while the filter centered at 4050 Å – the H
and K lines. However, the lter at 5150 Å includes both C
2
,MgHandMgI b lines
which may cause a confusion. Here the lter of the 2A system centered exactly
on the Mg
I b triplet seems to be better. Filters of the 1F system are quite broad
and may cause difficulties in accounting for α-element variations. One filter in the
GAIA system could be set on the Ca
II IR triplet as well.
The first qualitative investigation of the sensitivity of stellar spectra to α/Fe
abundance variations, presented in this study, indicates that the spectral sensitivity
to α/Fe abundance changes are noticeable. It has both direct and indirect influ-
ence to stellar spectra. A possibility to employ the Ca
II H and K lines and Mg I b
triplet might be considered for the photometric determination of α/Fe abundance
ratios with GAIA photometry. The examples for the dwarf and giant stars with
[α/Fe] = 0.3, displayed in Figures 1 and 2, show that filters of about 80–100 Å
width centered on these features could be used. In the interval of the spectrum
3905–4005 Å with the Ca
II lines, the intensity of the spectrum drops down by
0.08 mag in the dwarf and by 0.11 mag in the giant. In the interval 5160–5240 Å
with the Mg
I b triplet, the intensity of the spectrum drops by 0.02 mag and 0.05 mag,
respectively. Assuming the mission-end photometric GAIA accuracy and three
slots of filters (ESA, 2000), from the Ca
II lines, the accuracy of [α/Fe] 0.1
might be preserved for the giants (with parameters under consideration) down to
about 17.0 mag and for the dwarfs down to about 16.3 mag. From the Mg
I b triplet,
the same accuracy of ±0.1 dex might be preserved for the giants down to about
17.3 mag and for the dwarfs down to about 15.6 mag. In case the accuracy of
±0.2 dex is also acceptable, the stars of 17.9 and 16.7 mag could be investigated
using the Ca
II lines and the stars of 18.2 and 16.5 mag using the Mg I b triplet,
correspondingly.
The work presented in this paper marks the beginning of a large work to be
done in preparations for the photometric investigation of the α-elements in the
Galaxy. Under the assumption of known effective temperature, metallicity and sur-
face gravity, the carbon, nitrogen and α-element abundances might be determined
by means of photometric indices as well.
α-PROCESS ELEMENTS IN THE GALAXY 149
4. Conclusions
The spectral ux sensitivity to α/Fe abundance changes is noticeable and has to
be taken into account in GAIA photometry. The Ca
II H and K lines and Mg I b
triplet are most sensitive direct indicators of α/Fe abundance changes and might be
used for the photometric determination of α-element abundances. The photomet-
ric systems proposed for GAIA have to be carefully tested for accounting of the
α-element abundance determination.
Photometric classification of stars should provide as many physical parameters
as possible. Depending on the accuracy with which the fundamental parameters
are known, we should seek to determine abundances not only of α-elements but of
carbon and nitrogen as well.
Acknowledgements
We thank Vytautas Straižys, Michel Grenon and Vladas Vansevi
ˇ
cius for help-
ful discussion. G.T. acknowledges support from the Nordic Research Academy
(REF NB00-N030) and NATO Linkage grant CRG.LG 972172. B.E. acknowledges
support by the Swedish Natural Sciences Research Council (NFR).
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We report [Fe/H] results for a sample of five high-velocity metal-poor halo population stars and five comparably metal-poor stars thought to have kinematics typical of an older, hotter disk population. We also derive abundances of lithium, oxygen, magnesium, silicon, calcium, titanium, and barium for many of the stars. Four of the candidate disk population stars are found to be subgiants, and a re-evaluation of their kinematics show that they have kinematics typical of the halo population. One star, G190-15, is confirmed to be a dwarf with disk-like kinematics: U = -10, V = -80, W = -90 \kms. It is indistinguishable in [X/Fe] from other metal-poor stars with higher velocities, however. The most interesting star is the high-velocity subgiant BD+80° 245, which is found to have <[``alpha "/Fe]> = -0.29+/-0.02 despite its low metallicity, [Fe/H] = -1.86. It is also extremely deficient in barium, [Ba/Fe] ~ -1.8, and has a large apogalacticon distance, over 20 kpc. It has experienced a very different chemical history than have other metal-poor stars found in the solar neighborhood.
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Based on our expanded sample of metallicities and kinematics for a large sample of stars selected from the Lowell Proper Motion Catalog, we study several questions relating to the halo stellar population(s) in our Galaxy. For [m/H]≤-1.4, there does not seem to be any variation with [m/H] in the mean values of the V velocity (i.e., angular momentum related to that in the disk) or the Galactic orbital eccentricities. Further, in spite of the strong kinematical biases in our sample, stars with very low metallicities are found that have small V velocities (high orbital angular momenta) and low orbital eccentricities. These results contradict the model that the metal-poor stars are a single population that is only the relic of the earliest stages of the Galaxy's collapse. There are signs that some of the metal-poor stars in the solar neighborhood are due to accretion events and, perhaps, also to the earliest stages of the formation of the Galactic disk. Regarding accretion, we confirm Majewski's [ApJS, 78, 87 (1992)] finding of a retrograde rotation among stars that reach S kpc or more from the plane. These stars do not show any radial metallicity gradient, and may be younger on average than dynamically hot, metal-poor stars closer to the plane. These latter stars show net prograde rotation and a radial metallicity gradient, suggestive of a dissipative process in the earliest stages of disk formation. The correlation between metallicity and perigalacticon found by Ryan & Norris [AJ, 101, 1835 (1991a)] disappears when care is taken to exclude the stars that may have been accreted by our Galaxy. The field star results complement those for globular clusters found by other workers, notably Zinn (1993), who argued for two populations of metal-poor clusters, one apparently in retrograde rotation with no radial metallicity gradient and slightly younger ages, and the other with prograde rotation, a weak radial metallicity gradient, and slightly older ages. The field stars and globular clusters do differ slightly, however. Their metallicity distributions differ, with the field stars showing a larger fraction of the most metal-poor stars. This could be caused by accretion of Draco dwarf galaxy-like objects, with very low metallicities and no globular clusters. We see in our data, particularly in the V vs >Rapo< plane, possible signs of large-scale kinematic substructure suggestive of specific accretion events. We also see signs for the Preston et al. [AJ, 108, 538 (1994)] low-metallicity, intermediate kinematics, and younger age stellar population. However, the strength of the signal in our data suggests that a fairly large fraction of its stars may be old. On the other hand, the "away" versus "toward" mystery of Croswell et al. [Al, 93, 1445 (1987)] has disappeared: the numbers of stars approaching and receding from the plane agree with expectations. Finally, we point out that the model of Norris [ApJ, 431, 645 (1994)] for a proto-disk population that is hotter dynamically than the accreted halo components does not agree with our expanded data sample. We suggest that the proto-disk component was dynamically cooler when the mean metallicity was very low.
Formation and Evolution of the Galaxy, Consept and Technology Study Report
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