Article

Adaptive management: Promises and pitfalls. Environmental Management, 20, 437-488

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Abstract

Proponents of the scientific adaptive management approach argue that it increases knowledge acquisition rates, enhances information flow among policy actors, and provides opportunities for creating shared understandings. However, evidence from efforts to implement the approach in New Brunswick, British Columbia, Canada, and the Columbia River Basin indicates that these promises have not been met. The data show that scientific adaptive management relies excessively on the use of linear systems models, discounts nonscientific forms of knowledge, and pays inadequate attention to policy processes that promote the development of shared understandings among diverse stakeholders. To be effective, new adaptive management efforts will need to incorporate knowledge from multiple sources, make use of multiple systems models, and support new forms of cooperation among stakeholders.

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... Chapman, 2012), and that regulatory inflexibility can impede adaptive management (e.g. McLain & Lee, 1996), so a closer examination of this topic is vital. ...
... Waylen & Blackstock, 2017) whilst overlooking non-scientific sources and non-quantitative types of knowledge (e.g. McLain & Lee, 1996). Since these studies sometimes cite requirements or restrictions by higher-levels as constraining project and programme M&E (McLain & Lee, 1996;Waylen & Blackstock, 2017), this suggests that policy-driven M&E may often not match the ideals of adaptive management. ...
... McLain & Lee, 1996). Since these studies sometimes cite requirements or restrictions by higher-levels as constraining project and programme M&E (McLain & Lee, 1996;Waylen & Blackstock, 2017), this suggests that policy-driven M&E may often not match the ideals of adaptive management. Policies are sometimes criticised as inflexible but as they exert a strong and persistent influence on environmental management, this paper not only explores where they prompt divergence from an adaptive management ideal, but also considers how policy-driven M&E could be usefully reorientated. ...
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Article
Inadequate Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) is often thought to hinder adaptive management of socio-ecological systems. A key influence on environmental management practices are environmental policies: however, their consequences for M&E practices have not been well-examined. We examine three policy areas - the Water Framework Directive, the Natura 2000 Directives, and the Agri-Environment Schemes of the Common Agricultural Policy - whose statutory requirements influence how the environment is managed and monitored across Europe. We use a comparative approach to examine what is monitored, how monitoring is carried out, and how results are used to update management, based on publicly available documentation across nine regional and national cases. The requirements and guidelines of these policies have provided significant impetus for monitoring: however, we find this policy-driven M&E usually does not match the ideals of what is needed to inform adaptive management. There is a tendency to focus on understanding state and trends rather than tracking the effect of interventions; a focus on specific biotic and abiotic indicators at the expense of understanding system functions and processes, especially social components; and limited attention to how context affects systems, though this is sometimes considered via secondary data. The resulting data are sometimes publicly-accessible, but it is rarely clear if and how these influence decisions at any level, whether this be in the original policy itself or at the level of measures such as site management plans. Adjustments to policy-driven M&E could better enable learning for adaptive management, by reconsidering what supports a balanced understanding of socio-ecological systems and decision-making. Useful strategies include making more use of secondary data, and more transparency in data-sharing and decision-making. Several countries and policy areas already offer useful examples. Such changes are essential given the influence of policy, and the urgency of enabling adaptive management to safeguard socio-ecological systems.
... To further develop the scale-sensitive governance concept ), we present a framework of governance arrangements that facilitate cross-scale fit and cross-level alignment. We do so by building on four different bodies of governance literature: collaborative (Ansell and Gash 2007;Emerson et al. 2011;Gray andPurdy 2018), adaptive (McLain andLee 1996;Folke et al. 2005;Cumming et al. 2013), multilevel (Hooghe and Marks 2003;Marks and Hooghe 2004;Stephenson 2013) and polycentric governance (Cash 2000;Ostrom 2010;Carlisle and Gruby 2019). We identified nine scale-sensitive governance arrangements, which are divided into a cross-scale (A,B,C,D) and a crosslevel (D,E,F,G,H,I) category ( Fig. 1): ...
... This can subsequently give way to shared understandings and integrated solutions that depend on the concerted action of multiple actors (Gonzales-Iwanciw et al. 2019). A structured learning process can be facilitated with experimentation and monitoring to produce experience through trial and error, and by exchanging the knowledge obtained (McLain and Lee 1996;Cumming et al. 2013). Knowledge exchange and the deliberation between actors that follows determine their adaptive capacity to govern natural resources (Carlisle and Gruby 2019). ...
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Article
Building on different bodies of the governance literature, we propose a conceptual framework specifying nine scale-sensitive governance arrangements that aim to (1) create cross-scale fit between the governance and ecological scales, and/or (2) foster cross-level alignment between different governance levels. To understand how scale-sensitive governance has played out in practice, our systematic review builds on 84 peer-reviewed empirical journal articles, which represent 84 cases of forest and landscape restoration governance. In the case studies, we identified eight out of nine scale-sensitive governance arrangements: moving tasks to other governance levels; task-specific organisations; polycentric governance; multilevel coordination; multilevel collaboration; multilevel learning; bridging organisations; and multilevel networks. These arrangements constitute important elements of the multilevel environmental governance landscape, and we analysed their role in promoting forest and landscape restoration. By using the proposed conceptual framework, a better understanding is created of how different scale-sensitive governance arrangements can support existing and future restoration efforts that are implemented as part of the UN Decade on Ecosystem Restoration.
... However, previously documented experience from other types of adaptive environmental governance have evinced that the crucial implementation and monitoring phases pose a serious challenge, or even potential stumbling block, for adaptive environmental governance methodologies, if not properly attended to (see e.g. McLain & Lee, 1996;Moser & Ekstrom, 2010). McLain and Lee (1996) show that in their in-depth case studies of adaptive governance arrangements in natural resource management, monitoring generally turns out to be a main point of controversy and organizational risk that can jeopardize the long-term viability of the arrangements. ...
... McLain & Lee, 1996;Moser & Ekstrom, 2010). McLain and Lee (1996) show that in their in-depth case studies of adaptive governance arrangements in natural resource management, monitoring generally turns out to be a main point of controversy and organizational risk that can jeopardize the long-term viability of the arrangements. The lack of attention to the implementation and monitoring activities in the literature is hardly surprising however, considering Jones et al.'s (2014) conclusion that overall most work on CCA governance has focused exclusively on the scoping and analysis phases of such policymaking while interest in implementation and follow-up 'has been minimal'. ...
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Article
Adaptive and flexible approaches based on implementing different measures as new information emerges have been proposed as a way of enabling robustness towards uncertain future climate change. However, the success of flexible approaches in practice depends on the stability of the relevant organizational landscapes. In this paper, we draw upon key insights from the institutional theories of organizations and research on public administration and climate adaptation in Sweden. We argue that potential organizational instabilities pose a substantial challenge for the mainstreaming of flexible approaches to climate adaptation. Given the unstable character of the relevant organizational landscape in a very stable country such as Sweden, it seems reasonable to also seriously doubt the capacity of the relevant authorities in less stable countries to carry out a great number of monitoring-intensive, and hence attention-demanding, adaptive governance processes over time. Based on our results we argue that it is perilous to simply assume that flexible approaches to climate adaptation will lead to greater robustness.
... AM uses results from long-term monitoring to inform land management practices, by incorporating uncertainty into decision-making processes (Porzecanski et al., 2012;Williams, 2011). This management approach promotes stakeholder collaboration, draws on data from multiple sources, and uses a variety of models to increase effectiveness (McLain & Lee, 1996). AM has been adopted by many natural resource management agencies, and via emerging collaborative governance systems has been used to manage complex social and ecological systems (Brownson & Fowler, 2020). ...
... Our analysis suggests that continuous stakeholder engagement among partners monitoring the same indicator is helpful in gaining agreement on data collection format, frequency, and metrics. This finding aligns with McLain and Lee (1996) who note that while AM promotes stakeholder collaboration, data reconciliation challenges may arise when drawing from multiple sources. ...
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Article
Climate change, population growth, and declining federal budgets are threatening the health of ecosystems, and the services they provide. Under these changing conditions, managing landscapes and resources assumes new and unprecedented challenges. Adaptive management has been identified as a natural resource management approach that allows practitioners to incorporate change and uncertainty into decision-making through an iterative process that involves long-term monitoring and continued review and adjustment of management actions. However, the success of these efforts in watershed health relies on the collective and sustained monitoring of indicators, which is seldom studied. The purpose of this analysis is to examine (1) the practical challenge of choosing a list of indicators for long-term monitoring, (2) the negotiation process among stakeholders around the selection and interpretation of indicators, and (3) the communication tools that can be used to convey the assessment’s results and findings. To do this, we analyze our ongoing work in the Cienega Watershed in southern Arizona. Our analysis shows that the selective use of indicators, regular assessment and review, and establishment of partnerships among stakeholders are all important elements in establishing effective adaptive management efforts. The selection of indicators and data sources is a moving target that requires regular consensus and review among stakeholders. The assessment itself is also a powerful engagement tool with the public at large, providing legitimacy and support to land management decision-making. Here, we outline some lessons learned that can be transferred to other cases and identify potential barriers for engagement, decision-making, and project success.
... An adaptive management system (AMS) is a solution to deal with BECCS complexity and its multifaceted nature. An AMS allows simplifying the complex problems by hierarchical categorisation of the impacts and criteria under each category without losing the holistic perspective of the problem [16][17][18][19]. Historically, planning energy systems in a non-adaptive approach has led to challenges such as carbon lock-in phenomenon which is one of the main socio-economic impediments to transition towards a carbon-free future [20,21]. ...
... These characteristics are all embedded in an AMS. AMS is an iterative decision-making process that reduces the uncertainty over time via system monitoring [16,18,19]. Multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) is an essential component of adaptive management systems, which assist the stakeholders with a timely, participatory, and comprehensive evaluation of the sustainability of the energy systems and to assess the impact of each choice on the outcomes. ...
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Conference Paper
Bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS), as a carbon removal pathway, has been assigned a key role to achieve ambitious mitigation targets in several climate models. Most of these models focus on the techno-economic parameters in assessing BECCS potential to produce energy and deliver negative emission. However, BECCS is a multifaceted complex system and needs to be assessed through a holistic sustainability framework. This study proposes an integrated adaptive management system to model technical, economic, environmental, social and political aspects of a BECCS system. The adaptive management system employs a multi-criteria decision-making tool, namely analytical hierarchy process, to assess several BECCS alternatives and rank them against a set of key sustainability criteria. The aim of such adaptive management system is to facilitate decision-making process in evaluating the sustainability of the BECCS alternatives and introduce a systematic methodology to analyse the synergies and trade-offs between different criteria and mitigation scenarios. The biomass resources for the BECCS alternatives in this study are organic waste from municipality, agricultural and forestry sectors. A sensitivity analysis using scenarios with different sustainability paradigms for mitigation was conducted. The results proved to favour BECCS alternatives using municipal solid wastes under all scenarios. The main uncertainties regarding future of BECCS are the optimal scale and timing of its deployment, access to biomass in the future, its interlinkage with natural ecosystem and socio-political dynamics. To conduct in-depth case-by-case studies to eliminate these uncertainties and to fast track BECCS deployment strong governmental support in addition to coherent policy programs in the international and regional levels are essential.
... To further develop the scale-sensitive governance concept , we present a framework of governance arrangements that facilitate cross-scale fit and cross-level alignment ( Figure 5.1). We do so by building on four different bodies of governance literature: collaborative (Ansell and Gash, 2007;Emerson et al., 2011;Gray and Purdy, 2018), adaptive (Cumming et al., 2013;Folke et al., 2005;McLain and Lee, 1996), multi-level (Hooghe and Marks, 2003;Marks and Hooghe, 2004;Stephenson, 2013) and polycentric governance (Carlisle and Gruby, 2019;Cash, 2000;Ostrom, 2010). We identified nine scale-sensitive governance arrangements, which are divided into a cross-scale (A,B,C,D) and a cross-level (D,E,F,G,H,I) category: ...
... This can subsequently give way to shared understandings and integrated solutions that depend on the concerted action of multiple actors (Gonzales-Iwanciw et al., 2019). A structured learning process can be facilitated with experimentation and monitoring to produce experience through trial and error, and by exchanging the knowledge obtained (Cumming et al., 2013;McLain and Lee, 1996). Knowledge exchange and the deliberation between actors that follows determines their adaptive capacity to govern natural resources (Carlisle and Gruby, 2019). ...
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Thesis
This dissertation focuses on understanding the cross-scale, cross-level and cross-sector characteristics of Forest and Landscape Restoration (FLR) governance, the challenges that emerge when national restoration targets are implemented, and the governance arrangements and strategies that have supported actors to overcome these challenges. The following general research question has guided the research: What scale challenges emerge when implementing policies to meet national restoration targets, and what scale-sensitive governance arrangements and strategies do actors use in dealing with these challenges? The dissertation consists of four empirical chapters and one systematic literature review. The national FLR governance contexts of Ecuador and Ethiopia were studied to understand the cross-scale and cross-level, as well as cross-sector challenges that arise when national restoration targets are translated into local action. The results are based on a policy and project document review, 54 interviews in Ecuador, 56 interviews and 14 focus group discussions in Ethiopia, and participatory observation. To understand how restoration-related actors have overcome cross-scale and cross-level challenges focus was placed on scale-sensitive governance arrangements and strategies. The results related to scale-sensitive arrangements are based on a review of 84 peer-reviewed FLR governance case studies, while the results related to scale-sensitive strategies build on a project document review, 48 interviews in Ecuador, and participatory observation.
... Barriers to successful AM include a mismatch of spatial or temporal scales of information and decision making (Williams and Brown 2016), cooptation by extractive interests, lack of institutional commitment ( Stankey et al. 2003), insufficient monitoring (Moir andBlock 2001, Williams andBrown 2016), failure to act, and insufficient stakeholder https://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol24/iss2/art29/ participation ( McLain andLee 1996, Allen andGunderson 2011). ...
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Article
Learning is recognized as central to collaborative adaptive management (CAM), yet few longitudinal studies examine how learning occurs in CAM or apply the science of learning to interpret this process. We present an analysis of decision-making processes within the collaborative adaptive rangeland management (CARM) experiment, in which 11 stakeholders use a structured CAM process to make decisions about livestock grazing and vegetation management for beef, vegetation, and wildlife objectives. We analyzed four years of meeting transcripts, stakeholder communications, and biophysical monitoring data to ask what facilitated and challenged stakeholder decision making, how challenges affected stakeholder learning, and whether CARM met theorized criteria for effective CAM. Despite thorough monitoring and natural resource agency commitment to implementing collaborative decisions, CARM participants encountered multiple decision-making challenges born of ecological and social complexity. CARM was effective in achieving several of its management objectives, including reduced ecological uncertainty, knowledge coproduction, and multiple-loop social learning. CARM revealed limitations of the idealized CAM cycle and challenged conceptions of adaptive management that separate reduction of scientific uncertainty from participatory and management dimensions. We present a revised, empirically grounded CAM framework that depicts CAM as a spiral rather than a circle, where feedback loops between monitoring data and management decisions are never fully closed. Instead, complexities including time-lags, trade-offs, path-dependency, and tensions among stakeholders' differing types of knowledge and social worlds both constrain decision making and foster learning by creating disorienting dilemmas that challenge participants' pre-existing mental models and relationships. Based on these findings, we share recommendations for accelerating learning in CAM processes.
... This approach to adaptation planning has its antecedents in adaptive planning in environmental management (Holling 1978, McLain andLee 1996) and the decision and policy sciences (Lempert et al 1996:236). In 2003, UKCIP guidance asked, 'Can adaptation options be identified that could be increased at a later date, or implemented separately or in combination or in sequence to provide flexible levels of response to risk?' (Willows et al 2003). ...
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Article
Climate change adaptation planning demands decision-making under conditions of uncertainty and ambiguity. Adaptive Pathways (AP) planning is receiving increased attention as a method to guide adaptation planning in the face of uncertainties. The approach has been most extensively developed and applied in large, well-funded contexts such as the Thames Barrier and Dutch Delta program. However, the development of AP planning has focused much less on the parallel need for engaging with the challenge of ambiguity—that there are diverse, sometimes contending, knowledges, values, and stakes involved. A more nascent body of work has been exploring ways of engaging with both the uncertainties and ambiguities of adaptation through various participatory approaches to AP planning. This paper sought to synthesise insights from this emerging work. Examining the peer-reviewed and grey literature identified eight cases from four countries across five different policy issues that provided details of how they approached diverse participation. Analysis of this small suite of cases provided some key insights for those seeking to use participatory approaches to AP planning to engage with the inherent uncertainties and (arguably necessary) ambiguities of adaptation. The paper concludes with a call for greater publication of details regarding how participatory approaches to methods such as AP planning have been undertaken not just what was undertaken.
... Despite its deep theoretical basis, translating adaptive management into practice has proven to be a challenge (McLain and Lee, 1996;Doremus, 2001;Walters, 2007;Allen and Gunderson, 2011;Birgé et al., 2016;Craig et al., 2017;Gillson et al., 2019). Within the efforts for overcoming this implementation gap, there has been an increasing interest in understanding how law can hinder or facilitate adaptive management of social-ecological systems (Iles, 1996;Ruhl, 2005;Garmestani et al., 2014;Benson and Schultz, 2015;Frohlich et al., 2018). ...
Article
Adaptive management has been advocated as an appropriate approach for the management of social-ecological systems, although its implementation has proven to be a challenge. Legal systems can hinder or facilitate adaptive management. Focusing on legal arrangements, this article explores how adaptive management can be better operationalised in the context of coastal management. Byron Shire, a local government area in New South Wales, Australia, was selected as a case study where we: (a) analysed how the concept of adaptive management has emerged within the evolution of coastal management and its applicable legal framework, and (b) identified juridical constraints to adaptive coastal management. Qualitative methods were used for the analysis of relevant documents and semi-structured interviews with 23 key informants. The results show that a distorted version of adaptive management has been adopted in Byron Shire's draft coastal management plans, which fails to adhere to the formal, structured, and iterative process of adaptive management. A legacy created by the legal effects of past decisions affecting coastal management has led to a path dependency towards protective measures to manage coastal erosion, constraining other management options, particularly managed realignment strategies. Failure to address juridical constraints in the early stages of the adaptive management process can result in stakeholder conflict and litigation. Overlitigation harms adaptive coastal management by pushing the decision-making process away from the pathway offered by the legal framework for preparing and implementing coastal management plans. After recent legislative coastal reform at the state level, there is momentum for the Byron Shire Council to refocus its adaptive management approach. However, overcoming existing juridical constraints will require adaptive governance, in which all levels of government must work collaboratively with the affected stakeholders in the design and implementation of the adaptive management process.
... For instance, Leiter, Oberhofer, and Raschky (2009) analyse the impact of a flood on the accumulation of corporate capital, employment growth and productivity by applying the difference-in-difference (DID) approach and by taking into account the structure of corporate assets. Meanwhile, McLain and Lee (1996) emphasise the role of adaptive management in the event of extreme conditions. Supporters of the scientific approach to adaptive management argue that it increases the level of knowledge acquisition and facilitates information flow between entities responsible for flood policies. ...
Article
The main purpose of the article is to develop an optimisation pattern for the process of a preventive evacuation of people from flood-risk areas (at the first sign of a flood), aimed at mitigating the negative effects of the flood performed through the application of modern computer tools. It has been assumed that the use of both GIS tools and apps for vehicle traffic modelling (the research includes the use of a method developed by the authors) in emergency procedures implemented in response to a flood may increase the efficiency of the anti-flood campaign (here: the evacuation of residents from flooded areas), and thus, it may also minimise the negative effects of the flooding itself. The article distinguishes 14 stages of research, which were chiefly completed by means of the following methods: distance-based accessibility, cumulative accessibility, the Enhanced Two-Step Floating Catchment Area Method (E2SFCA) and the Two-Step Floating Catchment Area Method (2SFCA), the vehicle routing method, algorithms by Dinitz, Edmonds-Karp, and Ford-Fulkerson, and a comparative method applied to draw a comparison between the actual state of affairs and the optimum condition determined by the aforementioned methods.
... Clearly, there are substantial impediments to adaptive management-some technical, some operational, some institutional. Indeed, recent reviews (McLain and Lee 1996, Walters 1997) [Auk,Vol. 120 indicate that few fully adaptive approaches to resource management have extended beyond the planning phase, not least because the approach involves complex concepts and methodologies, high biological and social dimensions, sometimes strong institutional resistance, and substantial data requirements (Johnson and Williams 1999). ...
... CAM faces implementation challenges stemming from technical and institutional constraints [127][128][129] and social dynamics. Social challenges include failure to involve the right stakeholders or insufficient involvement by participating stakeholders, lack of continuity in participants, insufficient facilitation, and failure to monitor social learning [130]. ...
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Article
Complex sustainability problems (e.g., climate change) are challenging to understand and manage, leading to an increase in approaches that connect scholars to society and research to action (collaborative approaches). The transdisciplinary approach (TDA) represents one such approach. While TDA is new to many, there are several prior collaborative approaches including collaborative adaptive management, knowledge integration, participatory action research, and indigenous/local knowledge. Other contemporary and parallel approaches include citizen science, translational science, evidence-based practice, and knowledge with action. The varied disciplinary roots and problem areas contribute to a lack of interaction among these parallel but distinct approaches, and among the scholars and stakeholders who practice them. In this paper, we consider the connections, complementarities and contradictions among these distinct but related collaborative approaches. This review offers insights into the interaction between science and practice, including the importance of social processes and recognition of different ways of knowing, as well as how to conduct collaborative approaches on a variety of scales and think about how to generalize findings. The review suggests a need to rethink roles and relationships in the process of knowledge co-creation, both extending the roles of researchers and practitioners, creating new hybrid roles for “pracademics”, and placing greater awareness on issues of power.
... Adaptive management is a fundamentally reflexive approach, which relies on iterative policy revision and allows for lessons learned to influence decisions (Holling 1978). It is often cited as having the potential to promote sustainable resource development (Walters and Hilborn 1978;McLain and Lee 1996;Schultz et al. 2015) and has specifically been identified for its climate change adaptation potential (Grafton 2010). While fisheries management institutions, including RFMOs, do not explicitly reference adaptive management as their preferred management approach, the adaptive management cycle [i.e. ...
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Article
While Regional Fisheries Management Organizations (RFMOs) face many challenges in their pursuit of sustainable resource development, climate change is among the most pressing and least addressed. Research has identified a host of expected or ongoing physical, biological, ecological, and social impacts of climate change on the marine environment, creating a strong climate change adaptation imperative for RFMOs. Through a case study of the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC), we describe two serious limitations of current RFMO climate change adaptation strategies: (1) a weakened efficacy of resource management and conservation policies caused by viewing climate change as a general climate stressor rather than a unique environmental challenge, and (2) a reliance on incremental policy reform, problematic because it may not enable a pace or scale of policy change proportional to the sustainable development challenges created by a rapidly changing ocean. We discuss the benefits and drawbacks of incrementalism and outline potential solutions to the environmental and structural challenges facing the IATTC and other RFMOs, including the concept of adaptation pathways.
... These findings have been investigated in detail by numerous experimental studies, which have identified the significance of a range of factors for encouraging the development of institutions regulating resource harvesting [17,[20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27]. Despite this, which causal mechanisms are more important under which conditions remains under researched; indeed against general assumptions, some authors have demonstrated that, undirected, stakeholder collaboration can impair environmental management [3,15,28]. ...
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Article
Communication between resource users has repeatedly been shown to be of significant importance in environmental management. The proposed causal mechanisms are numerous, ranging from the ability of users to share information to their ability to negotiate solutions to common problems and dilemmas. However, what is less known is under what conditions these potential causal mechanisms are important and if, in cases when different means other than communication were available, whether they would be more effective in accomplishing these objectives. An example of such an alternative could be that instead of (or in addition to) users being reliant on within-group communication to acquire useful information an intermediary—such as a public agency—could provide that for them. Furthermore, the different causal mechanisms making communication beneficial might not be independent, neither in respect to each other, nor in respect to other externally imposed means to facilitate better environmental management, and not in regards to different contextual factors. This study makes use of laboratory experiments in an innovative way to explore these questions and specifically test the relative importance of communication in managing complex social-ecological system characterized by common-pool resource dilemmas, ecological interdependencies, and asymmetric resource access–all characteristics being present simultaneously. We find that when resources users are confronted with such a complex challenge, the ability to communicate significantly increases individual and group performance. What is more surprising is the negative effect on overall outcomes that providing external information has on outcomes, when the users also have the ability to communicate. By analysing the content of the conversations we are able to suggest several possible explanations on how the combination of external information provisioning and user communications act to increase individual cognitive load and drives intra-group competition, leading to a significant reduction of individual and group outcomes.
... As global environmental change continues to accelerate and intensify (Cleland et al. 2007, Steffen et al. 2011, Pepin et al. 2015, new approaches are required to build bottom-up understanding and place-based responses that connect across multiple knowledge systems and evidence streams (Tengö et al. 2014). Drawing on multiple knowledge systems, e.g., local or indigenous knowledge, different academic disciplines or work sectors, is increasingly necessary for improved understanding and management of adaptive social-ecological systems (McLain and Lee 1996, Dietz et al. 2003, Folke 2004. For example, Armitage et al. (2011) demonstrate that the combination of insights from biological science and place-based local knowledge of an Arctic fish species led to a revised understanding of the causes of fish declines and more precise management options for addressing them. ...
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Article
Knowledge coproduction that draws on local and scientific knowledge presents opportunities for more holistic understanding of environmental change. We describe our use of a multiple-evidence based approach to investigate the causes and consequences of environmental change in a community-protected grassland and its surrounding landscape in the Ethiopian highlands. We explore the interaction of biophysical change (precipitation and vegetation) and social change (political and management institutions), and discuss potential impacts for ecosystem service provisioning. We quantified current distributions of locally defined land use/cover classes using a supervised classification, with an overall accuracy of 87.1%. Local community members then described and ranked the ecosystem services associated with each land class according to their perceived importance for society. Vegetation and precipitation changes were assessed using satellite time series beginning in the early 1980s, while local narratives describe changes back to the 1970s. The knowledge coproduction process brought together ethnographic and remote sensing approaches, revealing both complementary and contradictory findings across knowledge systems. Results with high agreement across knowledge systems clarify and reinforce understanding of certain threats and changes to the area, such as the rapidly declining native forests, the disappearing belg rainy season (p = 0.01), and the impact of insecure land tenure on natural resource extraction. Compelling areas of disagreement point to topics in need of further investigation, including increased attention to the spatial and temporal variability of change across a seemingly homogeneous cultural landscape, and the process of shrub encroachment into the protected grassland.
... Nevertheless, there has long been a recognition of the essential value of good hypotheses as the basis of adaptive management (Fontaine, 2011;McLain & Lee, 1996), and models such as the niche envelope models that I present here are essentially highly detailed, flexible hypotheses which are highly suitable to this purpose. ...
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Article
Aim The management and restoration of ecological processes mediated by biotic interactions is now broadly advocated and may be achieved by targeting restoration towards key agents. Although theoretically examined, a practical approach to incorporating the physiology and energetics of insects into restoration planning is poorly articulated. I aimed to provide a case study using the thermal biology and energetics of beetles to identify the distribution of habitat suitability in a large restoration landscape. Location South‐west Western Australia. Methods I modelled the thermal performance of metabolic rates of thirteen Phyllococerus purpurascens, and twenty Colpochila “species 2,” measured repeatedly at seven temperatures between five and 40°C using flow‐through respirometry. Thermal constraints were used to inform a species distribution model of each species at extremely high spatiotemporal resolution, projecting the physiological state of each species for every hour at 5″ resolution across a 152‐km² restoration landscape in south‐western Australia to estimate the habitat suitability for beetles. Results Both species’ metabolic rates increased exponentially to a critical point, followed by rapid decline, but the thermal tolerance thresholds were different for each species. Both had strikingly high‐thermal tolerance relative to their nocturnal habits and local climatic conditions. The models of beetle prevalence estimated both species to be active and able to access the entire project area for all of the austral spring, summer and autumn. Main conclusions The results reported here suggest ubiquitous habitat suitability for flower beetles in disturbed landscapes. Incorporation of similar mechanistic models for other species at high resolution offers potential insight into habitat suitability for a broad range of ectotherms.
... Dewey (1927) put forth an argument that policies be treated as experiments, with the aim of promoting continual learning and adaptation in response to experience over time (Busenberg, 2001). 7 Early applications of adaptive policies can be found in the field of environmental management (Holling, 1978;McLain & Lee, 1996), where policies are designed from the outset to test clearly formulated hypotheses about the behavior of an ecosystem being changed by human use (Lee, 1993). A similar attitude is also advocated by Collingridge (1980) with respect to the development of new technologies. ...
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Article
Governing risks is not only a technical matter, but also a matter of ethical and societal considerations. In this article, we argue that in addition to scientific and technical uncertainties, we need to also address normative uncertainties of risk decisions. We define normative uncertainties as situations where there are different partially morally defensible ‐‐ but incompatible ‐‐ options or courses of action, or ones in which there is no fully morally defensible option. We conceptualize normative uncertainties, distinguishing between the four categories of evolutionary, theoretical, conceptual, and epistemic normative uncertainties. We will show different instances of normative uncertainties in climate adaptation strategies. We finally present two methods for identifying and dealing with normative uncertainties, namely, the Wide Reflective Equilibrium and adaptive planning. Situations of normative uncertainties have always been and will continue to be present in risk decisions and they have often been dealt with in an implicit manner. In this article, we make them explicit, which could lead to better morally informed and justified decisions about climate risks. This article is categorized under: • Climate, Nature, and Ethics > Ethics and Climate Change. Abstract When governing climate adaptation risks, we need to identify and address normative uncertainties. This paper proposes a method for this.
... In active adaptive management, resource management actions are implemented as experiments to test competing policy hypotheses with the aim of generating knowledge about the system [91][92][93][94]. However, because adaptive management has largely been implemented as a technical resource management approach that fails to adequately recognize social and institutional considerations [74,[95][96][97], adaptive governance provides an appropriate institutional context for the successful implementation of adaptive management [80,94,98]. Given the reluctance of policymakers in embracing the complexity and uncertainties that characterize human-environment interactions [94,96], combining the scientific insights from the resilience and adaptive governance literature with the metaphysical assumptions of deep ecology could offer a more compelling argument for a rethinking of human-nature interactions. ...
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Article
Since the late 1980s, the idea of sustainable development has been gaining widespread recognition as a guiding framework for policies on development and the environment. However, the concept of sustainable development has received a number of criticisms, including its over-emphasis on meeting human needs through economic growth, as well as its failure to recognize dynamic human–environment interactions. In response to these shortfalls, the concepts of resilience and adaptive governance have emerged as alternative perspectives for pursuing sustainable development. Resilience in social-ecological systems emphasizes the capacity of coupled human–environment systems to deal with change, while continuing to develop. Adaptive governance relies on diverse and nested institutional mechanisms for connecting actors across multiple scales to manage conflicts and uncertainties in ecosystem management processes. However, the ethical dimensions of resilience and adaptive governance have not received enough attention. A promising ethical perspective for guiding policies on human–environment interactions is the philosophy of deep ecology, which highlights the need for recognition of the intrinsic values of all living things, as well as the nurturing of ecological and cultural diversity. In this paper, I argue that an integration of the principles of deep ecology and adaptive governance provides a complementary set of ethical principles and institutional attributes that offers better prospects for pursuing sustainable development in the era of the Anthropocene. The implications of this integrative agenda include: the adoption of a holistic conception of dynamic human–environment interactions; the recognition of diverse knowledge systems through an anti-reductionist approach to knowledge; the promotion of long term sustainability through respect for ecological and cultural diversity; and embracing decentralization and local autonomy. I further illustrate this integrative agenda using the management of protected areas as a case study.
... This is a delicate balance that can only be achieved through continual review of methodologies and collaboration across systems. Careful development of integrated creel surveys could provide fisheries management with rich data (social and ecological in form) that are an important key to adaptive management (McLain and Lee 1996). Further, incentives must be put in place that encourage the development and collaboration of angler interview data at a large scale. ...
Article
Recreational fisheries are social-ecological systems (SES), and knowledge of human dimensions coupled with ecology are critically needed to understand their system dynamics. Creel surveys, which typically occur in-person and on-site, serve as an important tool for informing fisheries management. Recreational fisheries creel data have the potential to inform large-scale understanding of social and ecological dynamics, but applications are currently limited by a disconnect between the questions posed by social-ecological researchers and the methods in which surveys are conducted. Although innovative use of existing data can increase understanding of recreational fisheries as SES, creel surveys should also adapt to changing information needs. These opportunities include using the specific temporal and spatial scope of creel survey data, integrating these data with alternative data sources, and increasing human dimensions understanding. This review provides recommendations for adapting survey design, implementation, and analysis for SES-focused fisheries management. These recommendations are: (1) increasing human dimensions knowledge; (2) standardization of surveys and data; (3) increasing tools and training available to fisheries scientists; and (4) increasing accessibility and availability of data. Incorporation of human dimensions information into creel surveys will increase the ability of fisheries management to regulate these important systems from an integrated SES standpoint.
... Reference [24] has highlighted the need for climate-smart agricultural initiatives to move beyond current incremental approaches toward prioritizing adaptive management, as well as building the capacity for transformational change in the agricultural sector. To enhance success in the application of these principles in the agricultural sector, it is essential to recognize barriers that have been identified in the implementation of adaptive management in other contexts, including inadequate stakeholder engagement, lack of political will on the part of resource managers and decision makers, lack of prioritization of active experimentation, failure to apply new knowledge in decision making, lack of appropriate monitoring protocols, as well as limited funding and personnel [51,63,64,70,71]. The vulnerability of agricultural landscapes could also present challenges for the implementation of active adaptive management that entails using the management process as an experiment to test policy hypotheses. ...
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Although the transition to industrial agriculture in the 20th century resulted in increased agricultural productivity and efficiency, the attainment of global food security continues to be elusive. Current and anticipated impacts of climate change on the agricultural sector are likely to exacerbate the incidence of food insecurity. In recent years, climate-smart agriculture has gained recognition as a mechanism that has the potential to contribute to the attainment of food security and also enhance climate change mitigation and adaptation. However, several conceptual and implementation shortfalls have limited the widespread adoption of this innovative agricultural system at the landscape scale. This manuscript argues for the use of ecosystem management as an overarching framework for the conceptualization and implementation of climate-smart agriculture. The manuscript focuses on clarifying the foundational assumptions and management goals, as well as the knowledge and institutional requirements of climate-smart agriculture using the principles of ecosystem management. Potential challenges that may be faced by the application of an ecosystem management approach to climate-smart agriculture are also discussed. Furthermore, the manuscript calls for a heightened focus on social equity in the transition toward an ecosystem-based approach to climate-smart agriculture. The US farm bill is used as an illustrative case study along with other examples drawn mostly from sub-Saharan Africa.
... Адаптивният подход предполага постоянен процес на моделиране, приложение на моделите, получаване на нови знания и промяна (усъвършенстване) на моделите и концепциите. След, което цикълът се повтаря [13]. ...
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This work investigates adaptive approaches to the management of the oak forests in Bulgaria under climate change conditions. The key elements of adaptive management and various forestry approaches of transformation of coppice forests are presented. On this basis, the results of the transformations of the coppice oak forests, the structure of the assortments of industrial roundwood, sawlogs and fuelwood of the thinnings and regenerative fellings and the dynamics of the stock and the mean annual increment (MAI) for the period 1960–2015 in coppice oak stands for conversion to high forest are analyzed. Based on the data from the analysis, it is proposed to plan and perform the activities in the coppice oak forests of "commonwealth" individually according to the state of the individual stands or parts of them. It is recommended that future forestry concepts be developed regionally for the following groups of coppice oak forests: stands for restoration; stands for conversion into high forest; stands for mixed coppice-high forest management.
... The frequency with which participation was discussed in the papers reviewed demonstrates the importance of active and ongoing participation throughout the adaptive management process [5,6,17,23,33,68]. Participation allows for the biological, economic, social, political and cultural values and perspectives held by those involved in the process to inform objective setting [69]. ...
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Article
Adaptive management acknowledges uncertainty and complexity in socio–ecological systems, providing a structured approach for learning and for making the needed management adjustments. Despite its utility, there are few examples of how adaptive management has been applied. To identify the extent to which implementation aligns with theory, we conducted a systematic literature review of adaptive management in a fisheries management context to compare how adaptive management was defined, applied and what was deemed important for implementation. Following the PRISMA approach for meta-synthesis, 20 papers were identified and reviewed against the eight key components of adaptive management. Across the case studies, we found ambiguity in the definitions of adaptive management, a varying emphasis on the different components of adaptive management and barriers to adaptive management that stemmed from both outside the process and as part of the iterative cycle. Our analysis suggests that for adaptive management to be implemented in other natural resource management situations, consideration should be given to the active and ongoing participation of those outside management, integrating socio–economic values into decision-making, and ensuring a monitoring plan is implemented. Additionally, attention should be paid to having the time and ability to detect the effects of management actions against a broader background of change. This analysis offers insights into how management support can lead to more effective objective-based decisions, thereby improving management over time.
... Rather, practices such as adaptive management can support the combined knowledge of management and science to optimize interventions in lake conservation (Abdel-Fattah & Krantzberg, 2014;Yasarer & Sturm, 2016). Practical implementation of these combined approaches have been observed around the globe (Brown et al., 2011;Li et al., 2020;Olsson & Folke, 2001), but there is still room for growth and identification of new approaches to sustainable intersectoral partnerships (McLain & Lee, 1996). Overall, more decisive actions towards increasing the degree of integration of lake science and management sectors into more cohesive collaborations are needed to address lake challenges (Creed et al., 2016;Roux et al., 2006). ...
... This broader interpretation of AM is relevant even where key decisions about the system are made centrally by an overarching government. There are many other stakeholders who do, in fact, influence decision-making through less formal mechanisms, for better or for worse [79][80][81][82]. ...
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Anticipated water-related impacts of climate change heighten the need for tools supporting proactive efforts to address current and future conflicts involving water. Analysing a regulatory framework for a water resource using Ostrom’s (1990) Common Pool Resource (CPR) theory can assist in identifying regulatory weaknesses that may contribute to deterioration of the resource and conflicts between resource users. Equally, adopting adaptive management to transform the regulatory context can also have positive effects. However, if incentives drive resource extractor behaviours, a tool to communicate these initiatives with stakeholders, including state actors, could assist. This article presents the ‘CPR heat map’ to assist with efforts to drive changes in water governance. An example of the CPR heatmap is presented involving the governance of groundwater in the Surat Cumulative Management Area, Queensland, Australia. This example shows how perceived weaknesses and strengths of the governance framework can be illustrated. It also shows how initiatives that are transforming water governance can be presented to drive social learning. The CPR heat map illustrates the collective nature of the resource system and how to potentially resolve and manage water-related conflict. This research has implications for how we approach conflict involving water and may be also relevant for managing other CPRs.
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We develop a perspective on steering in governance which understands steering as intended path creation. Inspired by evolutionary governance theory, critical management studies and social systems theory, we argue that steering is shaped and limited by co-evolutions, disallowing for any formulaic approach. In order to illuminate the space for steering in governance, we analyze the interplay between different dependencies. Those dependencies are not just obstacles to path creation, they can also be pointers and assets. The steering discussion is further complicated by always unique sets of couplings between a governance system and its environment. After introducing the ideas of reality effects and governance strategy, we further develop our concept of steering and present it as the management of dependencies (in governance) and reality effects (outside governance) towards path creation. This management is ideally strategic in nature and requires leadership in a new role.
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Context Evidence-based knowledge is crucial for place-based knowledge production and learning towards sustainable landscapes through stewardship and integrated spatial planning. Objectives We focus on the landscape service concept as a tool, and three fundamental challenges for its use: (1) how to monitor benefits provided by different landscapes; (2) to demonstrate trade-offs and synergies among benefits in a landscape; and (3) to discuss how to incorporate results from analyses into landscape stewardship and planning. Methods As a case study we chose the Iranian Qazvin province with diverse natural and anthropogenic landscapes, and top-down societal steering. Five landscape services (water yield, water regulation, pollination, actual net primary production (NPPact) and social-cultural connectivity) were assessed and compared. Results All landscape services were significantly correlated. Major trade-offs and synergies among services were between NPPact and water yield and regulation. Trade-off and synergy clusters showed that landscape functions depend on both natural and anthropogenic landscape patterns and processes. Conclusions Providing transparent data about trade-offs and synergies among landscape services can facilitate learning about which services are important among landscapes. For each of six settings we suggest action plans. We discuss the role of Iranian landscape stewardship and planning, and integrative research needs.
Article
In this article, we examine best practices and future opportunities for the design of coastal web atlases (CWAs) supporting adaptive management. Coastal zones face significant challenges, and CWAs have emerged as a resource to organize maps and geospatial data in support of education, exploration, and decision-making about coastal issues. Our research is motivated by the Wisconsin Coastal Atlas (https://www.wicoastalatlas.net/)—one of several U.S. state-based CWAs that are members of the broader International Coastal Atlas Network (ICAN: https://ican.iode.org/). Specifically, we conducted a needs assessment that bridges adaptive coastal management user needs with three tenets of interactive cartographic design relevant to CWAs: map representation, interaction, and usability. The needs assessment included two stages: a competitive analysis of 10 state CWAs and a user survey with stakeholders from those states about their experiences with and opinions on CWA design. In addition to characterizing design patterns and values, the needs assessment identified important gaps informing future CWAs, such as: inclusion of a wider range of thematic maps; provision of hybrid basemaps providing context about the land and water sides of the coastline; implementation of spatial calculations and temporal sequencing for analysis and exploration; use of story maps to support CWA learnability; improved responsiveness between mobile and non-mobile devices; and customization of advanced analytical tools that support decision making about the most pressing issues facing our coasts. This research serves coastal managers, planners, researchers, educators, outreach specialists, and related stakeholders who benefit from findable, accessible, interoperable, and reusable (FAIR) data and effective decision tools to guide management of coastal resources.
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Growing recognition has developed between policy-makers and practitioners that green infrastructure (GI) provides an approach to planning for effectively integrating ecosystems, biodiversity, socio-economic and political factors into a coherent framework for environmental management. While there has been progressive development of the concept, a deeper analysis demonstrates that this process has been disjointed. We identify four factors or ‘axes’ related to: temporal, geographic, scalar and disciplinary variation, which have shaped how GI is promoted and implemented. This paper traces coalescence and divergence across GI planning, using these four axes to map the concept’s development. It also questions whether the lack of alignment between GI research and Impact Assessment (IA) is grounded in existing disciplinary mentalities or related to governance or geographical variation. From this analysis, we identify that these factors interact with socio-political and economic drivers shaping the terminology used, but this is not translated into effective evaluative practice. Although flexibility is one of the main strengths of GI, we argue that some degree of harmonisation will help advance the use of GI in environmental planning and assessment.
Article
Adaptive management is a systematic approach to learning from outcomes to improve management. Although its virtues are commonly praised, it has been implemented infrequently in natural resource management because of the challenges of developing a feasible process that can be sustained over time. Our analysis of regional experiences from private, state, and federal lands in the Pacific Northwest (United States and Canada) finds that the questions addressed by private organizations tend to be more specific, associated with a narrower scope of uncertainties, and addressed in a shorter time frame with limited stakeholder involvement. On publicly managed lands, questions tend to be more complex and open-ended, usually driven by their mandate for multiple use and high level of stakeholder engagement. We present a structured adaptive management framework that translates theory into action by describing an implementation process and organizational structure, explicitly linking learning to management planning and implementation, and integrating the technical and social aspects of adaptive management. Forest managers and policymakers can customize our example according to their mandate and management objectives. The framework is particularly relevant to land management for multiple uses, where the uncertainties are abundant and complex, and the decisionmakers increasingly use mathematical modeling to inform their decisions.
Article
Environmental policies are often chosen according to physical characteristics that disregard the complex interactions between decision-makers, society, and nature. Environmental policy resistance has been identified as stemming from such complexities, yet we lack an understanding of how social and physical factors interrelate to inform policy design. The identification of synergies and trade-offs among various management strategies is necessary to generate optimal results from limited institutional resources. Participatory modeling has been used within the environmental community to aid decision-making by bringing together diverse stakeholders and defining their shared understanding of complex systems, which are commonly depicted by causal feedbacks. While such approaches have increased awareness of system complexity, causal diagrams often result in numerous feedback loops that are difficult to disentangle without further, data-intensive modeling. When investigating the complexities of human decision-making, we often lack robust empirical datasets to quantify human behavior and environmental feedbacks. Fuzzy logic may be used to convert qualitative relationships into semi-quantitative representations for numerical simulation. However, sole reliance upon computer-simulated outputs may obscure our understanding of the underlying system dynamics. Therefore, the aim of this study is to present and demonstrate a mixed-methods approach for better understanding: 1) how the system will respond to unique management strategies, in terms of policy synergies and conflicts, and 2) why the system behaves as such, according to causal feedbacks embedded within the system dynamics. This framework is demonstrated through a case study of nature-based solutions and policymaking in Houston, Texas, USA.
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Since the late 1980s the idea of sustainable development has been gaining widespread recognition as a guiding framework for policies on development and the environment. However, the concept of sustainable development has received a number of criticisms, including its over-emphasis on meeting human needs through economic growth, as well as its failure to recognize dynamic human-environment interactions. In response to these shortfalls, the concepts of resilience and adaptive governance have emerged as alternative perspectives for pursuing sustainable development. Resilience in social-ecological systems emphasizes the capacity of coupled human-environment systems to deal with change while continuing to develop. Adaptive governance relies on diverse and nested institutional mechanisms for connecting actors across multiple scales to manage conflicts and uncertainties in ecosystem management processes. However, the ethical dimensions of resilience and adaptive governance have not received enough attention. A promising ethical perspective for guiding policies on human-environment interactions is the philosophy of deep ecology which highlights the need for recognition of the intrinsic values of all living things, as well as the nurturing of ecological and cultural diversity. We argue that an integration of the principles of deep ecology and adaptive governance provides a complementary set of ethical principles and institutional attributes that offers better prospects for pursuing sustainable development in the era of the Anthropocene. The implications of this integrative agenda include: adoption of a holistic conception of dynamic human-environment interactions; recognition of diverse knowledge systems through an anti-reductionist approach to knowledge; promotion of long term sustainability through respect for ecological and cultural diversity; and embracing decentralization and local autonomy. We further illustrate this integrative agenda using the management of protected areas as a case study.
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Approaches based on adaptive management are an opportunity to improve the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) follow-up, considering the conceptual affinities between their structures. Some cases demonstrate an increase in adaptive capacity, based on experiential learning, despite a lack of governance arrangements able to guarantee the effective involvement of different parts of society in the decision-making process. Finally, adaptive management is a promising approach for EIA follow-up, which does not mean abrogating the principles of precaution and prevention that underlie EIA processes, serving as a mere palliative for situations whose environmental impacts might have been predicted and prevented.
Article
Invasive sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) populations in the Laurentian Great Lakes Basin have been suppressed for over 60 years primarily by migration barriers and lamprey-specific pesticides. Improving control outcomes by supplementing barriers and pesticides with additional control strategies has been a long-standing objective of managers and stakeholders, but progress towards this objective has been limited. We developed an adaptive management implementation framework and applied it to this objective. The framework consists of a set of adaptive management implementation goals (develop effective monitoring practices, develop effective participatory process, and conduct management experiments), a set of aspirational targets hypothesized to be related to Sea Lamprey Control Program adaptive capacity (multi-level political and social organization, creation of safe-to-fail decision making arenas, and effective use of multi-criteria decision analysis), and a feedback loop linking adaptive capacity and progress towards adaptive management implementation goals. Progress towards improving sea lamprey control outcomes by integrating supplemental control strategy into the Sea Lamprey Control Program may be possible through adaptive management implementation.
Article
In Taiwan, the idea of ecotourism emerged in the 1980s when Taiwan's national parks began to provide educational tours and interpretation services for visitors. Since then, ecotourism has been a popular term for marketing tourism in national parks, forest stations, natural reserves and rural areas in Taiwan. The "Ecotourism White Paper" for Taiwan was completed by the National Council for Sustainable Development (NCSD) in 2004, in an attempt to provide more environmentally sound guidelines for ecotourism management. One of its key management strategies is to determine a "tourism carrying capacity" for each destination to prevent its environment from degradation. Therefore, it brings up the question of how the manager of an ecotourism destination can properly determine a carrying-capacity limit that would stand the test. To examine this issue, this paper briefly reviews some applications of tourism carrying capacity for forest recreation management in Taiwan, and then explores the inherent features of management problems in ecosystems as well as some strategies to deal with them. Lastly, the implications for the future applications of tourism carrying capacity in Taiwan's forests are discussed, and it ends in the conclusion that tourism carrying capacity should be tackled as a decision-making issue in ecosystem management. That is, tourism carrying capacity is a management action that should be evaluated over time, and it is not a fixed number to be determined.
Article
Weather forecasts, climate change projections, and epidemiological predictions all represent domains that are using forecast data to take early action for risk management. However, the methods and applications of the modeling efforts in each of these three fields have been developed and applied with little cross-fertilization. This perspective identifies best practices in each domain that can be adopted by the others, which can be used to inform each field separately as well as to facilitate a more effective combined use for the management of compound and evolving risks. In light of increased attention to predictive modeling during the COVID-19 pandemic, we identify three major areas that all three of these modeling fields should prioritize for future investment and improvement: (1) decision support, (2) conveying uncertainty, and (3) capturing vulnerability.
Article
On the Ground •As “co-produced” research becomes more popular, there is a need to evaluate the processes and outcomes of successful cases. •The Collaborative Adaptive Rangeland Management project is a case of a ranch-scale, 10-year grazing experiment ongoing in Colorado. We used social science to evaluate group learning. •We describe the complex, challenging aspects of the collaborative process, and how those challenges helped inspire learning as the team grappled with new problems and knowledge. •Respect, trust, and shared understanding are essential to success. •Social science can help collaborative research teams better design and implement complex co-production methods to engage stakeholders.
Article
The study of land change within social-ecological systems (SES) is of great interest and increasingly makes uses of remote sensing (RS) imagery to scale inferences up through space and time. However, spatial analysis using dense time series of RS data poses technical hurdles for non-expert users. To broaden the community of SES researchers using RS, we present a simple tool for mapping land change at local to regional scales. The Python implementation of the Noise Insensitive Trajectory Algorithm (pyNITA) is accessed through a streamlined graphical user interface and requires minimal user parameterization to generate long-term trends and identify key dates of significant change (i.e., disturbance events) based on time series of Landsat or Sentinel-2 data. In this paper, we introduce the pyNITA software, explain the underlying algorithm, analyze key parameter sensitivities, and summarize methods and results from three SES case studies of land change.
Article
Since the late-1980s, ecotourism has been attracting many tourists as awareness about the environment has increased. Much debate has occurred about whether ecotourism can be a new tool for environmental protection or just another type of community development. Although many publications examine the potential benefits of ecotourism, little attention has been given to the management of ecotourism. This paper discusses the importance of ecotourism management from the theoretical perspective by examining recent ecotourism publications and debates. From this survey, it becomes clear that the management of ecotourism could be developed into regional ecosystem management by following three steps. First, it is important for persons in the scientific and lay communities to share their different types of knowledge about the ecosystem. Second, ways should be created for ecotourists from outside the region to collaborate with local managers at the planning and monitoring stage of ecosystem management. Finally, ecotourism should be managed in a way that can encourage the creation of regional ecosystem management strategies by utilizing the shared knowledge. If these steps are followed, local communities can play a role in creating their own regional ecosystem management, and the "design process" will contribute to sustainable use of the ecosystem.
Chapter
September 11, 2001 or 9/11 has put extra pressures on public officials and their agencies in the United States to prepare for new terrorist threats (Rosenthal, 2003). After 9/11 the idea of homeland security became a part of American thinking and behavior (Beresford, 2004). In this relatively new environment that governments must contend with, it is important to be aware of some issues associated with homeland security preparedness. The traditional distinction among the major sectors of the government has blurred, since the war on terrorism is no longer just the purview of military agencies (Wise and Nader, 2002). In this new environment both civilian and military agencies share the responsibility in protecting the homeland. This chapter attempts to address homeland security preparedness by focusing on city governments examining organizational, collaboration, and management elements of homeland security. The main purpose of this chapter is to set the context of homeland security preparedness. It is vital to know some of the issues that governments face in homeland security in order to understand how Homeland Security Information Systems (HSIS) might be used to address these issues. In order to accomplish this task this chapter first provides background information and an overview of some of the existing homeland security literature in public administration. There is a discussion of the research methods of this article and the results of a homeland security preparedness survey are presented. A conclusion demonstrates the significance of the key findings found in this chapter.
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Chapter
A wide variety of tools and approaches for supporting the making of decisions under deep uncertainty have been put forward, but we lack a comparative overview.
Book
This book examines from a multidisciplinary viewpoint the question of what we mean - what we should mean - by setting sustainability as a goal for environmental management. The author, trained as a philosopher of science and language, explores ways to break down the disciplinary barriers to communication and deliberation about environment policy, and to integrate science and evaluations into a more comprehensive environmental policy. Choosing sustainability as the keystone concept of environmental policy, the author explores what we can learn about sustainable living from the philosophy of pragmatism, from ecology, from economics, from planning, from conservation biology and from related disciplines. The idea of adaptive, or experimental, management provides the context, while insights from various disciplines are integrated into a comprehensive philosophy of environmental management. The book will appeal to students and professionals in the fields of environmental policy and ethics, conservation biology, and philosophy of science.
Article
Understanding abrupt change in social-ecological systems (SES), such as following major disasters, is key for restoration, adaptation, and sustainability. We describe an approach and case study using fuzzy cognitive mapping (FCM) and mental models to collectively represent local perceptions of Hurricane Irma in Key West, Florida. Using in-person FCM interviews, we sought to answer three overarching questions: 1) how did residents perceive SES relationships post-disaster, 2) how did these perceptions vary across three stakeholder groups consisting of those working in ocean recreation, resorts and inns, and non-tourism sectors, and 3) how did the aggregation of diverse opinions and perceptions affect the understanding of SES trade-offs regarding the coastal region’s resilience? Across all respondents, housing was the most commonly mentioned concept occurring in 39% of all models. Coral reefs were included in 71% of ocean recreation models, whereas tourism was included in 50% of resorts and inns models. While mangroves, seawalls, and beaches were rarely to never mentioned until prompted by the interviewer, scenario analyses revealed that shorelines play an important role in residents’ perceptions of how Hurricane Irma collectively impacted people and the environment. Sensitivity analyses revealed that the community, composed of a diverse representation of stakeholders, viewed core SES components similarly and trade-offs were acknowledged. Yet, different stakeholder groups perceived the SES in which they live in different ways, with each group perceiving greater damage to specific system components based on direct experience and knowledge. Our study demonstrates an approach for representing the collective perceptions of communities in post-disaster research, rebuilding, and restoration efforts.
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Article
Foresight science is a systematic approach to generate future predictions for planning and management by drawing upon analytical and predictive tools to understand the past and present, while providing insights about the future. To illustrate the application of foresight science in conservation, we present three case studies: identification of emerging risks to conservation, conservation of at-risk species, and aid in the development of management strategies for multiple stressors. We highlight barriers to mainstreaming foresight science in conservation including knowledge accessibility/organization, communication across diverse stakeholders/decision makers, and organizational capacity. Finally, we investigate opportunities for mainstreaming foresight science including continued advocacy to showcase its application, incorporating emerging technologies (i.e., artificial intelligence) to increase capacity/decrease costs, and increasing education/training in foresight science via specialized courses and curricula for trainees and practicing professionals. We argue that failure to mainstream foresight science will hinder the ability to achieve future conservation objectives in the Anthropocene.
Chapter
This chapter introduces the book and reviews the concept of adaptive management. The rationale for and benefits of adaptive management are summarized. So are the difficulties in carrying out adaptive management. Chino Basin is a large groundwater basin in Southern California, relied upon heavily by a large population and economy. The effective and sustainable management of Chino Basin is a high stakes endeavor. In this location, adaptive management of the groundwater resource (and interrelated other resources) emerged and has been institutionalized, through significant effort and with considerable difficulty but also considerable success.
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Background This paper critically discusses the use and merits of global indices, in particular, the Global Health Security Index (GHSI; Cameron et al. https://www.ghsindex.org/#l-section--map ) in times of an imminent crisis, such as the current pandemic. This index ranked 195 countries according to their expected preparedness in the case of a pandemic or other biological threat. The coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) pandemic provides the background to compare each country's predicted performance from the GHSI with the actual performance. In general, there is an inverted relation between predicted versus actual performance, i.e. the predicted top performers are among those that are the worst hit. Obviously, this reflects poorly on the potential policy uses of this index in imminent crisis management. Methods The paper analyses the GHSI and identifies why it may have struggled to predict actual pandemic preparedness as evidenced by the Covid-19 pandemic. The paper also uses two different data sets, one from the Worldmeter on the spread of the Covid-19 pandemics, and the other from the International Network for Government Science Advice (INGSA) Evidence-to-Policy Tracker, to draw comparisons between the actual introduction of pandemic response policies and the corresponding death rate in 29 selected countries. Results This paper analyses the reasons for the poor match between prediction and reality in the index, and mentions six general observations applying to global indices in this respect. These observations are based on methodological and conceptual analyses. The level of abstraction in these global indices builds uncertainties upon uncertainties and hides implicit value assumptions, which potentially removes them from the policy needs on the ground. Conclusions From the analysis, the question is raised if the policy community might have better tools for decision-making in a pandemic. On the basis of data from the INGSA Evidence-to-Policy Tracker, and with backing in studies from social psychology and philosophy of science, some simple heuristics are suggested, which may be more useful than a global index.
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Article
An analysis of the types of uncertainties faced by resource managers is presented. Uncertainties are classified by the frequency of occurrence. Managers develop ways for dealing with frequently occurring uncertainties that do not commonly present extraordinary problems. Uncertainties that occur infrequently require an adaptive learning approach to management where we must learn about the true states of nature by careful monitoring, evaluation, and experimentation. In an undesirable situation, the ability to respond rapidly is most important. Uncertainties that occur rarely, called surprise, are very difficult to deal with. Suggested responses include holding some resources in reserve to cope with the unexpected and developing broadly based monitoring systems to detect surprises as early as possible.
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Article
This paper describes four attempts to get systems analysis methods used by real institutions such as the Canadian Fisheries Service, the Canadian Wildlife Service, and private consulting companies. Following the four examples, some conclusions are drawn about the requirements for successful implementation of systems analysis within ecological management institutions and these conclusions are compared with those reached by workers in other fields. The author stresses that the successful implementation of systems analysis into decision making requires a substantial reorientation of the systems analysts. Applying systems analysis techniques to applied problems involves a very strong commitment to communication, simplicity, clarity, and a long term interest in working with decision making bodies. The management of ecosystems desperately needs the tools that systems analysts have to offer; the systems analysts must show that they have the ability and desire to apply those tools.
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The interaction between a modelling team, the technical staff of a government agency, and public advisory groups is described for the analysis of a major recreational and commercial fishery. A computer simulation model was used as the major policy analysis tool over a period of 4 years, and the problems and potential of this approach are discussed. Of particular interest was the high degree of turnover among technical staff within the government agency and the major role the model played in providing continuity.
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Article
An analysis of the types of uncertainties faced by resource managers is presented. Uncertainties are classified by the frequency of occurrence. Managers develop ways for dealing with frequently occurring uncertainties that do not commonly present extraordinary problems. Uncertainties that occur infrequently require an adaptive learning approach to management where we must learn about the true states of nature by careful monitoring, evaluation, and experimentation. In an undesirable situation, the ability to respond rapidly is most important. Uncertainties that occur rarely, called surprise, are very difficult to deal with. Suggested responses include holding some resources in reserve to cope with the unexpected and developing broadly based monitoring systems to detect surprises as early as possible.
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Article
Technological innovation is emerging as the single most important factor to influence business success in today's intensely competitive and dynamic environment. Accordingly, scholars as well as practitioners are contributing to a rapidly growing body of knowledge for the effective management of innovation. However, surprisingly, very little attention is being paid to the organizational and managerial issues pertaining to creativity, which is the most basic and the most critical element in the process of innovation. This paper highlights creativity as the central issue in management of innovation, and presents two models to further our understanding of the dynamics of creativity in organizational settings, and the place of creativity in the innovation process.For a comprehensive understanding of creative behavior and performance in organizations this paper develops a Multiple Perspective Model. This model includes three perspectives, the Individual, the Technical, and the Organizational, which focus respectively on the distinctive individual characteristics associated with creativity, the needed technical resources—material as well as human—for creativity, and the organizational practices and manegerial actions that aid or stifle creativity. The exposition of this model is followed by an analysis of its implications for the management of creativity. Next, a model of the innovation process is proposed, in which innovation is shown as being contingent on a cascade of creative efforts in various functional areas and across different fields of specialization. These two models are expected to be useful to both researchers and practitioners in ferreting out the issues of primary significance, nurturing creativity and enhancing innovation in organizations.
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Acrimony between industry and government managers is commonplace in the management of many Pacific salmon fisheries. A case study of the chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) fisheries in southern British Columbia provides insight into the prevailing distrust between fishermen and managers. A recent attempt to bring planned management into what had often been an irrational and highly political activity is described. A management system called the "clockwork" provides all fishermen an opportunity for greater understanding of the management rationale and greater input into the decision-making process. The results of this attempt and implications for achieving management goals are discussed.
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In this paper we describe the use of a specific decision analysis tool, multiattribute utility analysis, to investigate conflicting goals in the management of salmon on the Skeena River. We used this technique to determine the preferences of 10 individuals representing several interest groups and different management agencies. It is shown how individuals differ in their preferences, how conflicts can be identified, and how decision analysis can be used to refine an individual's understanding of his preferences. Individuals assessed possible outcomes of different alternative enhancement proposals using two techniques, the decision analysis technique and an intuitive approach. These two methods produced different results. The use of these techniques in the management process is discussed.
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Article
The interests of many groups, some with multiple objectives, are important to include in evaluating strategies affecting salmon in the Skeena River. A multiattribute utility model is proposed for addressing these issues. Two first-cut utility functions are assessed using the preferences of two individuals familiar with the problem. These utility functions provide a basis for constructive discussion to arrive at a reasonable utility function for examining alternative policies. Two unique features of this study are the explicit focus on value tradeoffs and equity considerations among interest groups, and a comparative examination of the two first-cut multiattribute utility models. This examination indicates the range of fundamental preferences which can be captured using multiattribute utility functions and illustrates the potential of the theory for conflict illumination and resolution.
Article
The resistance to the use of analysis has traditionally been explained in terms of “implementation”: managers do not understand analysis or are not sold on it; analysis lacks the support or participation of top management; analytic solutions are blocked by managerial attitudes, organizational climates, politics. This paper finds these explanations superficial, arguing that we must look beyond implementation - to formulation — for the reasons why analysis, especially policy analysis, is resisted. Analysis denies the importance of dynamic factors characteristic of policy making; it fails to handle the critical soft data; despite claims of objectivity, it drives the organization towards a narrow economic morality which sometimes amounts to a social immorality; it tends to encourage bureaucratization and centralization; and it disregards another, fundamentally different mode of thinking — generally called intuition — which better suits many of the needs of policy making. There is, however, a role to be played by “soft analysis,” carried out in interdisciplinary teams, as in the earliest days of operations research.Résumé La résistance à l’utilisation de l’analyse fut traditionnellement expliquée en terme de la mise oeuvre: les gestionnaires ne comprennent pas l’analyse ou ne l’acceptent pas; l’analyse n’a pas le support ou la participation de la haute direction; les solutions analytiques sont bloquées par les attitudes des gestionnaires, les climats organisationnels et les politiques. Cette étude trouve ces explications superficielles, en argumentant que l’on doit viser au delà de la mise en oeuvre - é la formulation - afin de trouver les raisons pour lesquelles on résiste l’analyse, surtout l’analyse des politiques. L’analyse dement l’importance des facteurs dynamiques, caractéristiques de la formulation des politiques; elle ne considére pas des données informelles, qui sont critiques; malgre les arguments d’objectivite, elle conduit 1’organisation vers une systéme des valeurs économique qui conduit souvent vers l’immoralité sociale; elle tend à encourager la bureaucratie et la centralisation; et elle ignore une autre maniére de penser fondamentalement différente, qu’on appelle l’intuition, qui satisfait mieux certaines besoins nécessaires pour établir des politiques. Il y a toutefois un rô1e pour l’analyse informelle, tel qu’utilisé dans des équipes interdisciplinaires comme durant ies premiers jours de la recherche opérationnelle.
Chapter
This paper contains an introduction to the essential features of Operational Research and Management in relation to any organisation. It is intended also to show how the special requirement of the UK fishing industry affects the emphasis on the roles and resources which concern the decision makers and advisers. The relationship of the individual studies require a larger framework to illustrate their importance.
Chapter
The social sciences can make significant contributions to solving watershed management problems. Sustainable watershed management requires knowledge about ecologically effective forms of social organization. Including humans as a component of the ecosystem permits scientists and policy makers to consider how resource management activities affect biophysical processes regulating ecosystems. A major reason for the failure of human societies to develop sustainable resource management activities has been the limitations on their ability to acquire and process ecological information. Difficulty in maintaining adequate information on the state of ecological systems originates in the inability of people to develop an effective cognitive map of their environment. Institutional structure has a major influence on cognitive learning of environments, and institutional arrangements determine the scale of human social organization and the incentives for people to learn and adopt ecologically sustainable practices. Institutionalization of sustainable resource and ecosystem management practices will require better information about the appropriate scale and form of social organization. Small, flexible institutional units may be best suited for the adaptive learning necessary to achieve sustainable resource management.
Chapter
Four of 13 existing models have been applied to forest protection/management strategy evaluation in New Brunswick, Canada. Each successful model was built in association with the user. It may be possible to apply models built independently of a user but it will require a search for an appropriate niche.
Article
Adaptive management uses well-defined feedback loops to design actions and track the effects resulting from actions. The adaptive process maximizes the managers' learning about the system, and is consequently a safe approach to initiating management in complex systems. By its nature adaptive management requires quantitatively explicit hypothesis about system function and structure. This requirement is both the greatest limitation to its use and the greatest benefit. The emerging application of the adaptive approach in the control of wood availability is discussed and comparison is drawn to the control of wildlife habitat availability. Key words: Renewable Resource Management. Management Planning Forest Management Methods.
Chapter
Opportunities for sustaining humans and their environmental systems can be enhanced by examining how socioeconomic and ecological processes are integrated at the landscape level. Landscape properties—such as fragmentation, connectivity, spatial dynamics, and the degree of dominance by habitat types—are influenced by market processes, human institutions, and landowner knowledge as well as by ecological processes. These same landscape properties affect ecological processes that influence species abundance and distribution, as well as the production of goods and services valued by human society. An approach for understanding these complex interactions includes models that simulate (1) land use changes that alter landscape pattern, (2) effects of landscape pattern on species persistence, invasion of exotics, and resource supplies, and (3) dynamic interactions involving possible feedback processes that can alter land uses or landscape patterns. Adaptive management is recommended for using this approach to attain sustainable development where ecological processes operating at micro, meso, and macro scales are integrated.
Article
Social and economic considerations are among the most important drivers of landscape change, yet few studies have addressed economic and environmental influences on landscape structure, and how land ownership may affect landscape dynamics. Watersheds in the Olympic Peninsula, Washington, and the southern Appalachian highlands of western North Carolina were studied to address two questions: (1) Does landscape pattern vary among federal, state, and private lands? (2) Do land-cover changes differ among owners, and if so, what variables explain the propensity of land to undergo change on federal, state, and private lands? Landscape changes were studied between 1975 and 1991 by using spatial databases and a time series of remotely sensed imagery. Differences in landscape pattern were observed between the two study regions and between different categories of land ownership. The proportion of the landscape in forest cover was greatest in the southern Appalachians for both U.S. National Forest and private lands, compared to any land-ownership category on the Olympic Peninsula. Greater variability in landscape structure through time and between ownership categories was observed on the Olympic Peninsula. On the Olympic Peninsula, landscape patterns did not differ substantially between commercial forest and state Department of Natural Resources lands, both of which are managed for timber, but differed between U.S. National Forest and noncommercial private land ownerships. In both regions, private lands contained less forest cover but a greater number of small forest patches than did public lands. Analyses of land-cover change based on multinomial logit models revealed differences in land-cover transitions through time, between ownerships, and between the two study regions. Differences in land-cover transitions between time intervals suggested that additional factors (e.g., changes in wood products or agricultural prices, or changes in laws or policies) cause individuals or institutions to change land management. The importance of independent variables (slope, elevation, distance to roads and markets, and population density) in explaining land-cover change varied between ownerships. This methodology for analyzing land-cover dynamics across land units that encompass multiple owner types should be widely applicable to other landscapes.
Chapter
Certain systematic methods of scientific thinking may produce much more rapid progress than others.
Article
Bayesian decision theory provides concepts that seem ideally suited to many renewable resource management problems. A procedure for applying the concepts to salmon management in real time is illustrated with an example from the Skeena River fishery in Northern British Columbia, Canada. The decision in question is the escapement to allow for spawning purposes in a particular year. The procedure involves determining a probabilistic relationship between the escapement in one year and the number of adults returning in the cycle year 4 years later, defining a utility curve for the catch, forecasting the number of salmon expected to return in the current year, and computing the escapement with the maximum expected utility. Discussion indicates areas where further work is needed and also other possible applications of the procedure.
Article
The purpose of this paper is to analyze contraints to the effective implementation of adaptive management from a sociological and institutional perspective. Although formal adoption and institutionalization of adaptive management is critical, it is however insufficient to ensure successful implementation. Successful implementation of adaptive management requires management to take risk‐prone actions while providing institutional patience and stability. The experimental nature of adaptive management requires that managers and politicians redefine success so that learning from error becomes an acceptable part of the learning process. In addition, information must be collected and analyzed over time frames that often exceed the typical tenure of politicians. Adaptive management also needs to be predicated on clearly established goals and decision criteria that will allow for accountability and evaluation of how goals are being met. Furthermore, the goals must be compatible with natural processes, existing or achievable technology, and social norms.One of the fundamental problems to the effective implementation of adaptive management is an agreed‐upon definition of that term and how and if it should be implemented. Its application would have far greater success in resolving natural resource management conflicts if it were universally defined as both (1) linking science with management and (2) implementing management itself as an experiment.
Article
Between ca. 790 and 1000 AD, Scandinavian settlers occupied the islands of the North Atlantic: Shetland, the Orkneys, the Hebrides, the Faroes, Iceland, and Greenland. These offshore islands initially supported stands of willow, alder, and birch, and a range of non-arboreal species suitable for pasture for the imported Norse domestic animals. Overstocking of domestic animals, fuel collection, ironworking, and construction activity seems to have rapidly depleted the dwarf trees, and several scholars argue that soil erosion and other forms of environmental degradation also resulted from Norse landuse practices in the region. Such degradation of pasture communities may have played a significant role in changing social relationships and late medieval economic decline in the western tier colonies of Iceland and Greenland. This paper presents simple quantified models for Scandinavian environmental impact in the region, and suggests some sociopolitical causes for ultimately maladaptive floral degradation.
Article
A graphical technique is demonstrated which, when combined with any resource simulation model, permits the resource manager to explore the effects of different management options. Also, this technique (nomogram or response surface) permits derivation of “optimal solutions” given particular objectives. Examples of the methodology are given for the spruce budworm—forest system in eastern Canada. Effects of several kinds of uncertainties are dicussed, including uncertainties in model assumptions, management precision, future objectives and system evolution. The graphical nature of nomograms helps managers and analysts to grasp more easily the complicated behavior of ecological systems models. Finally, the role of computer models in decision-making is discussed.
Article
On 15 October 1987, the Northwest Power Planning Council approved a master plan for the Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project. The purpose of this unique experimental project was to increase both natural production and harvest of anadromous salmonids in the Yakima and Klickitat rivers, major tributaries of the Columbia River system, through supplementation and habitat protection. The Bonneville Power Administration provides general management of the project, and funds construction and operation with revenues from Pacific Northwest electric rate payers. Studies indicate that egg incubation, rearing, and out-planting facilities in the Yakima and Klickitat subbasins will supplement natural production and increase harvest benefits. We summarize predesign studies requested by the Council as necessary to precede construction and discuss the uncertainties and concerns associated with the project. This experimental approach to supplementation may provide information useful for rebuilding salmonid stocks in other river basins.
Article
Though many national and international agencies claim commitment to participative approaches to helping the rural poor, little progress has been made in translating ambitious plans into effective action. The record of earlier community development and cooperatives efforts is largely a history of failure, resulting more often in strengthening the position of traditional elites than in integrating poorer elements into the national development process. Many current calls for involvement of the rural poor are little more than wishful thinking, inadequately informed by past experience as to the investments in institutional innovation required to give reality to an important idea. The prevailing blueprint approach to development programming with its emphasis on detailed pre-planning and time bounded projects is itself cited as an important impediment. Examination of a number of Asian programs suggests that the more successful grew out of village experience. Consequently they were able to achieve an unusual degree of fit between beneficiary needs, program outputs, and the competence of the assisting organization. The key was not preplanning, but an organization with a capacity for embracing error, learning with the people, and building new knowledge and institutional capacity through action. A model of the learning process approach to building program strategies and appropriate organizational competence suggests a new program should progress through three developmental stages in which the focal concern is successively on learning to be effective, learning to be efficient, and learning to expand. Implications for the role of the social scientist and for action by funding agencies are discussed.
Book
This book is about ways of dealing with uncertainty in the management of renewable resources, such as fisheries and wildlife. The author's basic theme is that management should be viewed as an adaptive process: one learns about the potentials of natural populations to sustain harvesting mainly through experience with management itself, rather than through basic research or the development of general ecological theory. The need for an adaptive view of management has become increasingly obvious over the last two decades, as management has turned more often to quantitative model building as a tool for prediction of responses to alternative harvesting policies. The model building has not been particularly successful, and it keeps drawing attention to key uncertainties that are not being resolved through normal techniques of scientific investigation. The author's major conclusion is that actively adaptive, probing, deliberately experimental policies should indeed be a basic part of renewable resource management.
Article
Environmental disputes, in many countries, have taken on a ritualistic character. Their persistence, even after prolonged analysis and debate, suggests that they result from ideological rather than factual differences. Since no single ideological position holds a monopoly on the truth, effective environmental management would seem to require an integration of views, the problem being how to achieve this. One approach to this problem is illustrated in this article. Two factions in the spruce budworm dispute in New Brunswick, Canada, were engaged in a mediation exercise using the Delphi method. Details of the design and execution of this form of mediation are provided, together with an evaluation of the Delphi's effectiveness in this context.
Article
Cultural theory utilizes concepts drawn from social anthropology, sociology, and organization theory to explain the social and cultural biases of policy actors and interest groups. Certain ideas of nature are associated with each cultural bias; these ideas of nature are in turn associated with types of resource management institutions. By identifying an actor or group's culture bias, analysts can explain the success or failure of different management activities. This paper explains the evolution of cultural theory from its anthropological roots to its applications in ecological management. It then applies cultural theory to a typology of common property resources and illustrates its usefulness by examining grazing subsidies in the American southwest.
Article
An increased role for citizen participation in natural resource decision-making has been advocated by, amongst others, the United Nations (Brundtland Commission) as a means of initiating fundamental changes in the way we exploit natural resources. However, attempts at meaningful participation by the public are met with resistance, commonly by the dominant elites who control environmental and economic policies. Citizen groups press for involvement, only to be dismissed by local establishments as ill-informed amateurs. The resulting conflicts seldom lead to innovations in policy or to constructive cooperation in the face of new environmental problems. This leads the author to feelings of pessimism about prospects for genuine public participation in the absence of political change. In arguing in support of such change, a case study is offered which illustrates the unfortunate consequences that ensue when participation is sought and rejected. The paper closes with recommendations for the way in which citizen groups could contribute in a meaningful way to natural resource decision-making, were they to be given the opportunity.
Article
There is a continuing debate about the proper role of analytical (positivist) science in natural resource decision making. Two diametrically opposed views are evident, arguing for and against a more extended role for scientific information. The debate takes on a different complexion if one recognizes that certain kinds of problem, referred to here as “wicked” or “trans-science” problems, may not be amenable to the analytical process. Indeed, the mistaken application of analytical methods to trans-science problems may not only be a waste of time and money but also serve to hinder policy development. Since many environmental issues are trans-science in nature, then it follows that alternatives to analytical science need to be developed. In this article, the issues involved in the debate are clarified by examining the impact of the use of analytical methods in a particular case, the spruce budworm controversy in New Brunswick. The article ends with some suggestions about a “holistic” approach to the problem.
Article
The classical model of a paradigm shift is used to explore changes that are occurring in public lands and water resources management. Recent policy developments suggest that the traditional paradigm, which is characterized by sustained yield, is in the process of being invalidated. While no new paradigm has been fully accepted, the emerging paradigm does appear to be based on two principles: ecosystem management and collaborative decision making. Implementation of these two principles is likely to require extensive revision of traditional management practices and institutions. Failure to address these issues could result in adoption of the rhetoric of change without any lasting shift in management practices or professional attitudes.
Article
Current research on environmental decision-makers at the professional and nonprofessional levels is reviewed. The potential utility of this research for achieving more adaptive man-environment relations in modern industrial societies is examined. A broader framework of research is suggested for viewing the antecedents and consequences of environmental decision-making from an ecological perspective. Mechanisms for promoting research on man-environment relations are considered. In particular, issues in the training of scientific man-power in this interdisciplinary field are discussed.
Article
This paper explores the prospects for combining elements of the ecological and policy sciences to form a substantive and effective science of ecological policy design. This exploration is made through a case study whose specific focus is the management problem posed by competition between man and an insect (the spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana) for utilization of coniferous forests in the Canadian Province of New Brunswick. We used this case study as a practical testing ground in which we examined the relative strengths, weaknesses, and complementarities of various aspects of the policy design process. Where existing approaches proved wanting, we sought to develop alternatives and to test them in turn. In particular, we used a combination of simulation modeling and topological approaches to analyze the space-time dynamics of this ecosystem under a variety of natural and managed conditions. Explicit consideration was given to the development of invalidation tests for establishing the limits of model credibility. An array of economic, social, and environmental indicators was generated by the model, enabling managers and policy makers to evaluate meaningfully the performance of the system under a variety of management proposals. Simplified versions of the models were constructed to accomodate several optimization procedures, including dynamic programming, which produced trial policies for a range of possible objectives. These trial policies were tested in the more complex model versions and heuristically modified in dialogue with New Brunswick's forest managers. We explored the role of utility functions for simplifying and contrasting policy performance measures, paying special attention to questions of time preferences and discounting. Finally, the study was shaped by a commitment to transfer the various models and policy design capabilities from their original academic setting to the desks and minds of the practicing managers and politicians. An array of workshops, model gaming sessions, and nontraditional communication formats was developed and tested in pursuit of this goal.This paper reports some specific management policies developed, and some general lessons for ecological policy design learned in the course of the study.
Article
The achievement of consensus on strategies of pest control continues to be an elusive goal, one that is hindered by continuing, and often acrimonious, conflict. Psychosocial factors, such as personal biases, play an important, often hidden role, in maintaining mutual misunderstanding and hostility. One result of personal biases, such as intellectual preferences or styles, is that radically different perceptions of the “problem” are held by antagonists. As a consequence, there is little chance of developing common ground upon which to discuss solutions. In this paper, the role of intellectual style in the spruce budworm controversy is outlined, together with a discussion of the more general problems that personal biases create in the development of integrated pest management strategies.