Article
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

The proximate composition, vitamin C, α-tocopherol, dietary fibers, minerals, fatty acid and amino acid profiles of three tropical edible seaweeds, Eucheuma cottonii (Rhodophyta), Caulerpa lentillifera (Chlorophyta) and Sargassum polycystum (Phaeophyta) were studied. The seaweeds were high in ash (37.15–46.19%) and dietary fibers (25.05–39.67%) and low in lipid content (0.29–1.11%) on dry weight (DW) basis. These seaweeds contained 12.01–15.53% macro-minerals (Na, K, Ca and Mg) and 7.53–71.53mg.100g−1 trace minerals (Fe, Zn, Cu, Se and I). The crude protein content of E. cottonii (9.76% DW) and C. lentillifera (10.41% DW) were higher than that of S. polycystum (5.4% DW), and protein chemical scores are between 20 and 67%. The PUFA content of E. cottonii was 51.55%, C. lentillifera 16.76% and S. polycystum 20.34%. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), accounted for 24.98% of all fatty acids in E. cottonii. These seaweeds have significant vitamin C (∼35mg.100g−1) and α-tocopherol (5.85–11.29mg.100g−1) contents.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... BS and GS contained 59.8 and 55.88% CP, 1.28 and 0.30% EE, 5.78 and 5.19% CF, 29.19 and 34.68% carbohydrate, and 9.7 and 9.14% ash contents, respectively. Other research on various selected seaweed species from different geographic areas reported lower results for CP (5.4−10.11% in BS and 14.6−48% in GS) and higher results for CF (7.2−9.5% in BS and 20.38% in GS) and ash (10.8−42.4% in BS in 20.9 −37.59% in GS) respectively [28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35]. ...
... The Na/K ratios of brown and green seaweed were low (0.061 and 0.064), respectively. Previous research also reported a low Na/K ratio (below 1.5) [29,41]. Therefore, seaweed can help to balance high Na/K ratio diets [29]. ...
... Previous research also reported a low Na/K ratio (below 1.5) [29,41]. Therefore, seaweed can help to balance high Na/K ratio diets [29]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract This study aimed to analyse the nutritional properties, apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and apparent metabolisable energy (AME) of broiler chickens fed with brown seaweed (BS) and green seaweed (GS). Proximate analysis was performed to determine the nutrient composition of seaweed. The amino acids were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and atomic absorption spectroscopy was used to determine the minerals content. The gross energy (GE) was determined using a fully automatic bomb calorimeter, and the AME value was calculated. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) was used as an indigestible marker to calculate the AID. A digestibility trial was conducted to investigate the effects of seaweeds on crude protein (CP), crude fibre (CF), ether extract (EE), dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), amino acids (AA) and minerals digestibility, and AME on broiler chickens. Thirty-six broiler chickens were randomly distributed into two dietary treatment groups with six replicates and three birds per replicate. Results showed that brown and green seaweed was a source of macro and micronutrients. For the AME and AID of seaweed-based diets, the results showed that the AME value for BS and GS was 2894.13 and 2780.70 kcal/kg, respectively. The AID of BS and GS was 88.82% and 86.8% for EE, 82.03% and 80.6% for OM, 60.69% and 57.80% for CP, 48.56 and 44.02% for CF, and 17.97 and 19.40% for ash contents, respectively. Meanwhile, the AID of CP and CF was significantly higher for BS compared to the GS. Findings showed that the AID of various AA was 40.96 to 77.54%, and the AID of selected minerals (Ca, Na, K, Mg, Zn, Cu, Fe) for both BS and GS groups were above 90%. Keywords: apparent ileal digestibility; apparent metabolisable energy; broiler; brown seaweed; green seaweed; nutrient contents
... High ash content is an essential characteristic of seaweeds, and they contribute significant mineral elements (8-40%) required for human and animal nutrition [12,13]. A total 63.81 ± 0.26% ash composition was quantified in the current analysed P. tetrastromatica. ...
... The total protein composition in P. tetrastromatica is comparable to other terrestrial resources, such as cornmeal (41.3% DW), rice meal (40.9% DW), and soybean meal (40% DW) [18]. However, in this study, the average protein value was lower than other data recorded in other sources of brown algae [2,13,19]. ...
... However, due to their potential health hazards, their application as food additives is under regulation in several countries [33]. Interestingly, natural antioxidants, including polyphenols and flavonoids, have demonstrated a positive effect on human health [13]. Moreover, the antioxidant activity measured by an individual assay reveals the chemical reactivity under the specific conditions employed in that assay. ...
Article
Full-text available
Seaweeds are an important ingredient of functional foods recommended for daily food, due to their unique compositions and nutritional value. Padina tetrastromatica is a brown edible seaweed that is commonly found along the coastal regions of Peninsular Malaysia and consumed as food by some coastal communities. This study investigates the nutritional and antihyperglycaemic potential of P. tetrastromatica extracts, which is generally accepted as an important functional food. In our methodology, we induced diabetes intraperitoneally in experimental animals with a dose of 65 mg kg−1 body weight of streptozotocin. Oral treatment with 200 and 400 mg kg−1 of P. tetrastromatica ethanolic and ethyl acetate extracts were initiated, respectively, to experimental rats once daily for 18 days. Metformin was used as the positive control. Biochemical estimations and histopathological analysis were included in this study. Treatment with P. tetrastromatica extracts significantly lowered the plasma glucose levels in Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. In addition, P. tetrastromatica extract treatment also showed a significant reduction in serum alanine transaminase levels. However, no significant changes were observed in serum aspartate transaminase levels. The ethyl acetate extract of P. tetrastromatica at 400 mg kg−1 dose shows some nephroprotective effect, which is observed from the significant increase in the plasma albumin levels. Histopathological evaluation revealed no marked morphological changes in tissues of the isolated organs of the ethyl acetate extract-treated group, revealing the safe nature of P. tetrastromatica.
... Seaweed therefore, generally vary from terrestrial plants in morphological and physiological characteristics and so also their chemical compositions, as evident in their appearances. The moisture content of S. Polycystum measured in the present study was slightly higher than was previously documented (9.95% DW) [10] in same species collected from Kota Kinabalu (west coast of North Borneo). Furthermore, the ash content is higher, indicating appreciable composition of diverse minerals, compared to that in most land-based plants that are noted to contain ash values ranging from 5 to 10% [11]. ...
... Nonetheless, data for ash content of the species reported in this present study were consistent with that reported for different genera of seaweeds collected elsewhere, globally (12-40% DW) [12][13][14]. In addition, protein content of S. Polycystum was within the range noted in the literature for brown seaweeds (3-15% DW) [14], even though the value for this brown seaweed species was lower when compared to that for red and green seaweed species (10-47% DW) [10]. Variations in the protein contents of seaweeds may be due to species differences and seasonal changes [15]. ...
... This is reported to be attributed to the photosynthetic capabilities of seaweed pigments [18]. This notwithstanding, the values recorded in this study were higher than that reported (0.29% DW) by other researchers [10] for the same species. Nutritionally, lipid extracts of seaweeds naturally contain varieties of high-value polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fatty acids (FA) that act as catalysts for the antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral and cytotoxic properties of seaweeds [19]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Recent increased interest in seaweed is motivated by attention generated in their bioactive components that have potential applications in the functional food and nutraceutical industries. In the present study, nutritional composition, metabolite profiles, phytochemical screening and physicochemical properties of freeze-dried brown seaweed, Sargassum polycystum were evaluated. Results showed that the S. polycystum had protein content of 8.65 ± 1.06%, lipid of 3.42 ± 0.01%, carbohydrate of 36.55 ± 1.09% and total dietary fibre content of 2.75 ± 0.58% on dry weight basis. The mineral content of S. polycystum including Na, K, Ca, Mg Fe, Se and Mn were 8876.45 ± 0.47, 1711.05 ± 0.07, 1079.75 ± 0.30, 213.85 ± 0.02, 277.6 ± 0.12, 4.70 ± 0.00 and 4.45 ± 0.00 mg 100/g DW, respectively. Total carotenoid, chlorophyll a and b content in S. polycystum were detected at 45.28 ± 1.77, 141.98 ± 1.18 and 111.29 µg/g respectively. The total amino acid content was 74.90 ± 1.45%. The study revealed various secondary metabolites and major constituents of S. polycystum fibre to include fucose, mannose, galactose, xylose and rhamnose. The metabolites extracted from the seaweeds comprised n-hexadecanoic acid, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, mono(2-ethylhexyl) ester, benzenepropanoic acid, 3,5-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)-4-hydroxy- methyl ester, 1-dodecanol, 3,7,11-trimethyl-, which were the most abundant. The physicochemical properties of S. polycystum such as water-holding and swelling capacity were comparable to several commercial fibre-rich products. In conclusion, results of this study indicate that S. polycystum is a potential candidate as functional food sources for human consumption and its cultivation needs to be encouraged.
... The method for amino acid analysis was adopted from Matanjun et al. (2009) with slight modification. Amino acids in C. macrodisca was analyzed through a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) (Shimadzu Corporation, Japan) using Pinnacle PCX 5200 post-column (4.0 × 150 mm) with a fluorescent detector (RF-10A XL) at 335 nm ultraviolet range at 40 °C. ...
... In general, edible seaweeds are claimed to be rich in protein content with significant essential amino acids used as a type of functional food and nutraceutical supplement (Ganesan et al. 2020). Results from the present study indicated that the total amino acid content was higher (115.48 ± 0.47 mg g −1 ) than C. lentillifera reported by Matanjun et al. (2009) but lower than C. lentillifera reported by Zhang et al. (2019) as shown in Table 2. Indeed, C. macrodisca has higher essential amino acid of phenylalanine (20.96 mg g −1 ) and high non-essential amino acids of glutamic acid (15.62 mg g −1 ) and aspartic acid (14.87 mg g −1 ) compared to C. lentillifera reported by Matanjun et al. (2009) and Zhang et al. (2019). The high amount of phenylalanine reflected the high crude protein content in C. macrodisca since this amino acid is required for the synthesis of proteins (Kohlmeier 2003). ...
... In general, edible seaweeds are claimed to be rich in protein content with significant essential amino acids used as a type of functional food and nutraceutical supplement (Ganesan et al. 2020). Results from the present study indicated that the total amino acid content was higher (115.48 ± 0.47 mg g −1 ) than C. lentillifera reported by Matanjun et al. (2009) but lower than C. lentillifera reported by Zhang et al. (2019) as shown in Table 2. Indeed, C. macrodisca has higher essential amino acid of phenylalanine (20.96 mg g −1 ) and high non-essential amino acids of glutamic acid (15.62 mg g −1 ) and aspartic acid (14.87 mg g −1 ) compared to C. lentillifera reported by Matanjun et al. (2009) and Zhang et al. (2019). The high amount of phenylalanine reflected the high crude protein content in C. macrodisca since this amino acid is required for the synthesis of proteins (Kohlmeier 2003). ...
Article
Full-text available
The green macroalga Caulerpa macrodisca Decaisne was recently reported in East Malaysia with limited information recorded on the nutritional properties of this particular species. Hence, the present study was conducted to determine the biochemical composition of C. macrodisca collected from Sabah waters, Malaysia. The biochemical composition analysis determined the proximate composition, fatty acid, amino acid, minerals, and caulerpin content. Caulerpa macrodisca contained a high amount of protein (20.54%), fiber (21.98%), and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (13.16% of total fatty acids). High amount of macrominerals, sodium (6.18 g (100 g)−1) and potassium (2.15 g (100 g)−1), was also recorded in the species with low sodium to potassium (Na/K) ratio (2.87). The important bis-indolic alkaloid caulerpin was also detected in the species with substantial concentration of 5.8 ± 0.12 g mL−1. Thus, findings from the present study provided baseline nutritional information of another promising Caulerpa species, C. macrodisca, that might be beneficial for the global seaweed industry.
... The high ash content of seaweed is an indication of the presence of appreciable amounts of diverse minerals. The ash content of the species reported in this study was consistent with that reported for different genera of seaweeds collected elsewhere in the world (12-40% DW) (Matanjun et al. 2009). The moisture content of P. gymnospora measured in this study (Table 1) was slightly higher than the moisture content of red and green seaweed collected from Kota Kinabalu (west coast of North Borneo) (9-10% DW) (Matanjun et al. 2009). ...
... The ash content of the species reported in this study was consistent with that reported for different genera of seaweeds collected elsewhere in the world (12-40% DW) (Matanjun et al. 2009). The moisture content of P. gymnospora measured in this study (Table 1) was slightly higher than the moisture content of red and green seaweed collected from Kota Kinabalu (west coast of North Borneo) (9-10% DW) (Matanjun et al. 2009). The protein content of P. gymnospora in this study was confirmed to be within the range observed in most brown seaweeds (3-15% DW), despite the fact that the value for this brown seaweed species was lower compared with red and green seaweed species (10-47% DW) (Matanjun et al. 2009). ...
... The moisture content of P. gymnospora measured in this study (Table 1) was slightly higher than the moisture content of red and green seaweed collected from Kota Kinabalu (west coast of North Borneo) (9-10% DW) (Matanjun et al. 2009). The protein content of P. gymnospora in this study was confirmed to be within the range observed in most brown seaweeds (3-15% DW), despite the fact that the value for this brown seaweed species was lower compared with red and green seaweed species (10-47% DW) (Matanjun et al. 2009). The relatively high protein content in this seaweed species makes it readily attractive as an alternative source that may be used to surrogate the proteins from other sources (fish meal, soybeans, etc.) in diets for aquaculture fish species. ...
Article
Full-text available
The combination of a proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1 H-NMR)-based metabolomics approach and principal component analysis (PCA) was used to differentiate variations of active metabolites in Padina gymnospora subjected to different extraction solvents. Their proximate composition and phytochemical, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activity were also evaluated. A total of 13 metabolites were identified in the different solvents (polar, semipolar, and nonpolar) via 1 H-NMR analysis. The present study demonstrated that P. gymnospora brown seaweed was rich in protein, lipid, and carbohydrates. Phytochemical investigation of the different P. gymnospora extracts revealed various secondary metabolites. The most abundant essential amino acid was leucine [5.79 ± 0.06 mg g −1 dry weight (DW)], and the most abundant nonessential amino acid was glutamic acid (8.62 ± 0.04 mg g −1 DW). The presence of metabolites such as alanine, N-phenylacetylphenylalanine, glutamic acid, 2-hydroxyisobutyric acid, sarcosine, and π-methylhistidine in the seaweed extracts was strongly correlated with their level of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free-radical scavenging activity. P. gymnospora appeared to have antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 43,300). The study also revealed P. gymnospora's potential for use as a rich source of antioxidant agents, implying that commercial cultivation of this seaweed may be incentivized.
... All essential amino acids (EAAs) can be found in seaweed (Matanjun et al., 2009). Algae (red and green) appear to be capable of contributing to reasonable levels of complete EAAs in the FAO/WHO (1991) model (Wong and Cheung, 2000). ...
... Algae (red and green) appear to be capable of contributing to reasonable levels of complete EAAs in the FAO/WHO (1991) model (Wong and Cheung, 2000). As per Matanjun et al. (2009), green seaweed had elevated levels of an amino acid (AA) whereas red and brown algae exhibited lower levels. However, several studies found that EAAs made up nearly half of complete AAs in red algae, implying a proportion of EAA to AA of 0.4-0.5. ...
... Red seaweed had high levels of methionine and cysteine in comparison to green and brown algae (Qasim, 1991); however, red algae had low levels, below 0.3% and 0.1% of protein level (Gressler et al., 2011). The amino acid phenylalanine was found to be higher in three classes of algae (Matanjun et al., 2009). In contrast to Qasim's findings, alanine, glycine, proline, arginine, aspartic acids, and glutamic made up a significant portion in AAs fraction, while AAs methionine, tyrosine, and cysteine were found in smaller amounts (Gressler et al., 2011). ...
... The nutrient composition of seaweeds, even of the same species, is highly variable and is affected by several factors such as harvesting season and ecology (MacArtain et al. 2007;Holdt and Kraan 2011;Cherry et al. 2019). We found that the nutrient composition of COT and SPI (Table 1) obtained from the Kibuyuni-Kijiweni inter-tidal zone, off the Kenyan coast, differed from that of COT and SPI collected from Malaysian (Matanjun et al. 2009) and Indonesian sea coasts (Diharmi et al. 2019), respectively. Matanjun et al. (2009) The gel firmness and consistency of COT were different (p < 0.05) from that of SPI (Table 1) due to the different chemical and structural forms of carrageenan in the two seaweeds. ...
... We found that the nutrient composition of COT and SPI (Table 1) obtained from the Kibuyuni-Kijiweni inter-tidal zone, off the Kenyan coast, differed from that of COT and SPI collected from Malaysian (Matanjun et al. 2009) and Indonesian sea coasts (Diharmi et al. 2019), respectively. Matanjun et al. (2009) The gel firmness and consistency of COT were different (p < 0.05) from that of SPI (Table 1) due to the different chemical and structural forms of carrageenan in the two seaweeds. Cottonii contains κ-carrageenan whereas SPI contains ι-carrageenan (Necas and Bartokisova 2013;Khalil et al. 2018). ...
Article
Full-text available
The impact of cottonii (COT, Kappaphycus alvarezii) and spinosum (SPI, Eucheuma denticulatum) flour (1–10% w/w) on rheological properties of wheat (WHE) and quality of bread was investigated. Wheat-COT and WHE-SPI had higher water absorption capacities, dough development times, dough stabilities and farinograph quality numbers than WHE dough. Extensograms of composite dough were largely similar to those of WHE at the same incubation times. Dough energy decreased whereas elasticity ratio (ratio of maximum resistance to extensibility) increased when incubation time was increased from 45 to 135 min. Wheat-COT and WHE-SPI had lower pasting temperatures but higher peak, final, breakdown and setback viscosities than WHE flour. Specific volume of bread containing COT (5% w/w) or SPI (7.5% w/w) was not different (p > 0.05) from that of WHE bread. Crumb texture properties of these composite breads were also largely similar to those of WHE bread. The physical properties of WHE dough and bread were influenced by gluten, whereas those of WHE-COT and WHE-SPI were influenced by gluten in addition to κ-carrageenan in COT and ι-carrageenan in SPI. Protein, ash and dietary fibre contents increased (p < 0.05) whereas carbohydrate content of bread decreased (p < 0.05) when WHE was replaced with COT or SPI (5% w/w).
... Red seaweeds have been reported to contain all amino acids (Matanjun, Mohamed, Mustapha, & Muhammad, 2009). The majority of red species are considered good sources of protein by providing a high content of essential amino acids (EAAs), ranging from 31.1% (g amino acid-N/100 g protein-N) in Grateloupia turuturu to 42.1% in Porphyra acanthophora (Table 2). ...
... A great variability of AAS in red seaweed proteins has been reported in the range of 40-90% (Dawczynski, Schubert, & Jahreis, 2007). However, tryptophan, methionine, and lysine could be limiting amino acids (LAA) in some red seaweeds depending on species (Matanjun et al., 2009;Norziah & Ching, 2000). On the other hand, the high essential amino acid index (EAAI) of 89.6-107.8% ...
Article
Full-text available
Background With the increase in world population, decreased farmland, and global climate changes, ensuring adequate food supply to maintain food security is of immediate attention. As a key macronutrient for human health, the supply of sufficient dietary protein is undoubted of concern. Animal proteins are good dietary protein sources, but their production incurs a high carbon footprint; this has driven the effort to seek alternative protein sources. Scope and approach This review aimed to elaborate on the scientific research progress in red seaweed proteins, including the nutrition, functionalities, methods of extraction, and to explore their prospects as an alternative protein source. Applications of red seaweed protein in food and nutraceutical industries, environmental impact, affordability, and related safety concerns were also discussed. Key findings and conclusions Red seaweeds have a comparable essential amino acid profile to ovalbumin, representing a sustainable alternative to terrestrial proteins. Pre-treatment and extraction methods are pivotal in modulating protein digestibility and functionalities; enzymatic extraction approaches appear to improve nutritional value and food functionalities. Red seaweed proteins have a wide range of applications in food based on their physicochemical properties, while their bioactivities can be tailored for nutraceutical purposes. The use of red seaweed proteins as functional food ingredients is emerging, with good potential in bioactive microencapsulation. Efforts are required to improve the seaweed cultivation process to a commercial scale and gain consumer acceptance in the western world. More research is also necessary to enhance seaweed protein extraction and improve their functionalities for food and nutraceutical applications.
... Several studies reported that the protein concentration of dried seaweed biomass differs from 30-40% (Rhodophyta) to around 5-10% (Phaeophyta) both of which have low lipid content, 1-5% of the dry weight algal biomass. Also, these organisms are an excellent alternative source of minerals (36% of its total dry biomass) and high fiber content (3-50% of total dry biomass) (Senapati et al., 2016;Wells et al., 2017;Matanjun, Mohamed, Mustapha, & Muhammad, 2008). The biochemical compositions of seaweeds vary in different species. ...
... Essential minerals for human consumption include sulfur, potassium, phosphorus, sodium chloride (salt), calcium, iron, manganese, and magnesium. Also, trace elements such as copper, cobalt, iodine, zinc, molybdenum, and selenium are essential but should be consumed by humans in regulation and not in excessive amounts (Arguelles, 2021;D'Armas et al., 2019;Matanjun et al., 2008). The result of the elemental composition analysis of U. prolifera is shown in Table 2. ...
Article
Full-text available
Seaweeds are marine organisms capable of producing diverse kinds of chemical compounds with promising pharmacological use. The study evaluated the proximate and elemental composition and the potential antioxidant (using CUPRAC, ABTS+, and DPPH assays) and antibacterial activities (using microtiter plate dilution assay) of Ulva prolifera O. F. Müller. The seaweed has a total phenolic content of 829 ± 2.00 g GAE/g. Antioxidant efficiency of U. prolifera exerted high ability of reducing copper ions, potent ABTS+ and DPPH scavenging activities in a concentration-dependent manner with IC50 value of 24.7 g GAE/mL, 43.52 g GAE/mL, and 54.1 g GAE/mL, respectively, more effective than ascorbic acid. In vitro antibacterial activity assay showed that U. prolifera exhibited inhibitory activity against bacterial pathogens such as Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MIC = 125 g/mL), S. epidermidis (MIC = 125 g/mL), and Pseudomonas fluorescens (MIC = 500 g/mL). This investigation is the first documented report regarding antibacterial activity of U. prolifera against P. fluorescens. In addition, results showed elemental composition to be in decreasing order of Ca > K > Mg > Na > Mn > Fe > Zn > Cu > Pb > Cd > Cr. Proximate composition of U. prolifera showed high carbohydrate and protein content with a percentage composition of 36.20 ± 0.27% and 23.72 ± 0.31% (dry weight), respectively. This study is the first report in the Philippines that shows the potential of U. prolifera as an excellent candidate organism as source of chemical compounds with relevant application to the pharmacological industry.
... The special texture of sea grapes in combination with low levels of lipids (Niwano et al., 2009), multiple essential amino acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids (Saito et al., 2010) and diverse minerals have increased their popularity, even though nutritional studies on this organism are still rare. Furthermore, different preliminary studies have attributed a naturally high non-enzymatic antioxidant activity (AOA) to this species (Matanjun et al., 2009;Nguyen et al., 2011;Paul et al., 2014;Yap et al., 2019). C. lentillifera is rich in ascorbic acid (vitamin C), a-tocopherol (vitamin E) (Matanjun et al., 2009) and also its polyphenolic content is decisively correlating with their antioxidant activity (Nguyen et al., 2011). ...
... Furthermore, different preliminary studies have attributed a naturally high non-enzymatic antioxidant activity (AOA) to this species (Matanjun et al., 2009;Nguyen et al., 2011;Paul et al., 2014;Yap et al., 2019). C. lentillifera is rich in ascorbic acid (vitamin C), a-tocopherol (vitamin E) (Matanjun et al., 2009) and also its polyphenolic content is decisively correlating with their antioxidant activity (Nguyen et al., 2011). The essential importance of antioxidants is based on their ability to defuse reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are related to the pathogenesis of several human diseases such as diabetes mellitus, neurodegenerative disorders, cardiovascular diseases and cancer (Halliwell, 2000;Metodiewa & Kośka, 1999;Zampelas & Micha, 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
The interest in edible sea grapes ( Caulerpa lentillifera ) is increasing due to their potentially beneficial effect on human health. This macroalga, already used for direct and indirect human consumption, is grown in aquacultures in Vietnam and The Philippines. Here, the edible fronds of sea grapes were examined for their antioxidant activity (AOA) at light intensities from 140 to 300 µmol photons m ⁻² s ⁻¹ and compared to commercially dehydrated C. lentillifera and the renowned highly antioxidative fruits Pomegranates ( Punica granatum ), Goji ( Lycium barbarum and L. chinense ) and Aronia ( Aronia melanocarpa) berries, using an ABTS ⁺ -assay for all samples. AOA of fronds exposed to 300 µmol photons m ⁻² s ⁻¹ for 14 days increased by about 320% from the initial value of 72.2 ± 5.6 to 232.2 ± 34.2 Trolox Equivalents (TE) mmol 100 g ⁻¹ dry weight (DW) onto the level of Pomegranates (272.8 ± 23.0 TE mmol 100 g ⁻¹ DW). This application could be used as a post-cultivation treatment in sea grape cultures to increase the quality and nutritional value of the product.
... Besides, Gracilaria changii showed cholesterol lowering properties [26]. Protein content (12.57±1.31%DW) of G. changii is higher than other Gracilaria species [25,[27][28][29][30]. Fifteen main proteins with 14 accession numbers have been isolated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) from G. changii. ...
... To date, there is no report in-silico analysis of G. changii proteins as precursors for bioactive peptides. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine probable bioactive peptides released from previously identified G. changii proteins [30] and to determine the appropriate proteases that contributed to higher release of a dominant bioactive peptides. Furthermore, the study also explored in the prediction of novel peptide with their potential characteristics using insilico bioinformatics tools. ...
Article
Full-text available
Gracilaria changii is a red seaweed species in Malaysia with high protein content (12.57% (dry basis)). Thus, G. changii proteins are potential precursors for producing bioactive peptides. To date, no study has been reported on the potential of G. changii proteins as potential precursors for bioactive peptides. In this study, fourteen G. changii proteins were selected as potential precursors of bioactive peptides using in silico approach. It was found that the most potential bioactivity was dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP IV) inhibitory and angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities. Papain, ficin and stem bromelain were used for in-silico proteolysis. Stem bromelain was found to be more effective in terms of the release of fragments with a given activity. Furthermore, two tripeptides (ACF and YCL) were screened as novel and promising bioactive peptides. The characteristics of both peptides were also analyzed using PeptideRanker, PepCalc, Peptide Cutter, ToxinPred, AllerTop and AHTpin bioinformatic tools. The bioinformatic tools predicted that both peptides were non-toxic, non-allergen and highly potential. The present work suggests that G. changii can serve as a potential source of bioactive peptides and these findings can provide a basis for future in-vitro and in-vivo study of bioactive peptides from G. changii proteins.
... Generally, seaweeds are not considered a good source of lipid since majority of seaweed possess not more than 4% of lipid at dry biomass weight basis (Arguelles, 2018;Robledo and Pelegrin, 1997). Low crude fat content was observed for P. boryana, which is similar to those observed form other species of seaweeds, such as Hypnea charoides and Eucheuma cottonii with crude fat content of 1.48% and 1.10%, respectively (Wong and Cheung, 2000;Matanjun et al., 2008). High ash content was also observed in P. boryana, indicating the appreciable amount of diverse mineral components in macroalga. ...
... The concentration of crude fiber observed in P. boryana was greater than those obtained from other species of seaweeds such as Gracilaria cervicornis, Sargassum filipendula, Gracilaria cornea, and Sargassum vulgare (Marinho-Soriano et al., 2006;Robledo and Pelegrin, 1997). Variation on the proximate composition among seaweeds could be due to factors such as geographical difference, habitat, nutrient concentration in the environment, and climate on growth and development of seaweeds (Yaich et al., 2011;Matanjun et al., 2008). Thus, differences in the chemical composition of P. boryana, as compared to other seaweeds, were observed in the study. ...
Article
Full-text available
Chemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial properties of the brown seaweed, Padina boryana Thivy from Catanauan, Quezon were investigated. The seaweed contains high concentration of carbohydrate (40.81 ± 0.49%), ash (21.80 ± 0.33%) and protein (18.03 ± 0.23%) on dry weight basis. Also, P. boryana had a total phenolic content of 1.40 ± 0.02 mg GAE/g. Antioxidant efficiency of P. boryana were characterized by having potent DPPH free radical scavenging activity and high copper reducion capacity with IC50 value of 31.2 μg GAE/mL and 11.43 μg GAE/mL, respectively, more effective than ascorbic acid. The seaweed extract exhibited potent antibacterial activities against bacterial pathogen such as Staphylococcus epidermidis, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Aeromonas hydrophila. The current investigation is a pioneering study in the Philippines showing the potential of P. boryana as a source of bioactive substances that can be used for pharmaceutical and food industries.
... Eucheuma cottonii is an edible tropical red macroalga and is widely cultivated throughout Southeast Asia, India, Brazil, China, and Mexico (Abu Bakar et al., 2015). The previous studies reported that the contents of proteins, dietary fibers, and carbohydrates of E. cottonii were 9.76 ± 1.33%, 26.49 ± 3.01%, and 25.05 ± 0.99% on a dry weight basis, respectively (Matanjun et al., 2008). κ-Carrageenan with high yield and purity from E. cottonii has been acted as the plasticizer together with sorbitol to produce biodegradable packaging films with good physical properties (Ili Balqis et al., 2017). ...
... Using single factor experiment, the extraction conditions of crude proteins of E. cottonii were optimized and presented in Supplementary Material 2. The data indicated that the yield of crude proteins of E. cottonii was 10.77 ± 0.42%, which was higher than the protein content (9.76 ± 1.33%) as reported by Matanjun et al. (2008). The crude proteins of E. cottonii were divided into two fractions of ZD10 and ZD60 using 10 and 60% (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 , respectively. ...
Article
Full-text available
To screen, prepare, identify, and evaluate the activities of natural antioxidants for treating chronic diseases caused by oxidative stress. Two algal proteins, namely ZD10 and ZD60, precipitated with 10 and 60% (NH4)2SO4 were extracted from red algae Eucheuma cottonii (E. cottonii) and hydrolyzed using five proteolytic enzymes. The results showed that ZD60 played the most significant role in the enhancement of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH⋅) scavenging activity (25.91 ± 0.24%) among all protein hydrolysates. Subsequently, six antioxidant peptides (EP1-EP6) were isolated from the papain hydrolysate of ZD60 by ultrafiltration and chromatography methods. Their amino acid sequences were identified as Thr-Ala (EP1), Met-Asn (EP2), Tyr-Ser-Lys-Thr (EP3), Tyr-Ala-Val-Thr (EP4), Tyr-Leu-Leu (EP5), and Phe-Tyr-Lys-Ala (EP6) with molecular weights of 190.21, 263.33, 497.55, 452.51, 407.51, and 527.62 Da, respectively. Of which, EP3, EP4, EP5, and EP6 showed strong scavenging activities on DPPH⋅, hydroxyl radical (HO⋅), and superoxide anion radical (O- 2⋅). Moreover, EP4 and EP5 could significantly protect human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) from H2O2-induced oxidative damage by increasing the levels of antioxidant enzyme systems including superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) to reduce the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) (60.51 and 51.74% of model group) and malondialdehyde (MDA) (75.36 and 64.45% of model group). In addition, EP4 and EP5 could effectively inhibit H2O2-induced apoptosis by preventing HUVECs from early apoptosis to late apoptosis. These results indicated that the antioxidant peptides derived from E. cottonii, especially EP4 and EP5, could serve as the natural antioxidants applied in pharmaceutical products to treat chronic cardiovascular diseases caused by oxidative damage, such as coronary heart disease, atherosclerosis, etc.
... As has been reported in several studies, the antioxidant activities in the Sargassum genus has been well documented. Among the methanol extract of the brown seaweed studied by Matanjun et al. (2009), S. polycystum (FRAP= 366.69 μM mg −1 dry extract; TPC = 45.16 mg PGE g −1 dry extract) exhibited the highest activities compared to Dictyota dichotoma and Padina sp. extracts. ...
... However, no significant correlation between TPC and ABTS (p > 0.05; R = 0.757) were observed. The strong correlation between FRAP and TPC suggests that polyphenols such as phlorotannins have the ability to reduce (Fe 3+ -TPTZ) to (Fe 2+ -TPTZ) and thus, have the ability to donate electrons to reduce lipid peroxidation, so that they can act as primary and secondary antioxidants (Matanjun et al. 2009;Devi et al. 2011). In addition to that, the qualitative TLC analysis revealed F2 spot (fucoxanthin) as the most apparent compound when treated with FeCl 3 -FeCN 3 and the FRAP value quantified was 53.210 ± 6.870 mg Fe(II) g −1 extract. ...
Article
The edible brown seaweed, Sargassum polycystum C. Agardh was harvested from the coastal region of Malaysia. In this study, analysis of the nutrition and metal content in the methanol extract showed positive for sodium, potassium, magnesium, vitamins A and E and arsenic contamination. The brine shrimp lethality assay (BSLA) revealed the extract to be non-toxic with LC50 value of 15.60 mg mL−1 (LC50 > 1). The antioxidant and antibacterial activities of the methanol extract were measured through various bioassays. The structural and physicochemical characterisation of the NaAlg, analysed through the 1H-NMR analysis revealed the M:G ratio of NaAlg at 0.733 with mannuronic (M) and guluronic (G) fractions at FM = 0.423 and FG = 0.577, respectively. The degraded NaAlg through methods of ultraviolet irradiation and sonication showed an increment in the in vivo antioxidant activities at intervals of 15 min, 30 min, 60 min, 90 min and 120 min. The FTIR spectra of polysaccharides taken before and after UV irradiation showed breakage of covalent bonds and thus, increase in the intensity of both O‒H and C‒O stretching vibrations. Therefore, the increment in antioxidant activities observed in the treated samples were related to changes seen in their molecular structures.
... Selain itu ubi jalar juga memiliki kadar protein dan lemak yang dapat memberikan rasa umami pada kerupuk. Menurut Matanjun et al. (2009) tepung ubi jalar memiliki kadar protein dan lemak. Menurut Shizuko dan Kumiko (2000) menyatakan bahwa kadar protein dan lemak pada ubi jalar dapat menimbulkan rasa umami. ...
Article
Physico-chemical and sensory analysis of sardinella (Sardinella sp.) crackers with substitution of white sweet potato (Ipomea batatas L.) ABSTRACT The aims of this study were to determine the effect of the addition of tembang fish meat (Sardinella sp.) And white potato flour (Ipomea batatas L.) substitution on the chemical and sensory physical tests of tembang fish crackers. This study used a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) consisting of three treatments, namely S1 (DI 25%: 0% TUJ: 75% TT), S2 (DI 25%: 5% TUJ: 70% TT), S3 (DI 25 %: TUJ 10%: TT 65%) and S4 (AT 25%: TUJ 15%: TT 60%) and repeat three times. Data from observations were analyzed using ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) at a level of 95%, if there is a significant difference (P> 0.05) then a further test was performed with a DMRT (Duncan Multiple Range Test) test at a 95% significance level. The results obtained show a real effect on sensory value which includes appearance, and a very significant effect on sensory value which includes aroma and taste. The best results for sensory assessment were in the S1 treatment which had a taste value of 8.37 and a aroma of 7.82 while the best treatment for a texture of 7.26 and a crispness of 4.42 were found in the S1 treatment and revealed 8.51. The results showed a protein content of 23.75%, a moisture content of 3.78% and a crude fiber content of 5.23%. The results of the physical development volume test showed the best value, namely S1 treatment with a development volume value of 1.49%. Keywords: Crackers, Sardinella fish (Sardinella sp.), Ipomea batatas L, physical test, chemical test and sensory testABSTRAKTujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh penambahan daging ikan tembang (Sardinella sp.) dan subtitusi tepung ubi jalar putih (Ipomea batatas L.) terhadap uji fisik kimia dan sensori kerupuk ikan tembang. Penelitian ini menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL) yang terdiri dari tiga perlakuan yaitu perlakuan S1(DI 25% : TUJ 0% : TT 75%), S2 (DI 25% : TUJ 5% : TT 70%), S3(DI 25% : TUJ 10% : TT 65%) dan S4(DI 25% : TUJ 15% : TT 60%) dan ulangan sebanyak tiga kali. Data hasil pengamatan dianalisa menggunakan ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) pada taraf 95%, apabila terdapat beda nyata (P>0,05) maka dilakukan uji lanjut dengan uji DMRT (Duncan Multiple Range Test) pada taraf nyata 95%. Hasil penelitian yang diperoleh menunjukkan pengaruh nyata terhadap nilai sensori yang meliputi kenampakan, dan pengaruh sangat nyata terhadap nilai sensori yang meliputi aroma dan rasa. Hasil terbaik untuk penilaian sensori terdapat pada perlakuan S1 dimana memiliki nilai rasa 8,37 dan aroma 7,82 sedangkan perlakuan terbaik untuk tekstur 7,26 dan kerenyahan 4,42 terdapat pada perlakuan S1 dan kenampakkan 8,51. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan kadar protein tertinggi 23,75%, kadar air tertinggi 3,78% dan kadar serat kasar tertinggi 5,23%. Hasil uji fisik volume pengembangan menunjukkan nilai terbaik yaitu perlakuan S1 dengan nilai volume pengembangan 1,49%.Kata kunci: Kerupuk, ikan tembang (Sardinella sp.), Ipomea batatas L, uji fisik, uji kimia dan uji sensori
... Seasonal variations and habitat affect the proteins, peptides, and amino acids contents in seaweed; generally, red algae (Rhodophyceae) have higher contents (up to 47%) than green (Chlorophyceae) (between 9-26%), whereas brown (Phaeophyceae) have a lower concentration (3-15%) [73,[118][119][120]. The proteins in the three groups of macroalgae contain all essential amino acids, and non-essential amino acids are also present [25, [121][122][123]. Protein and bioactive peptides from seaweed show many health benefits and have high antioxidant properties, mainly in molecules with low molecular weights, which are also considered safer than synthetic molecules and have reduced side effects [3,[124][125][126][127]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The interest in seaweeds for cosmetic, cosmeceutics, and nutricosmetics is increasing based on the demand for natural ingredients. Seaweeds offer advantages in relation to their renewable character, wide distribution, and the richness and versatility of their valuable bioactive compounds, which can be used as ingredients, as additives, and as active agents in the formulation of skin care products. Bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols, polysaccharides, proteins, peptides, amino acids, lipids, vitamins, and minerals, are responsible for the biological properties associated with seaweeds. Seaweed fractions can also offer technical features, such as thickening, gelling, emulsifying, texturizing, or moistening to develop cohesive matrices. Furthermore, the possibility of valorizing industrial waste streams and algal blooms makes them an attractive, low cost, raw and renewable material. This review presents an updated summary of the activities of different seaweed compounds and fractions based on scientific and patent literature.
... High n-6/n-3 ratios hamper the biosynthesis of n-3 LC-PUFA (Smink et al. 2012) and impair eicosanoid and docosanoid production (Zárate et al. 2017). All the macroalgae analysed had an n-6/n-3 FA ratio well below 10, as recommended by WHO (Matanjun et al. 2009) for potential human and animal health and wellbeing applications. ...
Article
The lipid and fatty acid profiles of 14 marine macroalgal species from the Madeira Archipelago, including two green (Ulvales and Dasycladales), three red (Corallinales, Bonnemaisoniales, and Ceramiales) and nine brown (Fucales, Dictyotales, and Sphacelariales) species were characterised in order to determine their potential use for animal and human nutrition. The total lipid content of species analysed was generally low, varying from 0.2 to 5.2% of dry weight. All species presented an omega 6/omega 3 (n-6/n-3) ratio lower than 10, as recommended by the World Health Organization for proper human health. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), including linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid were exceptionally high in the green macroalga Ulva sp. Red macroalgae were rich in n-3 long-chain PUFA, particularly Asparagopsis taxiformis, which contained 6.6% of docosahexaenoic acid, and Halopithys incurva with 9.3% of eicosapentaenoic acid. Within Ochrophyta, Dictyota dichotoma is an interesting source of n-3 PUFA due to its high stearidonic acid proportion (8.0%). In addition, H. incurva contained a high proportion of both mono- and digalactosyldiacylglycerols. According to their lipid profiles, most macroalgae analysed might be considered of particular interest for their potential exploitation for human nutrition and livestock and aquaculture production.
... The results of studies show that palmitic acid and oleic acid are the major FAs in seaweeds (Matanjun et al. 2009;Rohani-Ghadikolaei et al. 2012). The current study results support this finding. ...
Article
In the present study, we assessed the nutritional composition and biochemical constituents of two Rhodophyta, Gracilariopsis persica and Hypnea flagelliformis, for their potential use as functional foods. Both species were collected from the intertidal regions of Bandar Abbas, Iran. The nutritional profile for H. flagelliformis consisted of ash (36% dw), crude protein (3% dw), lipids (2.1% dw), and phycobiliproteins (0.2% dw.). G. persica consisted of ash (31% dry weight), crude protein (4.4% dw), lipids (1.4% dw), and phycobiliproteins (0.2% dw). Leucine and phenylalanine were the most abundant amino acids in the assessed species. The samples were rich in essential amino acids (EAAs) and the obtained ratios of EAA/NEAA (non-essential amino acid) were 1.3. Palmitic acid was the predominant fatty acid in both species. The highest concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids were arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid. Recommended guidelines indicate an intake of omega-3 for each person that can be fully obtained by daily consumption of 130 g of dried G. persica or 100 g of dried H. flagelliformis. In conclusion, these two red seaweeds have good potential as nutritional sources for human and animal consumption.
... Fucoidans are mainly composed of sulfate ester groups. L-fucose is commonly present in species of sargassum and laminaria [89,153]. In addition to its relevance in bioethanol production, this polysaccharide has been studied for antiviral therapeutic, antioxidant, anticoagulant, and other pharmacological properties [16,126]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose of Review The depletion of fossil reserves and environmental challenges associated with fossil fuels are major drivers of the search for sustainable renewable energy sources. Bioethanol production from macroalgae is one of the promising alternatives to reduce use of fossil fuels and achieve energy security and ecological sustainability. The purpose of this review is to critically discuss the options to optimize the process parameters for steady production of bioethanol from macroalgae. Recent Findings A comprehensive literature review reveals that bioethanol production from macroalgae not only depends on the macroalgae type but also on the selection of pretreatment, hydrolysis, and fermentation options. Unlike the first- and second-generation feedstocks, macroalgae contains low concentrations of glucans. Thus high bioethanol concentration cannot be achieved by converting only glucans. Therefore, it is important to produce bioethanol from other carbohydrate components of macroalgae, such as alginate, sulphated polysaccharides, carrageenan, mannitol, and agar. The selection of the right hydrolysing agents (e.g., enzyme and/or acid) and steps to minimize formation of inhibitors during the process were found to be important factors affecting the efficiency of hydrolysis process. The hydrolysis enzymes currently used were developed for lignocellulosic and starch-based biomass, not for macroalgae, which is different in polysaccharide structure and composition. Also, the lack of appropriate fermenting microorganisms capable of converting heterogeneous monomeric sugars in macroalgae is a major factor limiting bioethanol yield during the fermentation process. Summary This review systematically discusses the implications of selecting different macroalgae types. The optimization of process parameters of different bioethanol production steps such as pretreatments, hydrolysis, and fermentation is discussed. It can be concluded that high bioethanol yield can be achieved by considering macroalgae type and composition, selecting appropriate pretreatment, hydrolysis, and fermenting microbes, and with effective bioethanol purification. Graphical abstract
... Eucheuma cottonii, Caulerpa lentillifera, and Sargassum polycystum present ~0.035 mg/g of vitamin C and 0.006-0.0113 mg/g of vitamin E [132], while 0.145 mg/g of vitamin E has been reported in U. pinnatifida [133]. Concerning the mineral content of seaweeds, it stands for up to 36% DW, with Na, Ca, Mg, K, Cl, S, and P being the most prevalent minerals [130,133], showing a species-dependent distribution following a pattern according to algae family, highly affected by environmental factors. ...
Article
Full-text available
The increase in life expectancy has led to the appearance of chronic diseases and interest in healthy aging, in turn promoting a growing interest in bioactive compounds (BCs) and functional ingredients. There are certain foods or products rich in functional ingredients, and algae are one of them. Algae consumption has been nominal in Europe until now. However, in recent years, it has grown significantly, partly due to globalization and the adoption of new food trends. With the aim of obtaining BCs from foods, multiple methods have been proposed, ranging from conventional ones, such as maceration or Soxhlet extraction, to more innovative methods, e.g., ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE). UAE constitutes a novel method, belonging to so-called green chemistry, that enables the extraction of BCs requiring lower amounts of solvent and energy costs, preserving the integrity of such molecules. In recent years, this method has been often used for the extraction of different BCs from a wide range of algae, especially polysaccharides, such as carrageenans and alginate; pigments, including fucoxanthin, chlorophylls, or β-carotene; and phenolic compounds, among others. In this way, the application of UAE to marine algae is an efficient and sustainable strategy to pursue their deep characterization as a new source of BCs, especially suitable for vegetarian and vegan diets.
... Caulerpa lentillifera J. Agardh, an edible economic alga, contains various vitamins and is rich in essential minerals, including calcium, potassium, magnesium, iron, and iodine (Matanjun et al. 2009;Kumar et al. 2011;Paul et al. 2014). Moreover, the essential amino acids (EAAs) of C. lentillifera make it an ideal model as recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) (Zhang et al. 2020). ...
Article
Full-text available
Arsenic (As) is a hazardous pollutant that negatively impacts the physiological functions of alga. So far, a detailed understanding of algal response to As stress is still lacking. In this study, a transcriptome analysis was performed to illustrate the toxicity response of Caulerpa lentillifera J. Agardh, an edible algae with rich nutrition, to arsenite [As(III)], a toxic form of As. Totally, 1913 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were screened, of which 642 were up- and 1271 were downregulated in C. lentillifera under As(III) stress (30 mg·L–1) compared with control. As(III) stress promoted the growth of C. lentillifera at low concentration (0.1 mg·L–1) and inhibited the growth at high concentration (≥ 0.5 mg·L–1). Multiple DEGs involved in oxidoreductase activities were significantly affected by As(III), and several DEGs related to antioxidant enzyme activity were downregulated, resulting in suffering from oxidative stress in C. lentillifera. Results also showed that As(III) stress inhibited chlorophyll and carotenoid synthesis, destroyed the integrity of chloroplasts, and interfered with the absorption of light energy, thereby inhibiting photosynthesis in C. lentillifera. The highly enriched ABC transporter-related genes involved in the detoxification process were upregulated under As(III) stress, indicating their critical role in the resistance to As stress in C. lentillifera. The gene expressions for 10 selected DEGs were confirmed by qRT-PCR, showing the reliability of the data revealed by RNA sequencing. Our novel work illustrated the toxicity of C. lentillifera under As(III) stress at the molecular level, serving as a basis for future investigations on the prevention and treatment of such pollutants.
... The algae of genus Caulerpa are high in several vitamins and minerals, including iron, calcium, magnesium, and iodine [7][8][9]. Moreover, C. lentillifera contains a high level of polyunsaturated fatty acids and multiple essential amino acids (EAA) with low-level total lipid content [10]. ...
Article
Full-text available
An increasing number of microorganisms are being identified as pathogens for diseases in macroalgae, but the species composition of bacteria related to Caulerpa lentillifera , fresh edible green macroalgae worldwide, remains largely unclear. The bacterial communities associated with C. lentillifera were investigated by high-throughput 16S rDNA sequencing, and the bacterial diversities in washed and control groups were compared in this study. A total of 4,388 operational taxonomic units were obtained from all the samples, and the predominant prokaryotic phyla were Proteobacteria , Bacteroidetes , Planctomycetes , Cyanobacteria , Actinobacteria , Verrucomicrobia , Chloroflexi , and Acidobacteria in C. lentillifera . The bacterial diversity changed with seasons and showed an increasing trend of diversity with the rising temperature in C. lentillifera . There were slight reductions in the abundance and diversity of bacteria after washing with tap water for 2 h, indicating that only parts of the bacterial groups could be washed out, and hidden dangers in C. lentillifera still exist. Although the reduction in the abundance of some bacteria revealed a positive significance of washing C. lentillifera with tap water on food safety, more effective cleaning methods still need to be explored.
... It dominates temperate and benthic reefs of tropical regions (Ang 2006). Most members of the genus Sargassum are beneficial for human utilization as they possess high nutritional value such as Sargassum vulgare C. Agardh and Sargassum polycystum (Matanjun et al. 2009). They are generally used as fertilizers and in cosmetic products because of their macronutrients (Demir et al. 2006), polyunsaturated fatty acids, mannitol, phlorotannins, fucoidans, and alginate content (Zubia et al. 2008). ...
Article
Full-text available
The worldwide industry of seaweeds utilizes 7.5 to 8.0 million tons of wet seaweeds annually that are cultivated in farms, and urgent needs are growing to minimize the overexploitation of the natural populations. In vitro plant tissue culture could be one of the fashionable possible techniques. The main advantage of tissue culture is not only to overcome the excessive use of seaweeds but also to select germplasm with popular traits. Here, we present a novel explants surface sterilization method for endangered species Sargassum fusiforme using Artemisia dracunculus extract as an initial step in the tissue culture technique. Besides, a novel occurrence of identified compounds in the crude extract of A. dracunculus through UPLC-QTOF MS analysis. A crude extract of A. dracunculus herbal plant was tested for sterilizing S. fusiforme explants (leaf, stipe, and stolon) in vitro against 70% ethanol and other chemical sterilants such as povidone-iodine (PI), germanium oxide (GeO2), and antibiotics (Kanamycin, Nystatin, and Streptomycin). The crude extract of A. dracunculus showed a high microbial sterilization effect with leaves (90%) and stipes (80%) compared to stolons which gave only (20%). This study presents a novel investigation of in vitro sterilization properties of A. dracunculus as a natural and medicinal plant against contaminating microbes. We conclude the great advantage of sterilization using Artemisia extract which might probably be the most suitable protocol for sterilization compared to chemical sterilants as they have detrimental effects due to their toxicity to plant tissues.
... Usually, seaweeds have great amount of ash content due to their cell wall polysaccharides and protein containing anionic carboxyl, sulfate and phosphate groups that are outstanding binding sites to hold metals (Davis et al., 2003) that consistently directs the existence of substantial quantities of various mineral constituents (Matanjun et al., 2009). Ash was the most abundant component of dried material in all species, even though none are calcareous (McDermid and Stuercke, 2003). ...
Article
Full-text available
The present study assesses the proximate composition of eight wild seaweed species viz. Hypnea sp., Enteromorpha sp., Sargassum sp., Hydroclathrus clathratus, Padina pavonica, Colpomenia sinuosa, Petalonia fascia and Dictyota ciliolata and one cultured species viz. Hypnea sp. collected from western coast of the St. Martin’s Island and Nunairchhara, Cox’s Bazar, respectively. Standard analytical methods were used to estimate moisture, ash, lipid, crude fiber and protein contents, while carbohydrates were measured by subtracting ash, fat, fiber and protein contents from 100 on a dry weight basis. Results showed average moisture content in different seaweed species ranged between 12.09% to 29.65% and varied from species to species. Maximum ash content was found in brown seaweed H. clathratus (61.98%), while the lowest was recorded in wild red algae Hypnea sp. (7.05%). This study showed mean lipid contents in all seaweed species were much lower than other contents of proximate composition. The highest crude fiber content was observed in P. fascia (10.08±0.07%), while the lowest was observed in Enteromorpha sp. (0.23±0.01%). The highest protein (23.64±1.44%) and carbohydrate content (46.71±0.54%) was found in Hypnea sp. This study showed that mean carbohydrate content was higher in Rhodophyta, Chlorophyta and Phaeophyta, whereas, lipid content was lower in the three groups. Proximate composition of ash, lipid, crude fiber and protein content within species varied due to habitat differences, changes of body structures or physiological alterations, changes in growth rates and photosynthetic function of seaweed species and geographical differences. The mean moisture and ash content were the highest in cultured Hypnea sp., whereas, lipid, crude fiber, protein and carbohydrate were formed to the highest in wild Hypnea sp. Results suggest wild Hypnea sp. was much nutritive because of having higher amount of protein, fiber, carbohydrate and lipid than cultured ones. The study indicates that seaweeds might be used as a potential source of protein, fiber and carbohydrate. The Dhaka University Journal of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Centennial Special Volume June 2022: 113-122
... Seaweeds are excellent dietary sources of vitamins, proteins, carbohydrates, trace minerals and other bioactive compounds (Kumar et al., 2008). In an effort to exploit the nutritional value of seaweeds fully, several studies have been conducted to find the biochemical and nutritional composition of various seaweeds collected from different parts of the world (Rupe´rez, 2002;McDermid and Stuercke, 2003;Ortiz et al., 2006;Marsham et al., 2007;Chakraborty and Santra, 2008;Matanjun et al., 2009). ...
Article
Full-text available
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of diet containing the green macroalgae, Ulva lactuca, on the growth performance, feed utilization and body composition of African catfish Clarias gariepinus. Four experimental diets were formulated: D1 as a control group and D2, D3 and D4 which included 10%, 20% and 30% U. lactuca meal, respectively. 180 African catfish, weighing 9.59 ±0.43 g, and with an average length of 11.26± 0.21, (mean ± SE) were divided into four groups corresponding to the different feeding regimes. The final body weight of the fish showed insignificant differences (P >0.05) between the control and fish fed D2, whereas, there was a significant difference (P< 0.05) between these two diets compared with D3 and D4, with weights of 70.52, 60.92, 40.57 and 35.66 g recorded for D1, D2, D3 and D4, respectively. In the same trend significant differences were also evident in weight gain, specific growth rate and feed utilization. Fish fed with a diet containing 20% or 30% U. lactuca meal had poorer growth performance and feed utilization. Protein productive value, protein efficiency ratio, daily dry feed intake and total feed intake were also significantly lower in fish fed with D3 and D4 than in the control D1 and D2. Overall, the results of the experiment revealed that African catfish fed a diet with U. lactuca included at 20% and 30% levels showed poorer growth and feed utilization than the control group and fish fed diets containing 10% of U. lactuca
... DW than red and green seaweed and most terrestrial plants [37,38]. A high ash content may indicate the presence of significant amounts of various mineral components [39]. Furthermore, the ash content of seaweeds is dependent on geographical, environmental, and physiological factors [40]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The brown seaweed Hizikia fusiformis (syn. Sargassum fusiforme), commonly known as “Hijiki”, has been utilized in traditional cuisine and medicine in East Asian countries for several centuries. H. fusiformis has attracted much attention owing to its rich nutritional and pharmacological properties. However, there has been no comprehensive review of the nutritional and pharmacological properties of H. fusiformis. The aim of this systematic review was to provide detailed information from the published literature on the nutritional and pharmacological properties of H. fusiformis. A comprehensive online search of the literature was conducted by accessing databases, such as PubMed, SpringerLink, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar, for published studies on the nutritional and pharmacological properties of H. fusiformis between 2010 and 2021. A total of 916 articles were screened from all the databases using the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses method. Screening based on the setdown criteria resulted in 59 articles, which were used for this review. In this review, we found that there has been an increase in the number of publications on the pharmacological and nutritional properties of H. fusiformis over the last 10 years. In the last 10 years, studies have focused on the proximate, mineral, polysaccharide, and bioactive compound composition, and pharmacological properties, such as antioxidant, anticancer, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, photoprotective, neuroprotective, antidiabetic, immunomodulatory, osteoprotective, and gastroprotective properties of H. fusiformis extracts. Overall, further studies and strategies are required to develop H. fusiformis as a promising resource for the nutrition and pharmacological industries.
... In the present study, seaweed consumption was not significantly associated with low HDL cholesterol levels. In line with our findings, several studies have reported no association between seaweed consumption and HDL cholesterol levels [45,46]. In rats fed kelp-supplemented cabbage kimchi, the concentration of triglycerides decreased significantly. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study aimed to investigate the association between seaweed consumption and the odds of developing metabolic syndrome in middle-aged and elderly Koreans. The study included 5777 adults aged 40–69 years from 2001 to 2002 in the Ansan and Ansung cohorts of the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study. Data on the consumption of seaweed, including laver and kelp/sea mustard, were obtained using a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to assess the association between seaweed consumption and the odds of developing metabolic syndrome and its components. Women in the highest tertile of laver consumption had lower odds of developing metabolic syndrome than those in the lowest tertile (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 0.70; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.54–0.92). Both men and women in the highest tertile of laver consumption had lower odds of abdominal obesity than those in the lowest tertile (AOR: 0.64, 95% CI: 0.42–0.98 for men; AOR: 0.53, 95% CI: 0.39–0.72 for women). These findings suggest that laver consumption is inversely associated with the odds of developing metabolic syndrome and abdominal obesity in Korean adults.
... Other compounds derived from algal proteins, such as amino acids (AA) and bioactive peptides, are being studied in recent years due to their promising biological benefits when included in foods, but also as cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and other applications in the biotechnologicalindustry (Harnedy and Fitzgerald 2011). Macroalgae contain all AA (Matanjun et al. 2009) and are regarded as an excellent source of essential amino acids (EAA),especially red and green species (Organization 1991;Wong and Cheung 2000). Contradictory results have been reported on the levels of particular AA between seaweed species. ...
Article
Full-text available
Since ancient times, seaweeds have been employed as source of highly bioactive secondary metabolites that could act as key medicinal components. Furthermore, research into the biological activity of certain seaweed compounds has progressed significantly, with an emphasis on their composition and application for human and animal nutrition. Seaweeds have many uses: they are consumed as fodder, and have been used in medicines, cosmetics, energy, fertilizers, and industrial agar and alginate biosynthesis. The beneficial effects of seaweed are mostly due to the presence of minerals, vitamins, phenols, polysaccharides, and sterols, as well as several other bioactive compounds. These compounds seem to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, antimicrobial, and anti-diabetic activities. Recent advances and limitations for seaweed bioactive as a nutraceutical in terms of bioavailability are explored in order to better comprehend their therapeutic development. To further understand the mechanism of action of seaweed chemicals, more research is needed as is an investigation into their potential usage in pharmaceutical companies and other applications , with the ultimate objective of developing sustainable and healthier products. The objective of this review is to collect information about the role of seaweeds on nutritional, pharmacological , industrial, and biochemical applications, as well as their impact on human health.
Article
Full-text available
Seaweeds are rich sources of nutritional and biochemical components. In this study, five marine macroalgal species were collected from the coast of Peninsular Malaysia: Halimeda macroloba, Ulva intestinalis, Codium sp., Hydropuntia edulis and Sargassum ilicifolium. The seaweeds were explored biochemically (lipids, total carotenoids, chlorophyll a and b), their metabolites were identified using GC-MS analysis, and their antioxidant activity was determined using DPPH free radical scavenging. The highest total lipids (4.10 and 3.42 %) was found in H. macroloba and S. ilicifolium, the highest total carotenoids (162.00 and 159.18 µg⋅g⁻¹) in U. intestinalis and Codium sp., and the highest chlorophyll a content (313.09±2.53 µg⋅g⁻¹) in U. intestinalis. Codium sp. also contained the highest chlorophyll b (305.29±7.09 µg⋅g⁻¹) content. Of the metabolites identified from the seaweeds, hexadecanoic acid, stigmast-5-en-3-ol, neophytadiene, and 2-Pentadecanone,6,10,14-trimethyl-were the most abundant. In the assay for antioxidant activity, U. intestinalis extract displayed significantly (p<0.05) higher DPPH inhibition (65.02 %) than the other species at the highest concentration (1,000 µg⋅mL⁻¹) tested; however, the difference was small. At the lowest tested concentration (200 µg⋅mL⁻¹), DPPH inhibition by U. intestinalis (58.42 %) extract was also the highest, and differed significantly from three of the other species. These findings highlight the potential of these seaweed species for cultivation as a sustainable source of functional food for human consumption. © 2021, Faculty of Fisheries, Kasetsart University. All rights reserved.
Chapter
Seaweeds, the superfood of the century, is nutrient‐dense sea vegetables that offer a sustainable and affordable source of nutrition and bioactive components. Seaweeds and its derivatives are not only used as a source of food but also exploited on an industrial scale. Over the years, the application of seaweeds has transitioned from simple food sources in the maritime community to potential industrial molecules in full‐fledged and self‐standing industry. These days, the active ingredients from seaweeds find application in the cosmetic, pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals and health supplements, bio medicals, indigestion remedies, biofuels, and several other products. An efficient extraction method and isolation platform should be adopted to optimize the recovery of the functional compounds and maximize the efficiency of the target molecule. This book chapter provides a remarkable insight into the high value, and multimodal activity profile of seaweed extracts or seaweeds derived molecule, especially industrial molecule, that are supported by bona fide research.
Article
Full-text available
Background: Caulerpa lentillifera (CL) is a green seaweed, and its edible part represents added value as a functional ingredient. CL was dried and extracted for the determination of its active compounds and the evaluation of its biological activities. The major constituents of CL extract (CLE), including tannic acid, catechin, rutin, and isoquercetin, exhibited beneficial effects, such as antioxidant activity, anti-diabetic activity, immunomodulatory effects, and anti-cancer activities in in vitro and in vivo models. Whether CLE has an anti-inflammatory effect and immune response remains unclear. Methods: This study examined the effect of CLE on the inflammatory status and immune response of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells and the mechanisms involved therein. RAW264.7 cells were treated with different concentrations of CLE (0.1-1000 µg/mL) with or without LPS (1 µg/mL) for 24 h. Expression and production of the inflammatory cytokines, enzymes, and mediators were evaluated. Results: CLE suppressed expression and production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α. Moreover, CLE inhibited expression and secretion of the inflammatory enzyme COX-2 and the mediators PGE2 and NO. CLE also reduced DNA damage. Furthermore, CLE stimulated the immune response by modulating the cell cycle regulators p27, p53, cyclin D2, and cyclin E2. Conclusions: CLE inhibits inflammatory responses in LPS-activated macrophages by downregulating inflammatory cytokines and mediators. Furthermore, CLE has an immunomodulatory effect by modulating cell cycle regulators.
Chapter
Essential oils (EOs) are complex liquid mixtures consisting of volatile organic compounds of vegetable origin, with a fragrant, insoluble in water, soluble in organic solvents or fats. EOs are extracted from flowers, leaves, fruits, bark and sometimes from the wood (camphor wood), using organic solvents or by distillation and steam entrainment. Chemically, the EOs is composed of mixtures of terpene hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons, terpenoids (alcohols, aldehydes, ketones), organic acids, pigments, ethers, esters, etc. One and the same essential oil can contain up to 50 different substances. Of these compounds, the most important are “terpene hydrocarbons” or terpenoid compounds and terpenoids appointed isoprenoids (mono‐, sesqui‐, di‐, ses‐, and triterpenes, monoterpenic alcohols, etc.) and their derivatives. In small quantities they contain classes of aliphatic compounds (alcohols, aldehydes, aliphatic esters, etc.), aromatics, macrocyclics and their derivatives (amines, organic sulfides, heterocyclic compounds, etc.). Among the compounds contained in a relatively large number of EOs can be highlighted: borneol, camphor, camphor, cedrol, eugenol, geraniol, limonene, linalool, menthol and myrcene, etc.
Chapter
Algae are a source of active ingredients for future applications and useful nutritional additives in cooking, cosmetics, and medicine. This potential effect on the human diet and therapeutic use has beneficial well-being effects because of its metabolic pathways. Processing functional foods with bioactive algae compounds improves renewable development potential.
Article
Full-text available
The red seaweed, Grateloupia gibbesii, was recently reported as an introduced species in the Mediterranean Sea. Being non-indigenous species with limited distribution, where it was recorded only in Egypt, it was assumed that it has developed several defensive mechanisms to adapt to the new environment through the production of various biological active metabolites. This species was distinguished by its high lipid content in comparison to other seaweeds; accordingly, spectroscopic screening was performed for the chemical characterization of different extracts of G. gibbesii using UV–Vis spectrophotometer and FTIR spectroscopy. In addition, the lipids and fatty acid profile of chloroform extract were characterized using GC-MS. About 45 molecular species were reported in crude and esterified lipid extracts. Among these chemical species, important volatile organic compounds were identified which have many applications in pharmaceutical and chemical industries. The nutritional quality indices of lipids such as ω6/ω3, P/S, IA, IT, and HH were found to be comparable to or higher than those reported for commercial fish species. In addition to the high nutritional value of G. gibbesii, the long-chain UFAs are valuable constituents for cosmetic production, where they play an important role in maintaining healthy skin by regaining the elasticity level and resisting the harmful effects of UV radiation as indicated in UV–visible spectroscopic analysis. On the other hand, the distinct level of TL (12%), TFA to TL (72.1 %), and SFAs to TFA (44.4%) makes G. gibbesii suitable for the production of biodiesel. Pilot-scale production of this seaweed species for sustainable production of pharmaceuticals or biofuel is highly recommended. Graphical abstract
Article
The aims of this study are to determine the effect of seaweed (Eucheuma cottonii) and mackerel scad fish (Decapterus spp.) ratio for the organoleptic, physical and chemical test of crackers. This study used a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) which four treatments P1 (FM 20%: S 5%: TF 75%), P2 (FM 15%: S 10%: TF 75%), P3 (FM 10% : S 15% : TF 75%) and P4 (FM 5%: S 20%: TF 75%) with three times replications. Observation data were analyzed using ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) at the level of 95%, if there were significant differences (P> 0.05) then further testing was carried out by DMRT (Duncan Multiple Range Test) at 95% significance level. The result showed that seaweed and mackerel scad meat ratio had a significant effect on sensory values (aroma, taste, and crispness). The best results for the sensory test were found in P1 where the taste and aroma value was 7.8 and 7.7, while the best result for texture, crispness, and appearance are 7.2, 4.3 and 7.3 was found in P4. The chemical test on crackers for protein, water content and crude fibre was 6,97% - 11,50%, 3,80% - 4,96% and 1,81-4,44% respectively. The physical test of the rising volume shows that P4 had the highest value with 92%. Keywords: Crackers, mackerel scad fish (Decapterus spp.), seaweed (E. cottoni), organoleptic test, chemical testABSTRAKTujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh perbandingan rumput laut (Eucheuma cottonii) dan ikan layang (Decapterus spp.) terhadap uji organoleptik, fisik dan kimia kerupuk. Penelitian ini menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL) yang terdiri dari empat perlakuan yaitu perlakuan P1(DI 20% : RL 5% : TT 75%), P2 (DI 15% : RL 10% : TT 75%), P3(DI 10% : RL 15% : TT 75%) dan P4(DI 5% : RL 20% : TT 75%) dan ulangan sebanyak tiga kali. Data hasil pengamatan dianalisa menggunakan ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) pada taraf 95%, apabila terdapat beda nyata (P>0,05) maka dilakukan uji lanjut dengan uji DMRT (Duncan Multiple Range Test) pada taraf nyata 95%. Hasil penelitian yang diperoleh menunjukkan pengaruh nyata terhadap nilai sensori yang meliputi aroma, rasa, dan kerenyahan. Hasil terbaik untuk penilaian sensori terdapat pada perlakuan P1 dimana memiliki nilai rasa 7,8 dan aroma 7,7 sedangkan perlakuan terbaik untuk tekstur 7,2 dan kerenyahan 4,3 terdapat pada perlakuan P4 dan kenampakkan 7,3,. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan kadar protein 6,97%-11,50 6,97%, kadar air antara 3,80%-4,96% dan kadar serat kasar 1,81%-4,44. Hasil uji fisik volume pengembangan menunjukkan nilai terbaik yaitu perlakuan P4 dengan nilai volume pengembangan 92%.Kata kunci: Eucheuma cottonii, Ikan layang (Decapterus spp), Kerupuk, uji organoleptik, uji kimia
Article
This article has been retracted at the request of the Authors. The full Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal can be found at https://www.elsevier.com/about/our-business/policies/article-withdrawal.
Article
Elopichthys bambusa is an economically important freshwater fish with high nutritional value. In this study, we compared domesticated and wild fish at the physiological, biochemical, histological, and molecular levels to better understand the changes that occur in farmed fish in order to provide ideas about how to optimize the artificial feed formulation used in aquaculture of this species. Water, ash, and crude protein contents did not differ significantly between the two groups. The methionine and glutamic acid contents were 20% and 13.4% higher in the domesticated group than that in the wild group, respectively. Twenty-three types of fatty acids were detected in the wild group compared to 11 in the domesticated group. The iron content in the domesticated group was higher than that in the wild group. The blood index values did not differ significantly between the two groups, except for alanine aminotransferase (ALT), total protein (TP), and globulin (GLO) contents. The ALT content in the wild group was significantly higher and the TP and GLO contents were significantly lower than those in the domesticated group. Histologically, significant differences in the numbers of folds, villi, and goblet cells were detected between the two groups. The expression of t1r1 and t1r3 in the intestines and gills of the domesticated group was significantly lower than that of the wild group. This study provides an important theoretical basis for the reproduction and breeding studies and the quality identification of domesticated Elopichthys bambusa. It will promote the development of large-scale farming of Elopichthys bambusa.
Chapter
More than 70% of the earth’s surface has been covered by oceans that comprise wide diverse microbes, plants, and animals compared to land. There is still a significant percentage of marine diversity to be documented yet. Marine algal biodiversity offers millions of beneficiary applications in food, feed, fodder, cosmetics, nutraceuticals, and pharmaceuticals. Nearly 11,000 natural effects with nutrition and pharmacological property have been reported, just 5%–10% of the total biodiversity. Micro- and macroalgae encompass many compounds with significant pharmacological properties, including antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antiherpetic, antioxidative, and hypoglycemic activities. Hence, there is a vast volume of opportunities to derive human welfare pharma products from marine algal sources. This chapter mainly deals with the pharmacological products from marine algae and their impact on the development of the pharmaceutical industry.
Article
In the present work, a green synthetic method for the preparation of extremely stable silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) using Sargassum ilicifolium has been demonstrated. Thus produced nanoparticles were characterized by UV–Visible (UV–Vis) spectroscopy, Fourier Transform InfraRed spectroscopy (FT-IR), Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) and Zeta potential analyses. The average size of Ag and Au NPs was 27.9 and 9.36 nm respectively from TEM, which was further substantiated by XRD data. Zeta potential values of −42.2 mV and −28.3 mV for Ag and Au NPs respectively suggested that the nanoparticles were negatively charged and highly stable. AgNPs showed desirable bactericidal activity towards Enterobacter species, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Proteus species. The photocatalytic behaviour of AgNPs was studied to degrade malachite green (MG) and methylene blue (MB) in aqueous medium. In MG, 82.9% degradation of was achieved in 180 min light exposure and the pseudo first order rate constant was 7.2 × 10⁻³ min⁻¹. In MB, almost 100% of the dye was degraded in the same period and the pseudo first order rate constant calculated was 7.5 × 10⁻³ min⁻¹. The bio-derived AgNPs are hence promising materials for treating effluent from dyeing industries and water purification.
Article
Overpopulation and the pressure on land‐based resources have driven the aquaculture sector to increase its production since the 1980s. To address such demands, new aquafeed technologies have been developed relying on natural and artificial ingredients that are commercially viable. In addition, current global sustainable initiatives require feed technologies to reduce the pressure on limited wild fisheries and minimize negative environmental effects. Although there are numerous studies on abalone nutrition, most tend to focus on animal growth and nutrient utilization. A more holistic research approach to ensure a sustainable future for this industry will require the development of feeds that provide integrated nutrition and health benefits. In this review, we aim to synthesize the most recent scientific literature on the nutritional and health benefits and shortcomings of two main abalone feeding approaches (seaweed and formulated feeds) within aquaculture production practices. We also identify major research gaps and future directions for the development of sustainable abalone feeds.
Article
Collectively known as eucheumatoids, Eucheuma denticulatum, Kappaphycus alvarezii, K. malesianus, and K. striatus are the main farmed seaweed species in the Philippines. The success of seaweed farming for over five decades in the country is due, in part, to the high diversity of cultivars maintained by the Filipino farmers. Notwithstanding the fact that many eucheumatoid cultivars are presently (and consistently) recognized by the Filipino farmers, there has been no attempt to summarize the current state of the local traditional knowledge about the diversity of this seaweed group, especially with reference to the taxonomy, cultivar designation and distribution. Factors based on present day local knowledge on the eucheumatoid cultivars and what is known on genetic identification in the Philippines were also discussed. A total of 66 cultivars recognized across 58 provinces in the Philippines were documented. Most of these cultivars were morphologically identified as either K. alvarezii or K. striatus, however, the majority were yet to be genetically identified. In part, due to higher demand of kappa-carrageenan extract as compared from the iota type, K. alvarezii and K. striatus were widely cultivated in the Philippines than that of E. denticulatum. Only in the southern Philippines that K. malesianus is currently cultivated. The diverse cultivars identified in this study suggest that the Filipino farmers possess important traditional knowledge that can be useful for future crop selection and breeding.
Article
Total phenolic content (TPC), phenolic profiles, and antioxidant activity of free and bound extracts of Sargassum polycystum, obtained by different extraction solvents and hydrolysis methods, were investigated. Aqueous acetone afforded the highest free TPC and antioxidant ability, followed by aqueous ethanol and aqueous methanol. Twelve free phenolic compounds were identified by ultra‐high‐performance liquid chromatography‐mass spectrometry (UHPLC‐MS), including two hydroxycinnamic acids, seven flavonoids, one stilbene, and two phlorotannins. Three to nine different free phenolic compounds were extracted by these solvents with different compositions, including nine by 70% acetone and eight by 70% methanol, 70% ethanol, and 50% ethanol. The highest total content of free phenolic compounds determined by high‐performance liquid chromatography‐diode array detection was obtained from 70% ethanol. Alkaline hydrolysis afforded higher bound TPC (274.27 mg GAE/100 g DW) and antioxidant ability than acid hydrolysis. Five bound phenolic compounds were characterized by UHPLC‐MS and five were released from alkaline hydrolysis, whereas two were released from acid hydrolysis. Total content of bound phenolic compounds released by alkaline hydrolysis was 14.68‐fold higher than that by acid hydrolysis. The free and bound TPC, phenolic profiles, and antioxidant activities depended on the extraction solvent used. These results indicate that S. polycystum is a potentially useful antioxidant source and contribute to the development of seaweed‐based functional foods. Phenolics are usually divided into free and bound forms based on their extractability and interaction with cell wall components. The nutritional effects of bound phenolics in algae have long been neglected. These topics contribute to the development of seaweed‐based functional foods.
Article
The addition of seaweed Caulerpa sp. flour to the whiteleg shrimp and Chanos chanos feed is a viable alternative to lower the feed costs by reducing the usage of imported materials. The current study is planned to transform the seaweed into a feed material that is rich in nutrients and bioactive compounds that can boost whiteleg shrimp and C. chanos growth and survival. A completely randomized design is applied in the present study with four levels of Caulerpa sp. flour addition, each with 3 replications. The experimental animals used were juveniles of the whiteleg shrimp at a stocking density of 20 ind. tank⁻¹ and C. chanos of 0.89–1.18 g. ind⁻¹ at a stocking density of 10 ind. tank⁻¹, polycultured in 30-L aquaria for 30 days. The statistical analysis showed that the addition of Caulerpa sp. flour at different doses had significantly affected the specific growth rate of the C. chanos and the absolute growth of the whiteleg shrimp (P < 0.05). The highest feed efficiency was achieved with the addition of 6% Caulerpa sp. flour (55.16% ± 0.09), whereas the lowest value was recorded in the treatment of no Caulerpa sp. flour addition (38.59% ± 2.02). The highest feed conversion ratio was obtained when no Caulerpa sp. flour was added (1.57) and the lowest value was recorded in the treatment of 6% Caulerpa sp. flour addition (1.20 ± 0.06).
Article
Full-text available
Seaweeds are traditional food ingredients mainly in seaside regions. Modern food science and nutrition researchers have identified seaweed as a source of functional nutrients, such as dietary soluble and insoluble fibers, proteins, omega-3 fatty acids, prebiotic polysaccharides, polyphenols, and carotenoids. Owing to the rich nutrients, seaweeds and seaweed extract can be used as functional ingredients by modifying the nutrients composition to reduce the proportion of available carbohydrates, delaying the gastric emptying time and the absorption rate of glucose by increasing the digesta viscosity, and attenuating the digesting rate by blocking the activity of digestive enzymes. This review presents the concept of using seaweed as unconventional ingredients that can function synergistically to reduce the glycemic potency of cereal products.
Article
Fucoidan is a marine sulfated polysaccharide that is rich in Sargassum and has a wide range of biological activities. In this study, the chemical composition and bile acid binding ability of six crude fucoidans were compared, the nutrition and chemical composition of Sargassum zhangii were analyzed, and fucoidan from Sargassum zhangii was extracted and purified. The purified fractions (ZF1, ZF2, and ZF3) were analyzed by physicochemical characterization, and the ability of binding bile acid and cholesterol lowering in HepG2 cells were evaluated. The results showed that the contents of sulfate in crude fucoidan from Sargassum Zhangii (ZF) was as high as13.63%. Its ability of binding bile acid was better than other five crude fucoidans. Sargassum zhangii was a kind of brown seaweed with high carbohydrate, and low fat and rich in minerals. The sulfate content of ZF1, ZF2, and ZF3 was 3.29%, 19.39%, and 18.89% respectively, and the molecular weight (Mw) was 4.026 × 105, 2.893 × 105, and 3.368 × 105, respectively. Three fucoidans all contained the characteristic absorption bands of polysaccharides and sulfate groups and were rich in fucose. Three fucoidans can bind to bile acid, and ZF2 showed the best binding capability. In vitro experiments showed that ZF1, ZF2, and ZF3 could reduce intracellular total cholesterol (TC) content in HepG2 cells without affecting their viability. ZF2 showed the best ability to reduce TC.
Article
Full-text available
The authors determined the fatty acid composition of five species of macroalgae (Undaria pinnatifida, Sargassum muticum, Himanthalia elongata, Fucus vesiculosus and Codium fragile) by gas chromatography. The content of total lipids varied from 2 to 4% of the dry weight depending on the species. Fourteen major fatty acids were identified. For all the species studied, except Codium fragile, mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids were dominant.
Article
Full-text available
A reversed-phase high-performance liquid-chromatographic method has been used for analysis of the amino acids in edible seaweed. Sample proteins were hydrolysed with hydrochloric acid and the amino acids produced were derivatized with phenyl isothiocyanate. The resulting phenylthiocarbamyl amino acids were chromatographed on an ODS2 column with UV detection at 254 nm. The mobile phase was a mixture of 0.14 M ammonium acetate buffer, pH 6.4, containing 0.05% triethylamine (A) and 60:40 (v/v) acetonitrile–water (B), at a flow rate of 1.1 mL min–1; the elution gradient (min:A%) was: 0:90, 8:90, 10:70, 12:70, 18:52, 20:0, 25:0, 28:90, 35:90. Method precision for the different amino acids was between 1.33 and 3.88% (relative standard deviation); detection limits were between 6.9 and 14.3 ng mL–1. The amino acid content of the algae analysed ranged from 22.4 1.9 to 138.0 5.6 mg g–1 d.w. The amino acids present at highest concentrations were glutamic acid, alanine, and phenylalanine.
Article
Full-text available
Four species of red marine algae (Rhodophyceae), five species of brown marine algae (Pheophyceae) and two species of green marine algae (Chlorophyceae) were examined for the fatty acid composition of the three lipid groups separated by silica gel column chromatography (neutral lipids, glycolipids, phospholipids). The four red algae had high contents of 16:0 and C20-polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), 20:5n-3 ranging from 18 to 49% of the total fatty acid content and 20:4n-6 from 1.4 to 22.5%, these fatty acids were evenly distributed in all lipid groups. The five brown algae had high contents of 18:1n-9, 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3 but low content of 20:5n-3. No precise trend was detected for the distribution of these fatty acids in the three lipid groups. The two green algae had high contents of 16:0, 18:1n-7 and 18:3n-3 and a very low content of PUFA. They contained also large amounts of 16:4n-3 together with 16:2n-6 and 16:3n-3. While 16:2n-6 was mainly found in phospholipids, 16:4n-3 was mainly distributed in neutral lipids and glycolipids.Porphyra umbilicalis represents the richest source of 20:5n-3 whileUndaria pinnatifida can be selected when a balanced mixture of (n-6) and (n-3) PUFA is required.
Article
The 1939-45 war forced the Allied countries to seek alternative sources of raw materials and, as in the First World War, attention was paid by all belligerents to the marine algae or seaweeds. These occur in considerable quantities in various parts of the world, and attempts to make use of this cheap and readily accessible, though not so readily harvestable, raw material have been made almost from time immemorial. Much of the work on the economic utilization of seaweeds has been published only in scientific journals and has never been collected within the compass of a single book. Tressler's work on The Marine Products of Commerce contains three useful chapters on this subject, whilst Sauvageau's book, Les utilisations des Algues Marines, is a mine of valuable information, especially as regards the use of seaweeds in France. Both these volumes are, however, somewhat out of date, Tressler's being published in 1923 and Sauvageau's in 1920. Furthermore there is no book wholly on this subject in the English language, and so the present volume has been undertaken in order to fill this gap. The opportunity has also been taken to incorporate the results of researches carried out since 1920. In certain aspects of the subject it will be found that considerable advances have been made, and in the present volume particular reference to such advances will be found in the chapters on agar and alginic acid.
Book
Theory. Introduction. Assessment of Analytical Methods and Data. Principals of Techniques Used in Food Analysis. Theory of Analytical Methods for Specific Food Constituents. Experimental Procedures--Estimation of Major Food Constituents. General Food Studies. Additional Reading Material. Index
Article
Fourteen species of marine red algae belonging to the Rhodophyta, 13 species of marine green algae belonging to the Chlorophyta and two species of the marine grass from the Embryophyta were examined for their glycolipid and fatty acid compositions. Characteristic of red algae was their high content of 20:4 and 20:5. The green algal species were unusual in containing 16:4 varying from 4.9 to 23.1 % of the total fatty acids; 16:0, 18:1 and 18:3 acids were also found in high amounts. Glycolipid contents of total lipid extracts of red algae ranged from 16.4 to 31.8, μmol g− 1 dry wt, while those in green algae varied from 10.5 to 31.8. The red algae contained almost equal quantities of monoglycosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG), diglycosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG) and sulphaquinovosyldiacyl-glycerol with some exceptions. MGDG and DGDG were the major glycolipids in green algae and marine grasses, respectively.
Article
Nineteen species of marine macrophytic algae collected in Bodega Bay, California were investigated for their fatty acid composition. Red, brown and green algae have distinguishing fatty acid profiles, which have a chemotaxonomic significance for seaweeds. This does not depend on the geographical location of the algae. Algal habitat conditions affect quantitative characteristics of the fatty acids. The content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in algae from California was found to be noticeably higher for most of the algal species examined in comparison with the same or related species from other regions.
Article
The proximate composition, amino acid profile and some physico-chemical properties of two subtropical red seaweeds (Hypnea charoides and Hypnea japonica) and one green seaweed (Ulva lactuca) were investigated. The total dietary fiber [ranged from 50.3 to 55.4% dry weight (DW)] and ash (ranged from 21.3 to 22.8% DW) were the two most abundant components in these seaweeds but their crude lipid contents were very low (ranged from 1.42 to 1.64% DW). Although the crude protein content of the red seaweeds was significantly (p
Article
Seaweeds are traditionally used in human and animal nutrition. Their protein contents differ according to the species and seasonal conditions. Little information is available on the nutritional value of algal proteins and, especially, on the compounds that decrease their digestibility. This paper is a short review of the biochemical and nutritional aspects associated with seaweed proteins. Some perspectives on the potential uses of algal proteins for the development of new foods or additives for human or animal consumption are also discussed.
Article
Seaweeds, which have traditionally been used by the Western food industry for their polysaccharide extractives — alginate, carrageenan and agar — also contain compounds with potential nutritional benefits. Seaweeds have recently been approved in France for human consumption (as vegetables and condiments), thus opening new opportunities for the food industry. These seaweed ingredients must meet industrial and technical specifications and consumer safety regulations. This paper is a short review of biochemical and nutritional aspects associated with the use of seaweeds in food products.
Article
This brief review outlines the chemical structure, physicochemical properties and effects of seaweed polysaccharides on serum cholesterol levels. Some seaweed polysaccharides are used by the food industry as texture modifiers because of their high viscosity and gelling properties. In Asia, seaweeds have been used for centuries in salads, soups and as low-calorie dietetic foods. The dietary fibre which constitutes 25–75% of the dry weight of marine algae and represents their major component, is primarily soluble fibre. Nowadays, dietary fibre from different sources is known to decrease the risk of coronary heart disease, mainly due to its characteristics of dispersibility in water (water-holding capacity), viscosity, binding ability, absorptive capacity, faecal bulking capacity and fermentability in the alimentary canal. Indigestible viscous seaweed polysaccharides such as alginates, carrageenans and funorans, which are capable of forming ionic colloids, have shown positive effects on serum lipid levels in rats. The capacity of seaweed polysaccharides to lower serum cholesterol levels seems to be due to their ability to disperse in water, retain cholesterol and related physiologically active compounds and inhibit lipid absorption in the gastrointestinal tract.
Article
In the Far East and Pacific, there has been a long tradition of consuming seaweeds as sea vegetables, while in Western countries the principal use of seaweeds has been as source of phycocolloids (alginate, carrageenan and agar), thickening and gelling agents for various industrial applications, including uses in foods. In addition, seaweeds constitute an interesting source of compounds with health protective effects. This paper is a short review on the biochemical composition and the nutritional value of seaweeds.
Article
ThreeSpirulina and five eukaryotic algal food products available in the Spanish market have been extensively studied. Results are given for their gross chemical composition (water content, crude protein, total carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids etc.) and contents of macrominerals, trace elements, fatty acids, amino acids and neutral sugars. The results are compared to those from other studies on natural or laboratory-produced populations. An overall nutritional and toxicological evaluation of these products is included.
Article
The antioxidant activity of eight edible species of Malaysian North Borneo seaweeds obtained from Sabah waters (Kudat, Tanjung Aru and Semporna) consisting of three red seaweeds (Eucheuma cottonii, E. spinosum and Halymenia durvillaei), two green seaweeds (Caulerpa lentillifera and C. racemosa) and three brown seaweeds (Dictyota dichotoma, Sargassum polycystum and Padina sp.) were determined. Methanol and diethyl ether were used as extraction solvent. The antioxidant activities were determined by two methods, TEAC (trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) and FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power) assays. The total phenolic content of the extract was determined according to the Folin–Ciocalteu method and results were expressed as phloroglucinol equivalents. The methanolic extracts of green seaweeds, C. lentillifera and C. racemosa, and the brown seaweed, S. polycystum showed better radical-scavenging and reducing power ability, and higher phenolic content than the other seaweeds. The TEAC and FRAP assays showed positive and significantly high correlation (R 2 = 0.89). There was a strong correlation (R 2 = 0.96) between the reducing power and the total phenolic content of the seaweeds methanolic dry extracts. These seaweeds could be potential rich sources of natural antioxidants.
Article
The total lipid, protein, ash and individual fatty acid contents of edible seaweeds that had been canned (Saccorhiza polyschides and Himanthalia elongata) or dried (H. elongata, Laminaria ochroleuca, Undaria pinnatifida, Palmaria sp. and Porphyra sp.) were determined (fatty acids by gas chromatography). Total lipid content ranged from 0.70±0.09 to 1.80±0.14 g/(100 g dry weight). The four most abundant fatty acids were C16:0, C18:1ω9, C20:4ω6 and C20:5ω3. Unsaturated fatty acids predominated in all the brown seaweeds studied, and saturated fatty acids in the red seaweeds, but both groups are balanced sources of ω3 and ω6 acids. Ash content ranged from 19.07±0.61 to 34.00±0.11 g/(100 g dry weight), and protein content from 5.46±0.16 to 24.11±1.03 g/(100 g dry weight). These protein, ash and ω3 and ω6 fatty acid contents show that processing (canning or drying) leaves these seaweeds with substantial nutritional value.
Article
The proximate composition, amino acid profile and some physico-chemical properties of two subtropical red seaweeds (Hypnea charoides and Hypnea japonica) and one green seaweed (Ulva lactuca) were investigated. The total dietary fiber [ranged from 50.3 to 55.4% dry weight (DW)] and ash (ranged from 21.3 to 22.8% DW) were the two most abundant components in these seaweeds but their crude lipid contents were very low (ranged from 1.42 to 1.64% DW). Although the crude protein content of the red seaweeds was significantly (p<0.05, ANOVA, Tukey-HSD) higher than that of the green, the three seaweed proteins contained all essential amino acids, the levels of which were comparable to those of the FAO/WHO requirement. Moreover, the swelling capacity (SWC), water-holding capacity (WHC) and oil-holding capacity (OHC) of the seaweeds had a high positive correlation (r=0.99–1.00) with their total amount of fiber and protein. Among the three seaweeds, the two red seaweeds exhibited significantly (p<0.05, ANOVA, Tukey-HSD) better physico-chemical properties, which were similar to some commercial fiber-rich food ingredients.
Article
A spectrophotometric kinetic assay is presented for the determination of iodine present in foodstuffs. Incineration of organic matter was accomplished in successive steps with KOH and ZnSO4. Quantitation of iodine was based on measurement of iodide-catalysed reduction of Ce(IV) to Ce(III) by As(III). The reaction was continuously monitored at 370 nm and initial velocity, i.e. rate of decrease in absorbance was plotted against concentration of iodine. The method showed good reproducibility. Recovery of iodine added to different foods ranged from 94% to 102% with a mean and standard deviation of 97 ± 3·3%. The method provides a detection limit of 0·4 ng and a sensitivity of 40 pg. The method is also applicable for the determination of iodine in serum, urine and other biological materials.
Article
Palmaria palmata (Dulse) is a red seaweed that may be a potential protein source in the human diet. Its protein content, amino acid composition, and protein digestibility were studied with algae collected every month over a 1-year period. Significant variations in protein content were observed according to the season: The highest protein content (21.9 ± 3.5%) was found in the winter–spring period and the lowest (11.9 ± 2.0%) in the summer–early autumn period. Most of the essential amino acids were present throughout the year. After 6-hour in vitro digestion in a cell dialysis using porcine pepsin and porcine pancreatin, the digestibility of proteins from Palmaria palmata crude powder, represented by dialyzed nitrogen, was estimated at 29.52 ± 1.47%. Relative digestibility was 56%, using casein hydrolysis as 100% reference digestibility. In vitro digestibility of proteins extracted in water was analyzed by sodium dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis using either bovine trypsin, bovine chymotrypsin, pronase from Streptomyces griseus, or human intestinal juice. Dulse proteins were hydrolyzed to a limited extent, which confirmed a rather low digestibility. Hydrolysis rate was higher with trypsin and lower with chymotrypsin compared with the two other enzymatic systems, pronase and intestinal juice, respectively. The association of algal powder and protein extract to casein and bovine serum albumin, respectively, produced a significant decrease in the hydrolysis rate of the standard proteins. In conclusion, the digestibility of Palmaria palmata proteins seems to be limited by the algae non-proteic fraction.
Article
Mineral content was determined in several brown (Fucus vesiculosus, Laminaria digitata, Undaria pinnatifida) and red (Chondrus crispus, Porphyra tenera) edible marine sea vegetables. Seaweeds contained high proportions of ash (21.1–39.3%) and sulphate (1.3–5.9%). In brown algae, ash content (30.1–39.3%) was higher than in red algae (20.6–21.1%). Atomic absorption spectrophotometry of the ashes indicated that marine seaweeds contained higher amounts of both macrominerals (8.083–17,875 mg/100g; Na, K, Ca, Mg) and trace elements (5.1–15.2 mg/100 g; Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu), than those reported for edible land plants. Edible brown and red seaweeds could be used as a food supplement to help meet the recommended daily intake of some essential minerals and trace elements.
Article
Seaweeds are traditionally used in human and animal nutrition. Their protein contents differ according to the species and seasonal conditions. Little information is available on the nutritional value of algal proteins and, especially, on the compounds that decrease their digestibility. This paper is a short review of the biochemical and nutritional aspects associated with seaweed proteins. Some perspectives on the potential uses of algal proteins for the development of new foods or additives for human or animal consumption are also discussed.
Article
Reducing intake of saturated fat and dietary cholesterol and avoiding excess calories, which can lead to obesity, remain the cornerstore of the dietary approach to decreasing risk of atherosclerotic vascular disease. During the past 20 years, however, there has been renewed interest in other dietary components that might favorably improve lipid profiles and reduce risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Fish and fish oil, rich sources of omega-3 fatty acids, have sparked intense interest in both epidemiological studies, which suggest a favorable effect on CHD, and metabolic ward studies, which show a striking improvement in lipid profiles in hyperlipidemic patients. Confusion has resulted from clinical trials of fish oil in patients with CHD, which did not corroborate early observational findings, and newer results, which suggest clinical benefit due to a mechanism independent of lipid effects. Fish and other marine life are rich sources of a special class of polyunsaturated fatty acids known as the omega-3 or n-3 fatty acids.1 2 They are so named because the first of the several double bonds occur three carbon atoms away from the terminal end of the carbon chain. The three n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) are alpha linolenic acid (LNA), eicosapentenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexenoic acid (DHA). LNA is an 18–carbon chain fatty acid with three double bonds; in the form of tofu, soybean, and canola oil and nuts, it is an important plant-based source of n-3 PUFA for vegetarians and non–seafood eaters. EPA and DHA are very long–chain fatty acids obtained from marine sources. These, along with n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6 PUFAs) that cannot be synthesized from nonlipid precursors such as linoleic acid, are considered essential fatty acids that must be consumed in the diet. The n-6 PUFAs are obtained primarily from plant sources, especially seeds. Arachidonic acid is …
Article
Epidemiologic studies over the past 25 years have shown that the level of dietary fat intake is positively correlated with the average serum cholesterol value and mortality from coronary heart disease (CHD). A number of different investigators demonstrated that in addition to total fat, the fatty acid composition of diets influenced serum total cholesterol (TC) in humans. In general, saturated fatty acids were found to elevate the serum cholesterol concentration, and unsaturated fatty acids were found to decrease this value. The lipoprotein fraction most affected was the level of cholesterol carried in low density lipoprotein (LDL-C). It has now been demonstrated that the steady-state level of LDL-C is predominantly dictated by metabolic events in the liver. As the amount of dietary cholesterol entering the body is increased, there is expansion of the sterol pool in the liver cell and down regulation of LDL receptors (LDLR) that are primarily responsible for clearing LDL-C from the blood stream. When dietary cholesterol intake is kept constant, however, long-chain saturated fatty acids further suppress hepatic LDLR activity, whereas several unsaturated fatty acids have the opposite effect. These regulatory events depend upon the availability of the various fatty acids to shift intracellular cholesterol between a regulatory and storage pool of cholesterol, and this effect is mediated by the enzyme acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT).
Article
A high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for the microscale determination of alpha-tocopherol in macroalgae is reported. The method includes microscale saponification and extraction with n-hexane. The presence of alpha-tocopherol in macroalgae samples was confirmed by HPLC-MS. Alpha-tocopherol levels as determined in samples by HPLC with UV and fluorescence detection did not differ significantly; however, fluorescence detection has a higher sensitivity (detection limit 10.4 ng/ml, vs. 104 ng/ml with UV detection), as well as good precision (relative standard deviation 1.81%) and recovery (94.3%). Fluorescence detection is also faster. We used this method to determine the alpha-tocopherol contents of four commercial macroalgae products from northwest Spain as part of nutritional studies in dehydrated Himanthalia elongata and Laminaria ochroleuca, and also in canned Himanthalia elongata and Saccorhiza polychides.
Seaweeds and their uses Chapman and Hall Nutritional aspects of the developing use of marine macroalgae for the human food industry
  • Vj
  • Chapman
VJ, Chapman DJ (eds) (1980) Seaweeds and their uses, 3rd edn. Chapman and Hall, New York Darcy-Vrillon B (1993) Nutritional aspects of the developing use of marine macroalgae for the human food industry. Int J Food Sc Nutr 44:23–35
Official methods of analysis of AOAC international Vegetable from the sea Nutritional biochemistry Nutritional value of seaweeds
  • Rupérez Md
  • S Usa
  • Arasaki
Rupérez (2002) also reported low Na/K ratios, below 1.5 References AOAC (2000) Official methods of analysis of AOAC international, 17th edn. AOAC International, Md., USA Arasaki S, Arasaki T (1983) Vegetable from the sea. Japan Pub, Tokyo Brody T (1999) Nutritional biochemistry, 2nd edn. Academic Press, London Burtin P (2003) Nutritional value of seaweeds. Elec J Environ Agric Food Chem 2:498–503
Glycolipids and fatty acids of some seaweeds and marine grasses from the black sea Dietary fatty acids and the regulation of plasma low density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations Energy and protein requirements Seaweed proteins: biochemical, nutritional aspects and potential uses
  • Vm
  • Pechenkina-Shubina Ee
  • Oa
VM, Pechenkina-Shubina EE, Rozentsvet OA (1991) Glycolipids and fatty acids of some seaweeds and marine grasses from the black sea. Phytochemistry 30:2279–2283 Dietschy JM (1998) Dietary fatty acids and the regulation of plasma low density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations. J Nutr 128:444S–448S FAO/WHO (1991) Protein Quality Evaluation, Report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation. FAO Food and Nutrition Paper No 51, Rome FAO/WHO/UNU (1985) Energy and protein requirements. Report of a joint FAO/WHO/UNU expert consultation. WHO Technical Report Series No 724., WHO, Geneva Fleurence J (1999) Seaweed proteins: biochemical, nutritional aspects and potential uses. Trends Food Sci Technol 10:25–28
Nutritional biochemistry
  • T Brody
Vegetable from the sea
  • S Arasaki
Protein Quality Evaluation
  • Fao Who
Narasinga Rao BS (1992) A sensitive kinetic assay for the determination of iodine in foodstuffs
  • D L Mahesh
  • T G Deosthale
  • DL Mahesh
Nutritional evaluation of some subtropical red and green seaweeds. Part 1-proximate composition, amino acid profiles and some physico-chemical properties
  • K H Wong
  • C K Cheung
  • KH Wong