Case report of successful peginterferon, ribavirin, and daclatasvir therapy for recurrent cholestatic hepatitis C after liver Retransplantation

Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-0362, USA.
Liver Transplantation (Impact Factor: 4.24). 09/2012; 18(9):1053-9. DOI: 10.1002/lt.23482
Source: PubMed


A recurrent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection after liver transplantation (LT) can lead to accelerated allograft injury and fibrosis. The aim of this article is to report the first ever use of daclatasvir (DCV; also known as BMS-790052), a potent orally administered nonstructural 5A replication complex inhibitor, in combination with peginterferon α (PEG-IFNα) and ribavirin in an LT recipient. A 49-year-old female developed a severe recurrent HCV genotype 1b infection 4 months after transplantation with severe cholestasis on biopsy, an HCV RNA level of 10,000,000 IU/mL, an alkaline phosphatase level of 1525 IU/mL, and a total bilirubin level of 8.4 mg/dL. Despite partial virological suppression with PEG-IFNα and ribavirin, progressive allograft failure ensued and culminated in retransplantation at 9 months. Three months after the second transplant, DCV (20 mg/day), PEG-IFNα2a (180 μg/week), and ribavirin (800 mg/day) were prescribed for early recurrent cholestatic HCV. Serum HCV RNA became undetectable at week 3 of treatment and remained undetectable during 24 weeks of triple therapy and during the posttreatment follow-up. DCV was well tolerated, and the trough drug levels were within the targeted range throughout the treatment. The cyclosporine trough levels were also stable during and after therapy. In conclusion, the lack of anticipated drug-drug interactions between DCV and calcineurin inhibitors and the potent antiviral efficacy of DCV make this agent (in combination with PEG-IFN and ribavirin) an attractive antiviral regimen worthy of further study in LT recipients with recurrent HCV.

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    • "DAA Cyclosporine Tacrolimus Healthy volunteers Dose adjustment Healthy volunteers Dose adjustment Boceprevir [115, 116] ¥ AUC ↑ 2.7 fold ↓ 2 fold AUC ↑ 17 fold ↓ 5 fold Telaprevir [77, 117] ¥ AUC ↑ 4.6 fold ↓ 4 fold AUC ↑ 70 fold ↓ 35 fold ABT450/r [86] AUC ↑ 5.8 fold ↓ 5 fold AUC ↑ 58 fold ↓ 100 fold Simeprevir [118] § AUC ↑ 19% Under investigation AUC ↓ 17% Not necessary Sofosbuvir [119] ¥ No change Not necessary No change Not necessary Daclatasvir [120] "
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    ABSTRACT: Interferon-based treatments have a poor safety profile and limited efficacy in patients with advanced liver disease and in patients with hepatitis C (HCV) recurrence after liver transplantation (LT). Despite the recent approval of the first interferon-free regimen, which will be followed by several other interferon-free combinations in 2014 and 2015, data in patients with advanced cirrhosis and hepatitis C after LT are still limited. One study has already proven the concept that graft HCV infection can be prevented in a significant proportion of patients by treating them with sofosbuvir and ribavirin while awaiting LT. Two interferon-free regimens have also demonstrated a high efficacy in patients with hepatitis C recurrence after transplantation. Before these treatment strategies can be implemented in clinical practice, a few issues need to be addressed: (1) safety and efficacy of new antivirals in patients with decompensated cirrhosis, (2) the impact of viral clearance on liver function, (3) the potential consequences of virological failure (and the selection of multi-drug resistant HCV strains) in patients with decompensated cirrhosis or with severe hepatitis C recurrence after LT, and (4) drug-drug interactions (DDI) profiles. Finally, in the transplant setting it is also relevant to learn which strategy is most cost-effective in minimizing the negative impact of hepatitis C: preventing graft infection by treating patients before transplantation or treating hepatitis C recurrence after LT.
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    ABSTRACT: Recurrent HCV disease is the most common cause of graft loss and patient mortality in HCV-infected liver transplant (LT) recipients. Risk factors for more severe recurrence that are potentially modifiable are older donor age, prolonged cold ischaemia time, prior treated acute rejection, CMV hepatitis, IL28B donor genotype, and post-LT insulin resistance. The most effective means of preventing HCV recurrence is eradicating HCV prior to LT. Select wait-list candidates with compensated or mildly decompensated disease can be considered for antiviral treatment with peginterferon, ribavirin (and protease inhibitor if genotype 1). For the majority of LT patients, HCV treatment must be delayed until post-transplant. Treatment is generally undertaken if histologic severity reaches grade 3 or 4 necroinflammation or stage ≥2 fibrosis, or if cholestatic hepatitis. Achievement of sustained viral response (SVR) post-LT is associated with stabilization of fibrosis and improved graft survival. SVR is attained in ∼30% of patients treated with peginterferon and ribavirin. Poor tolerability of therapy is a limitation. Combination therapy with telaprevir or boceprevir added to peginterferon and ribavirin is anticipated to increase efficacy but with higher rates of adverse effects and challenges in managing drug-drug interactions between the protease inhibitors and calcineurin inhibitors/sirolimus.
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    Full-text · Article · Aug 2012 · Journal of Hepatology
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