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Family Development and the Martial Arts: A Phenomenological Study

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This article outlines the results of a grounded-theory, phenomenological study about the impact of the martial arts on the process of family development. Thirty-two couples and families with at least four months of martial arts study experience were interviewed to identify data and data themes about how the martial arts enhanced family development. Themes identified were self-defense, self-confidence, physical vitality, concentration, respect, friendship, moral development, spirit, training for life, grades, respect for life, and the importance of the martial arts instructor.

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... They have a high degree of ceremony and ritual, emphasize the integration of mind and body, and have a meditative component (Binder, 1997). Further, martial arts improve practice improves socialization (Lantz, 2002) intellectual ability (Ryan, 2008) and morality (Lantz, 2002). Previous studies have shown a positive impact of martial arts on exercise self-efficacy (Caldwell, Harrison, Adams, & Triplett, 2009), physical selfworth (Li, Harmet, Chaumeton, Duncan, & Dincan, 2002;Linxuan, 2011), and GSE (Brown et al., 1995;Lee, Lee, & Woo, 2010;Mustian et al., 2004;Yin, 2006). ...
... They have a high degree of ceremony and ritual, emphasize the integration of mind and body, and have a meditative component (Binder, 1997). Further, martial arts improve practice improves socialization (Lantz, 2002) intellectual ability (Ryan, 2008) and morality (Lantz, 2002). Previous studies have shown a positive impact of martial arts on exercise self-efficacy (Caldwell, Harrison, Adams, & Triplett, 2009), physical selfworth (Li, Harmet, Chaumeton, Duncan, & Dincan, 2002;Linxuan, 2011), and GSE (Brown et al., 1995;Lee, Lee, & Woo, 2010;Mustian et al., 2004;Yin, 2006). ...
... Although the SPPC and ASSP consist of 12 and 11 domains respectively, we will include only those that have been related in previous studies somehow to martial arts, namely; social acceptance (Jones, Mackay, & Peters, 2006;Lantz, 2002), intellectual ability (Ryan, 2008) and morality (Lantz, 2002). To our knowledge previous research has not reported any link between martial arts practice and scholar achievement, parental relationship, humor, job competence…etc. ...
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Previous research has not examined the potential relationship between physical activity interventions and psychological domains of young adults with visual impairment (VI). This study aimed to investigate whether karate practice improves the self-esteem of young adults with VI. A secondary aim of this study was to explore the exercise and self-esteem model (EXSEM) on young adults with VI. Following a non-concurrent multiple baseline approach, four males and one female (age range 19-40 years) with VI participated in this study. Four undergraduate students completed the Self-Perception Profile for College Students and one postgraduate student completed the Adult Self-Perception Profile. All participants completed the Physical Self-Perception Profile and the Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale. When the score stability was attained the intervention was introduced. Each participant attended a 60-minute karate session twice a week for 10 weeks at the University of Edinburgh. The students completed all questionnaires every two weeks during the karate program and a visual inspection approach was used for data analysis. Visual inspection showed that four participants improved their global self-esteem. Self-efficacy was improved in three participants whereas the other two had high self-efficacy before participation in the karate program. Most of the physical self-perception domains were improved for all five participants while one participant did not improve one domain of the physical self-perception. Findings suggest that karate practice may improve self-esteem, physical self-perception, and exercise self-efficacy in young adults with VI.
... For example, in a study investigating the factors that motivated participants (n = 75) to engage in martial arts practice, Jones, Mackay, and Peters [65] reported finding that the four most important motivations for martial arts participation were "'Affiliation', 'Fitness', 'Skill Development' and 'Friendship'" [65], and in another study investigating the influence of martial arts for couples (n = 9) and families (n = 23) that had been practicing (i.e. aikido, karate or taekwondo) for at least four months, Lantz [66] reported that "The couples and families consistently reported that martial arts study facilitates marital and family development, and offered 12 basic themes about how this facilitation occurs", including "self-defense, self-confidence, physical vitality, concentration, respect, friendship, moral development, spirit, training for life, grades, respect for life, and the importance of the martial arts instructor", which "suggests that marital and family therapists should be more active in asking their clients to consider a referral for martial arts instruction as a useful complementary activity along with participation in marital and/or family therapy" [66]. In other relevant research, Zivin et al. [67] investigated whether student (n = 60) participation in martial arts at school would influence their level of confrontational behavior and reported finding that "juveniles at high risk for violence and delinquency showed decreased violence and positive changes in psychological risk factors after being required to take a school-linked course in traditional martial arts" and "improved significantly in the areas of resistance to rules, impulsiveness, and inappropriate social behavior", as well as on "self-reported happiness and schoolwork and on one measure of attention" [67]. ...
... For example, in a study investigating the factors that motivated participants (n = 75) to engage in martial arts practice, Jones, Mackay, and Peters [65] reported finding that the four most important motivations for martial arts participation were "'Affiliation', 'Fitness', 'Skill Development' and 'Friendship'" [65], and in another study investigating the influence of martial arts for couples (n = 9) and families (n = 23) that had been practicing (i.e. aikido, karate or taekwondo) for at least four months, Lantz [66] reported that "The couples and families consistently reported that martial arts study facilitates marital and family development, and offered 12 basic themes about how this facilitation occurs", including "self-defense, self-confidence, physical vitality, concentration, respect, friendship, moral development, spirit, training for life, grades, respect for life, and the importance of the martial arts instructor", which "suggests that marital and family therapists should be more active in asking their clients to consider a referral for martial arts instruction as a useful complementary activity along with participation in marital and/or family therapy" [66]. In other relevant research, Zivin et al. [67] investigated whether student (n = 60) participation in martial arts at school would influence their level of confrontational behavior and reported finding that "juveniles at high risk for violence and delinquency showed decreased violence and positive changes in psychological risk factors after being required to take a school-linked course in traditional martial arts" and "improved significantly in the areas of resistance to rules, impulsiveness, and inappropriate social behavior", as well as on "self-reported happiness and schoolwork and on one measure of attention" [67]. ...
... Finally, in an interesting study investigating the effects of long-term martial arts practice of form or kata techniques on the social interaction of children (n = 15) with autism spectrum disorders, Movahedi et al. [70] reported finding that "After receiving Kata-based treatment, the participants of the exercise group demonstrated a substantial improvement in social interaction", that "social dysfunction decreased from baseline levels by a M of 40.32% across participants", and that even "after 30 days of no practice, social dysfunction in the exercise group remained significantly decreased compared to postintervention time" whereas "The participants of the control group revealed no change in their social dysfunction score across the experimental period" [70]. Resultantly, since positive relationships can contribute to psychological well-being [3-5, 18, 54-64], and since several studies have indeed suggested that practicing martial arts can contribute to positive relationships [65][66][67][68][69][70], there are good grounds for maintaining that practicing martial arts can positively contribute to psychological well-being. This section has now reviewed the recent literature on martial arts and relationships to further clarify how martial arts can function as a useful means for positively influencing relationships. ...
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The question of what constitutes and facilitates mental health or psychological well-being has remained of great interest to martial artists and philosophers alike, and still endures to this day. Although important questions about well-being remain, it has recently been argued in the literature that a paradigmatic or prototypical case of human psychological well-being would characteristically consist of positive emotion, engagement, relationships, meaning, and accomplishment. Other scholarship has also recently suggested that martial arts practice may positively promote psychological well-being, although recent studies on martial arts have not yet been reviewed and integrated under the PERMA framework from positive psychology to further explore and explicate this possibility. This article therefore contributes to the literature by reviewing recent work on psychological well-being and martial arts to determine whether there is substantive support for the claim that practicing martial arts can positively contribute to one flourishing with greater psychological well-being.
... Indeed, qualitative studies have demonstrated that martial arts training is conceptualized as a means for psychological growth and development (Columbus & Rice, 1998), selfimprovement (Konzak & Boudreau, 1984), better understanding oneself, and as a mechanism for coping with difficult life transitions (Columbus & Rice, 1998). Practitioners have reported improvements in areas of respect, self-confidence, moral development, spirit and energy (i.e., not giving up in the face of adversity) in either themselves or their children who were involved in martial arts training (Lantz, 2002). ...
... However, no study has explored underlying motivations or perceived training benefits of Taekwondo students exclusively. Although a few studies (Columbus & Rice, 1998;Lantz, 2002) have included Taekwondo students, only one study (Ko & Kim, 2010) explored differences between martial arts disciplines using a survey design. The present study aims to extend the literature on martial artists' motivation and perceived benefits of training through the utilization of an open-ended design in a sample of Taekwondo students exclusively. ...
... The qualitative results also suggest that the traditional conceptualizations of martial arts as a lifestyle are reflected in modern practice. Consistent with previous research that some practitioners come to view martial arts as a spiritual practice (Twemlow, Lerma & Twemlow, 1996), and as a means for character development (Lantz, 2002), participants discussed how Taekwondo had enhanced their moral character in ways such as increased respect for themselves and for other people. Others believed that Taekwondo had become a way of life, a factor that had shaped important aspects of their lives, or a guiding principle in their development as human beings. ...
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Objective: Previous research suggests that martial arts practice may be associated with enhanced psychological and physical wellbeing. However, few studies have explored the effects of Taekwondo on these outcomes in a representative sample of practitioners. Methods: The present study examines a sample of Taekwondo practitioners with an age range of 18-61 years, assessing the relationships between Taekwondo experience and self-reported body image perceptions, self-esteem, as well as perceptions of overall mental and physical health. It also explores practitioners’ motivations for Taekwondo training through analyses of participants’ responses to an open-ended question. Results: Results demonstrated that Taekwondo experience was significantly associated with more positive ratings of self-esteem and of body image, and a stronger belief that Taekwondo influences physical health. Qualitative results revealed that participants reported physical, psychological, and social motivations for participating in Taekwondo, and Taekwondo experience was associated with a greater number of perceived psychological motivations. Conclusion: The potential therapeutic implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed.
... Since the 1960's the focus was directed towards the socio-psychological effects when practicing traditional martial arts. Accordingly, it was asked how traditional training could be used in therapies (Daniels & Thornton, 1992;Movahedi, Bahrami, Marandi, & Abedi, 2013;Lantz, 2002). Later, modern martial arts and combative sports were explored rather than traditional styles. ...
... Researchers got interested in behavior and ethics during the training (Twemlow & Sacco, 1998) and cooperative rather than competitive ways of thinking Layton et al., 1993;Vlachos, 2015). Recently, it was also considered as a possibility in family therapies (Lantz, 2002). ...
... They also observed that after 30 days of no practice the social dysfunction was significantly lower than in a post-intervention time and in the control group. Lantz (2002) also examined social benefits from practicing martial arts. The participants of his study were couples and families training aikido, taekwondo and karate for at least 4 months. ...
Thesis
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Introduction: Wushu, Chinese martial art, consists of modern and traditional groups of styles. Previously it was researched that modern and traditional martial arts have different outcomes. Since traditional wushu is said to be rooted in Chinese values, its environment is a unique place to research psychological collectivism. Moreover, mental toughness is a new topic in the field of martial arts, and its connection with psychological collectivism was only researched on the society, not personality level. Methods: This mixed methods research consisted of qualitative Study 1 and quantitative Study 2. Study 1 aimed to understand, what is the experience of psychological collectivism in traditional wushu training. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight European adult participants of traditional wushu and were analyzed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. In the Study 2, 277 European adult respondents (111 modern wushu and 166 traditional wushu practitioners) filled in the Sport Mental Toughness Questionnaire and Psychological Collectivism Questionnaire. To research the relationship of practicing modern or traditional wushu with psychological collectivism and mental toughness, several steps were taken. First, the Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis were run to test both models. Next, the final model was tested using Structural Equation Modelling. Model comparisons, path analysis and effects were completed. Results: In Study 1, five themes emerged from the data. The first described how kung fu (traditional wushu) provided structure and direction for the interviewees. Also, it described how practitioners better adapted to the outer world and their ability to switch from being gentle to being ruthless. The second theme described perception of time. The third one explored the kung fu community, provided a probe into the group identity, and looked at how positioning closer to the master provided better learning options; the community served as the knowledge keeper. The fourth theme explored bridging gaps in communication. Finally, the fifth theme discovered seriousness of the practitioners, who had to endure mentally and physically torturous training. In Study 2, during the structural equation modeling the final model was confirmed as well as differences in the two groups of modern and traditional wushu. Moreover, it was found, that the number of joined competitions or years of training did not result in a significant path with mental toughness, but perceived level of skill did. The relationship between psychological collectivism and mental toughness was found only in the traditional wushu group, limited to a marginal p level. Conclusion: Psychological collectivism was explored in traditional wushu and helped to understand the structure and functioning of the wushu community. The seriousness of its members served as a commodity, to negotiate better position in the group. In the quantitative study, this seriousness seemed to be connected with the perceived level of skill. This variable resulted in the significant path with mental toughness. It is suggested that the social environment of the serious practitioners, who put themselves through demanding training, helped to develop mental toughness. This development is not based on the number of years in training, but rather on the way the practitioners perceive themselves.
... Martial arts have long been a popular recreational activity in our society, among both adults and children (Terry, 2006). While originally developed for combat, martial arts have evolved into activities that today, are means for learning self-defense and enhancing self-development (Lantz, 2002). For physical education students, the physical challenges and the mental stimulation provided by the martial arts aid in selfdevelopment by teaching students personal and social responsibilities (Hellison, 2011). ...
... A four-month follow up showed these behavioral improvements were maintained. However, martial arts are not easily learned in a short amount of time and the mastery of skills requires considerable commitment, often with lengthy practices (Lantz, 2002). Being able to derive the benefits of increased self-confidence and self-esteem of martial arts training in a shorter amount of time was the motivation behind developing the Fun-Defense game series. ...
... Fun-Defense is a series of games developed for physical educators to use in conjunction with teaching some basic martial arts actions and moves. Traditionally, teaching students martial arts skills takes a substantial amount of time (Lantz, 2002), often more time than afforded during a regular physical education course. However, Fun-Defense incorporates instruction of basic martial arts skills into short games, allowing an educator to teach essential fundamentals in a reasonable amount of time. ...
... Even when psychological collectivism appears to move away from the societal level of analysis, society still plays a crucial role. Therefore, it is curious that this phenomenon has been overlooked, especially when many research studies of traditional Asian martial arts use foreigners as their subjects [Daniels and Thornton 1992;Lantz 2002;Movahedi et al. 2013;Najafi 2003;Nosanchuk and MacNeil 1989;Twemlow and Sacco 1998;Zivin et al. 2001]. ...
... The very feeling of belonging to such a social group can be highly signfigant [Lantz 2002]. ...
... For the [ideally] friendly and solidary way to treat other people, traditional martial arts are recommended for family and marital therapies [Lantz 2002]. But this is not always so optimistic. ...
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This paper conceptualizes a new perspective in viewing traditional martial arts in terms of psychology. Traditional martial arts offer the complete package: physical skills, moral codes, rituals, roles and hierarchical relationships, which make them the perfect environment for psychological collectivism. This phenomenon becomes even more interesting when this cultural and philosophical background differs from the Western practitioner's original background. Psychological collectivism focuses on individuals and their abilities to accept norms of an in-group, understand hierarchy, and feel interdependence or common faith of the group. Surprisingly, many research studies have used foreigners as subjects to study Asian martial arts, but there is no intention directed towards the difference in backgrounds of both the participants and the martial art. At first, this paper will introduce the theory of psychological collectivism and explain its hypothesized connection with traditional martial arts. Using the example of Chinese traditional wushu (kung fu) will be used to illustrated the theory in practice. Relationships to the others and to the self are taken as one of the bases for this illustration. The research gap will be also compared to the new and small but existing body of psychological collectivism research in individual sport. This paper argues that traditional martial arts create situations strong enough to activate collectivistic attributes of self. Based on the theory, it is suggested that practitioners' mind-set can be different within the environment of the training context and outside of it. This kind of collectivistic interaction may be one explanation of how foreigners function in the training setting and how the traditional martial arts can work in psychosocial therapies.
... Perhaps because of their vast over-representation in this masculinised field, men are often important agents in the career development of competitive women fighters, and can provide vital assistance through working as coaches, managers and sparring partners in many disciplines (Kavoura et al., this volume; Owton, this volume). Unfortunately, a reliance on such men can be a hindrance to some women, as certain male coaches/instructors may have dismissive attitudes towards, or little interest in working with, female athletes (Lantz, 2002;Lafferty and McKay, 2004;McNaughton, 2012;Paradis, 2012; see also Schneider, 2013), while others may actively discriminate against women and frustrate their career development in varied ways (McCree, this volume). Meanwhile, training in mixed-sex groups is relatively common in this category in some contexts (Channon, 2013a;Guérandel and Mennesson, 2007;Maclean, this volume; see also Lökman, 2010), and may involve mixed-sex sparring (Channon and Jennings, 2013;McNaughton, 2012) -practices which hold particularly meaningful opportunities for embodied and symbolic challenges to normative sexual hierarchies (Channon, 2013b;Miller, 2010;Noel, 2009). ...
... The cultivation of fitness or some other form of body management; development of various self-defence competencies; pursuit of competitive success within inter-or intra-club sparring matches; or the opportunity to give public demonstrations may all be a feature of practice in a variety of activities which might be broadly described as 'martial arts'. In addition, both men and women participating within them may be motivated by several other factors, including the pursuit of spiritual or moral self-development (e.g., Abramson and Modzelewski, 2011;Boddy, 2014;Brown and Leledaki, 2010); educational benefits, particularly among children or younger people (e.g., Brown and Johnson, 2000;Lakes and Hoyt, 2004;Vertonghen et al., this volume); the enjoyment or excitement of the activity and its socio-cultural significance (e.g., McCaughey, 1998;Mierzwinski and Phipps, this volume;Mierzwinski et al., 2014;Thing, 2001); the sociability and social capital of club membership (e.g., Jennings, 2010;Lantz, 2002;Looser, 2006); the chance to experience 'other' cultures, or preserve/reinvent one's own cultural tradition or ethnic heritage (e.g., Brown and Leledaki, 2010;Carruthers, 1998;Farrer, 2011;George Jennings, this volume;Joseph, 2008;; and yet more besides. Given this multiplicity of possible training goals and outcomes, great variation inevitably exists within the (gendered) physical practices which might be observed in such settings. ...
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Our initial motivation for producing Global Perspectives on Women in Combat Sports: Women Warriors around the World began several years ago when, as PhD candidates studying together at Loughborough University, UK, we developed a shared interest in combat sports through our separate but related research projects. Christopher’s work, involving an ethnographic study of a working class, predominantly male boxing club, and Alex’s, which explored the phenomenon of mixed-sex training in a range of martial arts schools, fuelled many discussions between us on the sociological richness of these activities. Topics such as the contentious definition of ‘violence’, the emotional landscape of training to fight, the social class characteristics of participants in different clubs and schools and the complex relationship between ethnicity and authenticity in the martial arts occupied many of our debates. However, the most salient issue for both of us, and that which we returned to with the greatest regularity, was the manner in which gender was constructed, portrayed and lived out within these activities. Indeed, both our doctoral theses and subsequent publications were eventually based on analyses of the gendered behaviour of practitioners within such settings, and these marked the beginning of our academic careers as scholars in this particular field (e.g. Channon, 2012a, 2012b, 2013a; Matthews, 2012, 2014).
... Here, it is important to note that wellbeing could be understood as living or having or experiencing a good life and it could have different dimensions including material welfare, physical health, relationships, living environments, feelings, etc (White, 2008). The positive role of the martial arts found by various researchers could be conceptualized as psychosocial benefits (Goldsmith, 2013;Kurian, Verdi, Caterino, & Kulhavy, 1994;Lakes & Hoyt, 2004;Lantz, 2002;Movahedi, Bahrami, Marandi, & Abedi, 2013;Steyn & Roux, 2009;Zivin, et al., 2001) and physical benefits (Draxler, Ostermann, & Honekamp, 2010;Fong, Fu, & Ng, 2012;Fong, Tsang, & Ng, 2011;Khan & Joshi, 2011;Lantz, 2002). There are also other researchers who reported negative outcomes of the martial arts. ...
... Here, it is important to note that wellbeing could be understood as living or having or experiencing a good life and it could have different dimensions including material welfare, physical health, relationships, living environments, feelings, etc (White, 2008). The positive role of the martial arts found by various researchers could be conceptualized as psychosocial benefits (Goldsmith, 2013;Kurian, Verdi, Caterino, & Kulhavy, 1994;Lakes & Hoyt, 2004;Lantz, 2002;Movahedi, Bahrami, Marandi, & Abedi, 2013;Steyn & Roux, 2009;Zivin, et al., 2001) and physical benefits (Draxler, Ostermann, & Honekamp, 2010;Fong, Fu, & Ng, 2012;Fong, Tsang, & Ng, 2011;Khan & Joshi, 2011;Lantz, 2002). There are also other researchers who reported negative outcomes of the martial arts. ...
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p>This study aimed at examining the benefits and challenges of practicing Taekwondo (TKD) to adolescents in Addis Ababa. In so doing, the study investigated the nature of TKD training, benefits of practicing TKD, and challenges/problems related with practicing TKD. A descriptive concurrent mixed methods research design was used. Accordingly, the quantitative part of the study had 108 TKD adolescent participants while the qualitative part had 12 participants (eight TKD adolescents and four TKD coaches), from four TKD clubs in Addis Ababa. Both one-stage cluster sampling technique and purposive sampling technique were employed to select participants for the quantitative and qualitative parts of the study, respectively. Questionnaires and in-depth interviews were used to collect data from participants. Results of the study indicated: (1) the TKD training provided by the four TKD clubs was more of a modern/sport form of TKD; (2) TKD adolescents and coaches perceived that the benefits of TKD for adolescents are multifaceted, i.e., social benefits, physical benefits, mental benefits, self-defense, addiction avoidance, and other benefits; and (3) though majority (63.6%) of the respondents claimed that they did not face any problem as a result of practicing TKD, the following were identified as major problems that could threaten the wellbeing of TKD adolescents: family-related problems, community-related problems, and competition-related problems. In general, results show that the training of TKD can have a multifaceted positive contribution to adolescents’ wellbeing. </p
... selfregulation: Lakes & Hoyt, 2004;stress reduction: Wall, 2005; school violence prevention: Smith et al., 1999;Zivin et al., 2001; juvenile delinquency: Gonzalez, 1990;Gorbel, 1991;Nosanchuk, 1981;Trulson, 1986;Twemlow & Sacco, 1998). Others have also reported on the usefulness of martial arts in, among other things, family development (Lantz, 2002), conflict management (Rew & Ferns, 2005;Gleser & Brown, 1988) and liberal education (Levine, 1990). ...
... At the same time, though, others have described the effect martial arts appear to have with regard to moral development or virtuous behaviour (e.g. Lantz, 2002;Twemlow & Sacco, 1998). ...
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Contrasting images seem to appear regarding the effect of martial arts involvement in general and with regard to youth in particular. On the one hand, there are several reports referring to medical and moral concerns with a focus on assumed negative effects to personal and social well-being. On the other hand, there is a common belief that martial arts practice is associated with positive socio-psychological outcomes. To date, conclusive evidence regarding the effect of martial arts remains scarce, as not all research findings point in the same direction. In addition, little is known about the way children experience their martial arts involvement. Through the use of a qualitative research methodology, 40 children between the age of eight and twelve years in five different martial arts were interviewed in-depth regarding their experiences and views on participation motives, training, competition and behaviour. In general, findings seem to support the relationship between martial arts practice and positive socio-psychological responses. It is concluded that analysing the experiences of children in martial arts should take different approaches of martial arts practice into account.
... Spinelli (2003) also highlighted developments in existential-phenomenological research methodologies relevant to counselling psychology research which have focused on hermeneutic single-case efficacy design (Elliot, 2001) and multiple-case depth research (Schneider, 2001). As a further example, Lantz (2004) describes Grounded Theory as a research method for existential therapy: a qualitative, phenomenological and inductive approach that aims to identify data, data themes and emerging theory that is grounded in observation of the study population (Glasser and Strauss, 1967;Lantz, 1987Lantz, , 2002. The author maintains that this kind of study acquires credibility through the use of prolonged observation, methodological triangulation, data triangulation, peer debriefing and reflection to work towards accurate and dependable observation (Glasser and Strauss, 1967;Greenlee and Lantz, 1993;Lantz, 1987Lantz, , 2002. ...
... As a further example, Lantz (2004) describes Grounded Theory as a research method for existential therapy: a qualitative, phenomenological and inductive approach that aims to identify data, data themes and emerging theory that is grounded in observation of the study population (Glasser and Strauss, 1967;Lantz, 1987Lantz, , 2002. The author maintains that this kind of study acquires credibility through the use of prolonged observation, methodological triangulation, data triangulation, peer debriefing and reflection to work towards accurate and dependable observation (Glasser and Strauss, 1967;Greenlee and Lantz, 1993;Lantz, 1987Lantz, , 2002. ...
... Al igual que las conductas consideradas lesivas como las adicciones llevan a las familias a organizar su dinámica en torno al problema, la vida familiar se ve trastocada y organizada alrededor de la práctica deportiva, más aún cuando de alto rendimiento se trata (Kay, 2000;Kay, 2004;Plasencia, Eguiluz y Osorio, 2013). En el caso de las artes marciales, las familias reportan, además, cambios favorables y crecimiento en diferentes temas como la autoconfianza, la vitalidad, la amistad, el respeto y el desarrollo moral (Lantz, 2002). ...
... Los estudios de familias con hijos jóvenes que practican artes marciales (Lanzt, 2002) reportan como beneficio el desarrollo moral, ya que consideran que les facilita establecer un código moral, como en el caso del respeto por uno mismo y por los demás; es el área de involucramiento afectivo disfuncional la que correlaciona con esta fortaleza, área que evalúa el manejo de la disfuncionalidad de la familia, en temas como el respeto a la vida o la expresión de los problemas. Las pautas de interacción que facilita la funcionalidad en el manejo de los aspectos negativos promueve el desarrollo del valor para enfrentar desafíos de la vida; el arte marcial enseña lecciones de vida que se aplican en otros ámbitos (Lantz, 2002). Otra fortaleza que correlaciona con esta área de la dinámica familiar es el autocontrol, la cual se ve fuertemente desarrollada desde la práctica marcial (Binder, 2007), y se relaciona con la obtención de resultados positivos . ...
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Resumen La psicología positiva es el estudio científico del funcionamiento óptimo, propone que las instituciones deberían posibilitar el desarrollo derelaciones positivas y de las fortalezas de las personas. Actualmente se cuenta con instrumentos para medir tanto las fortalezas (Peterson y Seligman,2004) como el funcionamiento familiar (Atri y Zetune, 2006), por lo que el interés de esta investigación va en esa dirección. En el presente trabajo se reporta el estudio realizado con 14 atletas de alto rendimiento deportivo, mayores de 18 años y seleccionados nacionales del mismo arte marcial. Losresultados señalan que las familias evaluadas tienden a la funcionalidad y presentan relaciones positivas entre las áreas de solución de problemas, involucramiento afectivo funcional y disfuncional del funcionamiento familiar, así como 7 fortalezas: perseverancia, amor por el conocimiento,optimismo/esperanza, valor, creatividad, autorregulación y mentalidad abierta. Se concluye que el funcionamiento familiar posibilita el surgimientode ciertas fortalezas en deportistas de alto rendimiento que practican un arte marcial y que en las áreas de dificultad se posibilitan opciones de crecimiento. © 2017 Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Asociación Mexicana de Comportamiento y Salud. Este es un artículo Open Access bajo lalicencia CC BY-NC-ND (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
... Martial arts are considered to be a unique form of exercise that focuses the correct mental and physical participation and not simply on winning or receiving extrinsic reward such as a black belt (Funakoshi, 1973). Further, martial arts improve practice improves socialization (Lantz, 2002) intellectual ability (Ryan, 2008) and morality (Lantz, 2002). Previous studies have shown a positive impact of martial arts on exercise self-efficacy ( Bandura (1997: 3) describes self efficacy or self-efficacy is the individual's perception of his or her ability to perform the expected action. ...
... Martial arts are considered to be a unique form of exercise that focuses the correct mental and physical participation and not simply on winning or receiving extrinsic reward such as a black belt (Funakoshi, 1973). Further, martial arts improve practice improves socialization (Lantz, 2002) intellectual ability (Ryan, 2008) and morality (Lantz, 2002). Previous studies have shown a positive impact of martial arts on exercise self-efficacy ( Bandura (1997: 3) describes self efficacy or self-efficacy is the individual's perception of his or her ability to perform the expected action. ...
... Less than 10% of pupils became acquainted with martial arts in an informal way, for example from friends, parents and other relatives. Other study indicates that many couples and families experience martial arts as a positive family development experience (Lantz, 2002). ...
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The publication provides new findings about the current role of combatives in school physical education. The methodology of work is based on a theoretical analysis of the issue in the literature and exploratory methods. The authors consider combatives comprehensively as valuable physical exercise, but also as a means of psychological and intellectual development and a tool for personality. Extensive research was carried out on the basis of search and study of more than 80 sources, including scientific publications in scientific databases, books, historical documents of the National Archive in Prague and curricula of nationwide level in three countries (the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and France). Publication updates the findings about combatives teaching in physical education and expands the current state of knowledge about the detailed description of the combatives curriculum and its importance to the healthy development of youth. By comprehensive focusing on the issue, the monograph is intended for academics, researchers, as well as primary and secondary school teachers.
... Social support reflects feelings of encouragement and support that a sport participant receives from significant others (i.e., family and friends). According to Lantz (2002), parents serve as the primary reasons for youth involvement and their support is important for continued participation. Social support was rated to be important to the adults respondents (M = 3.69), but the variable did not statistically significant predict for TKD commitment, so while participants may view that their participation is viewed positively by significant others, it is not related to commitment to the sport. ...
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This study examined adult and youth Taekwondo (TKD) participants utilizing the Sport Commitment Model (SCM). In addition to direct effects predicting commitment, indirect effects of enjoyment as a mediating variable were examined. TKD participants (adult, n = 204; youth, n = 227) from four studios completed a questionnaire that included SCM variables (commitment, enjoyment, involvement alternatives, involvement opportunities, personal investments, social constraints, and social support). Structural equation modeling analysis compared age groups to assess similarities and differences. Similarities between age groups included involvement opportunities and personal investments being significant predictors of commitment while involvement alternatives were a significant detractor of commitment. Analysis of differences found that the social variables (i.e., social constraints and support) and enjoyment were significant predictors for youth only. This was the first study examining the SCM with both youth and adults participating in the same sport activity. Findings are discussed relative to theoretical and practical implications.
... In general, it seems that MA practitioners with strong parental support also have stronger participation motivation [49]. Moreover, several authors reported that parents view MA as a way for their children to learn self-defense and to develop important characteristics such as selfconfidence [50,51]. The latter is no surprise, seeing that MA represents an arena dedicated to traits such as discipline, self-control, and self-confidence [52]. ...
Article
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Parents place their youths in sport with the belief that doing so will produce developmental outcomes. However, it is unclear if parents enroll children in different sports based on different desired characteristics they wish their youth to develop. This paper analyses the link between youths engaged in martial arts (MA) compared to other leisure activities. MA research has indicated the importance of masculinity and gender ideals that suggest that parents hold certain visions when enrolling their youths in MA. For example, one such vision is for their youths to be able to handle themselves in physical encounters. Two research questions guided the study. First, what characteristics do MA parents desire their children to develop? Secondly, how do these desires correspond to MA youths’ actual characteristics? We utilize multinomial logistic regression analysis on nationally representative data from the Netherlands. The results show that MA parents are younger, their youths are of migration background, and the parents value characteristics such as self-control, responsibility, and acting “gender appropriately”. These results correspond to their youths; MA youths are consistently characterized by more masculinity compared to the youths in other groups. The results bear implications for how MA environments must safeguard against potentially harmful and misleading norms.
... Clubes, academias, institutos, condomínios, empresas, organizações não governamentais, centros esportivos municipais, praças públicas têm sido ambiências provedoras destas manifestações corporais e de movimento (COX, 1993;DEL VECCHIO;FRANCHINI, 2006;THEEBOOM;KNOP, 1999;WINKLE;OZMUN, 2003). As configurações sociais e suas respectivas representações estão inscritas sob diferentes codificações, ou seja, como atividade competitiva (Esporte), terapia, educação, aptidão física, lazer, recreação, programas de inclusão social, técnicas de defesa pessoal, etc. (BOTTENBURG;HEILBRON, 2006;JONHSON, 2000;BURKE et al., 2007;COX, 1993;LANTZ, 2002;SKIDMORE, 1991). As modalidades esportivas de combate, especificamente, têm alcançado repercussão e visibilidade social por meio do seu engajamento em competições internacionais, tendo nos Jogos Olímpicos a expressão maior de sua 3 apresentação como um fenômeno globalizado. ...
Article
The present study had as objective to verify the production of fight, martial arts and combat sports in articles published in the main Physical Education academic journals available in Brazil after the establishment of the CONFEF, as well as analyze the subjects studied in these articles. The subject classification followed Tani (1996)'s proposition concerning an academic structure to Kinesiology, Physical Education and Sport. When considering the 2561 articles published on these journals only 75 (2.93%) were related to Fight/Martial Arts/Combat Sports. It was verified a predominance of studies conducted in the Biodynamic area (40%), followed by Human Movement Socio-cultural Studies (32%) and Motor Behavior (8%). The applied studies were divided as: Human Movement Pedagogy (10.7%), Sports Training (8%), Sports Administration (1.3%) and Adapted Human Movement (none study published). These data indicate: (1) a reduced number of publications concerning these activities, especially those of applied nature; (2) a need to promote inter and multidisciplinary research about this subject.
... É comum encontrar autores que tecem críticas à prática de artes marciais, principalmente em jovens, e defendem a criação de regras mais rígidas nestes esportes 20,21 . Mas por outro lado, também é possível encontrar estudos que enaltecem o papel das artes marciais no desenvolvimento moral ou de comportamentos prossociais 22 . ...
... This is significant because it recalls the difficulties encountered when trying to evaluate practices whose effectiveness is based upon the epistemological tradition of other cultures. Beyond Tai Chi, research into the martial arts has attracted most attention for their supposedly positive psychological and psychotherapeutic effects on practitioners (see Cox, 1993;Lantz, 2002;Weiser et al., 1995). In particular, a focus upon these arts' abilities to transform aggressive or violent conduct has consistently captured the interests of researchers (see for example Fuller, 1988;Lakes and Hoyt, 2004;Nosanchuk, 1981;Trulson, 1986;Twemlow and Sacco, 1998;Winkle and Ozmun, 2003;Zivin et al., 2001). ...
Article
Unlike the spectacular diffusion of modern Western sporting forms, Eastern movement forms (martial arts, Eastern dance, Yoga, meditation, Tai Chi Chuan, Qigong, etc.) have been quietly entering the fabric of everyday Western life over the past few decades. Adopting a structurationist approach that seeks to retain relationships between macro-, meso- and micro-levels of culture, this article considers data gathered from a range of long-term Western practitioners of a variety of Eastern movement forms in juxtaposition to broader media and documentary data also gathered on these practices. The analysis explores three Western social forces (Orientalism, reflexive modernization and commodification.) identified as acting on these movement forms in ways that intensify the process of (re)invention of tradition with particular transformative tensions. In conclusion, we identify three dispositions (preservationism, conservationism, and modernization) emerging from our analysis of these movement forms that seem to drive how individuals respond to the transformative Western social forces highlighted.
... Clubes, academias, institutos, condomínios, empresas, organizações não governamentais, centros esportivos municipais, praças públicas têm sido ambiências provedoras destas manifestações corporais e de movimento (COX, 1993;DEL VECCHIO;FRANCHINI, 2006;THEEBOOM;KNOP, 1999;WINKLE;OZMUN, 2003). As configurações sociais e suas respectivas representações estão inscritas sob diferentes codificações, ou seja, como atividade competitiva (Esporte), terapia, educação, aptidão física, lazer, recreação, programas de inclusão social, técnicas de defesa pessoal, etc. (BOTTENBURG;HEILBRON, 2006;JONHSON, 2000;BURKE et al., 2007;COX, 1993;LANTZ, 2002;SKIDMORE, 1991). As modalidades esportivas de combate, especificamente, têm alcançado repercussão e visibilidade social por meio do seu engajamento em competições internacionais, tendo nos Jogos Olímpicos a expressão maior de sua 3 apresentação como um fenômeno globalizado. ...
Article
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O presente estudo objetivou analisar a producao academica em lutas, artes marciais e esportes de combate nas principais revistas academicas de circulacao nacional da area de Educacao Fisica, apos o estabelecimento do sistema CONFEF, bem como analisar os temas destes artigos. A classificacao quanto a sua tematica seguiu a proposicao de Tani (1996) para a estrutura academica da Cinesiologia, Educacao Fisica e Esporte. Dos 2561 artigos publicados nesses periodicos, apenas 75 (2,93%) tratavam de Lutas/Artes Marciais/Modalidades Esportivas de Combate. Foi constatado o predominio dos estudos conduzidos na area de Biodinâmica (40%), seguidos pelos Estudos Socioculturais do Movimento Humano (32%) e Comportamento Motor (8%). Os estudos aplicados foram divididos em: Pedagogia do Movimento Humano (10,7%), Treinamento Esportivo (8%), Administracao Esportiva (1,3%) e Adaptacao do Movimento Humano (nenhum artigo produzido). Esses dados indicam: (1) carencia de publicacoes sobre essas atividades, especialmente as de carater aplicado; (2) necessidade de investimento em pesquisas inter e multidisciplinares sobre essa tematica.(AU) The present study had as objective to verify the production of fight, martial arts and combat sports in articles published in the main Physical Education academic journals available in Brazil after the establishment of the CONFEF, as well as analyze the subjects studied in these articles. The subject classification followed Tani (1996)’s proposition concerning an academic structure to Kinesiology, Physical Education and Sport. When considering the 2561 articles published on these journals only 75 (2.93%) were related to Fight/Martial Arts/Combat Sports. It was verified a predominance of studies conducted in the Biodynamic area (40%), followed by Human Movement Socio-cultural Studies (32%) and Motor Behavior (8%). The applied studies were divided as: Human Movement Pedagogy (10.7%), Sports Training (8%), Sports Administration (1.3%) and Adapted Human Movement (none study published). These data indicate: (1) a reduced number of publications concerning these activities, especially those of applied nature; (2) a need to promote inter and multidisciplinary research about this subject.(AU)
... On the contrary, many authors have strongly argued in favour of including MA&CS in PE programmes [see e.g., Brown 29], "Martial arts can enhance students' health, performance related to fitness, self-concept and esteem, and cognitive abilities". Practitioners' moral development is also a benefit usually linked to MA&CS, including learning about right and wrong, about self-control, the importance of working hard, respecting and helping others or doing the right thing [Lantz 2002]. Particularly, the close link between MA&CS and the development of positive moral values has led to the implementation of specific interventions aimed at reducing violence and aggression in students [Di Zio 2010; Tejero-Gonzalez, Balsalobre-Fernandez, Ibanez-Cano 2011; Twemlow et al. 2008;Zivin et al. 2001]. ...
Article
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Background and aim. The inclusion of martial arts and combat sports (MA&CS) in formal physical education (PE) has been suggested by many authors, although there is no strong evidence as yet of the benefits of its practice for students. This study aimed to describe the effects of the development of two MA&CS teaching units (judo and capoeira) on the motivational climate, enjoyment and attitudes toward violence of PE students, and to compare these effects with those experienced by students receiving team sports teaching units (football and basketball). Methodology. A quasi-experimental, pre-post (two groups), longitudinal study design was followed, involving 221 students aged between 13 and 16. The experimental group (n = 105) developed MA&CS teaching units, while the control group (n = 116) developed team sport, teaching units. A peer motivational climate questionnaire, the amusement/boredom in physical education scale and the attitudes toward violence scale psychological assessment tools were used. Statistical analyses included means and standard deviations, two-way equivalent multifactorial ANOVA and effect sizes Results: MA&CS teaching units significantly improved the classroom motivational climate involving tasks/learning, and students’ attitudes toward unjustified violence. The post-test intergroup comparison showed that the experimental group rejected unjustified violence to a higher degree than the control group (p = .014, d = .81). Improvements in attitudes to unjustified violence were for both males (p = .017, d = .82), and females (p = .021,d = .78) in the experimental group, while the climate involving tasks/learning only improved in males (p = .037, d = .77). Conclusion. MA&CS teaching units improved students’ attitudes toward violence and generated a higher peer motivational climate than, and similar fun as team sports teaching units.
... On the contrary, many authors have strongly argued in favour of including MA&CS in PE programmes [see e.g., Brown 29], "Martial arts can enhance students' health, performance related to fitness, self-concept and esteem, and cognitive abilities". Practitioners' moral development is also a benefit usually linked to MA&CS, including learning about right and wrong, about self-control, the importance of working hard, respecting and helping others or doing the right thing [Lantz 2002]. Particularly, the close link between MA&CS and the development of positive moral values has led to the implementation of specific interventions aimed at reducing violence and aggression in students [Di Zio 2010; Tejero-Gonzalez, Balsalobre-Fernandez, Ibanez-Cano 2011; Twemlow et al. 2008;Zivin et al. 2001]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background and aim. The inclusion of martial arts and combat sports (MA&CS) in formal physical education (PE) has been suggested by many authors, although there is no strong evidence as yet of the benefits of its practice for students. This study aimed to describe the effects of the development of two MA&CS teaching units (judo and capoeira) on the motivational climate, enjoyment and attitudes toward violence of PE students, and to compare these effects with those experienced by students receiving team sports teaching units (football and basketball). Methodology. A quasi-experimental, pre-post (two groups), longitudinal study design was followed, involving 221 students aged between 13 and 16. The experimental group (n = 105) developed MA&CS teaching units, while the control group (n = 116) developed team sport, teaching units. A peer motivational climate questionnaire, the amusement/boredom in physical education scale and the attitudes toward violence scale psychological assessment tools were used. Statistical analyses included means and standard deviations, two-way equivalent multifactorial ANOVA and effect sizes Results: MA&CS teaching units significantly improved the classroom motivational climate involving tasks/learning, and students' attitudes toward unjustified violence. The post-test inter-group comparison showed that the experimental group rejected unjustified violence to a higher degree than the control group (p = .014, d = .81). Improvements in attitudes to unjustified violence were for both males (p = .017, d = .82), and females (p = .021, d = .78) in the experimental group, while the climate involving tasks/learning only improved in males (p = .037, d = .77). Conclusion. MA&CS teaching units improved students' attitudes toward violence and generated a higher peer motivational climate than, and similar fun as team sports teaching units.
... Traditional (Chinese) martial arts influence practitioners in a variety of ways, because martial arts are a combination of various features: self-defense, sport fighting, health exercise, well-being (Lantz, 2002), tools to enhance social spheres (Daniels & Thornton, 1992;Movahedi, Bahrami, Marandi, & Abedi, 2013) or mental health (Croom, 2014;Singh & Solanki, 2015). This necessitates the involvement of a sports coach, psychologist, theologian, philosopher, fitness coach and many others in fulfilling the task of teaching martial arts. ...
Article
The purpose of this research is to explore the nature and main characteristics of kung fu teachers from their own perceptions, and to understand martial arts from a distinctive lens, transcending a traditional focus on the physical aspects or psychological benefits, prevalent in much existing research. Thus, this article aims to address the gap by providing insight on how the teachers perceive themselves and their work. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with three Czech teachers and analysed using an interpretative phenomenological analysis. The findings uncovered four phenomena: collectivistic group membership, self-transformation, guidance and spiritual background. Several respondents expressed the belief that one of the main goals of martial arts is not only improving fighting skills but also transforming the self.
... Typically studied as a martial art or a means for improving students' self-confidence and physical agility (Lantz 2002), Kung Fu has long been of interest to people in Fu practice or of Chinese language and cultural learning in Rwanda. In the following pages we describe first our research methodology and the setting, followed by description of key findings and analysis. ...
Article
This paper offers an alternative view of critical thinking beyond that which stresses student-centered instruction. It draws on participant-observation and interview data collected from a Kung Fu course held at the University of Rwanda to highlight how students use Kung Fu to make decisions in other domains of their lives. Analysis suggests that direct instructional modes facilitate students’ independent reasoning and their approaches to problem solving. In exploring how Rwandan students apply Kung Fu, the paper questions whether critical thinking and student-centered activities necessarily go hand-in-hand.
... Other systems of mind-body self-cultivation appear to pursue similar outcomes through traditions which view mental and physical integration as an underlying source of spirituality (Lama 2005;Lantz 2002;Richards and Bergin 2004). These approaches might focus on development and discipline of the entire person, treating the inner and outer self as inextricably intertwined. ...
Article
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This research explored relationships between personality factors and subjective wellbeing, and how those relationships might be influenced through the practice of mind–body self-cultivation systems such as yoga or martial arts. All three factors of the revised Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory of personality were hypothesised to predict subjective wellbeing in this study’s online recruited sample of 170 system practitioners. The Fight-Flight-Freeze System (FFFS) and Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS) were expected to predict subjective wellbeing negatively, whilst the Behavioral Approach System was expected to predict it positively. Results supported the latter two hypotheses, but unexpectedly found the FFFS-wellbeing relationship to be positive rather than negative. System practice was found to moderate only the BIS-wellbeing relationship: as practice time per week increased, so did wellbeing, particularly for higher-BIS practitioners. These results suggest that conflict between one’s reward and punishment motivation systems could undermine wellbeing. If so, then streamlining cognitive processes in behavioural choice-making might be more important to wellbeing than outright expressions of approach and avoidance behaviour. Put another way, there may be wisdom in the axiom that it is not the path one chooses which is important but only how one walks it.
... In contrast to their study, in our study, we followed a multiple basic approach rather than designing their randomized controlled trials study. A multiple basic approach has been described as a viable alternative to randomized controlled trials that use smaller and still statistically rigorous samples [29]. When collecting baseline data, after the Taekwondo MTP intervention program, the TKD group appears to have developed social and family self-esteem (Table 1). ...
... Basketball and martial arts were used successfully in a faith– based program to bolster self– confidence. Lantz (2002) used martial arts to help couples and families cope with their conflicts. ...
Article
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Violent, nonmentalizing individuals who act out aggression do not usually respond to verbal therapeutic approaches alone. We suggest the movement in physically oriented therapies, such as yoga and martial arts, combined with psychodynamic psychotherapy are critical in reaching these individuals. We also suggest embodiment as a direct link to the kinesthetic core of easily disturbed attachment experiences. This process embodying the mind requires a safe, containing context found in the therapist. Clinical vignettes show how this might be done in both individual and social contexts. These vignettes also show a way to think about such a combination of techniques and theories.
... Jak się okazuje, taka forma treningu przynosi dodatkowe pozytywne efekty. Pary donoszą, że rozwinęły w sobie poczucie pewności siebie, witalność fizyczną, szacunek i przyjaźń, nastąpił rozwój moralny, czy zwiększył się ich szacunek do życia 40 . ...
Chapter
Contemplative education approaches pedagogical spaces as an already living ecology. Something is already happening through the emotional, psychological, and somatic registers arising from the histories, daily psychosocial struggles, aspirational intentions within individuals and group dynamics. While contemplative practice develops insight into one’s moment-to-moment experience, the transitory nature of our thoughts, feelings, and bodily sensations, thus enabling emotional regulation in the classroom, these inner registers are often associated with behavioral or habitual ‘triggers,’ especially during stress. How do we remediate our own reflexivity and reactiveness, especially with one another? Beyond contemplative awareness, how do we move toward transformation of our ways of being and doing, especially as regards contact with others or ‘relationality.’ This chapter introduces the art of Ki Aikido as training for calm readiness in daily life. As a defensive martial art, Ki Aikido uses principles of ‘mind and body coordination’ incorporated from Japanese yoga to focus practitioners’ attentiveness on their psychosomatic state when under challenge or ‘attack.’ By incrementally reworking our inner reactivity, Ki Aikido teaches us to diffuse an ‘outer’ challenge or attack through calm, fluid timing, and the ethos of the budo (jap: ‘warriorship’) principle of ‘loving protection.’ Without requiring one to enter and endure years of traditional advanced Aikido training, one can immediately develop an embodied awareness of non-dissention. This article foregrounds the practice of Ki Aikido as a model for transformational, relational, and contemplative education. As a kind of ‘moving meditation,’ Ki Aikido is highlighted as a cultivational approach that is restorative for both educator, students, and toward harmonized relationships with life at large.
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Mixed martial arts (MMA) is a newly established and rapidly growing sport. Given questions surrounding claims of developmental outcomes for youth through MMA broadcasted on gym websites, coupled with parents’ practices to gather and utilize website information, it is important to explore the content of MMA gym websites. This study describes the content of MMA gyms’ youth programs’ websites, examining proposed developmental outcome claims for youth and processes of facilitation. Using a quantitative content analysis of 18 MMA youth gym websites in Toronto, Canada, a 37-item coding manual was developed to categorize content. MMA gyms drew upon popular media, anecdotal evidence and selective academic research findings to promote the benefits of their youth programs to parents. The claims of developmental outcomes and facilitation of positive youth development appear misguided and raise concerns for parents seeking information on child MMA programs. Findings highlight potential implications for parents interested in enrolling their children in MMA.
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Resumen La terapia familiar como sistema abierto se ha visto enriquecida con la psicología positiva, esta investigación permite crear puentes entre estas dos áreas. Se utilizó el modelo de McMaster describiendo la percepción de un grupo de atletas de alto rendimiento deportivo en relación con sus familias a través del Cuestionario de Evaluación Familiar (EFF) Atri y Zetune (2006) para población mexicana. Los resultados muestran al Arte Marcial como elemento central de la dinámica familiar, donde el 93% tiende a pautas relacionales saludables, por lo que las ubica como familias fuertes y saludables. Sobresale el que el área de involucramiento afectivo disfuncional se vincula mayormente con el arte marcial, y la muestra como un área de oportunidades. Informar sobre las fortalezas que promueven las familias, implica también el que cada miembro sea lo mejor de sí mismo. Palabras clave: funcionamiento familiar, psicología positiva, familias positivas, deporte y evaluación familiar. Abstract Family therapy as open system has been enriched with Positive Psychology; this research allows create bridges between these two areas. The McMaster, model describing the perception of a group of athletes in sports performance in relation to their families through the Evaluation Family Questionnaire (EFF) Atri and Zetune (2006) for Mexican population used. The results show the martial art as a central element of the family dynamics, where 93% tends to healthy relationship patterns, so it ranks them as strong and healthy families. The area of dysfunctional emotional involvement is mostly linked with the martial art, and displays it as an area of opportunity. Inform about the strengths of families, promote also implies that each Member is the best of himself.
Article
The involvement of youth in martial arts is often described in controversial terms. While it has been associated with negative effects to personal and social well-being (in terms of aggressive and violent behaviour), there is also a belief that martial arts practice among youngsters can lead to positive socio-psychological outcomes. To date, research has not provided conclusive evidence that negative outcomes of martial arts involvement can be ruled out, nor has it produced convincing evidence to unconditionally support the positive effects. Based on the fact that contextual factors can be expected to have an impact on martial arts participation among youth, the present paper tries to emphasise the need for a discerned view of the paradox that seems to exist with regard to perceived or proclaimed effects of youth's involvement.
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Since the late 1970s, social scientists have turned considerable attention to investigating martial arts and combat sports (MACS). In particular, this broad range of fighting disciplines has been shown to offer numerous avenues for scholarly enquiry into social change and personal transformation via processes of embodiment. Adopting a thematic structure, we assess the empirical literature in this area via four interconnecting categories pertaining to MACS and embodiment: (1) body cultures; (2) body pedagogies; (3) the embodiment of gender; and (4) bodily harm. Following this review, we identify several gaps in the existing literature, suggesting potential new topics and strategies for research connecting to the social world of physical culture more generally.
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Providing an overview of historical and philosophical foundations of karate, and outlining the therapeutic properties inherent in this martial art, this article explores parallels between and examples of the integration of Kyokushin karate into individual and group counselling. Apart from fostering physical fitness, the philosophical foundations of karate facilitate an active dialogue between the mind and the body. The parallels between the goals of martial arts and counselling indicate a good basis for considering the value of incorporating karate into psychological interventions. It is suggested that by contributing to a profound integration of bodily awareness, which furthers the practitioner's overall mental unification and enhances harmony, karate possesses potent therapeutic potential.
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Existential psychotherapists generally have serious reservations and concerns about the use of systematic experimental research methods to generate knowledge about the practice and effectiveness of existential treatment. For many existential psychotherapists such experimental research methods are best replaced with the process of participation. The primary methods of participation research described in this article are: Case Story Research, Case Transcript Research, Single-Subject Case Research, Before-After Field Study Research, and Grounded Theory Research.
Chapter
The purpose of this study is to examine emerging literature for conflict resolution approaches through martial arts. Martial arts involvement is believed to provide positive learning opportunities for youth in general, as well as with regard to specific target groups. In particular, this study focuses on the cause and resolution of conflict philosophy in Tong-Il Moo-Do Martial Arts. To be precise, TIMD philosophy has categorized the root cause of conflict into three reasons: breakdown of interaction, ignoring the higher purpose, and accumulation of conflict.
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This approach to family therapy focuses on the many problems and symptoms that result when a family does not discover, experience, and/or make use of the meanings and meaning potentials in family life. The book is [intended] for mental health practitioners who believe in the meaning opportunities to be found in daily family life and who wish to help families discover and actualize such meaning potentials as a primary part of the treatment process. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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365 high school seniors and college students were requested to write "how you feel when you feel that you are really being understood by somebody." The method of analysis is presented and compared with other approaches. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Naturalistic research methods were used in this study to collect the voices, ideas, and opinions of rural, working poor, Appalachian families from Southeast Ohio about the stress of poverty in family life and family coping in the face of poverty. This data should be of interest to the professional family therapist who practices with the working poor.
Introduction to qualitative research methods: The search For meanings Phenomenological analysis: Exemplified by a study of the experi-ence of really feeling understood
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Tae Kwon Do for children Hong Kong: Park Publications Martial arts: The spiritual dimension Phenomenology in psychology and psychiatry
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  • Therapy
  • P Payne
Park, Y., & Leibowitz, J. (1993). Tae Kwon Do for children. Hong Kong: Park Publications. CONTEMPORARY FAMILY THERAPY Payne, P. (1997). Martial arts: The spiritual dimension. London: Thames and Hudson. Spiegelberg, H. (1972). Phenomenology in psychology and psychiatry. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press.
Toward a phenomenological study of the family
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Health, Frankl's philosophy of existenzanalyse and the martial arts: A personal tale
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Martial arts: The spiritual dimension
  • P Payne
Tae KwonDo for children
  • Y Park
  • J Leibowitz