Hepatic artery thrombosis and liver malignancy in pediatric liver transplantation

Division of General and Thoracic Surgery, Seattle Children's Hospital, PO Box 5371/W-7729, Seattle, WA 98145-5005, USA.
Journal of Pediatric Surgery (Impact Factor: 1.39). 06/2012; 47(6):1255-60. DOI: 10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2012.03.035
Source: PubMed


Hepatic artery thrombosis (HAT) remains a significant cause of graft failure and mortality after pediatric liver transplantation. Conditions not associated with hepatic failure, such as liver tumors, may be more prone to thrombotic problems after transplant. We hypothesized that liver transplant for hepatic malignancies may be associated with increased rates of HAT in the posttransplant period.
We conducted a retrospective review of pediatric patients (age, 0-21 years) who underwent primary liver transplantation at a free-standing children's hospital from 1990 to 2009. We reviewed cause of underlying liver disease, age, sex, weight, occurrence of HAT, use of antiplatelets and anticoagulants perioperatively, as well as reintervention, retransplant, and death.
A total of 129 children underwent 146 liver transplants, and 15 (12%) patients developed HAT. Nine liver transplants were performed for hepatic malignancy, and 4 (44%) of these patients developed HAT (relative risk, 4.85; 95% confidence interval, 1.9-12.2; P = .0015). All 4 children with hepatic malignancy and HAT required reintervention, including 3 retransplants (75%). One of these patients died.
Hepatic artery thrombosis occurs approximately 5 times more often and appears to be more morbid in children with hepatic malignancy after transplantation. Prospective evaluation of prophylactic anticoagulation regimens in the setting of hepatic malignancy requiring transplantation is warranted.

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    ABSTRACT: Postoperative thromboprophylactic anticoagulation against Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) and Pulmonary Embolism (PE) is standard of care with current evidence-based guidelines. However, majority of liver transplant (LT) patients have thrombocytopenia and/or prolonged INR before surgery. Studies or guidelines regarding role of prophylactic anticoagulation after LT are lacking. There is a need to balance the risk of thrombosis with significant hemorrhage, implying those needing transfusion or return to OR due to bleeding. We conclude that after LT, anticoagulation is not required routinely for DVT/PE prophylaxis. Rather, it is indicated in specific circumstances, chiefly for prophylaxis of hepatic artery thrombosis or portal vein thrombosis in cases with use of grafts, pediatric cases, small size vessels, Budd Chiari syndrome, amongst others.
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    ABSTRACT: Due to progressive advances in surgical techniques, immunosuppressive therapies, and supportive care, outcomes from both solid organ transplantation and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation continue to improve. Thrombosis remains a challenging management issue in this context, with implications for both graft survival and long-term quality of life. Unfortunately, there remains a general paucity of pediatric-specific data regarding thrombosis incidence, risk stratification, and the safety or efficacy of preventative strategies with which to guide treatment algorithms. This review summarizes the available evidence and rationale underlying the spectrum of current practices aimed at preventing thrombosis in the transplant recipient, with a particular focus on risk factors, pathophysiology, and described antithrombotic regimens. © 2015 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.
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