Comparison of Functional Status of 8-to 12-Year-Old Children Born Prematurely: An Integrative Review of Literature
Prematurity affects one in eight infants in the United States, a rate that reflects an overall increase of 20% between 1990 and 2005 (March of Dimes, 2008). This integrative review presents a synthesis of the current research addressing the functional status of 8- to 12-year-old children born prematurely. Findings from this review support the belief that children born prematurely function differently than their term peers. These children have academic and social delays that may necessitate special service support through middle childhood.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Context: All over the the world, preterm birth is a major cause of death and important neurodevelopmental disorders. Approximately 9.6% (12.9 million) births worldwide are preterm. Evidence Acquisition: In this review, databases such as PubMed, EMBASE, ISI, Scopus, Google Scholar and Iranian databases including Iranmedex, and SID were researched to review relevant literature. A comprehensive search was performed using combinations of various keywords. Results: Cerebral palsy especially spastic diplegia, intellectual disability, visual (retinopathy of prematurity) and hearing impairments are the main neurodevelopmental disorders associated with prematurity. Conclusions: The increased survival of preterm infants was not associated with lower complications. There is now increasing evidence of sustained adverse outcomes into school age and adolescence, for preterm infants. Keywords:Neurodevelopment; Impairment; Preterm Birth; Low Birth Weight0Comments 5Citations
- "Prevention of intraventricular hemorrhage is critical because approximately 15% of infants after bleeding have developed hydrocephalus and 10% need shunt (57). According to recent studies, children with advanced hydrocephalus after bleeding and ventrico-peritoneal shunt in some cases had poorer neurodevelopmental outcomes (58, 59), and they would suffer from symptoms such as cerebral palsy, mental retardation, and sensory impairments (22, 56, 60, 61). Brain ultrasonography is the most reliable method for diagnosing and follow-up of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) in preterm infants (58, 62). "
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- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Low birth weight (LBW) and preterm birth are one the most important causes of death in the world and therefore are considered as one of the major health problems. Global statistics demonstrates an increase in the prevalence of low birth weight in the developing countries. Low birth weight infants are exposed to complications such as major neurosensory impairements, cerebral palsy, cognitive and language delays, neuromotor developmental delay, blindness and hearing loss, behavioral and psychosocial disorders, learning difficulties and dysfunction in scholastic performances. The majority of infant's death and developmental disorders were due to disorders relating to prematurity and unspecified low birth weight. Infants weighing less than 2500 g, is a major determinant of both neonatal and infant mortality rates and, together with congenital anomalies (e.g., cardiac, central nervous system, and respiratory), contributes significantly to childhood morbidity. Various studies indicate that low birth weight infants are suffering from physiological and psychosocial disabilities, two to three times more than the other children. At school age, preterm and low birth weight infants have poorer physical growth, cognitive function, and school performance. These disadvantages appear to persist into adulthood and therefore have broad implications for society. Although the survival rates have increased dramatically and the incidence of morbidities has decreased, the complications are still considered to be associated with economical and social burdens. Most children with Low birth weight suffer from multiple disabilities. Therefore, they need special and consistent care. On demand of reducing the infant mortality rate, the need to decrease the complications in low birth weight and preterm infants should be considered by the policy makers in health care system. In this review article, we assessed current evidences on developmental outcomes of low birth weight and preterm newborns.0Comments 1Citation