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Behavioral Structure in Sociomotor Sports: Roller-Hockey

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This study, part of a wider research project, presents (1) a category system for observation in roller-hockey, and (2) the results obtained with it. The behavior flow obtained with this category system was analyzed sequentially using the lag technique. The behavior patterns were compared with the results of Exact Permutations analysis of the same data. Finally, the main behavior patterns, and their psychosocial implications, are described. The most distinctive feature of the study is its use of specific software in both the coding and the analysis of the observational categories. Rsum.Cette tude qui est une parte d'autre recherche plus grande, presente(1) une systme de categories du observationen hockey sur patins, et(2) les resultat obtenu avec cette systme de categories sont trait avec un analyse sequenciel, pour celui-ci est us le techique de retard. Les patrones de conduite obtenu sont compar avec les analyses dePermutations Exact russi avec les mmesdonnes. A la fin sont dcrire les patrones de conduite et leur implication Psychosopcial. Le plus distinctif caractristique de cette tude est l'ussage de softwarespcifique pour la codification etpour l'analyse du les categories de observation.
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... Concerning defensive actions, it has been previously suggested that there is an association between these types of behaviour and the end of an offensive action [27]. the reviewed studies imply that this is the same for all age groups. ...
... ball possession is regained mainly by the successful execution of defensive actions (such as duel, interception, recovery of ball possession after a save from the goalkeeper) or owing to the laws of the game (such as ball out, faults) [17-19, 21, 22, 26, 27]. Mendo and Anguera Argilaga [27] confirmed this tendency through a study of patterns of play in high level rink hockey teams, concluding that a shot on goal or a goal scored were related to specific patterns of defensive organization and mainly related to the way the ball was regained (direct or indirect recovery of ball possession). As rink hockey is characterized by a low effectiveness of the offensive process despite the high number of ball possessions per game, the ability to recover ball possession after a shot on goal is one of the most important actions during a game. ...
... In this sense, all the players have a fundamental role in this moment of the game, not only the goalkeeper, because of the specific dynamics of this sport. However, Mendo and Anguera Argilaga [27] highlighted the importance of goalkeeper's actions. After a save from the goalkeeper, defensive patterns of ball recovery emerge from both teams. ...
... Nutritional and body composition assessment in young Portuguese rink-hockey players was made by Silva and Silva [25]. Regarding game characteristics, observational instruments are explored to understand game patterns [14,26]. The high-intensity demands of the game combined with the mastery of skating and ball possession are described as potential injury risk [21,27,28]. ...
... More focused on game patterns of play, Sousa, Sarmento, Harper, and Valente-dos-Santos [5] and Sousa, Sarmento, Marques, Field, and Vaz, [14] developed studies focused on the analysis of the impact of goalkeeper behavior in opponent´s offensive play. Also, prominent tactical position [33] and determination of several combinations of possible behavior structure were analyzed in other studies with the goal to link behavior chain and the consideration of possible strategical interventions to improve players´knowledge and resources [26] (see Table 3). ...
... It appears that players 'positioning influences ball circulation across different game zones. The identification of patterns of play [26] supporting the following game actions-(1) shooting actions, (2) technical-tactical actions, (3) goalkeeper actions, and (4) other incidents-were assessed [18,20,31]. Results revealed that technical and tactical actions are involved in longer patterns of play in which behaviors do not have more than three links between the above-mentioned possible actions [26]. ...
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The aim of this study was to review the evolutionary tendencies of research regarding to the study of male Rink-Hockey players´ and game performance. A systematic search was conducted in PubMed, Web of Knowledge and Scopus databases according to PRISMA method. The initial search identified 815 titles, resulting in 19 articles being included within the review. Original papers (English language) contained relevant data regarding rink hockey players’ performance or morphological/physiological demands, anthropometry/body composition characteristics were eligible. Studies were classified into categories: (1) Physiological Demands, (2) Anthropometry and Body Composition, (3) Game Characterization/Patterns, (4) Injuries. Results indicated that Rink hockey requires high intensity effort which demands both short and long duration efforts requirements from players. Body composition analysis shows to be an important monitoring tool which complements the understanding of the athlete’s cardiac adaptation. Game patterns shows a combination of specific game momentums with different outcomes according to the game zone. The intense short-term movements, collision and contact between players, in addition to the weight and speed of the hard ball and the stick, can considerably increase the risk of moderate and severe injuries. Lack of literature in Rink-Hockey is remarkable, and research is mainly focused on children and adolescents’ players. Furthermore, the existing research with adult elite athletes was assessed with a small sample size.
... The contribution of the scientific literature regarding the physiological and bioenergetic knowledge of this sport is scarce [2,3] compared to other popular sports. However, it is well known that the character or specificity of physical effort in rink hockey is highly complex, mainly because the technical and tactical actions are subject to a significantly higher rate than in other sports [4], requiring both high intensity short and long-duration efforts [2] without being able to fully recover [3]. ...
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This study aimed to analyze anthropometric and whole-body/muscle-localized bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA) adaptations and their relation to creatine kinase (CK) as a biomarker of muscle damage in a group of seven male players in the maximum category of professional rink hockey. There were three checkpoint assessments in relation to a high-intensity training session: pre-session (PRE), post-session (POST), and 24 h-post-session (POST24H). The resistance, reactance, and impedance module were adjusted by height (R/h, Xc/h, and Z/h, respectively). The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare the data at baseline and follow-up, while Spearman correlation was used to explore the relationship between CK and the rest of the parameters. The results registered a decrease in body mass at POST (p = 0.03) and a reestablishment at POST24H (p = 0.02). Whole-body BIVA registered a significant increase in R/h between PRE–to–POST (p = 0.02) and returned to baseline values at POST24H (p = 0.02), which was expected since this parameter is related to hydration processes. Muscle-localized BIVA in the rectus femoris muscle showed an increase in both Xc/h and phase angle in POST (p = 0.04 and p = 0.03, respectively) and a decrease in Xc/h at POST24H (p = 0.02). CK correlated with R/h in the rectus femoris at all the checkpoints (PRE–to–POST: r = 0.75, p = 0.05; PRE–to–POST24H: r = 0.81, p = 0.03; POST–to–POST24H: r = 0.82, p = 0.02). Our results indicate that BIVA is a sensitive methodology to assess general and muscle-localized hydration induced by a high-intensity training session in rink hockey players. A correlation between BIVA and CK was also reported.
... The second technique reduces the volume of the data analyzed to highlight significant relationships between focal and conditioned behaviors in an easy-to-interpret vector map showing what happens right before and after the behavior of interest (Morillo et al., 2017). These techniques are complementary (Castañer et al., 2017;Tarragó et al., 2017) and with important methodological endorsements in areas of social sciences such as those pertaining to sport (Hernández-Mendo and Anguera, 2002;Perea et al., 2012;López-López et al., 2015;Zourbanos et al., 2015;Castañer et al., 2016Castañer et al., , 2017Arias-Pujol and Anguera, 2017;Morillo et al., 2017;Tarragó et al., 2017;Maneiro and Amatria, 2018;Pérez-Tejera et al., 2018;Maneiro et al., 2019). ...
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Research in taekwondo has traditionally focused on specific aspects athletes' overall technical and tactical skills, while ignoring other important issues such as identifying how successful athletes score points. The aim of the current study was to follow two medalists through two Olympic Championships (2012 and 2016) to discover the effective patterns associated with scoring in taekwondo using an observational methodology. An ad-hoc taekwondo observational tool was used to codify the actions performed by the athletes. An observational descriptive and multivariate analysis of 1,688 actions performed by the athletes was conducted. A lag sequential and polar coordinate analysis was performed that considered tactics, techniques and the kicking zone as factors related to score (one to four points). The results showed that one point was scored with direct attacks (DIAs) and actions to the chest where DIAs also occurred prior to scoring. After scoring one-point, opponents tended to gain points by kicking the opponent's head. Two points were scored with simultaneous spinning kicks. Cuts occurred prior to and after scoring while posterior counterattacks (PCAs) occurred after. Three points were scored by performing indirect attacks and PCAs to the head. Cuts, dodges, and linear actions preceded the three-point score while dodges, DIAs, and linear actions to the chest also occurred after the three point-actions. In conclusion, these two athletes not only mastered the whole tactics but also used specific strategies to score. That is, they anticipated the opponent's attack to score one point by kicking the opponent directly and performed spinning kicks from short distances when they perceived an opponent's cutting action to score two points. Finally, these athletes indirectly attacked the opponent when they dodged by kicking their head and counterattacked posteriorly when an opponent's cut was perceived to score three points. Thus, they used the most difficult tactics to achieve the highest score. It is suggested that coaches and psychologists train athletes in better decision-making by preparing them to not only prepare their own attacks but to systematically use the intended attacks by their opponents to score their own points in accordance with the successful patterns extracted in this study.
... Analysis in natural contexts is especially important in elite sport for planning future competitive strategies. Previous performances can be visualized to detect underlying structures and behavioral patterns, assuming that similar patterns are usually repeated (Hernández-Mendo and Anguera, 2001Anguera, , 2002. The analysis of natural contexts and sports behavioral patterns is also important for planning psychological training (i.e., visualization) in a wide range of competitive behaviors. ...
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Match analysts and sport psychologists can help elite athletes develop planned competition strategies from a technical-tactical perspective by analyzing of previous performances. The aim of this study was to analyze the behavioral patterns used to score points in the 2012 London Olympic Games by a mixed observational methodology and polar coordinate analysis. This analysis is a representation of four quadrants of the relationships between focal behavior [i.e., scoring, (SC)] and conditioned behaviors as key factors in taekwondo before and after focal behavior of two lags (-2, +2). A total of 151 combats, with a total of 24,940 actions were analyzed by the Taekwondo Observational Tool, which consists of 24 categories grouped into seven criteria (tactics, techniques, kicking zone, laterality, kicking leg, guard, and score). Our analysis confirms 49 significant associations (21 in females and 28 in males) between different types of scoring actions (SC1: to the trunk, SC2: to the trunk with a previous spin, SC3: to the head and SC4: to the head with a previous spin) and a variety of technical-tactical aspects. Females SC1 after cut, direct attacks with circular techniques to the chest, with back right leg; SC2 after direct attacks to the head, and SC3 after cuts, posterior counterattacks with the back leg. Males SC1 after spin anticipate counterattack with back leg and dodges, SC2 after simultaneous counterattacks (SCAs) to the head, SC3 after cuts and posterior counterattacks with back leg while SC4 after blocks and SCAs in close guard with the forward right leg. The observed relationships provide objective data regarding successful behavioral patterns, and are important for coaches and psychologists to train and develop psychological strategies to prepare athletes. For instance, they can be used to individualize training sessions, including visualization of specific combat situations. Coaches and psychologists could use these findings for specific tasks related to technical-tactical improvement of scoring effectiveness or defensive strategies against these specific actions.
... In particular, in the field of physical activity and sport, there are many studies that use SDIS-GSEQ, mainly with multicode event sequences (Ardá & Anguera, 1999, 2000Ardá, Casal & Anguera, 2002;Castellano & Hernández Mendo, 2000;Castellano, Hernández Mendo, Morales & Anguera, 2007;Hernández Mendo & Anguera, 2002). There are very few studies that, in this area, consider the temporal dimension with SDIS-GSEQ (Anguera, 2007). ...
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El presente trabajo pretende elevar una propuesta intermedia de baloncesto en la categoría infantil, que permita que el paso de la modalidad de minibasket al baloncesto adulto sea progresivo. Con tal objetivo se someten a estudio los efectos en el patrón técnico de lanzamiento de tiro libre de cinco adaptaciones reglamentarias resultado de combinar tres tipos de balón -números 5, 6 y 7- y dos alturas de la canasta -a 3,05 m. y a 2,80 m. del suelo-. Mediante análisis estadístico y la detección de patrones temporales se han concretado aspectos técnicos erróneos en determinadas modalidades sometidas a estudio, que nos permiten elevar propuestas intermedias de adaptación del baloncesto al niño de 11-12 años
... Instruments that combine field format and category systems aim to harness the strengths of the two systems (flexibility in the first case and support from a theoretical framework in the second) and compensate for their weaknesses (inadequacy of the category system in dynamic processes and multidimensional studies and weakness of the field format system in studies that lack a theoretical framework or in which this framework has been rejected) . Numerous examples have been described in the literature, particularly in recent years, and have been applied to a wide range of sporting contexts, including motor skill analysis (Castañer et al., 2009), physical activity (Castañer et al., 2016b), middleand long-distance races (Aragón et al., 2015(Aragón et al., , 2017, basketball (Fernández et al., 2009), soccer (Jonsson et al., 2006;Castañer et al., 2016aCastañer et al., , 2017aCasal et al., 2017;Diana et al., 2017), judo (Gutiérrez-Santiago et al., 2011), hockey (Hernández-Mendo and Anguera, 2002), futsal (Lapresa et al., 2013b), and kinesics (Castañer et al., 2013). Ad-hoc instruments have been shown to be equally effective in amateur (Arana et al., 2013) and elite (Barreira et al., 2014) sport. ...
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