Maki T, Susuki S, Kobayashi F, Kakikawa M, Yamada M, Higashi T et al.. Phylogenetic diversity and vertical distribution of a halobacterial community in the atmosphere of an Asian dust (KOSA) source region, Dunhuang City. Air Qual Atmos Health 1: 81-89

Air Quality Atmosphere & Health (Impact Factor: 1.8). 10/2008; 1(2):81-89. DOI: 10.1007/s11869-008-0016-9


The microbial communities transported by Asian desert dust (KOSA) events have attracted much attention as bioaerosols because
the transported microorganisms are thought to influence the downwind ecosystems in Korea and Japan. We have analyzed bioaerosol
samples collected at 10 and 800m above the ground within the KOSA source area, Dunhuang City, China. The samples were studied
by epifluorescent microscopy, revealing the presence of bacterial cells attached to mineral particles. The microorganisms
in the bioaerosol samples were able to grow in media containing up to 20% NaCl, suggesting that bacteria tolerant to high
salinities remain viable in the atmosphere. Phylogenetic analysis using 16S rDNA sequences revealed that halobacterial communities
in the bioaerosol samples collected at both 10 and 800m above the ground comprised a few bacterial species related to Bacillus pumilus and Staphylococcus spp. The active mixing processes of the boundary layer presumably transports viable halotolerant bacteria into the free atmosphere,
where the long-range atmospheric transport of desert dust is frequently observed.

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    • "2.4. Analysis of bacterial community structures using pyrosequencing analysis targeting 16S rDNA sequences After the aerosol particles on the other of the two filters were suspended into 10 mL of sterile 0.6% NaCl solution, the particles were pelleted by centrifugation at 20,000Â g for 5 min genomic DNA (gDNA) was extracted from the particle pellets using sodium dodecyl sulfate, proteinase K, and lysozyme, and purified by phenol-chloroform extraction as previously described (Maki et al., 2008). Bacterial community composition was determined using pyrosequencing, which facilitates multiplexed partial sequencing of 16S rDNA. "

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    • "The 12 testing samples (0.1 mL each of 0.9% NaCl normal saline solution) prepared for the present study were control (containing normal saline alone); H-ASD (0.1 mg H-ASD alone); 2 (2 μg B. adusta alone); 8 (8 μg B. adusta alone); H-ASD + 2 (0.1 mg H-ASD and 2 μg B. adusta); H-ASD + 8 (0.1 mg H-ASD and 8 μg B. adusta); OVA alone (1 μg); OVA + H-ASD (1 μg OVA and 0.1 mg H-ASD); OVA + 2 (1 μg OVA and 2 μg B. adusta); OVA + 8 (1 μg OVA and 8 μg B. adusta); OVA + H-ASD + 2 (1 μg OVA, 0.1 mg H-ASD, and 2 μg B. adusta); and OVA + H-ASD + 8 (1 μg OVA, 0.1 mg H-ASD, and 8 μg B. adusta). One previous report indicated that the microbe was present in ASD aerosol at approximately 10% [11]. The instillation dose of B. adust was set at 2% (2 μg) and 8% (8 μg) for the one-time ASD instillation dose (0.1 mg), because one kind of microbial species was not considered to occupy 10% of total microbe in ASD aerosol. "
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    ABSTRACT: Bjerkandera adusta (B. adusta) is one of the most important etiological fungi associated with chronic cough. However, precise details of the inflammatory response to exposure are not well understood yet. B. adusta was recently identified in Asian sand dust (ASD) aerosol. Therefore, in the present study the exacerbating effects of ASD on B. adusta-induced lung inflammation and B. adusta + ASD on ovalbumin (OVA)-induced murine lung eosinophilia were investigated using experimental mice. In order to prepare testing samples, B. adusta obtained from ASD aerosol was inactivated by formalin and ASD collected from the atmosphere was heated to remove toxic organic substances (H-ASD). CD-1 mice were instilled intratracheally with 12 different samples prepared with various combinations of B. adusta, H-ASD, and OVA in a normal saline solution. The lung pathology, cytological profiles in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and the levels of inflammatory cytokines/chemokines in BALF were investigated. H-ASD aggravated the lung eosinophilia induced by B. adusta alone, which also aggravated the lung eosinophilia induced by OVA. The mixture of OVA, H-ASD, and B. adusta caused serious fibrous thickening of the subepithelial layer, eosinophil infiltration, and proliferation of goblet cells in the airways along with remarkable increases of IL-13, eotaxin, IL-5, and MCP-3 in BALF. The results of the present study demonstrated that B. adusta isolated from ASD aerosol induces allergic lung diseases. H-ASD enhanced allergic reactions caused by OVA or B. adusta. A mixture of B. adusta, H-ASD, and OVA caused the most remarkable exacerbation to the allergic airway inflammation via remarkable increases of pro-inflammatory mediators.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · Allergy Asthma and Clinical Immunology
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    • "Recent studies have suggested that arid and semiarid regions of the Asian continent are potential sources of airborne microbes associated with desert dust (Kellogg and Griffin, 2006; Kobayashi et al., 2007; Kakikawa et al., 2008; Maki et al., 2008; Kenzaka et al., 2010; Nishimura et al., 2010; Yamada et al., 2010). Given the long-range diffusion of Asian dust in the Northern Hemisphere (Uno et al., 2009), microorganisms internally and/or externally mixed with dust are expected to be transported in the same manner. "

    Preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Aerosol and Air Quality Research
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