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Aesthetic Chills as a Universal Marker of Openness to Experience

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Abstract

Aesthetic chills are transient emotional responses to music or other experiences of beauty. Item 188 of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) asks respondents if they have experienced these chills, and in American samples it is one of the best definers of Openness to Experience, one of the five basic personality factors. As part of the NEO-PI-R, the item has been translated into over 40 languages, and an examination of back-translations suggests that the phenomenon can be expressed in all the languages examined. Data from the Personality Profiles of Cultures Project show that Item 188 is one of the best definers of Openness in most of the 51 cultures examined. Aesthetic chills appear to be a universal emotional experience, although the functions they serve and the mechanisms that account for them remain to be discovered.

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... Within the Five-Factor Model, Openness is theorized to reflect six facets: (1) activeness of imagination (Openness-Fantasy), (2) appreciation of aesthetic beauty (Openness-Aesthetics), (3) tendency to seek out a range of feelings (Openness-Feelings), (4) enjoyment of activities that create varied life experiences (Openness-Action), (5) intellectual curiosity (Openness-Ideas), and (6) possession of inclusive values (Openness-Values). McCrae (2007) theorized that higher levels of openness specifically to Aesthetics and Feelings predict greater awe-proneness, but a study of the relationship between Openness and awe-proneness is yet to distinguish between the facets of Openness. ...
... We additionally test the contextual model's prediction that emotional experiences and emotionaction relationships are shaped by individual differences in personality. As part of a stimulus-validating pilot study, we test McCrae's (2007) hypothesis that awe is experienced more strongly by people who are, personality-wise, more open to artistic endeavors and strong emotional experiences, as reflected in higher Openness-Aesthetics and Openness-Feelings scores, respectively. More generally, in the pilot study, we investigate the extent to which scores on various facets of Openness (and their correlates: sensation-seeking, Need for Cognitive Closure, and religiosity; Aluja et al., 2003;Fleischhauer et al., 2010;Saroglou & Muñoz-García, 2008) predict awe-proneness. ...
... We sought to establish that the video elicited significantly more awe than a general video about caves (a neutral prime), without eliciting confounding emotions, such as fear. Additionally, the study sought to test McCrae's (2007) prediction that participants with higher scores on the Feelings and Aesthetics facets of Openness would experience more awe when viewing an awe-inspiring video (Hypothesis 2 above). ...
Article
People in a state of awe have been found to perceive their needs as small while also expressing intentions to act in a prosocial way, benefitting others at personal cost. However, these findings come largely out of the USA and have focused on intended rather than real prosocial behavior. We propose a contextual model of the awe-prosociality relationship predicated on the constructed theory of emotion, according to which emotion categories and cost–benefit analyses of possible subsequent actions differ across cultures and in line with enduring individual differences. To test the model, we conducted a laboratory study (N = 143) examining whether costly volunteering behavior is higher amid awe in the Czech Republic, a country where social psychological studies have often produced different results compared to the USA. Awe-inspiring and neutral primes were validated in pilot studies (N = 229). As is possible under the contextual model, awe-inspiring primes elicited not more, but less, prosocial behavior, with the relationship being moderated by various facets of Openness to Experience. Individuals higher in the Feelings facet of Openness were also found to be more awe-prone. A call is made for a cross-cultural investigation of the awe-behavior relationship that accounts for complex phylogenetic relationships between cultures.
... Other researchers have shown that subtle body movement, such as head nodding, can appear spontaneously while engaging in different musicrelated tasks even when participants are not given any instructions regarding movement (Kilchenmann & Senn, 2015), or where the focus is on a different body part (Hurley et al., 2014). Other studies have highlighted the role of body movement in interpreting rhythmic structures (Phillips-Silver & Trainor, 2005, 2007Su & Pöppel, 2012). Thus, there is ample evidence that body movement is crucial for the processing of rhythm and music. ...
... Previous studies have identified a number of participant characteristics that are relevant for various types of bodily responses to music (Gingras et al., 2015;Laeng et al., 2016;McCrae, 2007;Nusbaum & Silvia, 2011), as well as for different features of spontaneous dance Luck et al., 2010Luck et al., , 2014. In the present study, we focus on a selection of previously reported personality variables, hypothesising that they might be related not only to various aspects of movement to music, but also to the tendency to engage in such movement spontaneously. ...
... To our knowledge, only a few studies have examined the relationship between such personality traits and physiological responses to music. These studies have shown that people with high Openness to Experience are more prone to aesthetic chills (McCrae, 2007;Nusbaum & Silvia, 2011). In terms of body movement, Luck et al. (2009Luck et al. ( , 2010Luck et al. ( , 2014 analysed motion capture recordings of free dance to music and found that different movement patterns can be associated with different personality traits. ...
Article
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Moving to music is a universal human phenomenon, and previous studies have shown that people move to music even when they try to stand still. However, are there individual differences when it comes to how much people spontaneously respond to music with body movement? This article reports on a motion capture study in which 34 participants were asked to stand in a neutral position while listening to short excerpts of rhythmic stimuli and electronic dance music. We explore whether personality and empathy measures, as well as different aspects of music-related behaviour and preferences, can predict the amount of spontaneous movement of the participants. Individual differences were measured using a set of questionnaires: Big Five Inventory, Interpersonal Reactivity Index, and Barcelona Music Reward Questionnaire. Liking ratings for the stimuli were also collected. The regression analyses show that Empathic Concern is a significant predictor of the observed spontaneous movement. We also found a relationship between empathy and the participants’ self-reported tendency to move to music.
... The purpose of the current study was to examine key emotional (i.e., awe) and emotion-related perceived physiological (i.e., aesthetic chill) aspects of the "nomological net" for individual differences in aesthetic engagement. Proneness to aesthetic chill-a shiver or goosebumps in response to aesthetic stimuli (i.e., emotional piloerection or hair standing on end)-is a putative "universal marker" of aesthetic engagement (McCrae, 2007) and is a hypothesized physiological correlate of awe (Keltner & Haidt, 2003;Kone cni, 2005). We sought to examine reported proneness to aesthetic chill across multiple types of stimuli (e.g., nature, music, film), expanding assessment beyond what is, at most, a single item in personality inventories, and confirm the association with aesthetic engagement in a large two-sample survey study. ...
... The subjective physiological experience of chills, generally, may be connected to a variety of experiences (e.g., ambient cold temperature; eerie/uncanny circumstances) and emotions (e.g., fear; Bannister, 2019;Maruskin et al., 2012); however, aesthetic chill (i.e., in the context of aesthetic stimuli and accompanied by the hypothesized concomitant emotional state of awe) appears to be unique in demonstrating reliable associations with individual differences in openness to experience . Indeed, the item in the NEO personality measures (Costa & McCrae, 1992;McCrae & Costa, 2010) describing chill response to art and poetry is one of the strongest correlates of overall openness (McCrae, 2007), a finding that has been replicated in both self-report and laboratory induction of chills related to music (or "frisson"; Colver & El-Alayli, 2016). Further, reported proneness to chill on this NEO item is associated with a more distinct pattern of resting state functional connectivity-the temporal correlation of brain activity across regions-than the broader openness scale . ...
... Importantly, however, ratings of aesthetic chill proneness are limited to one item in the NEO instruments, and most other personality inventories do not include such ratings at all. Indeed, ratings of aesthetic engagement and aesthetic chill proneness are entirely lacking in adjective-based (i.e., "lexical") personality inventories because these individual differences cannot be reduced to a single descriptor (McCrae, 2007). Thus, there is need for supplemental measures of this key aspect of aesthetic engagement that cover a broader range of common aesthetic experiences (e.g., music, nature, architecture). ...
... Regarding other Big 5 factors, research on pride and achievement have related this state to extraversion and, to a lower degree, agreeableness (Tracy & Robins, 2007;Tracy, Shariff, & Cheng, 2010). Further, aesthetics such as visual arts and experiences such as goosebumps have been linked to openness to experiences (Colver & El-Alayli, 2015;McCrae, 2007;Silvia, Fayn, Nusbaum, & Beaty, 2015). In addition, affectionate and communal experiences such as compassion have been associated with agreeableness and also empathy (Goetz, Keltner, & Simon-Thomas, 2010). ...
... In addition, we found that, against common theorizations (Vingerhoets & Bylsma, 2015), neuroticism is not the primary personality factor affecting proneness to emotional crying, at least not when it is positive. Achievement and amusement tears were most strongly predicted by extraversion, beauty by openness to experience (Colver & El-Alayli, 2015;McCrae, 2007;Silvia et al., 2015), and affection by agreeableness when controlling for the other personality types. While types also showed a positive relationship with neuroticism, this was by far not the strongest one. ...
... Replicating previous research findings, beauty tears were strongly predicted by the trait specifically associated with aesthetic appreciation, i.e., openness to experience (McCrae, 2007;Silvia et al., 2015). ...
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Although several scholars acknowledge the existence of tears of joy, there is little systematic theoretical or empirical evidence on how positive tears are experienced, what elicits them, what actions or impulses they motivate in the crier, how they differ from tears of sadness or distress and whether there are different types. We systematically investigated these issues and drafted a first taxonomic model of positive tears. Drawing on more than 1500 reports of positive tears and including 13124 participants from 40 diverse countries and 24 languages, the studies employed a strong mixture of quantitative and qualitative techniques. The final results showed evidence of the occurrence of positive tears and found four qualitatively different types and profiles that we termed achievement, beauty, affection, and amusement tears. Achievement tears are often shed in contexts of extraordinary performance or when someone overcomes an obstacle and often include feelings of pride. Beauty tears occur commonly in situations of overwhelming elegance or beauty, including nature, music or visual arts, and feature feelings of awe or experiencing chills. Affectionate tears are often experienced in situations including unexpected kindness or exceptional love such as wedding ceremonies or reunions and often feature feelings of warmth, increased communality, and feeling touched or compassionate. Finally, amusement tears are shed when something especially funny occurs and include feelings of amusement or lightness and the inclination to laugh or giggle. We also investigated cross-cultural and inter-individual differences with regard to these categories and discuss limitations and implications of our taxonomy of positive tears.
... Previous findings on how personality traits affect chills have been controversial. Several researchers argued that Openness to experience, one of the Big Five personality traits, was most predictive of chills (Maruskin et al., 2012;McCrae, 2007;Nusbaum & Silvia, 2010). Others argued that chills correlate with Agreeableness (Panksepp, 1995) and Neuroticism (Maruskin et al., 2012). ...
... The "anxiety" factor is composed of the frisson estimate, individual's mood states, and BFI Neuroticism score. It has been found that personality traits, such as the BFI Neuroticism and Openness, contributed to musical chills (McCrae, 2007;Nusbaum & Silvia, 2010;Panksepp, 1995) and the ASMR (Fredborg et al., 2017). However, no single trait has emerged as a consistent predictor of the experience (Maruskin et al., 2012). ...
Article
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Frisson is characterized by tingling and tickling sensations with positive or negative feelings. However, it is still unknown what factors affect the intensity of frisson. We conducted experiments on the stimulus characteristics and individual’s mood states and personality traits. Participants filled out self-reported questionnaires, including the Profile of Mood States, Beck Depression Inventory, and Big Five Inventory. They continuously indicated the subjective intensity of frisson throughout a 17-min experiment while listening to binaural brushing and tapping sounds through headphones. In the interviews after the experiments, participants reported that tingling and tickling sensations mainly originated on their ears, neck, shoulders, and back. Cross-correlation results showed that the intensity of frisson was closely linked to the acoustic features of auditory stimuli, including their amplitude, spectral centroid, and spectral bandwidth. This suggests that proximal sounds with dark and compact timbre trigger frisson. The peak of correlation between frisson and the acoustic feature was observed 2 s after the acoustic feature changed, suggesting that bottom-up auditory inputs modulate skin-related modalities. We also found that participants with anxiety were sensitive to frisson. Our results provide important clues to understanding the mechanisms of auditory–somatosensory interactions.
... Of course, multiple studies have also looked at personality determinants of aesthetic pro cessing (for reviews, see Hekkert & Van Wieringen, 1996;Myszkowski, Storme, Zenasni, & Lubart, 2014). Particularly relevant might be the Big Five factor of "openness to experience" (McCrae, 2007). This involves a willingness to seek out novel encounters and has shown correlation with deeper appreciation for and engagement with the arts (Fayn, MacCann, Tiliopoulos, & Silvia, 2015;Myszkowski et al., 2014), higher general art prefer ence (Chamorro-Premuzic, Reimers, Hsu, & Ahmetoglu, 2009). ...
... We might also look at specific physiological responses, such as tears, which could be a signal to the individual that something profound is happening and they should withdraw or introspect (Cotter, Silvia, & Fayn, 2017;Pelowski, 2015). Other feelings such as chills may also signal a harmony or peak emotional or resonant experience (in a song, movie, or art; McCrae, 2007;Pelowski, Markey, & Leder, 2018). There may also be specific ties be tween emotions-for example, Eskine, Kacinik, and Prinz (2012) showed that priming in dividuals with fearful movies increased their liklihood of rating images as sublime, as did exercise (jumping jacks) before viewing. ...
Chapter
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This chapter discusses the general impact of context on the aesthetic experience. It is de­ signed to anticipate the other chapters’ discussions of context’s specific areas—the so­ cial, the physical or institutional, information and framing, museums, background or per­ sonality-related features. Here, the authors offer a more general consideration discussing key aspects such as: What even is context? How can it best be thought about? What are the key issues that might be considered? And, especially, how can it be generally integrat­ ed into present knowledge of models of aesthetic processing experience? Beginning with the interest in context throughout the history of aesthetics, the chapter builds a presenta­ tion of empirical approaches and especially theory, focusing on context’s main layers and points of influence. It then discusses how key context issues might be considered in mod­ els of aesthetic processing, with the goal of providing a framework for better approaching context aspects in this book and in one’s own future studies. This is also interspersed with what the authors consider to be some of the more intriguing studies in order to spur readers’ thinking about the potential for studying context. The chapter concludes with some major issues, some candidates for future consideration, and suggestions for further reading and education.
... Finally, many studies have shown that the personal context of the observer in terms of their demographics and personality affects the kind of artistic stimuli they seek in the first instance. Both expertise and the Big Five personality factor of 'openness to experience' (McCrae, 2007) have been shown to be predictive of preference for abstract and modern art (Batt et al., 2010;Chamorro-Premuzic et al., 2009;Kruger et al., 2004;McManus & Furnham, 2006;van Paasschen et al., 2015). Openness to experience represents a tendency towards intellectual curiosity, aesthetic sensitivity, liberal values, and emotional differentiation (McCrae, 2007) and also predicts preference for the visual arts more generally (Feist & Brady, 2004) and the prevalence of aesthetic 'chills' (Silvia & Nusbaum, 2011). ...
... Both expertise and the Big Five personality factor of 'openness to experience' (McCrae, 2007) have been shown to be predictive of preference for abstract and modern art (Batt et al., 2010;Chamorro-Premuzic et al., 2009;Kruger et al., 2004;McManus & Furnham, 2006;van Paasschen et al., 2015). Openness to experience represents a tendency towards intellectual curiosity, aesthetic sensitivity, liberal values, and emotional differentiation (McCrae, 2007) and also predicts preference for the visual arts more generally (Feist & Brady, 2004) and the prevalence of aesthetic 'chills' (Silvia & Nusbaum, 2011). Need for cognitive closure, an aversion toward semantic and sensory ambiguity which can be modulated in a state or trait-like manner, also predicts dislike for abstract art (Ostrofsky & Shobe, 2015) and for ambiguous movie endings (Wiersema et al., 2012). ...
Chapter
Humans search for, identify, and interact with objects efficiently, utilizing not only the visual characteristics of the object itself but also contextual information to generate optimal predictions about objects in scenes. Over the course of our lives, we have acquired knowledge regarding co-occurring local objects as well as the global scene contexts in which they are usually encountered, creating strong predictions regarding what objects are typically found where in our environment. A number of studies from the last decades have characterized how such knowledge may guide attention in scene viewing and modulate object perception, using diverse methodologies like psychophysics, eye tracking, and neurophysiology, with various degrees of realism ranging from on-screen experiments via virtual reality to real-world studies. Some recent work has focused on investigating what “ingredients” of scenes actually influence object search and perception. Scenes tend to be hierarchically organized with some objects—so-called “anchor objects”—holding stronger predictions than others. Apart from meaningful objects, global scene properties (e.g., spatial layout or texture) have been shown to predict object identity. In order to tease apart the influence of such ingredients, large-scale databases and machine learning techniques have become increasingly popular. Here, we review recent advances in the field that help to better capture human efficiency in real-world scene and object perception, particularly focusing on which contextual information we take advantage of most and when. Further, we explore how these findings could be useful in pushing computer vision further ahead and how computer vision could mutually further our understanding of human visual perception.
... Finally, many studies have shown that the personal context of the observer in terms of their demographics and personality affects the kind of artistic stimuli they seek in the first instance. Both expertise and the Big Five personality factor of 'openness to experience' (McCrae, 2007) have been shown to be predictive of preference for abstract and modern art (Batt et al., 2010;Chamorro-Premuzic et al., 2009;Kruger et al., 2004;McManus & Furnham, 2006;van Paasschen et al., 2015). Openness to experience represents a tendency towards intellectual curiosity, aesthetic sensitivity, liberal values, and emotional differentiation (McCrae, 2007) and also predicts preference for the visual arts more generally (Feist & Brady, 2004) and the prevalence of aesthetic 'chills' (Silvia & Nusbaum, 2011). ...
... Both expertise and the Big Five personality factor of 'openness to experience' (McCrae, 2007) have been shown to be predictive of preference for abstract and modern art (Batt et al., 2010;Chamorro-Premuzic et al., 2009;Kruger et al., 2004;McManus & Furnham, 2006;van Paasschen et al., 2015). Openness to experience represents a tendency towards intellectual curiosity, aesthetic sensitivity, liberal values, and emotional differentiation (McCrae, 2007) and also predicts preference for the visual arts more generally (Feist & Brady, 2004) and the prevalence of aesthetic 'chills' (Silvia & Nusbaum, 2011). Need for cognitive closure, an aversion toward semantic and sensory ambiguity which can be modulated in a state or trait-like manner, also predicts dislike for abstract art (Ostrofsky & Shobe, 2015) and for ambiguous movie endings (Wiersema et al., 2012). ...
Chapter
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The field of empirical aesthetics sets out to understand and predict our aesthetic preferences (Palmer et al., Annual Review of Psychology 64(1):77–107, 2013). Its history dates back to the birth of visual psychophysics and the work of Gustav Fechner (Vorschule der aesthetik (Vol. 1). Brietkopf & Härtel, 1876), while multiple models of aesthetic experience have been proposed in the intervening years (Chatterjee A, Vartanian O, Trends in Cognitive Sciences 18(7):370–375, 2014; Leder H et al., British Journal of Psychology 95(4):489–508, 2004; Pelowski M et al., Physics of Life Reviews 21:80–125, 2017). This chapter briefly sets out the history of empirical aesthetics, and the state of the research field at present. I outline recent work on inter-observer agreement in aesthetic preference, before presenting empirical work that argues the importance of first objective (characteristics of stimuli) and then subjective (characteristics of context) factors in shaping aesthetic preference. Considering the role of properties of the stimulus, I will review literature on the relationship between aesthetic preference and symmetry, shape, compositional structure, colour and complexity as well as considering the potential role of statistical properties of images. I will then review putative subjective predictors of aesthetic preference including the role of context, framing and the influence of information about the artist and the artistic process. Both subjective and objective approaches will be evaluated from an individual differences perspective, focusing on the mediating role of familiarity, expertise, culture, cognitive ability and personality. Finally, I will attempt to draw these approaches together with reference to aesthetic sensitivity: an individual observer’s propensity to have an aesthetic response to a particular objective image characteristic, and will explore some putative factors that may modulate and explain individual differences in aesthetic sensitivity.
... What effects do culture have on VAE? Researchers suggest that aesthetic experiences such as aesthetic chills appear to be universal (McCrae, 2007), supporting the fifth assumption. People across cultures share a taste for certain objects (Che et al., 2018) because aesthetic preference can emerge from basic perceptual and valuation processes that are common to all humans, such as those for higher-contrast paintings (van Dongen & Zijlmans, 2017), mid-range fractal patterns (Street et al., 2016), divine proportions (Pittard et al., 2007), and landscape paintings over portraits (Bao et al., 2016); however, cultures can have different opinions regarding other features, such as noses (Broer et al., 2012), color (Taylor et al., 2013), and skin color (Chen et al., 2019(Chen et al., , 2020, along with a preference for paintings from one's own culture over those from other cultures (Yang et al., 2019). ...
... Previous research has illustrated that people with different cultural backgrounds may share some universal aesthetic experiences (McCrae, 2007); thus, we sought to gain further insight into the universal components of aesthetics through a conjunction analysis of different culture groups (a Western group and East Asian group). The conjunction analysis revealed activation of the vACC/OFC. ...
Article
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The present study intended to investigate the generic nature of visual aesthetic experience. Researchers have not agreed upon what constitutes visual aesthetic experience, and the present study proposed that visual aesthetic experience is comprised of at least two components: enhanced visual processing and positive emotional and reward experience. We applied a general activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis to 42 functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments described in 37 published studies. The general activation likelihood estimation revealed activation in the left orbitofrontal cortices and bilateral anterior cingulate cortex, which was thought to be related to emotional and reward processes, and activation in the right fusiform gyrus. In addition, a conjunction analysis of passive viewing tasks and tasks with explicit instructions showed activation in the anterior cingulate cortex/orbitofrontal cortex, and contrast analysis revealed stronger activation in the anterior cingulate cortex/orbitofrontal cortex during the passive viewing task without explicit instructions to make aesthetic evaluations, suggesting that stronger emotional experiences occur under such conditions. A conjunction analysis of groups with different cultural backgrounds showed activation in the ventral anterior cingulate cortex/orbitofrontal cortex, suggesting that there are universal cultural components of visual aesthetic experience. Together, our findings complement the existing literature by including all kinds of visual stimuli that could induce an aesthetic experience in the viewer and contributes to our understanding of aesthetics by showing that it involves enhanced visual sensation and positive emotional and reward experience.
... AReA provides some advantages over other instruments such as the Aesthetic facet of the NEO personality inventory revised (Chioqueta & Stiles, 2005), the Appreciation of Beauty and Excellence Scale (ABE; Peterson & Seligman, 2004), the Engagement With Beauty Scale (EBS; Diessner et al., 2008), the Aesthetic Emotions Scale (Schindler et al., 2017), the Art Experience Questionnaire (Chatterjee et al., 2010), and the Vienna Art Interest and Art Knowledge Questionnaire (VAIAK; Specker et al., 2020). For example, intense aesthetic experiences or aesthetic chills are among the important dimensions of aesthetic responses that have only recently become the target of greater study (McCrae, 2007;Silvia & Nusbaum, 2011;Vessel et al., 2012). While most people show aesthetic appreciation to a greater or lesser degree, not everyone experiences intense responses to aesthetic stimuli. ...
... Compared with other components, we found the Openness component of BFI-2 to be highly correlated with AReA subscales. This finding is in line with previous studies, as well as the original study of AReA, which have found that Openness is correlated with aesthetic responsiveness (Kaufman et al., 2016;McCrae, 2007;Schlotz et al., 2021;Silvia et al., 2015). As expected, there was also a higher positive correlation between the Aesthetics facet of Openness and subscales AA and IAE compared with CB. ...
Preprint
People differ in their responsiveness to aesthetic experiences. It is important to understand the role of culture in such individual differences, yet existing tools for assessing aesthetic responsiveness largely focus on North American and European cultures. We created a Persian translated and culturally adapted version of the Aesthetic Responsiveness Assessment (AReA) and evaluated its psychometric properties. Construct and internal validity were evaluated in a sample of 1586 participants. Moreover, convergent and divergent validity were investigated using the Behavioral Avoidance/Inhibition Scales (BIS-BAS), Big Five Inventory-2, Barcelona Music Reward Questionnaire (BMRQ), and the Temporal Experience of Pleasure Scale (TEPS). Further, the test-retest reliability of AReA was examined for the first time in a subsample of participants (n = 160) who answered the questionnaire again after 6 months. In addition to an acceptable structural validity (CFI = .905), the Persian version of AReA showed good internal validity. Cronbach’s alpha for the overall score was .848 and varied between .64 and .81 for subscales. Concerning convergent and divergent validity, AReA subscales were positively correlated with subscales of TEPS, the Emotion Evocation subscale of BMRQ, Behavioral Avoidance and Openness, and were unrelated to Behavioral Inhibition, Conscientiousness, and Negative Emotionality. Moreover, AReA subscales showed different patterns of correlations with other questionnaires. Finally, all subscales of AReA showed high test-retest reliability, ranging from .715 to .778. Our results confirm the validity of the Persian version of AReA and thus provide a new measure of aesthetic responsiveness, useful in Persian-speaking communities, which facilitates cross-cultural research in empirical aesthetics.
... Participants freely filled out and returned the questionnaire at the end of the session. Many psychology studies have pointed out the positive link between the personality trait of openness to experience and sensitivity to aesthetic/music chills (Grewe et al., 2007;McCrae, 2007;Nusbaum and Silvia, 2011a;Silvia and Nusbaum, 2011;Sumpf et al., 2015;Colver and El-Alayli, 2016). We chose to assess the emotional sensitivity of responders and their sensitivity to music chills with a French adaptation of the Aesthetic Experiences Scale in Music or AES-M (Nusbaum and Silvia, 2011b;Sachs et al., 2016). ...
... de l'échelle " Aesthetic Experiences Scale in Music (AES-M)(Nusbaum and Silvia, 2011b ;Sachs et al., 2016). Une adaptation de l'AES-M par candidat (Emotional Scale by Candidate -ESC) a également été utilisée afin de réaliser des comparaisons entre chaque chef d'orchestre et chaque performance.Plusieurs études de psychologie ont mis en évidence un lien directe entre le trait de personnalité " Openness to Experience " et la sensibilité aux frissons esthétiques et musicaux(Colver and El-Alayli, 2016 ;Grewe et al., 2007 ;McCrae, 2007 ;Nusbaum and Silvia, 2011a ;Silvia and Nusbaum, 2011b ;Sumpf et al., 2015). Pour déterminer le profil de personnalité des participants, une version Française de l'échelle de personnalité en 10 items " Ten Items Personality Inventory " (TIPI), extrait de l'échelle " Big Five personality domain "(Gosling et al., 2003), a été utilisée. ...
Thesis
La pratique de la musique est une activité collective qui offre une multitude d’interactions à différents niveaux. En particulier, elle permet l’étude des interactions émotionnelles inter individuelles. Le but de notre recherche était de mesurer la survenue d’évènements émotionnels collectifs dans un public, sur le plan comportemental et neuro-physiologique, lors d’une situation naturelle de concert. Ce manuscrit expose en premier lieu différents concepts relatifs à la transmission émotionnelle inter-individuelle, comme la contagion ou la résonance émotionnelle, ainsi qu’un état de l’art des différents travaux concernant le plaisir et le frisson musical. Il présente ensuite différentes méthodes de mesure du couplage cérébral, d’intérêt pour l’étude objective des interactions inter-individuelles. A travers une première étude de faisabilité, nous suggérons que les conditions naturelles du Concours International des Jeunes Chefs d’Orchestre de Besançon représentent un terrain d’expérimentation adapté à l’étude de la dynamique émotionnelle de groupes, à l’aide d’outils neurophysiologiques. Ensuite, afin de préparer la mise en place d’un paradigme de mesure de la synchronisation émotionnelle en conditions naturelles, deux études en laboratoire ont été réalisées. La première suggère que le plaisir et le frisson musical peuvent être mesurés à l’aide de l’électroencéphalographie (EEG) haute résolution, notamment dans la bande de fréquence theta sur les aires temporales, préfrontales et centrales. Puisque l’EEG haute résolution est difficile à exporter hors du laboratoire, la seconde étude a évalué et validé en laboratoire, l’utilisation de matériel d’EEG mobile pour la mesure du plaisir musical en conditions naturelles, en le comparant à l’EEG haute résolution. Enfin, la dernière étape du projet a permis d’enregistrer le ressenti émotionnel subjectif d’une quinzaine de participants simultanément et de recueillir des données EEG en conditions naturelles, lors du Concours International des Jeunes Chefs d’Orchestre. La mesure neurophysiologique de ”vagues d’émotions”, lorsqu’une majorité de participants ressent un plaisir intense simultanément, n’a pas pu être réalisée du fait du faible nombre d’évènements enregistrés. Nos mesures ont montré que le frisson musical n’est pas un marqueur de l’effervescence émotionnelle collective. Bien que des frissons aient été déclarés simultanément par plusieurs participants à plusieurs reprises, très peu ont été déclarés durant des vagues émotionnelles. Nos données EEG suggèrent qu’une forme de contagion et/ou de résonance émotionnelle pourrait survenir entre les membres du public. Le couplage de l’activité cérébrale entre les participants (TI & ThetaCo) était significativement plus fort lorsque les participants reportaient des émotions, que lorsqu’ils ne ressentaient pas de plaisir particulier. Plus encore, plus les participants étaient proches physiquement, plus ils ont reporté des émotions similaires, et plus leurs activités cérébrales étaient couplées (manière générale et dans la bande de fréquence theta), lorsqu’ils reportaient des émotions intenses.
... The studies mentioned in the previous paragraphs reveal distinct relationships between personality traits and the perception and feeling of emotions in music. Trait Openness is a special case as it has been suggested to be related to transient emotional responses (colloquially referred to as "chills") to music and other expressions facilitating aesthetic experiences (McCrae, 2007). Nusbaum and Silvia (2011) tested this hypothesis in an experiment, and found that Openness was the only Big Five trait that significantly predicted such responses as an effect of music listening. ...
... The highest association between liking for music and perceived emotions, being for trait Openness, is consistent with results obtained by previous studies that have investigated a variety of related phenomena. Openness has been found to correlate positively with chills as an effect of listening to music (McCrae, 2007), awe for music (Silvia et al., 2015), and also with the direct relation between liking for sad music and emotions elicited by sad music (Vuoskoski et al., 2012). Trait Openness has consistently been thought to be related to the experience of complex and strong emotions as a result of sensitivity to aesthetic experiences (Reisenzein & Weber, 2009;Terracciano et al., 2003). ...
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We explored the hypothesis that musical emotions are embodied differentially by people according to their personality. Nine hundred and fifty two individuals completed the Big Five personality inventory. A subset of 60 participants were asked to spontaneously move to 30 short musical stimuli while being recorded with a motion-capture system. The musical stimuli were separately rated for perceived emotions. Embodied musical emotions were evaluated as the correlation between features derived from the motion-capture data and the mean ratings of perceived emotions. Correlations between embodied musical emotions and personality traits provided tentative support for our hypothesis. A series of linear regression analyses revealed that scores on Openness and Agreeableness were most strongly, and Neuroticism and Conscientiousness most weakly, predicted by embodied musical emotions. Overall, our results offer tentative support for the existence of differential relationships between embodied musical emotions and personality, and describe statistical models that might be empirically tested in future studies.
... The phenomenon of 'musical chills' has been widely discussed and examined within the field of music psychology, particularly within the last two decades. The experience of chills and the intersection between chills responses, aesthetic experiences (Konečni et al., 2007), personality traits (Colver and El-Alayli, 2016;McCrae 2007), social environment (Seibt, 2017) and listening contexts has been variously explored in the contemporary empirical literature. ...
... Using 38 participants and 7 pieces from different musical styles (as well as 5-10 "personal" pieces which the participants were asked to bring to the experiment), the authors aimed to examine what characteristics of music specifically induced 'chills'. The authors found that only a maximum of eight out of 37 participants experienced chills to the same piece, changes in loudness were linked to chills, and subjects with a higher number of chills exhibited differences in character and experience, compared with subjects who experienced no chills (as reinforced by the personality and chills studies of Colver andEl-Alayli, 2016, andMcCrae, 2007). ...
Article
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The aim of this study was to explore how chills are induced in musicians, modelled on the recent study conducted by Bannister (2018). Current relationships under investigation include the link of chills with musical features such as crescendos, social communion and personality traits. This study used an online survey to collect qualitative and quantitative data from musician and non-musician participants (n = 29), using two-minute musical excerpts to assess chills responses. The findings from this study suggest that musicians had a greater number of chills and a higher intensity of self-reported chills versus non-musicians. Further research is needed to understand the reasons and causes behind this difference in response between the musician and non-musician groups.
... The former can be associated more commonly with personality traits such as low sensation seeking and high reward dependence, as well as with musical preferences [90,91]. People who score high on openness to experience-defined as the breadth, depth, and permeability of consciousness with the aim to enlarge and examine the experience-and introversion also seem to experience aesthetic chills more frequently and claim to enjoy music-induced sadness more often [92][93][94]. Openness to experience, moreover, is associated with feeling comfortable with novelty and with motivation for cognitive exploration [95,96]. ...
... There are, second, the different research traditions that approach aesthetic chills from the experimental side-how features of the music affect listeners (see [154][155][156] for a study on the contribution of causal manipulation of features of the music on the experience of chills) and how physiological parameters correspond to chills experiences [91,114] or from the individual difference side (see [93] for an overview). The latter has received less attention than the experimental approach, though there are provisional findings that openness to experience could be considered a cross-cultural marker of aesthetic chills [92]. It has also been found that the experience of chills is related to the feeling of control, in the sense that people who experience chills are inclined to listen to music that has a special meaning for them and which is able to evoke strong emotions, both in a positive and a negative sense [93]. ...
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This article is a hypothesis and theory paper. It elaborates on the possible relation between music as a stimulus and its possible effects, with a focus on the question of why listeners are experiencing pleasure and reward. Though it is tempting to seek for a causal relationship, this has proven to be elusive given the many intermediary variables that intervene between the actual impingement on the senses and the reactions/responses by the listener. A distinction can be made, however, between three elements: (i) an objective description of the acoustic features of the music and their possible role as elicitors; (ii) a description of the possible modulating factors—both external/exogenous and internal/endogenous ones; and (iii) a continuous and real-time description of the responses by the listener, both in terms of their psychological reactions and their physiological correlates. Music listening, in this broadened view, can be considered as a multivariate phenomenon of biological, psychological, and cultural factors that, together, shape the overall, full-fledged experience. In addition to an overview of the current and extant research on musical enjoyment and reward, we draw attention to some key methodological problems that still complicate a full description of the musical experience. We further elaborate on how listening may entail both adaptive and maladaptive ways of coping with the sounds, with the former allowing a gentle transition from mere hedonic pleasure to eudaimonic enjoyment.
... One item assessing aesthetic chills from the openness subscale of the NEO Five- We used this particular item ("Sometimes when I'm reading poetry or looking at a work of art, I feel a chill or wave of excitement") because McCrae (2007) showed that this item captured openness to experience most accurately in most of the 51 cultures examined. ...
... Contrary to prior work (e.g., Gillespie-Lynch et al., 2019), openness to experience and gender were not associated with autism stigma, nor were age and education. Although we used an openness to experience item that has been shown to be representative of openness cross-culturally (McCrae, 2007), this single item may not have captured aspects of the construct of openness to experience that are associated with autism stigma. McCrae (1993) contends that openness to experience can be factored into the domains to which people are open (e.g., fantasy, aesthetics, feelings, actions, ideas, and values). ...
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Lay abstract: Misunderstandings about autism may be more common in South Korea than the United States. Koreans often have clear ideas about how people should act. Another way of saying this is that Korea has a tight culture. Americans are looser, meaning people are freer to act as they like. Autistic people often do not act as people expect them to. This makes autistic people stand out. Autistic people may stand out more in tight cultures like South Korea. We studied how people in South Korea and the United States feel about autism. We wanted to see why Korean people might reject autistic people more than people in the United States do. American and Korean people did online surveys. Koreans said they did not want to get close to autistic people more than Americans did. People who understood autism and had met and liked autistic people wanted to get closer to autistic people. We were surprised to learn that Americans said having an autistic brother or sister makes it harder to find a romantic partner more than Korean people did. People who believed that autism makes it harder for family members to find love did not want to get very close to autistic people. Koreans said people should act as expected more than Americans did. People who believed that acting as expected was important did not want to get very close to autistic people. Teaching people that there are many ways of being a good person may help them understand and appreciate autistic people.
... Additionally, the role of personality traits is unclear: Openness to experience has been linked to chills (Colver & El-Alayli, 2016;McCrae, 2007;Nusbaum & Silvia, 2011), but recent work found no relationship (Starcke, von Georgi, Tiihonen, Laczika & Reuter, 2019); similar inconsistencies exist for neuroticism, agreeableness and extraversion (Maruskin, Elliot & Thrash, 2012;Nusbaum & Silvia, 2011;Sumpf et al., 2015). Chills may co-occur with tears (Wassiliwizky, Jacobsen, Heinrich, Schneiderbauer & Menninghaus, 2017b), although Mori and Iwanaga (2017) suggest that chills and tears reflect distinct types of peak experience. ...
... In this vein, there is one physiological index related to high peaks in emotional arousal that has received a great deal of attention: chills [4]. Aesthetic chills [5] are induced by various abstract rewarding stimuli [6] such as films [7], poetry [8] and especially, music [6][9] [10]. Musical chills, also known as frissons, thrills or shivers down the spine, represent ...
... The distinction between what is felt when listening to music and what is felt in real life is underlined by the curious fact that people often enjoy sad, even tragic music (Sachs et al., 2015); people do not enjoy tragedy when it befalls them. The only class of emotions that music clearly generates are the esthetic emotions such as awe and esthetic chills (McCrae, 2007;Konečni, 2008;Sherer and Zentner, 2008). ...
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This is a collection of 21 articles published as an eBook in Frontiers in Psychology. This Research Topic aims to demonstrate that imaginative culture is an important functional part of evolved human behavior—diverse in its manifestations but unified by species-typical sets of biologically grounded motives, emotions, and cognitive dispositions. The topic encompasses four main areas of research in the evolutionary human sciences: (1) evolutionary psychology and anthropology, which have fashioned a robust model of evolved human motives organized systemically within the phases and relationships of human life history; (2) research on gene-culture coevolution, which has illuminated the mechanisms of social cognition and the transmission of cultural information; (3) the psychology of emotions and affective neuroscience, which have gained precise knowledge about the evolutionary basis and neurological character of the evolved emotions that give power to the arts, religion, and ideology; and (4) cognitive neuroscience, which has identified the Default Mode Network as the central neurological location of the human imagination. By integrating these four areas of research and by demonstrating their value in illuminating specific kinds of imaginative culture, this Research Topic aims at incorporating imaginative culture within an evolutionary conception of human nature.
... Einzelne Fachdisziplinen, wie etwa die Psychologie, ergänzen diese Definition mit Blick auf Persönlichkeitseigenschaften und Verhaltensweisen. Dazu zählen neben einer Dialogkultur Einfallsreichtum und Erfindergeist, Originalität, Fantasie, intellektuelle Neugierde und Interesse an Ästhetik sowie Ehrlichkeit, Optimismus, Toleranz, Vorlieben für Abwechslung und neuen Aktivitäten (Tretter 2016;McCrae 2007). Häufig schätzen sich Menschen als offen ein, wenn sie aufmerksam für eigene und fremde Emotionen sind. ...
Article
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Zusammenfassung Wer offene Lösungen einsetzen möchte, sieht sich einer Reihe von Fragen und Herausforderungen gegenüber. Nicht nur technische Aspekte, sondern vor allem zwischenmenschliche Faktoren und passende Regelungen sind dabei zu berücksichtigen. Das richtige „Mindset“ spielt eine zentrale Rolle. Mit ihm einher geht eine lebendige Umsetzung des Community-Gedankens. Er ermöglicht, die Idee der Offenheit über Open Source und Open Hardware hinaus auch auf Fragen des Identity Managements, der Entwicklung von Innovationen oder die Nutzung von Open Data auszudehnen. Hierzu bedarf es neben technischem Verständnis vor allem auch Akzeptanzkriterien und einem Bewusstsein für Risiken. Der Beitrag verfolgt daher das Ziel, einen Überblick über die Themen und Fragestellungen zu geben und eine Empfehlung für den Umgang mit Offenheit in der IT zu formulieren.
... 2)" [35]. Individuals who have strong Openness to Experience interested in information and experience gave and kept their self-updating [36][37] (McCrae, 1994(McCrae, , 2007. In more recent professional literature, it has been labelled as a willingness to create alternative solutions to problems and diversity of approach [38]. ...
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The purpose of this paper is to propose a conceptual framework on the individual factors, situational factor and individual work performance of logistician working at the Royal Service Corps in the Malaysian Army. The current paper is intended to examine the relationship between individual and situational factors and their impact on individual work performance. Moreover, individual factors which are “openness to experience and social intelligence” and a situational factor which is “workplace relationship” have been used as independent variables. Individual ambidexterity acts as a mediating variable, while the extent of change acts as a moderating factor. The dependent variables in this study are individual work performance focusing on the dimensions of the task and adaptive performance. Theory of Work Performance and the Burke-Litwin Model are used to define concepts and explain the phenomena. It is assumed to form a significant relationship between employee capacity, willingness and opportunity towards performance and organisational environments are perceived and interpreted by their employees. Findings from this study have implication for the selection process, mixture and redeployment of personnel; training and competency development; and overall organisation improvement.
... Interest has been shown to be a product of two appraisal structures: novelty-complexity (interest shown for new and complex events) and coping potential (the ability to understand an event). Further studies have also revealed subjective differences between the perception of interestingness, based on personality traits, e.g., subjects that had high values for their openness were more influenced by the novelty-complexity appraisal structure, McCrae [12]. ...
Article
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In this paper, we report on the creation of a publicly available, common evaluation framework for image and video visual interestingness prediction. We propose a robust data set, the Interestingness10k, with 9831 images and more than 4 h of video, interestigness scores determined based on more than 1M pair-wise annotations of 800 trusted annotators, some pre-computed multi-modal descriptors, and 192 system output results as baselines. The data were validated extensively during the 2016–2017 MediaEval benchmark campaigns. We provide an in-depth analysis of the crucial components of visual interestingness prediction algorithms by reviewing the capabilities and the evolution of the MediaEval benchmark systems, as well as of prominent systems from the literature. We discuss overall trends, influence of the employed features and techniques, generalization capabilities and the reliability of results. We also discuss the possibility of going beyond state-of-the-art performance via an automatic, ad-hoc system fusion, and propose a deep MLP-based architecture that outperforms the current state-of-the-art systems by a large margin. Finally, we provide the most important lessons learned and insights gained.
... Indeed, openness predicts both professional musicianship and active musical engagement among amateurs (Butkovic et al., 2015;Corrigall et al., 2013). Individuals with high openness also tend to be aesthetically sensitive and show strong emotional reactions ('chills') to music (McCrae, 2007;Nusbaum & Silvia, 2011). Focusing on more domain-specific skills, Greenberg et al. (2015) found that openness was related to self-reported general musical sophistication, as well as melodic memory and rhythm perception. ...
Article
Several studies have documented personality differences between musicians and non-musicians, and there have also been reports of personality differences between musicians playing different instruments. However, the samples have been small and findings are often inconsistent between studies. Here, we investigated Big Five personality differences between professional musicians, amateur musicians, and non-musicians in more than 7000 participants, as well as differences related to instrument categories. We had two specific hypotheses, i.e. that musicians would have higher openness than non-musicians, and that singers would be more extraverted than instrumentalists. Indeed, we found large group differences in openness, with professionals scoring higher than amateurs, who scored higher than non-musicians. Furthermore, singers were, as predicted, higher on extraver-sion than instrumentalists among both professionals and amateurs. We also found that professionals had higher neuroticism, lower agreeableness, and lower conscientiousness than amateurs. For professionals and amateurs, there were personality differences between instruments, but the patterns were inconsistent. This suggests that the differences were not primarily related to instrument choice per se, but instead possibly moderated by other factors such as musical genre and the social context of music making in each group.
... Disparate emotional reactions to nominally sad music can also be explained, in part, by differences in listeners' personality characteristics and dispositional factors, and by the environmental situations during music listening (Dobrota & Ercegovac, 2015;McCrae, 2007;Nusbaum & Silvia, 2011;Rentfrow & Gosling, 2003;Silvia et al., 2015). Some of the reasons why people have listened to nominally sad music, for example, are to reminisce, to get comfort, to experience new emotions, and to share emotions with others . ...
Article
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Two behavioral studies are reported that ask whether listeners experience different emotions in response to melancholic and grieving musical passages. In the first study, listeners were asked to rate the extent that musical passages made them feel positive and negative, as well as to identify which emotion(s) they felt from a list of 24 emotions. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that listeners experience different emotions when listening to melancholic and grieving music. The second study asked listeners to spontaneously describe their emotional states while listening to music. Content analysis was conducted in order to find any underlying dimensions of the identified responses. The analysis replicated the finding that melancholic and grieving music led to different feelings states, with melancholic music leading to feelings of Sad/Melancholy/Depressed, Reflective/Nostalgic, Rain/Dreary Weather, and Relaxed/Calm, while grieving music led to feelings of Anticipation/Uneasy, Tension/Intensity, Crying/Distraught/Turmoil, Death/Loss, and Epic/Dramatic/Cinematic.
... This account is coherent with current accounts of emotional valence in terms of error dynamics 46,47 . Crucially, and even though their prevalence across human populations is still an open question, psychogenic shivers seem to present a high degree of universality, making them a useful somatic marker for affective neuroscience in light of their myriad emotional links 38,43,44,48,49 . ...
Article
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Previous studies on aesthetic chills (i.e., psychogenic shivers) demonstrate their positive effects on stress, pleasure, and social cognition. We tested whether we could artificially enhance this emotion and its downstream effects by intervening on its somatic markers using wearable technology. We built a device generating cold and vibrotactile sensations down the spine of subjects in temporal conjunction with a chill-eliciting audiovisual stimulus, enhancing the somatosensation of cold underlying aesthetic chills. Results suggest that participants wearing the device experienced significantly more chills, and chills of greater intensity. Further, these subjects reported sharing the feelings expressed in the stimulus to a greater degree, and felt more pleasure during the experience. These preliminary results demonstrate that emotion prosthetics and somatosensory interfaces offer new possibilities of modulating human emotions from the bottom-up (body to mind). Future challenges will include testing the device on a larger sample and diversifying the type of stimuli to account for negatively valenced chills and intercultural differences. Interoceptive technologies offer a new paradigm for affective neuroscience, allowing controlled intervention on conscious feelings and their downstream effects on higher-order cognition.
... 17), which is situated in one part of a broader construct of openness to experience. Research on openness to aesthetics has found that individuals who are highly open to aesthetics are more likely to search for new experiences in their free time (Barnett, 2013) and tend to feel frisson episodes more often (Colver & El-Alayli, 2016;McCrae, 2007). Peterson and Seligman (2004) suggest the concept of appreciation of beauty and excellence (ABE), an ability to find, recognize, and save the presence of goodness in various domains of the world, described as a character of transcendence. ...
Article
Previous research has indicated that engaging in art activities is beneficial to both psychological and physical well-being; however, few studies have examined the link between attitudes toward art and well-being. In the present study, we have termed a positive and appreciative attitude toward art as savoring art and have investigated the relationship between savoring art and individual well-being. Study 1 (N = 501) examined the associations between savoring art and psychological well-being (PWB) as well as subjective well-being (SWB), the two most widely used terms for meaningful and hedonic happiness, respectively. The results suggested that savoring art was linked to a greater level of both PWB and SWB. Furthermore, Study 2 (N = 144) demonstrated that savoring art correlated with reduced biological health risk, as measured by objective biomarkers for inflammation and hypertension. The results from the present study highlight the potential psychological and physical benefits of savoring art, regardless of individuals’ socioeconomic condition, level of openness to experience, or art engagement frequency. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)
... Openness to experience is the personality trait most likely to be related to seeking and testing new functions on the web (Kim and Jeong, 2015). Individuals who score higher on the dimension of openness to experience tend to be more flexible, creative, innovative, imaginative, curious and untraditional (McCrae, 2007). Previous research openness to experience is associated with a drive for new adventure and motivation to try new options (e.g. ...
Purpose Mobile self-checkout refers to scanning products using a mobile device inside a brick-and-mortar store and completing the checkout process on mobile devices. Even though mobile self-checkout has been used in other industries for several years, it is a new application in the fashion industry and only limited numbers of retailers have implemented mobile self-checkout in their stores. The purpose of this study is to understand consumers' acceptance of mobile self-checkout in fashion retail stores by analyzing determinants of using a new system. Design/methodology/approach Part of the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) was used as a theoretical framework. Openness to experience, variety seeking and adventure shopping were added to the model. Empirical data (with 229 valid responses) were collected from the top 20 metropolitan areas in the US via Qualtrics Panel services. Exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, structural equation modeling and multi-group moderation were used to estimate construct validity and test the proposed hypotheses and theoretical framework. Findings The results indicated that consumers' intentions toward using mobile self-checkout in fashion retail stores were predicted by facilitating conditions, social influence and openness to experience. Moreover, consumers' previous experience of using mobile self-checkout in fashion retail stores moderated the path from facilitating conditions to behavioral intention and the path from social influence to behavioral intention. In addition, different genders and smartphone usage frequency did not vary significantly on the model paths. Practical implications The findings show how fashion retailers can understand consumers' preference and their willingness to use mobile self-checkout in fashion retail stores. Moreover, the authors addressed ways for fashion retailers to promote mobile self-checkout in the future. Originality/value As a new technology in the fashion industry, literature is deficient concerning consumers' intention to adopt mobile self-checkout. This research provided suggestions for fashion retailers about adopting and improving acceptance of mobile self-checkout. Results will lead to theoretical and managerial implications for future technology development.
... The distinction between what is felt when listening to music and what is felt in real life is underlined by the curious fact that people often enjoy sad, even tragic music (Sachs et al., 2015); people do not enjoy tragedy when it befalls them. The only class of emotions that music clearly generates are the esthetic emotions such as awe and esthetic chills (McCrae, 2007;Konečni, 2008;Sherer and Zentner, 2008). ...
Article
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Some accounts of the evolution of music suggest that it emerged from emotionally expressive vocalizations and serves as a necessary counterweight to the cognitive elaboration of language. Thus, emotional expression appears to be intrinsic to the creation and perception of music, and music ought to serve as a model for affect itself. Because music exists as patterns of changes in sound over time, affect should also be seen in patterns of changing feelings. Psychologists have given relatively little attention to these patterns. Results from statistical approaches to the analysis of affect dynamics have so far been modest. Two of the most significant treatments of temporal patterns in affect—sentics and vitality affects have remained outside mainstream emotion research. Analysis of musical structure suggests three phenomena relevant to the temporal form of emotion: affect contours, volitional affects, and affect transitions. I discuss some implications for research on affect and for exploring the evolutionary origins of music and emotions.
... Openness to experience is a typical element of entrepreneurship (Singh and DeNoble, 2003). Individuals possessing a high level of openness to experience are tolerant of ambiguity and able to create distant and unusual associations (McCrae, 2007), which may help in discovering entrepreneurial ideas. We study the construct of entrepreneurial openness, which is a specialized measure of openness in this area of study and thus suitable for consideration. ...
Article
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Entrepreneurs as individuals are the main drivers of entrepreneurship and possess distinct personality characteristics. The study focused on entrepreneurial openness and creativity on the entrepreneurial level relative to business growth. Hypotheses were developed and empirically tested in structural equation models using survey data obtained from SMEs’ entrepreneurs in three countries. This study adds to what is known about entrepreneurship and small business management in terms of normative research on firm growth by empirically examining the relationships between the entrepreneurial openness, creative personality, and creativity of the entrepreneur and growth of the company. Moreover, the study develops refined internationally comparable measures of entrepreneurial openness, entrepreneur creativity, and a creative personality. An entrepreneur’s openness and creative personality may be essential for their creativity. The entrepreneur’s creativity may be a vital element of company growth in some countries.
... Fashion innovators have been found to be open to new experiences, higher in extraversion, need for variety, and sensation-seeking than consumers who adopt later in the fashion life cycle [67,68]. Individuals who score higher on the dimension of openness to experience tend to be more flexible, creative, and innovative [69,70]. Previous research [71,72] indicated that openness to experience is associated with the motivation to try new options. ...
Article
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This study’s purposes were to examine how selected demographic variables affect frequency of use of precautionary measures when shopping for clothing in retail stores; and how uncertainty avoidance/ambiguity intolerance and fashion innovativeness affect (a) precautionary measures used when shopping in retail stores during a pandemic and (b) compensatory consumption. Participants (122 US men; 209 US women aged 20 to 64) completed an online questionnaire containing demographic items plus measures of uncertainty avoidance/ambiguity intolerance, compensatory consumption, precautionary measures, and fashion innovativeness. Data analysis included reliability, factor analysis, M/ANOVA and SNK. Older adults, adults with higher education, and married adults more frequently used precautionary measures when shopping in retail stores. Men and women reported similar frequency of use. Fashion innovators and consumers with less tolerance for uncertainty/ambiguity more frequently used precautionary measures. Fashion innovators and consumers higher in uncertainty avoidance/ambiguity intolerance engaged in more compensatory consumption. Generalization of the results is limited because the data are context-specific: country (US), time period (during a pandemic), and sample. Guidelines for the general public regarding precautionary measures came from within organizations, between organizations and experts but the general public was not consulted (public open innovation) perhaps hindering compliance with precautionary measures.
... In other instances, one's musicality may be a predisposed trait (Peretz et al., 2007;Tan et al., 2014;Mankel and Bidelman, 2018) that remains somewhat hidden due to a lack of financial or familial support (Schellenberg, 2015) or a lack of interest in learning to play music; however, some of these untrained individuals may become avid music appreciators and develop similar skills to musicians through hours of listening or other activities such as playing music video games (Pasinski et al., 2016). Furthermore, in both musicians and non-musicians, musical ability (Swaminathan and Schellenberg, 2018) and appreciation for certain types of music may be dictated by one's personality (McCrae, 2007;Luck et al., 2010;Nusbaum et al., 2014;Colver and El-Alayli, 2015;Swaminathan and Schellenberg, 2018;Kuckelkorn et al., 2021) and music preferences (Madison, 2006;Salimpoor et al., 2013;Wesolowski and Hofmann, 2016;Madison and Schiölde, 2017;Senn et al., 2019bSenn et al., , 2021aKowalewski et al., 2020). Therefore, there is a growing need to understand individual differences in music perception that are not based on formal music training. ...
Article
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Listening to groovy music is an enjoyable experience and a common human behavior in some cultures. Specifically, many listeners agree that songs they find to be more familiar and pleasurable are more likely to induce the experience of musical groove. While the pleasurable and dance-inducing effects of musical groove are omnipresent, we know less about how subjective feelings toward music, individual musical or dance experiences, or more objective musical perception abilities are correlated with the way we experience groove. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate how musical and dance sophistication relates to musical groove perception. One-hundred 24 participants completed an online study during which they rated 20 songs, considered high- or low-groove, and completed the Goldsmiths Musical Sophistication Index, the Goldsmiths Dance Sophistication Index, the Beat and Meter Sensitivity Task, and a modified short version of the Profile for Music Perception Skills. Our results reveal that measures of perceptual abilities, musical training, and social dancing predicted the difference in groove rating between high- and low-groove music. Overall, these findings support the notion that listeners’ individual experiences and predispositions may shape their perception of musical groove, although other causal directions are also possible. This research helps elucidate the correlates and possible causes of musical groove perception in a wide range of listeners.
... In addition to testing the above hypotheses, we also correlated the ratings of emotions with measures of the Big Five personality traits (John et al., 2008), in an explorative attempt to account for individual differences. Some preliminary studies have suggested that emotion prevalence might be moderated by personality (Barrett et al., 2010;Juslin et al., , 2011Liljeström et al., 2013;McCrae, 2007;Pilgrim et al., 2017). ...
Article
Emotions have been found to play a paramount role in both everyday music experiences and health applications of music, but the applicability of musical emotions depends on: 1) which emotions music can induce, 2) how it induces them, and 3) how individual differences may be explained. These questions were addressed in a listening test, where 44 participants (aged 19–66 years) reported both felt emotions and subjective impressions of emotion mechanisms (Mec Scale), while listening to 72 pieces of music from 12 genres, selected using a stratified random sampling procedure. The results showed that: 1) positive emotions (e.g., happiness) were more prevalent than negative emotions (e.g., anger); 2) Rhythmic entrainment was the most and Brain stem reflex the least frequent of the mechanisms featured in the BRECVEMA theory; 3) felt emotions could be accurately predicted based on self-reported mechanisms in multiple regression analyses; 4) self-reported mechanisms predicted felt emotions better than did acoustic features; and 5) individual listeners showed partly different emotion-mechanism links across stimuli, which may help to explain individual differences in emotional responses. Implications for future research and applications of musical emotions are discussed.
... Motivation is the Openness to experience is one of the Big Five personality traits (McCrae, 1990) which means the width, depth and permeability of consciousness that needs increasing experiences (McCrae & Costa, 1997a). Openness includes active imagination, aesthetics, interest in internal emotion, variety seeking, and curiosity (Costa & McCrae, 1992;McCrae & Costa, 1997b;McCrae, 1993McCrae, , 2007b. It associates with mental health (Malouff et al., 2005;Steel et al., 2008), Creativity (Feist, 1998;George & Zhou, 2001;McCrae, 1987), crystal intelligence (Geary, 2005;Moutafi et al., 2005), sexuality (Donnellan et al., 2004;McCrae, 1994;McCrae & Sutin, 2009) and social perception (McCrae & Sutin, 2009;Sneed et al., 1998;Staudinger et al., 1998). ...
... The present study focused on task parameters. Previous studies have shown that a critical parameter is the speed of stimulus presentation: faster event rates in CPTs lead to fewer correct responses and longer reaction times (RTs) (Parasuraman & Giambra, 1991), and the CPT performance is associated with everyday cognitive failures (McCrae, 2007). However, there were methodological limitations in those studies. ...
Article
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Sustained attention plays an important role in adaptive behaviours in everyday activities. As previous studies have mostly focused on vision, and attentional resources have been thought to be specific to sensory modalities, it is still unclear how mechanisms of attentional fluctuations overlap between visual and auditory modalities. To reduce the effects of sudden stimulus onsets, we developed a new gradual-onset continuous performance task (gradCPT) in the auditory domain and compared dynamic fluctuation of sustained attention in vision and audition. In the auditory gradCPT, participants were instructed to listen to a stream of narrations and judge the gender of each narration. In the visual gradCPT, they were asked to observe a stream of scenery images and indicate whether the scene was a city or mountain. Our within-individual comparison revealed that auditory and visual attention are similar in terms of the false alarm rate and dynamic properties including fluctuation frequency. Absolute time scales of the fluctuation in the two modalities were comparable, notwithstanding the difference in stimulus onset asynchrony. The results suggest that fluctuations of visual and auditory attention are underpinned by common principles and support models with a more central, modality-general controller.
... This appears particularly important as other personality traits were considered as relevant by previous studies in the arts domain (e.g. openness to experience; McCrae, 2007;Silvia, 2007). Second, these findings show that market mavenship positively affects individuals' propensity to engage in WOM in the arts domain, which is a domain-specific trait that has never been investigated in prior arts marketing research. ...
Article
Purpose This study investigates the transmission of art-related aspects (i.e. art products or services and people's experiences at museums) via word-of-mouth (WOM) from a personality perspective. Specifically, the study explores the effects of the Big Five personality traits (based on the five-factor model) and market mavenship (i.e. the propensity to provide general marketplace and shopping information) on intention to spread WOM in the art context. Design/methodology/approach Data were gathered through two field surveys, conducted via a structured questionnaire and analyzed using multiple regression analysis. Findings Results indicate that extraversion is the only Big Five personality trait that increases WOM intention (e.g. by talking to others about a visit to a museum). Market mavenship also increases such an intention (e.g. by talking to others about art services). Practical implications The study's findings could motivate arts managers to formulate and/or refine segmentation strategies around their consumers' personality traits, since these variables may differently motivate them to spread art-related WOM. The findings may also help companies and institutions operating in the art industry to design communication strategies oriented around their consumers' personality type to appropriately connect with different groups of customers based on their innate human drives. Originality/value This is the first study to assess the effects of Big Five personality traits and market mavenship on WOM intention in the art context, thus expanding scholarly understanding of psychological drivers behind arts-related WOM.
... Personality trait analysis of subjects who have experienced ASMR somatosensation and those who have not has shown that those who experience this sensation are significantly more imaginative, excitable, curious, and open-minded. This is consistent with the personality analysis of those who experience musical frisson (McCrae, 2007;Kovacevichi and Huron, 2018), Abbreviations: ASMR, Autonomous sensory meridian response; MFG, middle frontal gyrus; MSFG, medial superior frontal gyrus. an emotional response to music and a feeling involving chills and goosebumps (Craig, 2005). ...
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... Dolayısıyla fikir birliğine varılması ve açıklaması en zor olan kişilik özelliğinden bir tanesi olduğu öngörülmektedir. Genel olarak yeniliğe ve deneyime açık bireylerin özellikleri; meraklı, kültürlü, geniş hayal gücüne sahip, sanatsal eğilimleri olan, zeki, deneyimlenmemiş olan şeyler için hevesli şeklinde tanımlanmaktadır (McCrae, 2007). ...
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Aesthetic chills, broadly defined as a somatic marker of peak emotional-hedonic responses, are experienced by individuals across a variety of human cultures. Yet individuals vary widely in the propensity of feeling them. These individual differences have been studied in relation to demographics, personality, and neurobiological and physiological factors, but no study to date has explored the genetic etiological sources of variation. To partition genetic and environmental sources of variation in the propensity of feeling aesthetic chills, we fitted a biometrical genetic model to data from 14,127 twins (from 8995 pairs), collected by the Netherlands Twin Register. Both genetic and unique environmental factors accounted for variance in aesthetic chills, with heritability estimated at 0.36 ([0.33, 0.39] 95% CI). We found females more prone than males to report feeling aesthetic chills. However, a test for genotype x sex interaction did not show evidence that heritability differs between sexes. We thus show that the propensity of feeling aesthetic chills is not shaped by nurture alone, but it also reflects underlying genetic propensities.
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We introduce ChillsDB, the first validated database of audiovisual stimuli eliciting aesthetic chills (goosebumps, psychogenic shivers) in a US population. To discover chills stimuli “in the wild”, we devised a bottom-up, ecologically-valid method consisting in searching for mentions of the emotion's somatic markers in user comments throughout social media platforms (YouTube and Reddit). We successfully captured 204 chills-eliciting videos of three categories: music, film, and speech. We then tested the top 50 videos in the database on 600+ participants and validated a gold standard of 10 stimuli with a .9 probability of generating chills. All ChillsDB tools and data are fully available on GitHub and PhysioNet for researchers to be able to contribute and perform further analysis.
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P. Shaver, J. Schwartz, D. Kirson, and C. O'Connor (1987) found that English emotion words fall into 25 categories of synonyms. To find emotion nomenclature universals, the authors used P. Shaver et al.'s taxonomy in a sample of the world's languages and found that emotion categories were added in most languages in a relatively similar generalized sequence. Labeled first were the categories of anger and guilt; followed in Stage 2 by adoration, alarm, amusement, and depression; in Stage 3 by alienation, arousal, and agony, and ending with eagerness in Stage 4. The remaining 5 stages were derivatives of Stages 1–4. Thus, in the folk taxonomy, Stages 1–4 are basic linguistic emotion categories. Motives for labeling emotions were driven possibly by the need to maintain social control, the identification of prototypical emotions elicited in interpersonal relationships, and the need for terms to identify intrapersonal emotions. Features of markedness theory were corroborated for English emotion terms. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Although several studies and professional texts address the issue of required reading levels for self-report psychopathology inventories such as the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 and Personality Assessment Inventory, little research effort has been directed to the examination of required reading levels for inventories measuring normal personality characteristics. In order to establish guidelines for clinical use of commonly used personality inventories, this study examined the text complexity of four widely used tests: the California Psychological Inventory, the 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire, the Personality Research Form, and the revised NEO Personality Inventory. Analysis of the text complexity of complete item sets indicated that the inventories had overall reading levels at the fifth- to sixth-grade range. However, examination of the text difficulty of individual scales revealed reading level estimates as high as the eighth grade. Guidelines for test administration with subjects of varying education levels are discussed.
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In this paper we present a prototype approach to awe. We suggest that two appraisals are central and are present in all clear cases of awe: perceived vastness, and a need for accommodation, defined as an inability to assimilate an experience into current mental structures. Five additional appraisals account for variation in the hedonic tone of awe experiences: threat, beauty, exceptional ability, virtue, and the supernatural. We derive this perspective from a review of what has been written about awe in religion, philosophy, sociology, and psychology, and then we apply this perspective to an analysis of awe and related states such as admiration, elevation, and the epiphanic experience.
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Music modifies moods and emotions by interacting with brain mechanisms that remain to be identified. One powerful emotional effect induced by music is a shivery, gooseflesh type of skin sensation (commonly called "chills" or "thrills"), which may reflect the brain's ability to extract specific kinds of emotional meaning from music. A large survey indicated that college-age students typically prefer to label this phenomenon as "chills" rather than "thrills," but many mistakenly believe that happiness in music is more influential in evoking the response than sadness. A series of correlational studies analyzing the subjective experience of chills in groups of students listening to a variety of musical pieces indicated that chills are related to the perceived emotional content of various selections, with much stronger relations to perceived sadness than happiness. As a group, females report feeling more chills than males do. Because feelings of sadness typically arise from the severance of established social bonds, there may exist basic neurochemical similarities between the chilling emotions evoked by music and those engendered by social loss. Further study of the "chill" response should help clarify how music interacts with a specific emotional process of the normal human brain.
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This study examined two questions regarding the emergence of adjectives that describe the Big Five Personality dimensions and when they emerged into the modern English lexicon: (1) Did the terms that describe these qualities appear simultaneously or sequentially? (2) Can the emergence of these terms be linked to specific historical eras? Results showed that the adjective descriptors for Openness appeared in the modern lexicon significantly later than those for Agreeableness, Extraversion, and Conscientiousness. The historical context surrounding the emergence of Openness was presented and the implications of these findings for understanding personality were discussed.
Article
Approximately half of those surveyed experience characteristic tingling sensations (thrills) when exposed to emotionally arousing stimuli. Music was especially effective as a stimulus. Thrills evoked by music were quantitated according to self-reports on frequency, intensity, and duration. In preliminary experiments with naloxone, an opiate receptor antagonist, thrills were attenuated in some subjects.
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In this article we investigate relations between general and specific measures of self-rated affect and markers of Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness to Experience, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness. Replicating previous research, we found strong and pervasive associations between Neuroticism, its facets, and the various negative affects; and between Extraversion, its facets, and the positive affects. Conscientiousness also had a significant, independent relation with general positive affect, but this effect was entirely due to the specific affect of attentiveness, which was more strongly related to Conscientiousness than Extraversion. Conversely, only the achievement facet of Conscientiousness correlated broadly with the positive affects. Finally, hostility had a strong independent association with (low) Agreeableness. The results for Neuroticism and Extraversion further clarify the temperamental basis of these higher order trait dimensions; whereas those obtained for Agreeableness and Conscientiousness illustrate the importance of examining personality-affect relations at the lower order level.
Article
Recent work on natural categories suggests a framework for conceptualizing people's knowledge about emotions. Categories of natural objects or events, including emotions, are formed as a result of repeated experiences and become organized around prototypes (Rosch, 1978); the interrelated set of emotion categories becomes organized within an abstract-to-concrete hierarchy. At the basic level of the emotion hierarchy one finds the handful of concepts (love, joy, anger, sadness, fear, and perhaps, surprise) most useful for making everyday distinctions among emotions, and these overlap substantially with the examples mentioned most readily when people are asked to name emotions (Fehr & Russell, 1984), with the emotions children learn to name first (Bretherton & Beeghly, 1982), and with what theorists have called basic or primary emotions. This article reports two studies, one exploring the hierarchical organization of emotion concepts and one specifying the prototypes, or scripts, of five basic emotions, and it shows how the prototype approach might be used in the future to investigate the processing of information about emotional events, cross-cultural differences in emotion concepts, and the development of emotion knowledge.
Article
Administered a questionnaire containing items of varied content believed to be related to hypnotizability to 481 female undergraduates. 2 subsamples of 142 and 171 Ss, respectively, also completed Block's Ego Resiliency and Ego Control questionnaire scales and the Group Scales of Hypnotic Susceptibility. Analysis of the combined questionnaire data yielded 3 replicated higher order factors: the familiar dimensions of Stability and Introversion and a 3rd factor, Absorption. Absorption is interpreted as a disposition for having episodes of "total" attention that fully engage one's representational (i.e., perceptual, enactive, imaginative, and ideational) resources. This kind of attentional functioning is believed to result in a heightened sense of the reality of the attentional object, imperviousness to distracting events, and an altered sense of reality in general, including an empathically altered sense of self. Only Absorption was consistently correlated with hypnotizability. Absorption appears to be of interest for the study of hypnosis and personality. (38 ref)
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Investigated the question of whether any facial expressions of emotion are universal. Recent studies showing that members of literate cultures associated the same emotion concepts with the same facial behaviors could not demonstrate that at least some facial expressions of emotion are universal; the cultures compared had all been exposed to some of the same mass media presentations of facial expression, and these may have taught the people in each culture to recognize the unique facial expressions of other cultures. To show that members of a preliterate culture who had minimal exposure to literate cultures would associate the same emotion concepts with the same facial behaviors as do members of Western and Eastern literate cultures, data were gathered in New Guinea by telling 342 Ss a story, showing them a set of 3 faces, and asking them to select the face which showed the emotion appropriate to the story. Ss were members of the Fore linguistic-cultural group, which up until 12 yr. ago was an isolated, Neolithic, material culture. Results provide evidence in support of the hypothesis. (30 ref.)
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We used positron emission tomography to study neural mechanisms underlying intensely pleasant emotional responses to music. Cerebral blood flow changes were measured in response to subject-selected music that elicited the highly pleasurable experience of "shivers-down-the-spine" or "chills." Subjective reports of chills were accompanied by changes in heart rate, electromyogram, and respiration. As intensity of these chills increased, cerebral blood flow increases and decreases were observed in brain regions thought to be involved in reward/motivation, emotion, and arousal, including ventral striatum, midbrain, amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex, and ventral medial prefrontal cortex. These brain structures are known to be active in response to other euphoria-inducing stimuli, such as food, sex, and drugs of abuse. This finding links music with biologically relevant, survival-related stimuli via their common recruitment of brain circuitry involved in pleasure and reward.
Article
Methodological arguments are usually invoked to explain variations in the structure of affect. Using self-rated affect from Italian samples (N=600), we show that individual difference variables related to affective differentiation can moderate the observed structure. Indices of circumplexity and congruence coefficients to the hypothesized target were used to quantify the observed structures. Results did not support the circumplex model as a universal structure. A circular structure with axes of activation and valence was approximated only among more affectively differentiated groups: students and respondents with high scores on Openness to Feelings and measures of negative emotionality. A different structure, with unipolar Positive Affect and Negative Affect factors, was observed among adults and respondents with low Openness to Feelings and negative emotionality. The observed structure of affect will depend in part on the nature of the sample studied.
Personality in adulthood: A five-factor theory perspective Empirical and theoretical statusof the five-factor model of personality traits Handbook of personality and testing Age trends and agenormsfortheNEOPersonalityInventory-3 inadolescentsand adults
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Art history in Africa: An introduction to method
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