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Abstract

Insect and mite pest resurgence occurs when an insecticide or acaricide treatment destroys the pest population and kills, repels, irritates or otherwise deters the natural enemies of the pest. The residual activity of the insecticide then expires and the pest population is able to increase more rapidly and to a higher abundance when natural enemies are absent or in low abundance. Replacement of a primary pest with a secondary pest occurs when an insecticide or acaricide treatment controls the primary pest and also destroys natural enemies of an injurious insect or mite that was regulated below an economic injury level by the natural enemies, thus, elevating the secondary pest to primary pest status. Disruption of natural controls is not always the cause of resurgence or replacement events. A dose-response phenomenon called hormesis can occur in pest populations exposed to sublethal doses of pesticides. This can cause an increase in fecundity (physiological hormoligosis) or oviposition behaviour (behavioural hormoligosis of the pest leading to a significant increase in its abundance. Selective insecticides and acaricides coupled with natural enemies and host plant resistance have become the alternative methods more commonly used by growers that encounter these problems. The purpose of this chapter is to review pesticide-induced resurgence and replacement in modern cropping systems and methods for measuring and resolving these problems.
... Secondary pest outbreaks mean a pesticide application to lessen pest populations triggering further population increase of other pests (Ripper 1956 ;Hardin et al. 1995 ;Dutcher 2007 ). They are secondary pest outbreaks, including suppression of benefi cial insects, metabolic changes in the plant or nontarget organisms (hormoligosis) and decline in other arthropod species (Ripper 1956 ;White 1984 ;Hardin et al. 1995 ). ...
... They are secondary pest outbreaks, including suppression of benefi cial insects, metabolic changes in the plant or nontarget organisms (hormoligosis) and decline in other arthropod species (Ripper 1956 ;White 1984 ;Hardin et al. 1995 ). Secondary pest outbreak can be detrimental to productivity by reducing yield and by application of pesticide which adversely impact the environment (Horton et al. 2005 ;Dutcher 2007 ). ...
... This is because quantifying the loss in profi t attributable to secondary pest outbreaks may arguably provide a lower bound on the monetary value of regulation of economically injurious pests by natural enemies. For instance, whitefl y management of Lygus in cotton is thought to provide a prime candidate for secondary pest outbreaks, because cotton harbours a rich community of arthropod herbivores and natural enemies and because, until very recently, only non-selective, broad-spectrum pesticides were available for Lygus control (Rao et al. 2003 ;Dutcher 2007 ). Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) was a minor pest on cotton before the pyrethroid insecticides were applied on cotton in Andhra Pradesh, India. ...
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Adopting monocultures of traditional cotton enhances activity of pest insects and reduces the activity of predatory insects. Cultivating cotton with other crops such as sunfl ower ( Helianthus annuus ) and sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor ) served as refugia for predators of pests on cotton. Thus, increased habitat diversity by strip cropping in monocultures of cotton increases the population of predators. Transgenic cotton ( Bt ) largely suppressed populations of lepidopteran pests. Insecticidal sprays reduced populations of predators both on non- Bt and Bt cot-ton. Bt cotton alters the arthropod community by reducing the abundance of Helicoverpa populations. Bt cotton may also have indirect effects on the abun-dance of parasitoids and predators that specialize on lepidopteran pests. A 6-year research revealed that the impact of Bt cotton on minor pests and non-intended species was of less importance, particularly when compared to insecticides. Cotton ecosystem is uniquely characterized by secondary pest outbreaks, geneti-cally engineered plants, changing arthropod communities and extrafl oral (EF) nectaries. Each characteristic infl uences arthropod communities and crop pro-ductivity in turn in different ways. Although reduction in insecticidal use in some regions may alleviate the pest problems, much of the problems can be tackled by adopting integrated pest management (IPM) practices.
... The relationship of Nitidulidae with damaged maize was discussed previously, and perhaps this relationship was present despite the pyrethroid sprays. For aphid populations, it has been reported frequently that they recover quickly after insecticide sprays, while their natural enemies need more time to recover or to recolonize the fields [57]. It remains unclear why ants (Formicidae) were more abundant in pyrethroid-treated fields. ...
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Background Hundreds of studies on environmental effects of genetically modified (GM) crops became available over the past 25 years. For maize producing insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), potential adverse effects on non-target organisms are a major area of concern and addressed in risk assessments. Reviews and meta-analyses have helped various stakeholders to address uncertainties regarding environmental impacts of the technology. Many field studies from Europe and other parts of the world have been published in the last decade, and those data are often not covered by previous meta-analyses. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review to answer the question: “Does the growing of Bt maize change abundance or ecological function of non-target animals compared to the growing of non-GM maize?” Methods Literature published until August 2019 was searched systematically in 12 bibliographic databases, 17 specialized webpages, and reference sections of 78 review articles. Defined eligibility criteria were applied to screen titles, abstracts, and full texts of the retrieved references. A custom-made database was developed with quantitative data on invertebrate abundance, activity density, or predation/parasitism rates. Eligible data that did not fit the quantitative database were captured in detailed tables and summarized narratively. For the first time, a critical appraisal scheme for field studies on non-targets in GM crops was developed to estimate the risk of bias (internal validity) and the suitability to answer the review question (external validity) of all primary data. Meta-analyses on different taxonomic levels, functional groups, and types of Bt maize were conducted. Untreated Bt maize was either compared with untreated non-Bt maize, or with insecticide-treated non-Bt maize. The influence of contributions by private sector product developers on reported effects was investigated. Review findings The database on non-target effects of Bt maize field trials contains more than 7200 records from 233 experiments and 120 articles. Meta-analyses on different taxonomic levels revealed only few and often non-robust significant effect sizes when both Bt maize and non-Bt maize were untreated. Bt maize harboured fewer parasitoids (Braconidae, Tachinidae) of the European corn borer, the main target pest of Lepidoptera-active Bt maize, compared with non-Bt maize. Similarly, sap beetles (Nitidulidae), that are associated with Lepidoptera damage, were recorded less in Bt maize. In some analyses, a negative effect of Bt maize was observed for rove beetles (Staphylinidae) and hoverflies (Syrphidae) and a positive effect for ladybeetles (Coccinellidae), flower bugs (Anthocoridae), and lacewings (Neuroptera). However, those effects were not consistent for different analyses and often related to individual articles. When untreated Bt maize was compared with pyrethroid-treated non-Bt maize, more effect sizes were significant. In particular, populations of predators were reduced after pyrethroid treatment, while few data were available for other insecticides. Funnel plots showed no evidence for publication bias and the analyses of private sector contribution revealed no evidence for influence of vested interests. Conclusions about potential effects of Bt maize on vertebrates or on animals inhabiting off-crop habitats were not possible, because only few such studies fitting the format of direct Bt/non-Bt comparisons on plot or field level were identified. Conclusions The current work largely confirmed previously published results. The effects of Bt maize on the community of non-target invertebrates inhabiting maize fields were small and mostly neutral, especially when compared with the effects of broad-spectrum pyrethroid insecticide treatments.
... A doseresponse phenomenon called hormoligosis can occur in pest populations exposed to sublethal doses of pesticides. This can cause an increase in fecundity or oviposition behaviour [71] . ...
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Several technologies have been adopted to increase food grain production, pesticide application is one among them. Pesticide comprises a wide range of compounds embracing insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, rodenticides, nematicides and others. Various groups of insecticides are used against different kinds of insects. Usage of pesticides is an economical approach to get immediate protection from the nuisance of pest problems. Pesticide use has advantages in many situations and it has become a boon for many countries in avoiding pest nuisance. Pesticides offer various kinds of benefits including primary, secondary, national-level benefits, etc. On the other hand, pesticide application is accusing in recent years because of some negative effects on human health and the environment. Pesticides are known to cause some ill effects in humans such as cancer. Excess use of pesticides can also affect beneficial insects, productive insects and beneficial soil microorganisms. However, to overcome the hazards caused by pesticides, taking safety measures in pesticide usage is necessitous.
... In the past, the spraying of broad spectrum pesticides due to their presumed effectiveness have played a major role to protect crops against pests. However, indiscriminate use of pesticides leads to the development of pesticide resistance (Al-Ayedh et al. 2016), pest resurgence (Dutcher 2007), environmental pollution, applicator's safety and persistence of residues. Furthermore, non-specific nature of pesticides results in the killing of non-target beneficial organisms especially parasitoids and predators that are found to be highly susceptible against pesticides (Theiling and Croft 1988;Desneux et al. 2007;Martinou et al. 2014). ...
Chapter
Biopesticides, using living microbial bodies and their bio-active composites against insects, are potential replacements for synthetic insecticides for safer and modern food production systems. Entomopathogenic bacteria (EPB) are important biological control agents of insect pests since the last century. Though bacterial species have been documented to be used against insects for developing symbiotic relationships, only a few of them are identified as entomopathogens. Most of these are members of the family Bacillaceae, Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, Clostridiaceae, and Neisseriaceae. More than 100 bacterial species have been reported to infect various arthropods. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), B. sphaericus, B. cereus, and B. popilliae are the most appreciated microbial pest control agents. However, new bacterial species also need to be explored for their entomopathogenic role and materialized as new biopesticide products. The commercial biopesticides based on novel EPBs with improved genetic materials must be a part of future research for effective integrated pest management programs. This present chapter highlights the classification, infection, replication, transmission mechanisms, and important EPB in integrated pest management.
... In the past, the spraying of broad spectrum pesticides due to their presumed effectiveness have played a major role to protect crops against pests. However, indiscriminate use of pesticides leads to the development of pesticide resistance (Al-Ayedh et al. 2016), pest resurgence (Dutcher 2007), environmental pollution, applicator's safety and persistence of residues. Furthermore, non-specific nature of pesticides results in the killing of non-target beneficial organisms especially parasitoids and predators that are found to be highly susceptible against pesticides (Theiling and Croft 1988;Desneux et al. 2007;Martinou et al. 2014). ...
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The successful control of many insect-pests makes entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) among one of the best biocontrol agents for insect pests. Moreover, the ability of EPNs to seek out their hosts and kill them in those habitats where chemicals fail makes them even more attractive. The EPNs-bacterial mutualistic association helps them kill their hosts in a relatively shorter period than other necromenic or parasitic nematode associations. In addition to this end-user safety, hotspot application which allows minimizing treated area, natural enemies’ safety, withholding period absence, and environmental protection are a few of many advantages over chemical pesticides. Two important genera of EPNs, i.e., Heterorhabditid and Steinernematids, are associated with symbiotic bacteria Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus, respectively, while bacterial symbiont of neosteinernamatids is yet to be described. About 21 species of Heterorhabditis and 100 species of Steinernema have been isolated and identified worldwide. With the increasing environmental concerns and low efficacy of synthetic pesticides, agriculturists and researchers have a growing interest in finding alternatives to synthetic pesticides. Several EPNs can be widely used in place of synthetic pesticides in agro-ecosystem. There is still a need to improve several aspects of EPNs, such as efficacy and efficiency, reduced costs, mass production, and formulation technology. Furthermore, their potential for recycling in the host population beckons them to be further exploited for sustainable pest control. This chapter will emphasize the use and potential of EPNs as an integral part of integrated pest management. To aid with understanding the potential of EPNs, this chapter will also provide an overview of ecology and biology, mass production, application strategies, and integration with other management tools.
... In the past, the spraying of broad spectrum pesticides due to their presumed effectiveness have played a major role to protect crops against pests. However, indiscriminate use of pesticides leads to the development of pesticide resistance (Al-Ayedh et al. 2016), pest resurgence (Dutcher 2007), environmental pollution, applicator's safety and persistence of residues. Furthermore, non-specific nature of pesticides results in the killing of non-target beneficial organisms especially parasitoids and predators that are found to be highly susceptible against pesticides (Theiling and Croft 1988;Desneux et al. 2007;Martinou et al. 2014). ...
Chapter
Modern agricultural production is dominated by the use of synthetic chemical pesticides, which account for 95% of the global market share of total pesticide use. However, this over-reliance on synthetic pesticides adversely affects and interferes with the functioning of the ecosystem. Neem (Azadirachta indica), a botanical biopesticide widely known for its bactericidal, fungicidal, insecticidal, herbicidal, and nematicidal properties, offers an eco-friendly alternative to synthetic pesticides. To date, more than 200 bioactive compounds have been extracted from neem, and several commercial formulations have been developed and registered as broad-spectrum biopesticides. More advanced strategies in the use of neem as a botanical biopesticide have been developed with a focus on developing more innovative and effective approaches. This chapter also covers current advancement on neem bioactive ingredients, their efficacy and extraction methods. In addition, stability of the bioactive compounds and environmental, health and safety issues are discussed.
... Unnecessary insecticide application might decrease total arthropod activity in the system. This reduction might impact the arthropods' prey-predato dynamics, potentially making beneficial insects less effective in controlling pest populations or potentially resulting in secondary pest outbreaks due to an imbalanced system [27][28][29][30][31][32][33]. We hypothesized that any preventive insecticide application in a cover-crop system would reduce the total arthropod activity. ...
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Cover crops provide a habitat for pests and beneficial arthropods. Unexpected pest pressure in a cover-crop-to-corn system can occur and result in increased use of insecticides. Eight site-years of on-farm field studies were conducted in 2019, 2020, and 2021. The objective of the study was to evaluate the impact of insecticide timing relative to cover-crop termination on arthropod activity in a cover-crop-to-corn system. The treatments consisted of (i) glyphosate to terminate the cover crop, (ii) glyphosate and pyrethroid tank mix to terminate the cover crop, and (iii) glyphosate to terminate the cover crop and pyrethroid application 25 days after the termination. Arthropod activity was measured with pitfall traps before and at each treatment application. A total of 33,316 arthropods were collected. Total arthropods, Collembola, and Aphididae were the only taxa reduced with an insecticide application. The other arthropod taxa were mainly influenced by the sampling period. No significant pest pressure occurred at any site-year. Insecticide applications are not generally needed in a cover-crop-to-corn system. Scouting for pests and applying strategies only when necessary is crucial to conserve potentially beneficial arthropods in the system.
... During pesticide application in the form of spray on the crop hampered the beneficial insect's viz. predators and parasites as well as continue application causes resistance against pesticides (Dutcher, 2007). Few studies were reported that pesticide application in the field causes surface and groundwater pollution (Azizullah et al., 2011). ...
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Pesticides are large groups of chemical compounds including herbicides, insecticides, fungicides, nematicides, rodenticides, and plant growth regulators etc., commonly used for crop protection against pests. Indiscriminate utilization of pesticides could adversely impose the risk to food safety, the environment and the living population. Farmers are ignoring the risk associated with pesticides used, safety guidelines, and protective directives in crop management. The improper utilization of pesticides caused the degradation of the quality and fertility of the soil as well as disturbing the nutrient cycling, which leads to heavy metal deposition and toxicity. Excessive exposure of the pesticide to the insect population will be created the development of insect pest resistance, resurgence and decline of the population of the natural enemies. Disposal of unwanted pesticides waste is responsible for the pollution of the water reservoir, groundwater, and pond water sources. The bio-magnification of contaminant cause health associated risk in human beings and animal at different levels of the food chain. In this chapter, we are discussing in detail the risk associated with pesticide application and crop management.
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Plants are producing enormous chemical diversity of plant secondary metabolites as a self-defense against biotic and abiotic stresses. With the advancement in analytical chemistry, different groups of plant secondary metabolites including nitrogen containing compounds, phenolic compounds, and terpenes were evolved as candidate bioactive substances to control the infestations of agricultural pests. Recent efficacy results of plant secondary metabolites against major agricultural pests involved in pre-harvest and post-harvest losses revealed that plant secondary metabolites have tremendous potential to be incorporated into the Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategy of agricultural pests. However, extensive research is needed to overcome the challenges through scientific knowledge in order to develop eco-friendly formulations of plant secondary metabolites against agricultural pests adversely threatening sustainable global food production.
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This chapter introduces to conventional agrochemicals that have played a remarkable role in modern agriculture. It starts by defining them as commercially produced, usually synthetic, chemical compounds used in farming and recalling their contribution to the increase in agricultural productivity since the middle of the 20th century. It then emphasizes fertilizers and pesticides as key types of conventional agrochemicals and presents their advantages and disadvantages, and benefits and risks connected with their use, including health and environmental problems. By the end of the chapter, future prospects for conventional agrochemicals are presented, as well as recommendations for minimizing hazards arising from their use.
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Release of the predatory mites, Galendromus occidentalis (Nesbitt) and Phytoseuilis persimilis Athias-Henhot, suppressed or controlled populations of pecan leaf scorch mite (Eotetranychus hicoriae McGregor [Acari:Tetranychidae]) in an 18-yr-old 'Desirable' pecan orchard. Predators controlled a low population (4.4 pecan leaf scorch mites and eggs per leaf in untreated trees) of pecan leaf scorch mites in the 2002 season at 28 days after the release date. In 2003, both species of predatory mites were released at 500 and 1000 mites per tree in the center tree of a 25-tree, square plot (0.41 ha). Untreated trees had 63, 240, and 38 pecan leaf scorch mites and eggs per leaf at 6, 10, and 24 d postrelease, respectively. Pecan leaf scorch mites were controlled at this high population density in the release area 24 d after the release. Release of the mites at 500 and 1000 G. occidentalis mites per tree reduced the pecan leaf scorch mite infestation by 67 and 91%, respectively. Release of 500 and 1000 P. persimilis mites per tree reduced the pecan leaf scorch mite infestation by 90 and 98%, respectively. Predatory mite releases appear to provide an effective management tactic for pecan leaf scorch mite for pecan producers in Georgia.
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The CTV-BrCA complex represents a real threat to citrus production in the countries of the Caribbean Basin and Central and North America. The promptness in recognizing the situation by scientists, government officials, and citrus growers of this geographical area will pay dividends by delaying the occurrence of CTV epidemics. Immediate strategies should include preventing any further introduction of any severe CTV isolate into the region, and preventing any further dissemination of the virus via infected budwood. Continued education is essential to make prevention work as well and as long as possible. Eradication and suppression should be considered where the number of infected trees is small and they are restricted to well-defined locations. Largescale suppression should be guided by analysis of cost-benefit ratios and accurate survey information. Long-range movement of plant materials infested with the BrCA should be carefully avoided. Field evaluation of alternate rootstocks is essential in all areas where sour orange is threatened by CTV. Intermediate strategies include deployment of MSCP as other options fail, especially in the context of an integrated pest management scheme (61). Long-range strategies include development of immune scion varieties through genetic engineering and breeding. Several areas that need additional research have been identified by scientists and citrus growers at the various international workshops held in Costa Rica in 1991 and in Venezuela in 1992 (27,29). These areas are summarized as follows: 1) development of rapid methods to differentiate among mild, DI, and SP strains of CTV; 2) development of virus resistance in commercially desirable cultivars by either biotechnology methods, including somatic hybridization, production of transgenic plants, and genetic engineering approaches, or conventional breeding to transfer the CTV immunity present in some citrus relatives into acceptable cultivars; 3) gathering of data on distribution and spread of CTV, as affected by strains of CTV, vector type, and dynamics, hosts, and location effects; 4) developing a better understanding of virus-aphid relationships to determine how CTV is affected by aphid species, virus strain, and hosts; 5) developing biological control methods for the BrCA as part of an integrated pest management system to reduce spread of CTV; and 6) developing improved methods of MSCP
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