Rumination has attracted increasing theoretical and empirical interest in the past 15 years. Previous research has demonstrated significant relationships between rumination, depression, and metacognition. Two studies were conducted to further investigate these relationships and test the fit of a clinical metacognitive model of rumination and depression in samples of both depressed and nondepressed participants. In these studies, we collected cross-sectional data of rumination, depression, and metacognition. The relationships among variables were examined by testing the fit of structural equation models. In the study on depressed participants, a good model fit was obtained consistent with predictions. There were similarities and differences between the depressed and nondepressed samples in terms of relationships among metacognition, rumination, and depression. In each case, theoretically consistent paths between positive metacognitive beliefs, rumination, negative metacognitive beliefs, and depression were evident. The conceptual and clinical implications of these data are discussed.