With the emergence of the knowledge-based society, higher education in Scandinavia1 has undergone substantial reforms. Socio-economic
restructuring and the globalization of markets have influenced infrastructure and development, while international trends
in higher education have inspired policies. Similarities in history, cultural and political conditions in the Scandinavian
states underscore common features in higher education, although there are many differences as well. This chapter focuses on
the development, structure and policy of university systems. Part I discusses general characteristics of the Scandinavian
countries, highlighting recent changes and future perspectives, while Part II provides individual country descriptions.