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The theory that happiness is relative is based on three postulates: (1) happiness results from comparison, (2) standards of comparison adjust, (3) standards of comparison are arbitrary constructs. On the basis of these postulates the theory predicts: (a) happiness does not depend on real quality of life, (b) changes in living-conditions to the good or the bad have only a shortlived effect on happiness, (c) people are happier after hard times, (d) people are typically neutral about their life. Together these inferences imply that happiness is both an evasive and an inconsequential matter, which is at odds with corebeliefs in present-day welfare society.Recent investigations on happiness (in the sense of life-satisfaction) claim support for this old theory. Happiness is reported to be as high in poor countries as it is in rich countries (Easterlin), no less among paralyzed accident victims than it is among lottery winners (Brickman) and unrelated to stable livingconditions (Inglehart and Rabier). These sensational claims are inspected but found to be untrue. It is shown that: (a) people tend to be unhappy under adverse conditions such as poverty, war and isolation, (b) improvement or deterioration of at least some conditions does effect happiness lastingly, (c) earlier hardship does not favour later happiness, (d) people are typically positive about their life rather than neutral.It is argued that the theory happiness-is-relative mixes up overall happiness with contentment. Contentment is indeed largely a matter of comparing life-as-it-is to standards of how-life-should-be. Yet overall hapiness does not entirely depend on comparison. The overall evaluation of life depends also on how one feels affectively and hedonic level of affect draws on its turn on the gratification of basic bio-psychological needs. Contrary to acquired standards of comparison these innate needs do not adjust to any and all conditions: they mark in fact the limits of human adaptability. To the extend that it depends on need-gratification, happiness is not relative.
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... Σύμφωνα με τη γνωσιακή θεωρία, οι Diener et al. (1985) ορίζουν την ικανοποίηση από τη ζωή ως τη γνωσιακή κρίση των ατόμων, βασιζόμενοι σε συγκρίσεις, οι οποίες στηρίζονται στην εναρμόνιση των δικών τους συνθηκών διαβίωσης με τα κοινωνικώς αποδεκτά πρότυπα. Ο Veenhoven (1991) όρισε την ικανοποίηση από τη ζωή ως το βαθμό στον οποίο ένα άτομο αξιολογεί θετικά τη συνολική ποιότητα της ζωής του. Επίσης, πιστεύει ότι η ικανοποίηση από τη ζωή αντλείται από το πεδίο της εργασίας, της οικογένειας και τα χαρακτηριστικά της προσωπικότητας. ...
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... While everyone is better off if overall pay levels increase, the differences among those comparison standards remain unchanged. Proponents of the absolute pay hypothesis largely disagree with the relative pay hypothesis (Veenhoven, 1991). They argue that those who have more are more likely to fulfill their universal needs, such as food, housing, safety, health-and regardless of social comparisons or other changeable social standards. ...
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... Many of the thoughts rooted in the ethical writings of the Greek philosopher Aristotle about happiness (Veenhoven 1991;Diener, Suh 1997;Helliwell 2003;Kopp, Skrabski 2009;Crisp 2014) are aimed at answering the question 'what is a good life like?' Why is it advisable to start exploring the issue of well-being based on this question? ...
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Az overtourism mind a turizmusnak színteret adó desztinációk vonzerejére, mind a helyi lakosság életére számos negatív hatást gyakorol. A COVID-19 járvány kitörése és globális elterjedése fémjelezte időszakban időről időre megjelenő, szinte a semmihez konvergáló turizmus időszaka alkalmas arra, hogy a (nemkívánatos mértékű) turizmusból fakadó lakossági észleléseket vizsgáljuk. Jelen tanulmány kutatási kérdése arra irányul, hogy milyen hatással van az overtourism a helyi lakóközösségek lakhatási jóllétére. Az elméleti pozícionálásból adódó kérdés megválaszolása azért lényeges, mert a hatások ismeretének fényében új viselkedésminták válhatnak mindennapossá. A kutatási kérdés megválaszoláshoz a szentimentelemzés alkalmazására esett a választás, mely jó eszköznek bizonyult az overtourism helyi lakosok által érzékelt hatásainak nem-konvencionális módon történő feltárásához. A neuro-lingvisztikus programozás (NLP) módszertanán alapuló szentimentelemzés révén az emberi tapasztalás három kulcsfontosságú aspektusa – neurológia, nyelv, programozás – került a vizsgálat középpontjába.A 13 145 hozzászólás feldolgozásán alapuló eredmények megmutatják, hogy a vizsgált kulcsszavak esetében az érzékszervi észlelést lehetővé tévő reprezentációs rendszerek – úgymint látás, hallás, tapintás, ízlelés, szaglás – közül melyik bír meghatározóbb jelentőséggel. Minden kulcsszó esetében – az éves megoszlástól függetlenül – a látással kapcsolatos modalitásokat jelentő vizuális reprezentációs rendszer rendelkezik jelentős fölénnyel, melyet a szagláshoz kötődő modalitásokat képviselő olfaktórikus reprezentációs rendszer követ. A halláshoz kapcsolódó akusztikus, az érzékelést megtestesítő kinesztetikus és az ízlelésre vonatkozó gusztatórikus reprezentációs rendszerek használata a vizsgált bejegyzések tekintetében kisebb és közel azonos arányban jelenik meg. Az overtourism és a lakhatási jóllét összefüggéseinek ismeretében a helyieknek otthont biztosító település önkormányzata és civil szervezetei a lakhatási jóllét tényezőit hatékonyan formálhatják, de emellett a turizmus környezeti hatásainak kiszolgáltatott helyi lakosság is fontos szerepet tölthet be saját lakhatási jólléte alakításában. = Az overtourism mind a turizmusnak színteret adó desztinációk vonzerejére, mind a helyi lakosság életéreszámos negatív hatást gyakorol. A COVID-19 járvány kitöréseés globális el‐ terjedése fémjelezte időszakban időről időre megjelenő, szinte a semmihez konvergáló turizmus időszaka alkalmas arra, hogy a (nemkívánatos mértékű) turizmusból fakadó lakossági észleléseket vizsgáljuk. Jelen tanulmány kutatási kérdése arra irányul, hogy milyen hatással van az overtourism a helyi lakóközösségek lakhatási jóllétére. Az elméleti pozícionálásból adódó kérdés megválaszolása azért lényeges, mert a hatások ismeretének fényében új viselkedésminták válhat‐ nak mindennapossá. A kutatási kérdés megválaszoláshoz a szentimentelemzés alkalmazására esett a választás, mely jó eszköznek bizonyult az overtourism helyi lakosok által érzékelt hatásainak nem-konvencionális módon történő feltárásához. A neuro-lingvisztikus programozás (NLP) mód‐ szertanán alapuló szentimentelemzés révén azemberi tapasztalás három kulcsfontosságú aspek‐ tusa – neurológia, nyelv, programozás – került a vizsgálat középpontjába. 13 145 hozzászólás feldolgozásán alapuló eredmények megmutatják, hogy a vizsgált kulcs‐ szavak esetében az érzékszervi észlelést lehetővé tévő reprezentációs rendszerek – úgymint látás, hallás, tapintás, ízlelés, szaglás – közül melyik bír meghatározóbb jelentőséggel. Minden kulcsszó esetében – az éves megoszlástól függetlenül – a látással kapcsolatos modalitásokat jelentő vizuális reprezentációs rendszer rendelkezik jelentős fölénnyel, melyet a szagláshoz kötődő modalitásokat képviselő olfaktórikus reprezentációs rendszer követ. A halláshoz kapcsolódó akusztikus, az érzéke‐ lést megtestesítő kinesztetikus és az ízlelésre vonatkozó gusztatórikus reprezentációs rendszerek használata a vizsgált bejegyzések tekintetében kisebb és közel azonos arányban jelenik meg. Az overtourism és a lakhatási jóllét összefüggéseinek ismeretében a helyieknek otthont biztosító tele‐ pülés önkormányzata és civil szervezetei a lakhatási jóllét tényezőit hatékonyan formálhatják, de emellett a turizmus környezeti hatásainak kiszolgáltatott helyi lakosság is fontos szerepet tölthet besaját lakhatási jólléte alakításában.
... In other words, this means that increases in income would create greater increments in satisfaction (or economically defined as marginal utility) among the poor compared to the wealthy. A study by Veenhoven (1991), which supports this view, found that income would not increase happiness once it serves to meet basic needs in life. Hence, it can be conjectured that the perceptions of FWB and its determinants may be different among low-and high-income individuals. ...
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Purpose The first objective of this study is to analyze whether financial behavior (FB), financial stress (FS), financial literacy (FINLIT) and the locus of control (LOC) influence subjective financial well-being (SFWB) among low-income households in Malaysia. The second objective is to investigate whether the use of digital financial services (DFS) moderates the influence of FB and FS, on SFWB. Design/methodology/approach Motivated by the literature on transformative service research (TRS), this study examines how the use of DFS impact SFWB among low-income households in Malaysia. Low-income households are chosen as they are more likely to be financially excluded and lack financial knowledge and skills. Using an interviewer-administered survey, trained enumerators collected data from 1,948 low-income households in Malaysia, selected using a two-stage sampling based on the National Household Sampling Frame obtained from the Department of Statistics Malaysia. Findings Results reveal that SFWB is positively influenced by FB and the LOC, and is negatively impacted by FS and FINLIT. The evidence shows that the use of DFS counterintuitively weakened the strength of the relationship between FB and SFWB, but effectively reduced the adverse effect of FS on SFWB. Practical implications To reverse the signs of relationship, financial services marketers need to identify the specific types of DFS that low-income households use in order to provide targeted marketing efforts and financial education to promote the use of DFS on a more holistic basis to increase financial well-being. Originality/value The findings of this study add to the body of knowledge deliberating on the opposing effects of technology on consumers' welfare and well-being. This study focuses on the lower-income stratum of Malaysian households as this group of the population is more likely to be financially excluded and have deficiencies in financial knowledge and skills. Findings of this study show that DFS use can actually diminish the positive impact of FB on SFWB while reducing the adverse effect of FS on SFWB.
... Income and unemployment are the most commonly discussed factors [20,21]. Veenhoven believes that happiness is closely linked to economic conditions and that there is a difference in happiness among countries with different income levels [2,22]. Vanlente and Berry's study of Latin America and the United States confirmed that personal income and per capita national income has a positive effect on subjective well-being while being unemployed is negatively related to an individual's happiness [23]. ...
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This paper examines the relationship between different types of employment and subjective well-being with a focus on informal employment. The China Labor-force Dynamics Survey (CLDS) for three selected years (2012, 2014 and 2016) shows an upward trend in the subjective well-being of urban workers in the 2010s. However, although the gap in subjective well-being between formal and informal workers narrowed, informal workers’ subjective well-being was still lower than their formal counterparts. Factors affecting the subjective well-being of formal and informal workers and their different effects were revealed to explain this difference. The subjective well-being of informal workers is significantly related to their informal status of employment, economic conditions (such as income and working hours), human capital, social capital (such as perceived social justice and perceived community connectedness) and urban environment. The paper enhances the understanding of people’s subjective well-being by differentiating informal/formal segments of working populations.
... Many of the thoughts rooted in the ethical writings of the Greek philosopher Aristotle about happiness (Veenhoven 1991;Diener, Suh 1997;Helliwell 2003;Kopp, Skrabski 2009;Crisp 2014) are aimed at answering the question 'what is a good life like?' Why is it advisable to start exploring the issue of well-being based on this question? ...
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Overtourism has a number of negative impacts on both the attractiveness of tourist destinations and the way of life of the local residents. The period of tourism converging to almost nothing, which appears from time to time during the period marked by the outbreak and global spread of the COVID-19 pandemic, is suitable for examining the residents' perceptions of overtourism. In this study, the question of research focuses on the impact of overtourism on the residential well-being of local communities. Sentiment analysis was used to answer the research question, which proved to be a good tool for exploring the impacts of overtourism perceived by local residents in an unconventional way. The results, based on 13,145 comments, support which sensory perception allowed by representational systems – such as sight, hearing, touch, taste, smell – is more significant in the case of the examined keywords. Knowing the correlations of overtourism and residential well-being the non-governmental organizations and the local government of the municipality – which providing housing for the residents – can effectively shape the factors of residential well-being, but in addition the local residents as well exposed to the environmental impacts of tourism can play a key role in shaping their own residential well-being.
... Happiness or subjective well-being refers to people's positive emotional experience (Diener, Sandvik, and Pavot 2009) and a positive evaluation of their current life conditions (Diener, Diener, and Diener 1995;Veenhoven 1991). Studies show that happiness requires the fulfilment of multi-dimensional factors, i.e., material, physical, social, psychological, and freedom (Narayan et al. 1999. ...
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... Many studies have been published on the determinants of SWB, which range from macro-level economic and social factors to micro-level demographic characteristics. Economic factors include economic growth, income, and turnover rate (Aghion et al., 2016;Blanchflower & Oswald, 2004;Deaton & Stone, 2013;Di Tella et al., 2010;Ding et al., 2021;Easterlin, 1974;Easterlin et al., 2010;Frey & Stutzer, 2000;Kahneman & Deaton, 2010;Lin et al., 2015;Petrunyk & Pfeifer, 2016;Veenhoven, 1991). In addition, the experience of increased social inequality negatively affects an individual's perception of well-being (Alesina et al., 2004). ...
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This book is about the degree to which people take pleasure in life: in short 'happiness'. It tries to identify conditions that favor a positive appreciation of life. Thus it hopes to shed more light on a longstanding and intriguing ques­ tion and, possibly, to guide attempts to improve the human lot. During the preceding decades a growing number of investigations have dealt with this issue. As a result there is now a sizable body of data. Yet it is quite difficult to make sense of it. There is a muddle of theories, concepts and indicators, and many of the findings seem to be contradictory. This book attempts to bring some order into the field. The study draws on an inventory of empirical investigations which involved valid indicators of happiness; 245 studies are involved, which together yield some 4000 observations: for the main part correlational ones. These results are presented in full detail in the simultaneously published 'Databook of Happiness' (Veenhoven 1984). The present volume distils conclusions from that wealth of data. It tries to assess the reality value of the findings and the degree to which correlations reflect the conditions of happiness rather than the consequences of it. It then attempts to place the scattered findings in context. As such, this work is not a typical study of literature on happiness.
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This chapter presents a theory of happiness. Its basic premise is that the experienced value of any event depends upon comparisons with other events. Values are relative. This is a theory about what they are relative to.
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