Article

Body Dissatisfaction in Women and Men: The Role of Gender-Typing and Self-Esteem

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Body dissatisfaction was studied in 589 predominately middle class, European American, college students, classified as masculine-typed, feminine-typed, androgynous, or undifferentiated using the Personal Attributes Questionnaire. Body dissatisfaction was defined as the discrepancy between a drawing selected as describing the individual's body and their selection of drawings representing: (1) their ideal body; (2) the body they believed members of their sex preferred; and (3) the body they believed members of the opposite sex preferred. Two separate studies found that women classified as feminine-typed or undifferentiated were more dissatisfied with their bodies than were women classified as masculine-typed or androgynous. Similar results were found for men. Both studies also found that women, regardless of gender-type, had thin ideals and greatly overestimated male preferences for slender female bodies. The theoretical implications of these results for gender schema theory and two other theories of gender typing were discussed. It was concluded that it is unnecessary to appeal to complex theories of gender-mediated socialization in order to explain differences in body dissatisfaction in women or men. Instead, these differences are most parsimoniously understood as the consequences of differences in global self-esteem.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Therefore, Bandura's (1997) social cognitive theory supports the exploration of the content of women's magazine media because research shows undergraduate women may be motivated to pursue unhealthy behaviors in order to achieve unrealistic body standards presented by the media. Since the perceived outcomes of the imitation of the social models presented in women's magazines may motivate women to pursue disordered eating behaviors to increase their self-worth (Forbes, Adams-Curtis, Rade, & Jaberg, 2001), it is important to discover trends and patterns in the sizes of the body images published in these magazines. A quantitative content analysis was used to attempt to determine the trends and patterns in body size rankings of the media representations of female body images in women's magazines for the years 1950, 1995, 2000, and 2005. ...
... Furthermore, their findings suggest many college women are susceptible to the cultural misperception that the ultra-thin body image is an attainable body type. Forbes et al. (2001) also suggest that the development of body dissatisfaction in college women can lead to dieting and eating disorder symptomatology. In Nielson's article, Hawkins (as cited in Nielson, 2004) relates that diets that continue to escalate could develop into dangerous eating disorders. ...
... This agency further notes that the media promote emotions of body dissatisfaction that are realized when these images cannot be attained (2000). Forbes et al. (2001) and Murray et al. (1996) communicate that these cultural and media messages of ideal, female body image are having a strong impact on college-aged women. Parham, Lennon, and Kolosi (2001) concur that educators should be aware that "up to half of any class of females will be suffering some level of problem" relating to eating disorders (p. ...
... Studies investigating gender differences in body image importance have found similarly consistent results; namely, that across a wide range of contexts women report greater concern about physical appearance than men (e.g., Canada, Morry and Staska 2001; United States, Noll and Fredrickson 1998). However, although women exhibit greater body dissatisfaction than men, men in these studies also exhibit body image concerns (e.g., the USA, Forbes et al. 2001; Australia, McCabe and Ricciardelli 2004a). Thus, as Forbes et al. argued, to focus only on women implies that body dissatisfaction is in some way a female problem or a problem that has different causes in women compared to men. ...
... Fredrickson and Roberts argued that in Westernized cultures sociocultural norms relevant to physical appearance are more pervasive and emphasize more strongly the importance of appearance for women than for men. While women in the present study did report greater body dissatisfaction than men, a considerable proportion of men (approximately 35%) and women (approximately 45%) scored at the dissatisfied end of the scale, providing further support for Forbes et al.'s (2001) notion that appearance concerns are becoming a normative experience for both genders. Thus, our findings suggest that objectification theory could apply to both men and women. ...
... Firstly, it may be that the men in our sample are placing more importance on appearance and are more dissatisfied with their bodies than men in previous studies. Indeed, several authors have raised concern about the recent trends toward increased body image disturbances among males (Forbes et al. 2001; McCabe and Ricciardelli 2004a; Thompson and Cafri 2007). In fact, other studies have found that body image importance is higher among adolescent boys than among adolescent girls (e.g., Ricciardelli and McCabe 2003). ...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined the relationship between body image and self-esteem across time and age for men and women. Participants were 150 men and 239 women aged between 20 and 86years (M = 59.73), recruited from the general population in Australia. They completed a questionnaire assessing self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, body importance, and a range of other domains of life satisfaction at baseline and 2years later. Cross-sectionally, we found that higher self-esteem was associated with lower body dissatisfaction, but there was no consistent relationship between these variables across time for age and gender. Women were more dissatisfied with their bodies than men; yet, men placed greater importance on their appearance than women, and also reported high levels of body dissatisfaction. KeywordsBody dissatisfaction-Self-esteem-Gender-Age-Longitudinal design
... Gender schema theory leads to predictions that feminine-typed women, in contrast to women who are masculine-typed, androgynous, or undifferentiated, will be (a) more sensitive to cultural ideals of slenderness, (b) less satisfied with their bodies and (c) more likely to view their bodies as too large (Forbes, Adams-Curtis, Rade, & Jaberg, 2001). For example, in their investigation of the relationship between gender identification and body image amongst lesbian and bi-sexual women (n = 188) ages 18-55, Ludwig and Brownell (1999) found that masculine, androgynous and feminine women differed significantly in their body satisfaction. ...
... Although not all women with strong stereotyped feminine traits have eating disorders and not all women with eating disorders have strong feminine traits, their observation suggests that there may be something about feminine gender roles that makes some women particularly dissatisfied with their bodies, particularly vulnerable to cultural pressures toward thinness, and at higher risk for developing eating disorders (Forbes et al., 2001). Ludwig and Brownell (1999) found that women who rate their appearance as feminine have lower body satisfaction relative to masculine and androgynous women. ...
... Similarly, Forbes et al. (2001) found, in their study exploring the relationship between gender role identification and body image, that feminine-typed and undifferentiated women had the largest discrepancy between their self-reported body type and the body they would most like to have and the masculine-typed and androgynous women had the least discrepancy. Forbes et al.'s study exploring the relationship between gender identification and body dissatisfaction predominantly included middle class white college students (n = 589). ...
... Gagnard (1986) for example, in a content analysis of women's fashion magazines, reported that the ideal body type for females in the 1980s was considerably thinner than that of the 1940s and 1950s. The current feminine ideal has been described as a slender female or ectomorphic body shape (Borchert & Heinberg, 1996; Butler & Ryckman, 1993; Lamb et al., 1993; Cohn & Adler, 1992; Forbes et al., 2001; Monteath & McCabe, 1997), that is, from a voluptuous and curved body shape to a more angular and lean one. Despite the " thin ideal, " the average weight of real women has increased, thus widening the gap between the cultural norm and the biological reality (Stephens, Hill, & Hamon, 1994 ). ...
... While there is evidence of the use of ectomorphic (thin) stereotypes in Western media (Borchert & Heinberg, 1996; Butler & Ryckman, 1993; Cohn & Adler, 1992; Forbes et al., 2001; Lamb et al., 1993; Monteath & McCabe, 1997), it is expected that exposure to advertising using Western models would cause greater body dissatisfaction among women. A longitudinal study of Fijian women, (Becker, 1999) found that the incidence of eating disorders increased five-fold to 15% three years after the introduction of a television station that mainly showed North American, British, and Australian programs. ...
... Respondents were also asked to indicate the body shape which most females (Female ideal) and males (Male ideal) would desire. This was done so that it would provide a discrepancy score between what the respondents perceived themselves to be and their ideal body shape, for themselves , for other women (Female FRS), and for men (Male FRS) (Forbes et al., 2001). Positive scores for this measure would indicate a desire of the respondents for a thinner body. ...
Article
Endorsements play an important role in marketing communications. For international marketing communications, marketers must be cognizant of how the portrayal of body ideals and cultural background of endorsers can affect marketing communications. Two experimental studies showed that body image comparisons and the effectiveness of endorsers varies according to the type of body shapes portrayed and the body mass index (BMI) of the respondents. In the first experiment, the success or failure of endorsements was found to be influenced by their body shape and to some extent the cultural background with respect to the type of product or service promoted. In a second experiment where more realistic or medium-thin and medium-fat body shapes were used, source attractiveness was not influenced by body shape, while interest in the advertised brand increased for a thinner model. This may have occurred because body image comparisons were more obtainable for those in the second study, where more realistic body shapes were viewed in advertisements. Body mass index (BMI) was also found to influence the results, particularly if a poor body shape comparison triggers a poor body image. Counterfactually, this seems to occur with women with lower BMIs who view advertisements for fatter women. It appears that the use of body image and ethnic type of models should be carefully considered by marketers so that they are relevant for their target audience. The use of more obtainable and ethnically relevant models may provide more effective advertising copy and be more socially responsible. In order to create interest in advertised brands, marketers may not need to use ultra-thin models. Marketers must also balance the promotional effectiveness of the use of body shapes that may too thin or more realistic with the social outcomes and consider carefully the BMI of their target market. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
... Body appearance and weight control are common topics in everyday conversations and bodily attractiveness is often used in advertisements to get the attention of potential buyers. The bodily appearance of models who act in advertisements is represented as the ideal image of the female body which, in the Western world, is one of excessive thinness (Forbes, Adams-Curtis, Rade & Jaberg, 2001;McCabe, Ricciardelli & Finemore, 2002). In spite of the fact that the obtaining of this ideal body image is often impossible -not to mention unhealthy (Forbes et al., 2001), many adolescent girls strive towards this ideal image. ...
... The bodily appearance of models who act in advertisements is represented as the ideal image of the female body which, in the Western world, is one of excessive thinness (Forbes, Adams-Curtis, Rade & Jaberg, 2001;McCabe, Ricciardelli & Finemore, 2002). In spite of the fact that the obtaining of this ideal body image is often impossible -not to mention unhealthy (Forbes et al., 2001), many adolescent girls strive towards this ideal image. ...
... Participant A stated her belief that '… body weight is the greatest determinant for a woman to be attractive'. This view, which is also found in the studies of Forbes et al. (2001) and McCabe et al. (2002), refers to thinness as the ideal body image. In spite of the fact that Participant A had an average body shape, her friends and mother viewed her as thin and she saw herself as 'not fat', she maintained that she would love to lose some weight as 'everybody is thinner than me'. ...
Article
Full-text available
The excessive emphasis in the media on low body weight and body appearance may contribute to adolescents’ dissatisfaction with their own physical appearance. As physical attractiveness becomes very important during adolescence this discontent could result in a negative body image. This article reflects on a qualitative research study to determine the therapeutic value and influence of Dance and Movement Therapy (DMT) on the body image of six female adolescents. The interpretive phenomenological analysis method was used for the processing of data gathered by means of unstructured interviews and the discussion of compiled collages and personal reflective documents. The participants experienced DMT positively as an opportunity to express their feelings by means of movement and the self-exploration contributed to an improvement in self-knowledge. Furthermore, it was found that DMT enhanced acceptance of physical characteristics; that adolescents’ definition of beauty was extended to include aspects of the inner self as well as personality; that discovery of the self and positive feelings about the self and others; and that DMT contributed to self-confidence. Thus, DMT improved the self-consciousness, body image and low self-concepts of the participants, which makes it a valuable tool to address the wellbeing and self-actualisation of the adolescents.
... In contrast, men rated themselves as average weight and wanted to weigh slightly more. Women also overestimate male preferences for slender female bodies; men's ideal figure is heavier than what women believed men's ideal was (Forbes, Adams-Curtis, Rade, & Jaberg, 2001). More than 90% anorexia and bulimia sufferers are female (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). ...
... These results are consistent with research showing that female body satisfaction decreases during adolescence while males' stabilizes or increases (Hargreaves & Tiggemann, 2002;Harter, 1990Harter, , 1993. It is also consistent with studies showing that female body dissatisfaction persists during adulthood (Forbes et al., 2001;Tiggemann & Rothblum, 1997). Prior to adulthood, the largest gender gap occurs during junior high school. ...
Article
Full-text available
This meta-analysis examines gender differences in 10 specific domains of self-esteem across 115 studies, including 428 effect sizes and 32,486 individuals. In a mixed-effects analysis, men scored significantly higher than women on physical appearance (d 0.35), athletic (d 0.41), personal self (d 0.28), and self-satisfaction self-esteem (d 0.33). Women scored higher than men on behavioral conduct (d 0.17) and moral-ethical self-esteem (d 0.38). The gender difference in physical appearance self-esteem was significant only after 1980 and was largest among adults. No significant gender differences appeared in academic, social acceptance, family, and affect self-esteem. The results demon- strate the influence of reflected appraisals on self-esteem.
... To meet expectations of what it means to be masculine in USAmerican society presented on the covers of men's magazines, a man may subject himself to many different strategies. He may do whatever is necessary, regardless of self-harm or lifelong injury to live up to the social pressure to conform (Forbes, 2001). USAmericans are shocked that some men are using medical science as a means to speed up their ability to match or sustain that ideal body image in the twenty-first century. ...
... On the other hand, men were concerned with the physical abilities of their body rather than their appearance. This concern, to have the virile strength of a young man's body, indicates that the images men are being exposed to in magazines are creating a culture that pressures men to attain and keep an ideal body as women have been pressured since the 1940s (Forbes, 2001). ...
... Terceiro, a insatisfação com a musculatura e a depreciação do corpo caracterizam-se como fatores predisponentes para o desenvolvimento do quadro de Dismor a Muscular 10,19 . Quarto, o ideal de corpo para os homens tende a ser mais forte e mais musculoso do que aquele que as mulheres em geral têm julgado como atraentes, ou seja, em temos de atratividade física, o corpo dos homens tem de ser menos musculoso que eles imaginam 8,[20][21][22] . Quinto, a partir da determinação do ideal de corpo masculino, dos comportamentos e crenças de valor a ele associados, um constructo particular para o estudo da Imagem Corporal do homem pode ser operacionalizado: o "drive for muscularity" (numa tradução livre, "busca pela musculatura") 23 . ...
... 2) "é importante ser su cientemente musculoso", que se articula com o padrão de atratividade física e dos limites existentes para o investimento no corpo ideal [13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25] ; 3) "construção do corpo musculoso", tema que abordou os comportamentos relacionados ao investimento no corpo musculoso 27 . ...
Article
Full-text available
Drive for Muscularity refers to the desire to achieve an ideal muscular body, as well the degree of concern that an individual can have about increasing muscle mass and the motivation to do so. The aim of this study was to contribute for the comprehension of drive for muscularity in the Brazilian cultural scenario, looking for beliefs, feelings and behaviours associated with this construct, in male physical education students. To generate the evidences, two focus groups, with fi ve participants in each one, were conducted. Through the thematic decomposition were identifi ed two main topics and fi ve subtopics distributed between them: “it is important to be muscular”; “it is important to be enough muscular”; “the build of the muscular body”; “the price of being far from the muscular ideal” and “the price to achieve the muscular ideal”. We concluded that body appearance and function are important, those who appear to be strong must be capable of lift weights. The muscular enough body, with low body fat, is the one that is valued, either in the labor market. The most legitimate way to achieve the muscular body is through an ascetic routine of physical training, balanced diet and rest. Food supplements are acceptable additional resources. The use of anabolic steroids by those with unfavorable “genetic inheritance” is initially “forgiven”, but the body that results from this resource is a source of ambiguous feelings.
... Husbands actually reported being relatively satisfied with their wives' bodies (i.e., they wanted their wives to be only slightly thinner). This finding parallels past research that indicates that women believe men prefer thinner women than men actually do (Collins, 1991; Fallon & Rozin, 1985; Forbes, Adams-Curtis, Rade, & Jaberg, 2001), and suggests that even married women believe their husbands would prefer them to be thinner than their husbands actually would like them to be. It appears that husbands tend to be more content with their wives' bodies than women are with their own bodies. ...
... Because women " accept weight as a defining aspect of their value " (Grover, Keel, & Mitchell, 2003, p. 132), it is necessary to understand the extent to which husbands care about and are satisfied with their wives' bodies. Consistent with past findings (e.g., Cash & Henry, 1995; Forbes et al., 2001; Rodin et al., 1989), these results indicate that women are inclined to experience body dissatisfaction and to desire what is often an unrealistic body image ideal. The salience of weight issues in our culture, and the many messages about weight that are directed at women, may help to explain why women are so dissatisfied with their bodies and why they tend to assume that their husbands are dissatisfied as well. ...
... Although some studies have suggested that masculinity is negatively related to body dissatisfaction (Sondhaus, Kurtz, & Strube, 2001;Wade & Cooper, 1999), these studies operationalized masculinity as a set of gender role traits (Forbes, Adams-Curtis, Rade, & Jaberg, 2001;Good, Wallace, & Borst, 1994). Subsequent research has questioned the validity of gender role trait instruments, suggesting that they measure the global personality dimension of instrumentality rather than internalized gender role socialization (Betz, 1995;Good et al., 1994). ...
Article
Full-text available
Extant literature has suggested that entitlement stemming from masculine gender role socialization may moderate and/or mediate the relationship between gender role conflict and intrapersonal variables. This study tested this assertion with 236 college men, with body esteem serving as the intrapersonal variable. Results revealed that both conceptualizations of entitlement (i.e., self-assertive and narcissistic) moderated the relationships between two components of gender role conflict (i.e., success/power/competition and work-family conflict) and body esteem, with self-assertive entitlement (i.e., a more adaptive form) buffering these relationships and narcissistic entitlement (i.e., a more maladaptive form) strengthening these relationships. Narcissistic entitlement also strengthened the relationship between restricted affection between men and body esteem. In addition, self-assertive entitlement mediated the relationships between (a) restricted emotionality and body esteem, and (b) work-family conflict and body esteem. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
... To help answer this question, we turn to evidence linking femininity ideology with body attitudes, more broadly. Here, findings indicate that endorsing more traditional gender ideologies is associated with lower body comfort and satisfaction (Cash, Ancis, & Strachan, 1997;Forbes, Adams-Curtis, Rade, & Jaberg, 2001;Gillen & Lefkowitz, 2006). Conversely, greater endorsement of feminist principles is associated with decreased investment in a thin body ideal and decreased investment in physical appearance (Hurt et al., 2007). ...
Article
Full-text available
Traditional femininity ideology is associated with diminished sexual agency in women; yet we know little about its connection to sexual knowledge or experiences of one's body during sex. This study examined how femininity ideology related to sexual health knowledge, body comfort during sex, condom self-efficacy, and sexual assertiveness in college-age women. Femininity ideologies were related to decreased sexual-risk knowledge and lowered body esteem during sex. Femininity ideologies were also related to decreased sexual assertiveness and condom use self-efficacy. Results highlight the importance of understanding the association between femininity ideologies and sexual knowledge acquisition as an aspect of sexual agency, as well as sexual embodiment, in addition to the more commonly studied sexual self-efficacy and assertiveness.
... To our knowledge, there have been no prior studies conducted that investigate the decision making process of women with respect to cosmetic surgery. Many studies have focused on the reasons women choose to have cosmetic surgery (Allen & Oberle, 1994), the cultural factors involved in body image (Gillespie, 1996), the rates of psychopathology among cosmetic surgery patients (Sarwer Wadden, Pertschuk, & Whitaker, 1998), and the degree to which selfesteem and self concept are factors in the decision making process (Forbes, 2001). However, the actual process of deciding to have cosmetic surgery has been neglected by previous studies. ...
Article
This qualitative study investigated the decision making processes of women who have engaged in cosmetic surgery. Ten women, ranging in ages from 25 to 72, who had previously engaged in cosmetic surgery, participated in this study. This was the first study to apply the Cognitive Information Processing Theory, previously used for career decision making, to the domain of cosmetic surgery. Participants in this study were successfully able to retrace their decision making steps, within the framework of the Cognitive Information Processing Theory that led up to their final decision to engage in cosmetic surgery. The ultimate goal of all decisions, including those specific to cosmetic surgery, is to close the gap between a real and desired state. However, the findings from this study suggest that for women with underlying self-esteem and body image issues, the gap between the real and ideal states were not closed as a result of cosmetic surgery. Self knowledge, which encompassed family of origin and body image issues, appeared to hold the most influence on the entire decision making process. However, the amount of world knowledge specific to cosmetic surgery and its effects were underestimated by the participants, which often resulted in post-operative crisis situations. This study demonstrates the utility of the Cognitive Information Processing Theory for illuminating decision processes related to elective cosmetic surgery. The implications for the field of psychology from this study reflect a need for pre-operative psychological screenings and post-operative counseling.
... This scale consists of nine line drawings of female bodies that range in shape from very small to very large. It has been widely used in studies of body image (e.g., Fallon & Rozin, 1985;Forbes, Adams-Curtis, Rade, & Jaberg, 2001;Jaberg, 2001;Rozin & Fallon, 1988;Silberstein, Streigel-Moore, Timko, & Rodin, 1988;Tiggermann & Rüütell, 2001). ...
Article
A study of body satisfaction in 111 Polish and 83 U.S. college women indicated that when Body Mass Index (BMI) was controlled Polish women had larger perceived body sizes and desired a larger body ideal. The Polish sample had higher scores on the Hostile and Benevolent Sexism scales (Glick & Fiske, 1996), whereas the U.S. sample scored higher on the Internalization scale of the Sociocultural Attitudes Toward Appearance Questionnaire (SATAQ; Heinberg, Thompson, & Stormer, 1995). Benevolent sexism was related to the acceptance and use of cosmetics in the Polish sample, but not in the U.S. sample. The SATAQ Awareness and Internalization scales were related to low body acceptance in both samples. The Internalization scale was related to discrepancies between the respondents' own bodies and their ideal body types in the U.S. sample but not in the Polish sample. Although the Polish and U.S. samples were more alike than different, sexism was strongly associated with body dissatisfaction in the Polish sample, whereas the SATAQ Internalization scale was strongly associated with body dissatisfaction in the U.S. sample. The results support the hypothesis of globalization of the thin body ideal, illustrate the importance of controlling for BMI in studies of body satisfaction, and demonstrate relationships between sexism, internalization of the thin body ideal, and body dissatisfaction.
... Moreover, Forbes, Adams-Curtis, Rade, and Jaberg (2001) found masculinity to be highly correlated with generalized selfesteem, where increased masculinity was associated with increased self-esteem. Specifically, they postulated that having a high masculinity score could be an indication of high self-esteem, which, in turn, could protect against men from experiencing body dissatisfaction. ...
Article
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among body image, masculinity, and subjective sexual satisfaction in men in order to develop a predictive model of sexual satisfaction. Previous researchers have found a relationship between negative body image and lower sexual satisfaction with women, but limited research exists assessing this relationship for men. Similarly, adherence to traditional masculine gender roles may influence sexual satisfaction by prescribing the scripts men use to evaluate their sexual experiences, though this has rarely been examined as well. This exploratory study sought to clarify the relationships among these variables in 153 college men (Age M = 21.43, SD = 4.05) from a southern private university in the United States. Results indicated that the set of variables explained 12.1% of the variance in sexual satisfaction with only 1 of the 5 variables having a significant unique influence on sexual satisfaction, F(5, 147) = 4.050, p t = 3.231, p
... Thus the discrepancy is in the less harmful or self-esteem threatening direction in favor of reduced negative affect or emotional distress (Higgins, 1987). These results combined with those discussed above provide a compatible view on the potential role that members of one's cultural group may play in influencing actual and idealized body size perceptions of young Black women to that of existing research (e.g., Forbes, Adams-Curtis, Rade, & Jaberg, 2001;Gillen & Lefkowitz, 2011;Gordon et al., 2010). ...
... The sample is also imbalanced in terms of gender with 89% of the sample being female. Although this limitation should be addressed by future research, it is well-documented that women, especially between the ages of 18 to 21 (i.e., the age group tested in the present experiment), experience higher levels of body dissatisfaction (Forbes, Adams-Curtis, Rade, & Jaberg, 2001) and eating disorders (Hoek, 2006) compared to men. Therefore, research on the behavioral factors underlying body image valuation and PA patterns are likely to benefit this segment of the population. ...
Article
Full-text available
College students often fail to engage in sufficient levels of physical activity (PA), which contributes to negative health outcomes that can persist after college (Huang et al., 2003). It is interesting that the degree to which one discounts the subjective value of delayed rewards (i.e., delay discounting) is related to PA (Garza, Harris, & Bolding, 2013). Efforts to improve one’s physical appearance, a subcategory of body image investment, is also linked to greater levels of PA (Loland, 1998). In the current study, 45 undergraduate students reported proximal and typical levels of PA, completed a delay discounting task, and indicated the percent of a hypothetical cash allotment ($1,000) that they would spend on achieving their own ideal body image (i.e., indicated their valuation of body image). Lower rates of delay discounting and a higher valuation of ideal body image were independent predictors of PA during a typical week. These findings suggest that examining motivational factors such as body image in conjunction with delay discounting may be important to better understanding the initiation and maintenance of PA.
... The PAQ has been used to assess individual gender role perception in several recent studies in which the relationship between psychological gender and choice of major and career are foci of inquiry (Berzok, 1997;Burgard, 2000;Lackland, 1997;McCormick, 1997;Yoo & Lee, 1997). Additionally, a number of contemporary studies examining gender role, body image, and disordered eating have employed the PAQ as an assessment tool (Bessellieu, 1997;Braitman & Ramanaiah, 1999;Forbes, Adams-Curtis, Rade, & Jaberg, 2001;Lanter, 1999;Novick, 1999;Snyder & Hasbrouck, 1996). ...
Article
The current study sought to impact the career self-efficacy of female students by utilizing an established undergraduate career decision-making course as the selected intervention. Career self-efficacy is defined as the extent or degree to which an individual believes in his or her ability to successfully engage in the process of career decision-making (Taylor & Betz, 1983). The course was divided into a control group of three sections (n = 52) and a treatment group of three sections (n = 53). The control group followed the traditional decision-making curriculum, while the treatment group incorporated gender role socialization exploration and psychoeducation as well as self-efficacy-enhancing components into the traditional curriculum. Gender role is defined as a set of socially prescribed behaviors and characteristics assigned to men and women that stem from traditional expectations rather than biological determinants (Bem, 1974; Lindsey, 1990). Participants completed the Personal Attributes Questionnaire (Spence, Helmreich, & Stapp, 1974) as a pretest instrument for the purpose of identifying gender role self-perception (Feminine, Masculine, Androgynous, or Undifferentiated). The Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form (Betz, Klein, & Taylor, 1996) was utilized as both a pretest and posttest instrument to measure increases in career self-efficacy. A series of analyses of covariance indicated that participants in the treatment group with a Feminine gender role orientation demonstrated a statistically significant increase in self-efficacy when compared with Masculine-or Androgynous-typed participants; no significant differences were found among these gender role categories in the control group. No significant differences were discovered on the basis of biological gender. Results suggest that interventions attending to sociological variables and utilizing relevant theoretical constructs may be more effective in assisting college women with the major and career decision-making process than general approaches.
... Frost and McKelvie 2004) and that self-esteem is a significant prospective predictor of body dissatisfaction in girls . Forbes et al. (2001) also suggested in their study of gender differences in body dissatisfaction that differences in levels of global selfesteem may be an explanatory factor. ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the present study was to examine a theoretical model describing the relationships between body shame and body surveillance (components of objectified body consciousness), internalization of the media body ideal, perceived pressure from media, body mass index and body dissatisfaction in Swiss adolescent boys and girls. A sample of 819 boys and 791 girls aged 14–16 years completed self-report measures of the mentioned concepts. As expected, girls had higher body shame and body surveillance than boys. Structural equation modelling supported the proposed model in both boys and girls. The findings suggest processes that may contribute to body dissatisfaction.
... Tidigare forskning har visat att det finns ett statistiskt negativt samband mellan kroppsmissnöje och självkänsla hos unga kvinnor. Det bör dock nämnas att då detta samband har undersökts har oftast även andra mått som mäter kroppsmissnöje eller inställning till kroppen använts (se exempelvis Forbes et al., 2001;Matusek et al., 2004;Pokrajac-Bulian & Živčić-Bećirević, 2005). En av tjejerna i vår experimentgrupp menade att hon fått bättre självförtroende och trodde mer på sig själv efter det att hon insett att modeller ofta är retuscherade på reklambilder. ...
... The findings for men, however, are a bit more complex. Men have been shown to either exhibit accurate perceptions of body figures that women find attractive in men [Bergstrom et al., 2004;Forbes, Adam-Curtis, Rade, & Jaberg, 2001(study 1)], or display the opposite misperception. Several studies report that men believe that women want larger men than women actually report wanting [Demarest & Allen, 2000;Fallon & Rozin, 1985;Forbes et al., 2001 (study 2)]. ...
Article
Full-text available
This article merges two existing literatures: the body image literature and the social norms literature. Body image disturbance, which is known to be related to the development of eating disorders, continues to be an important area of study, particularly among college women. Perceived norms are known to be related to the occurrence of a variety of behaviors and attitudes, including heavy drinking and body image disturbance. Not only do existing norms influence behavior, but misperceptions regarding actual norms, which occur for a variety of reasons, are known to predict behavior as well. Interventions aimed at correcting normative misperceptions and thereby reducing problematic behaviors have shown promising results. Because normative misperceptions regarding norms for attractive body image predict eating disordered behaviors, applying intervention strategies based on correcting perceptions of the norm may prove to be a fruitful endeavor.
... Os profissionais de marketing devem estar cientes de como a representação dos ideais de corpo e o contexto cultural que se torna associado aos endossantes podem afetar a eficácia das comunicações de marketing (BJERKE; POLEGATO, 2006). Endossantes femininas em publicidade geralmente representam o autoconceito ideal social, com um estereótipo magro (FORBES et al., 2001). D'Alessandro e Chitty (2011) trabalharam, especificamente, com a influência étnica e o estereótipo feminino físico ideal dos endossantes em anúncios. ...
Article
A influência de outros indivíduos na percepção de sabor do consumidor para alimentos saudáveis e não saudáveis é tema recente na literatura de marketing (POOR et al., 2013). Resultados evidenciam que, para alimentos considerados não saudáveis, há um efeito positivo quando o ato de comer está destacado em uma imagem apresentada ao consumidor previamente ao seu próprio consumo. Este artigo objetiva avançar nos estudos relacionados a influencia de outros indivíduos na percepção de sabor, considerando o impacto do meio de apresentação do estímulo – com a presença de outro consumindo o alimento, fisicamente no mesmo ambiente ou em imagens impressas–, das variações no tipo físico e no gênero desta outra pessoa. Foi realizado um experimento com 180 estudantes, com design between-subjects factorial no formato 2 (forma de apresentação do estímulo: impresso ou presencial) x 2 (tipo físico do endossante: magro ou acima do peso) x 2 (gênero do endossante: feminino ou masculino). Os resultados evidenciam que o tipo físico da pessoa consumindo o alimento influencia a percepção de sabor do consumidor. Em uma interação com o gênero, este estudo mostra que a exposição a um indivíduo do sexo masculino acima do peso resulta em uma percepção de sabor menor do alimento, quando comparado a indivíduos magros do sexo masculino, ou do sexo feminino independentemente do tipo físico. Desse modo, o presente estudo contribui para a teoria de percepção de sabor, ampliando os resultados encontrados por Poor et al. (2013), bem como para os estudos relacionados a propaganda.
... Boys also have a much larger range of acceptable body types, as some desire to be bigger, others smaller, and others prefer to be the same size as they are (Grogan and Richards 2002;Parks and Read 1997;Yates et al. 2004). For girls, one ideal body type predominates; thus, most girls desire to be thinner (Forbes et al. 2001;Kim and Kim 2001;Wardle and Marsland 1990;Yates et al. 2004). ...
Article
This study explored how pubertal status is related to depressive symptoms among adolescent boys and girls and whether body perceptions explained this relationship. This study is based on a national random US sample of adolescents from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (9,011 girls and 8,781 boys). Results showed that boys and girls responded differently to puberty. During the transition to puberty boys had higher depressive symptoms than post-pubertal boys, due to perceptions that they were not as physically large and developed as their peers. Pre-pubertal and post-pubertal boys did not significantly differ on depressive symptoms. Post-pubertal girls had higher depressive symptoms than pre-pubertal girls, due to perceptions that they were overweight and more physically developed than their peers.
... 490). Additionally, given that females often perceive that males prefer a thinner body type than they typically do [ 154 ], health professionals can educate females about actual male preferences [ 84 ] via a social norms approach. Health professionals can also tap into the power of social networks by incorporating the infl uence of family and friends on attitudes and behaviors related to body image and eating concerns. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Due to the rising rates of eating disorders and obesity, increasingly more attention is being paid to body image and body image difficulties. Body dissatisfaction, which is ubiquitous among girls and women, can be defined by the difference between one’s perceived body size and ideal body, particularly with regard to the desire to be thin. Body dissatisfaction has become so commonplace that it has been described as “normative discontent.” It is also considered one of the most robust risk and maintenance factors for clinical eating disorders. A wide range of risk factors contribute to the development of body dissatisfaction, including biological and physical factors, sociocultural influences, and individual characteristics. In addition, females who place a strong emphasis on thinness and physical appearance and routinely engage in body comparison are especially vulnerable to experiencing body dissatisfaction. Body image problems and disordered eating behaviors know no boundaries; they impact females across age groups, ethnicities, cultures, and socioeconomic levels. Therefore, it is essential for health professionals to understand the development of body image difficulties and be knowledgeable about body image assessment techniques and effective prevention and intervention programs. Armed with this insight, health professionals will be in position to foster healthy body image and enhance quality of life among females across the lifespan.
... En este sentido Tiggemann y Rothblum (1997) observaron que la mayoría de las mujeres consideran que poseen exceso de peso, mientras que los hombres suelen percibir estar en su peso promedio. Una de las causas de este fenómeno, según señalan Forbes et al. (2001), sería que las mujeres sobreestiman las preferencias masculinas acerca del cuerpo de la mujer (ej. el peso), aunque la figura ideal de la mujer para los hombres sería más gorda. ...
Article
Full-text available
El objetivo principal de este trabajo fue analizar los diferentes procesos psicológicos involucrados en la construcción de género a partir de la Teoría de la Identidad Social. En primer lugar, se analiza cómo los individuos mantienen su autoestima a partir de la identificación con diferentes grupos sociales, a la vez que opera el pensamiento categorial en el plano cognitivo para el análisis del mundo social. Posteriormente, se examinan los diferentes procesos de atribución causal, representados por los sesgos de homogeneidad del exogrupo y favoritismo endogrupal, para el análisis de la construcción de la identidad social de género. Finalmente, se presentan las limitaciones de la teoría y su posible complementariedad con la teoría del rol de género.
... These effects can be particularly significant in women, as society constructs greater expectations of slimness in women as compared to men (Brewis, 2014). The effects may be particularly pronounced in White women, who may be more likely to internalize societal expectations of beauty (Forbes, Adams-Curtis, Rade, & Jaberg, 2001). Furthermore, discrimination and negative social evaluation further perpetuate these negative effects in women. ...
Article
Background and purpose: Weight-loss surgery (WLS) is a popular means toward achieving weight loss. Numerous studies report on the psychological and physical benefits of the procedure. Patients who have supportive others often demonstrate improved outcomes as compared to those who may not have support. The present study examines relationship maintenance activities that may contribute to a couple's positive adjustment following WLS, along with relational views that may modify and evolve as patients continue to lose weight. Method: Eleven heterosexual couples in which the female had WLS participated in in-depth, semistructured interviews. A deductive method of analysis was used to categorize relationship maintenance activities; an inductive method was used to examine relational views. Conclusions: Six types of relationship maintenance activities proved beneficial following WLS: (1) openness, (2) assurances, (3) food/meals as shared tasks, (4) joint activities, (5) antisocial, and (6) affection. In describing their relational views, participants spoke to the increasing independence, confidence, and self-focus of those who had had WLS. A persistent fat identity was also reported. Implications for practice: The findings can provide advanced practice nurses and other clinicians additional insight into, and strategies to assist, couples who have experienced, or will experience, WLS within their relationship.
... Paradoxically, in an age in which occupational roles and division of labor in the home have become less rigid, pressures for women to fit their appearance to unrealistic standards, to appear sexually available in order to be popular among both men and women, and to strive for the thin ideal have increased (Forbes et al. 2001;Zurbriggen and Roberts 2013). Thus, 34 years later, Sandra Bem's call for a gender aschematic society is just as relevant-we still organize and stereotype our world based on gender, and this gendered organization still has serious consequences, particularly for women and girls. ...
Article
Full-text available
One of Sandra Bem’s important contributions was the development of gender schema theory (GST; Bem 1981a). Through an analysis of journal articles referencing GST, we explored the breadth of the theory’s reach and the ways in which its use has changed over time. More specifically, we analyzed how often GST reached journals outside psychology as well as journals and research populations outside the United States, even though Bem was a U.S. psychologist whose empirical work was primarily with U.S. populations. We also assessed the range of research topics that have used a GST framework. We found that 34 years later, GST continues to be cited frequently, with a broad reach beyond U.S. psychology, particularly into international as well as communication and business journals. We found five primary novel uses of the theory: development, discrimination/stereotyping, occupations, historically marginalized populations, and mental health and trauma. We conclude that GST has been a generative theory. For the future, we recommend that GST be used to frame the study of intersectionality, for research-based activism, and as part of a project of theory-bridging.
... Dissatisfaction with one's own body, its appearance in particular, has negative consequences in both men and women, adversely affecting their self-esteem, well-being, quality of life and interpersonal relationships. It may lead to eating disorders and depression or even self-destructive behaviours, particularly among women and girls (14) . ...
Article
Full-text available
Adolescence is the time when not only the self-image and self-esteem, but also the physiological body posture is intensely formed. A self-image may be described as a mental construct used by an individual to perceive, describe, understand and present oneself. It is subject to changes throughout life; however, developmental changes (such as maturation, pregnancy, aging) and difficult situations (such as health conditions, psychological crises, accidents) have a particular impact on its development. Disturbances in the above-mentioned areas are of great importance for child’s development and entering into adulthood. The aim of this paper is to present the relationship between abnormal body posture, self-image, self-esteem and social functioning of adolescents. We used the available literature to describe the specifics of puberty and factors influencing physical and mental development of adolescents as well as to characterise the most common bone deformity in this group, i.e. idiopathic scoliosis. We also presented the results of scientific research confirming that the discussed spinal deformity and the method of treatment may have a great impact on the quality of life, body perception, mental state and self-esteem of patients. Therefore, we believe that rehabilitation of children with postural defects or deformities, such as scoliosis, should be comprehensive, including the presence of a psychologist in the therapeutic team. At the same time, it seems worth implementing correction and shaping of correct body posture among children with low self-esteem or lack of self-acceptance.
... Another study carried out in UK reported that Asian women were less likely to describe themselves as too fat, less dissatisfied with their body size, and less likely to want to lose weight in comparison with white women (Wardle et al., 1993). Forbes et al. (2001) examined culture as an important factor in body size ideals in African ...
Article
This study explores the comparison of body image, body satisfaction, and clothing behaviors between Korean and British young women. Body image was measured by two methods: visual and verbal. For the data analysis, the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) Version 16.0 for Windows was used to provide descriptive statistics, an independent sample t-test, and paired sample t- tests were applied in this study. Our results show that Korean and British female college students perceived ideal-body images that were smaller than their self defined body images. The ideal and self-images were significantly different in both groups. Both groups were dissatisfied with their own body size. The study was limited to a small sample size. Future studies using more participants from a more diverse age group and ethnic groups are recommended. The study will help marketers and retailers develop new products and new markets aimed at Korean and British women related to body image and body satisfaction.
... Lack of differences in the groups with low BMI may result from the fact that this group of women is most satisfied with their body. Although a cursory analysis of the results indicates compliance of the results with the results in literature (Knauss et al., 2007;Zarek, 2007;Canpolat et al., 2005;Miller & Halberstadt, 2005;Głębocka & Kulbat, 2004;Palladino-Green & Pritchard, 2003;Forbes et al., 2001), this in-depth analysis shows that the assumption is not so simple. Moreover, an analysis of the various parts of the body shows that men are happier than women with 25 out of 35 parts and functions of the body. ...
Article
Full-text available
... This study sought to extend findings referring to gender differences in the relation between lower level factors of self-concept, e. g. specific selfconceptions and higher level factors, e. g. general self or self-esteem. Due to the higher importance of physical appearance for women (Buss, Schmitt, 1993;Wade, Cooper, 1999) we predicted that they would be less satisfied with their bodies or judged themselves as less attractive compared to men, as most of the studies already confirmed (Forbes, Adams, Rade,-Brooke, Jaberg, 2001;Furnham, Greaves, 1994;Sondhaus, Kurtz, Strube, 2001). The main hypothesis concerns gender differences in the links between self-conceptions about physical attractiveness and self-esteem. ...
Article
A study was conducted to determine gender differences in the relation between self-esteem and body image. We hypothesized stronger connections between self-conceptions of physical attractiveness and self-esteem for women and consequently important gender differences in the structure of the self. For the purpose of this study 402 students completed three measures of self-concept and self-esteem. Exploratory factor analyses revealed important gender differences: in the women's sample, two physical appearance scales loaded on the first factor alongside three measures of general self, whereas in men, these two scales formed a separate factor together with two scales measuring physical ability or instrumental function of the body. The results are in accordance with the evolutionary theory and societal value placed on women's attractiveness.
... Myriad scholarship conventionally limits defining body dissatisfaction to the subjective discrepancy endorsed between an individual's current body size and her ideal body size using visual figure rating scales (e.g., see Roberts et al. (2006) for a meta-analytic review). However, some experts now contend that a singular emphasis on anchoring body dissatisfaction in reference to an internalized personal standard fails to adequately account for body image distress stemming from comparison to external cultural group ideals (e.g., those promulgated in the media) nor to typical female peers encountered during the course of participating in everyday interactions (e.g., Forbes, Adams-Curtis, Rade, & Jaberg, 2001;Gillen & Lefkowitz, 2011;Gordon, Castro, Sitnikov, & Holm-Denoma, 2010;Krones, Stice, Batres, & Orjada, 2005;Ridolfi, Myers, Crowther, & Ciesla, 2011;Strahan, Wilson, Cressman, & Buote, 2006). Indeed, in today's technology-driven culture, adolescent young women preparing to transition to college life arguably face a perpetual onslaught of exposure to both of these body-size comparison referent sources as a consequence of the ubiquity of modern social media (e.g., Chrisler, Fung, Lopez, & Gorman, 2013;Perloff, 2014). ...
Article
Limited research has provided a theoretically-driven accounting of the association between negative and positive body image occurring within persons nor clarified what factors may contribute to explaining this relationship. To address this gap in the existing literature, the present study, guided by an overarching affect regulation theoretical framework, evaluated the potential indirect effect of body dissatisfaction on body appreciation via body image flexibility in a college-bound sample of 84 White older adolescent females. Participants provided self-reported height and weight, which were used to calculate body mass index (BMI) and completed the Body Image-Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (BI-AAQ; Sandoz, Wilson, Merwin, & Kellum, 2013) as a measure of body image flexibility and the Body Appreciation Scale (BAS; Avalos, Tylka, & Wood-Barcalow, 2005). Body dissatisfaction was operationalized as three types of body size discrepancy scores (i.e., current minus personal ideal, current minus cultural ideal, current minus typical female ethnic peer) using Pulvers’ Figure Rating Scale (Pulvers et al., 2004). In all models tested, body image flexibility partially mediated the associations between body dissatisfaction and body appreciation. Results were retained controlling for BMI. Preliminary findings suggest that at this developmental juncture, bolstering body image flexibility affect regulation skills may be an optimal target for supporting body appreciation when body dissatisfaction is elicited by internal and external body image threats.
... Ypač aktualu daugiau dėmesio skirti moterų fi zinio aktyvumo klausimams, nes tyrimai (Tamošauskas ir kt., 1994;Mertinas, Tinteris, 1998) rodo, kad jos yra fi ziškai pasyvesnės už vaikinus, dažniau turi antsvorį, esti blogesnės fi zinės būklės nei vaikinai. Mokslininkų tyrimai rodo, kad merginos yra daugiau nepatenkintos savo kūnu, ir tai gali būti susiję su jų savivertės sumažėjimu (Wiese-Bjornstal, 1997;Forbes et al., 2001). ...
Article
Full-text available
Daugelis mokslinių tyrimų rodo, kad studentų fi zinė būklė, kurios optimalus funkcionavimas daro didelę įtaką žmo- gaus psichinei ir socialinei sveikatai, blogėja. Viena svarbių to priežasčių yra nevienodas studentų pasirengimas savarankiškai fi zinei veiklai. Svarbu tirti, ar akademinis jaunimas nenori, ar nepajėgia dėl objektyvių priežasčių mankštintis savarankiškai ar organizuotai. Tyrimo tikslas — atskleisti studenčių požiūrį ir nuostatas į kūno kultūrą, išsiaiškinti jų fi zinio aktyvumo pobūdį ir motyvus, t. y. fi zinės saviugdos prielaidas. Anketų metodu apklaustos 233 Mykolo Romerio universiteto studentės. Požiūriui į kūno kultūrą nustatyti pateikti 7 teiginiai, kurių kiekvienas įvertintas balais nuo 1 iki 4, kur didesnis balas reiškė pozityvesnį požiūrį. Susumavus balus (minimalus balas buvo septyni, maksimalus — 28), studentės, surinkusios 17 ir mažiau balų, pateko į neigiamą požiūrį turinčiųjų rangą, daugiau kaip 17 balų — į teigiamą. Fizinio aktyvumo motyvacijos (motyvo vertės) balas (jis gali būti nuo 0 iki 100) buvo nustatomas pagal formulę: p (lab) + 0,5 (gan), kur p (lab) — procentas studenčių, kurioms tas motyvas labai svarbus; 0,5 (gan) — procentas studenčių, kurioms tas motyvas gana svarbus, padaugintas iš 0,5. Tyrimo duomenys buvo apdoroti statistiniais metodais („Statistica“). Neparametrinėms hipotezėms tikrinti naudotas chi kvadrato (χ 2 ) kriterijus. Tyrimas parodė, kad būsimųjų teisininkių požiūris į kūno kultūrą yra teigiamas, jos supranta sporto vertybinį aspektą, bet neįžvelgia sporto kaip savirealizacijos galimybės siekiant puikių sportinių rezultatų. Nors kas trečia teigia, kad mankštinasi savarankiškai, bet studentės turi silpną fi zinės saviugdos poreikį, nepakankama motyvacija. Studentėms aktualiausi sveikatos stiprinimo, protinio darbingumo ir fi zinio parengtumo gerinimo motyvai. Pagrindine netinkamos fi zinės saviugdos priežastimi jos nurodo valios ir laiko dėl didelio mokymosi krūvio stygių. Galimybė rinktis kūno kultūrą kaip laisvai pasirenkamąjį dalyką galėtų ne tik padėti studentėms atsigauti po įtempto protinio darbo, bet ir suteiktų galimybę veikti, tobulėti jų asmenybei, padėtų gerinti sveikatą, įgyti savarankiško mankštinimosi žinių ir įgūdžių. Be to, priklausomai nuo pasiektų rezultatų, įgytos patirties ir suvoktos kompetencijos bei emocinių išgyvenimų gali kisti ir merginų elgesys — jos taps fi ziškai aktyvesnės. Raktažodžiai: fizinė saviugda, fizinis aktyvumas, fizinio aktyvumo motyvacija, fizinė būklė.
Article
In this study we examined the effect of figure-size feedback on the body image, self-esteem, and negative mood states of college men and women who were within normal body weight and did not show symptoms of eating disorders. The feedback was manipulated to represent the opinions of their classmates. Men were expected to show a positive bias in their response to the feedback, whereas women were expected to respond in accordance with the positive and negative valence of the feedback. Multivariate analysis of covariance, controlled for pretest scores, revealed nonsignificant differences between men and women. Those in the negative feedback condition reported fewer instances of negative appearance-related feedback in their past than did those in the no feedback condition and those from a more inclusive population that was the normative sample for the measure. This suggests a compensatory strategy to refute the negative feedback.
Chapter
After completing this chapter, you should have an understanding of the following: The difference between normal body image concerns, body dissatisfaction, and the preoccupation with body image concerns, or a pathological concern for thinness. • Mediating factors that contribute to body image dissatisfaction in females. • Prepubertal, adolescent, young adult, midlife, and older adult body image concerns. • Clinical assessment tools for the evaluation of body image. • Effective body image education and management programs referenced in the scientific literature.
Article
We propose that women regularly anticipate and receive messages from others that trivialize the severity of their body image concerns. Moreover, we suggest that these minimizing messages can heighten women's negative affective reactions to body image threats, particularly if they internalize them. Two studies provided support for these ideas. In Study 1, women and men estimated the likelihood that others would minimize the feelings of a woman who felt badly about her body. As expected, women estimated a high likelihood of minimization. In Study 2, women internalized or rejected a message that either minimized or validated the severity of body image concerns before undergoing a body image threat themselves. Women felt heightened negative affect following the threat if they internalized the minimizing message, but they maintained their prethreat affective state if they rejected the minimizing message or internalized the validating message. The discussion focuses on the implications of these findings for research on effective social support and clinical interventions.
Article
A study of body dissatisfaction, as measured by the Figure Rating Scale (Stunkard, Sorenson, & Schlusinger, 1983) and the Body Esteem Scale (Franzoi & Shields, 1984), in 75 college women and their mothers indicated that both daughters and mothers experienced body dissatisfaction. When body size was statistically controlled, either no difference was found between the groups or daughters were found to have greater body dissatisfaction than mothers. The results supported the hypotheses that (1) there are generational differences in body dissatisfaction, (2) both cohort and developmental effects contribute to these differences, and (3) that a developmental effect (mothers' greater body size) may obscure a cohort effect (daughters' greater exposure to the thin body ideal). Body dissatisfaction measures based on the mothers' retrospective ratings of how they felt at their daughters' age were consistent with these hypotheses. Relationships between body dissatisfaction and the Sociocultural Attitudes Toward Appearance Questionnaire (Heinberg, Thompson, & Stormer, 1995) were stronger and more frequent for daughters than for mothers and for the Internalization Scale than for the Awareness Scale. Relationships between the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (Glick & Fiske, 2001) and body dissatisfaction were stronger for mothers than for daughters and for Benevolent Sexism than for Hostile Sexism.
Article
Full-text available
The primary aim of this study was to test a multivariate model of predictors of body dissatisfaction in adolescent girls in which psychological variables, beliefs about the importance of popularity with boys, and beliefs about the importance of thinness to attractiveness and dating were included. We also aimed to explore boys' perceptions of the importance of thinness for attractiveness. Grade 10 girls (n = 573) and boys (n = 145) completed questionnaires. Path analysis provided partial support for the model proposed. Dating did not predict body dissatisfaction, but a relationship between importance of popularity with boys and body dissatisfaction was fully mediated by the belief that boys see thinness as important in rating girls' attractiveness. Although girls underestimated the body size that is attractive to boys, over 85% of boys reported a girl's slimness influenced her attractiveness. Dating was not correlated with body mass index.
Article
Longitudinal analysis of objectified body consciousness, body esteem, self-acceptance, and weight-related attitudes and behaviors in young adults (115 women and 49 men), who were undergraduates in 1993, tested hypotheses developed from theory on the social construction of gendered bodies and the developmental contexts of the post-college transition. Gender differences in body surveillance, body shame, and body esteem and the relationships between these persisted, whereas the relationship between body esteem and self-acceptance decreased for women and was similar to men at Wave 2. For both women and men, body surveillance and body shame decreased and body esteem increased over time, even though BMI also increased. Men wanted to lose weight at levels similar to women at Wave 2 and were equally likely to exercise to control weight, but they were less likely than women to diet. These results fit both cohort and age-related changes models of body experience for women and men.
Article
Sport is shifting from being hegemonically masculine but it is unclear how sports are viewed as gender segregated or gender integrated. Previous quantitative studies of gendertyping sports have reported mixed findings. Gendertyping constructs social representations that shape institutional and individual sport activities. This study examined how particular sports are represented as masculine, feminine and/or neither-gendered in one sample of 310 students at a US university. Qualitative open-ended recall questions asked students to name three masculine, feminine and neither masculine nor feminine sports. Results revealed that most students were aware of and used hegemonic gendertyped terms to describe sports. Recall questions elicited 2515 namings of 80 different sports that were arrayed as a spectrum of social representations of gendertyped sports ranging from masculine to neither-gendered to feminine. Some representations were hegemonic segregated masculine sports, many were integrated neither-gendered sports, and fewer were segregated feminine sports. Gendertyped social representations of sports offer cultural toolkits for calibrating the practices of doing and redoing gender in sport.
Article
This study explored the associations between body dissatisfaction (BD), internalization, acculturation, masculinity, femininity and appearance-based rejection sensitivity (ABRS). A web-based survey resulted in 55 Asian and 50 Australian Caucasian male university students between 17 and 44 years of age. Univariate analyses resulted in Asian males reporting significantly higher BD than Caucasian males. Bivariate correlations indicated that BD was significantly and positively correlated with internalization and ABRS in Asian and Caucasian males. Masculinity was negatively correlated with BD in Caucasian males only. Multiple regressions indicated that the only independent predictors of BD were internalization and ABRS. This study suggests that male Asian university students in Australia are at particular risk of developing body image disturbances, irrespective of their level of acculturation. Further studies replicating the influence of ABRS on a broader range of cultures and genders may help to investigate the generalizability of these findings.
Article
Nutrition, exercise, diet, and health risk factors of 422 Black and White college females were studied. Both groups showed marked deficiencies in key nutrients, and Black females had higher fat and calorie intake than White females. In selecting foods, White females relied more on nutrition knowledge and Black females were more influenced by cultural traditions. Body image dissatisfaction was higher in White females, complemented by increased use of compensatory dieting techniques. Self-identified risk factors were significantly different between groups, and for both groups, health behavior contradicted known risk factors.
Article
This study investigated the impact of acculturative stress on psychological well-being and body image disturbance in a sample of female and male Hispanic individuals. The unique protective effects of differing social support sources, including family and peer support, were examined against acculturative stress and body image disturbance. A total of 399 participants of Hispanic origin were recruited from Texas Tech University in West Texas. Students completed a battery of measures of acculturative stress and internalization of the thin ideal, as well as perceived social support. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that acculturative stress is a significant positive predictor of body image disturbance among Hispanic college students. Thin ideal internalization was found to mediate this relationship such that acculturative stress was associated with heightened body image disturbance through its impact on thin ideal internalization. Social support significantly reduced acculturative stress as well as body image disturbance but did not moderate the relation between these 2 factors. Results highlight the importance of considering acculturative stress as a strong predictor of body image disturbance among college students of Hispanic origin. The mechanisms of influence of acculturative stress on body image disturbance are discussed in relation to thin ideal internalization. The protective role of social support on these negative psychological outcomes is also clarified. This study is the first to examine these issues in a sample of female and male Hispanic college students and provides avenues for clinical interventions and future trials with diverse populations.
Article
Background: Self-critical thinking is common across psychological disorders. This study hypothesized that it may play an important role in 'overgeneralization', the process of drawing general implications from an isolated negative experience. Aims: To explore the impact of two experimental tasks designed to elicit self-critical thoughts on the endorsement of general negative self-views of clinical and non-clinical populations. Method: Three groups (depression, eating disorders and non-clinical controls), completed standardized questionnaires and the two tasks. Participants rated their self-critical thinking and general negative self-beliefs before and after each task. Results: Following a failure experience, both clinical groups showed a greater increase in general negative self-views compared with controls, indicating greater overgeneralization. Both habitual and increases in state self-critical thinking were associated with overgeneralization while negative perfectionism was not. Overgeneralization was more strongly associated with post-task reduced mood than self-criticism. Conclusions: Self-critical thinking may be an important factor in the process of overgeneralization, and the increase in general negative self-views may be particularly crucial for lowering of mood.
Article
This study introduces a new figure drawing measure, the Presentation of Images on a Continuum Scale (PICS), which includes continua of bodies from thin to obese and thin to muscular for both men and women. Participants were undergraduate students from a private, Catholic university in Connecticut. The data were collected in the Spring of 2010. 348 undergraduates completed an on-line survey that assessed current vs. ideal body image as well as attractiveness of body types. Results showed that current vs. ideal body selection discrepancies on the PICS among women (but not among men) were related to several negative outcomes involving increased body concerns, less body satisfaction, and lower self-esteem, as well as increased Drive for Muscularity among men. Study implications are described from a social norming perspective.
Article
Research suggests that self-reports of personal attributes, including physical characteristics, are often distorted. The present study examined discrepancies between self- and observer or actual reports of attractiveness, height, and weight, and investigated the role of esteem and gender role scales in the prediction of such discrepancies. Results indicated that attractiveness discrepancies were predicted by high esteem and traditional gender roles, height discrepancies were predicted by agency, and weight discrepancies were predicted by personal efficacy. Results also indicated that esteem and gender role characteristics are important in the perception of self-relevant information.
Article
Research has shown men often desire additional muscle mass, a trait related to masculine personality characteristics. While some research has suggested men lacking in muscle may believe themselves to be sexually undesirable to women, little research has been done in this area, especially when compared to the strong literature connecting women's drive for thinness to female sexual behavior. The present study sought to determine the connection between men's body image and men's perceived sexual efficacy and attractiveness. Male undergraduates (N = 105) completed a novel scale of sexual efficacy and attractiveness, in addition to questions relating to self-esteem, sexual behaviors and milestones, desire for muscle, and desire for thinness. Sexual efficacy and attractiveness was positively related to self-esteem, and mediated drive for muscle's negative relationship to self-esteem. Drive for thinness was negatively related to self-esteem, but unrelated to any sexual indices. Results suggest the presence of two types of body image dissatisfaction in men - thinness and muscle - but only the culturally demanded body dimension impacts sexual variables. Implications for future research are discussed.
Article
The study examined the relations among depressive symptoms, global self-esteem, body satisfaction, real masculinity and ideal masculinity in adolescents aged 12-15. 207 Prague pupils and students completed a set of self-report questionnaires. No significant sex, age and type of school effects were found on depressive symptoms. Boys scored significantly higher on both masculinity aspects. Adolescents with higher level of depressive symptoms showed lower real masculinity, lower global self-esteem and smaller body satisfaction. Contribution of these variables to the statistical prediction of depressive symptoms was analyzed together with contribution of three additional variables: perception of family atmosphere, face satisfaction and global appearance satisfaction. All variables together predicted depressive symptoms better in boys than in girls. The regression estimation was increased mainly by global self-esteem and perception of family atmosphere, especially in boys.
Article
In this research we investigated Hong Kong Generation Y females' body perception and virtual visualization. On one hand research demonstrated that women are dissatisfied with their body and encouraged to be thin while comparing themselves with an 'ideal shape'. On the other hand, research showed that retailers cannot retain their consumers simply by offering products; consumers are looking for a retail experience. Our results showed that Hong Kong young female adults are not satisfied with their body (breast and lower part); as for Western women, their ideal shape is a slim '. X' shape they are dissatisfied with garment fit, and they (HK Generation Y females) believe, after being 3D body scanned, that a smart card with their body measurements would improve their garment shopping experience.
Article
Objective: This study assessed the relationship between conformity to feminine gender role norms, self-objectification, and body image surveillance among undergraduate women. Participants: In a random sample of undergraduates, the authors examined data from sorority and nonsorority women. Methods: In a random sample of undergraduate women, the authors assessed the impact of traditional feminine gender role norms on self-objectification, body image, and feedback regarding physical appearance for sorority and nonsorority undergraduate women. Results: Three linear regressions were conducted, and only conformity to feminine gender role norms contributed significantly in each regression model. Conclusions: Regardless of sorority membership, conformity to feminine gender role norms was found to significantly contribute to increased body consciousness, negative body image, and feedback on physical appearance.
Article
Full-text available
The relationships of body satisfaction, self-esteem, dieting, and exercise were studied in 92 men and women. Men and women did not differ in degree of body dissatisfaction as assessed by three different measures. However, on the direction of body dissatisfaction, men were as likely to want to be heavier as thinner, whereas virtually no women wished to be heavier. Although overall body esteem was correlated with self-esteem for both men and women, measures of weight dissatisfaction were not associated with self-esteem for women. The normative nature of weight dissatisfaction for women today may serve to buffer its effects on self-esteem. Women reported exercising for weight control more than men, and exercising for weight control was associated with disregulated eating.
Article
Full-text available
Two data sources--self-reports and peer ratings--and two instruments--adjective factors and questionnaire scales--were used to assess the five-factor model of personality. As in a previous study of self-reports (McCrae & Costa, 1985b), adjective factors of neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness-antagonism, and conscientiousness-undirectedness were identified in an analysis of 738 peer ratings of 275 adult subjects. Intraclass correlations among raters, ranging from .30 to .65, and correlations between mean peer ratings and self-reports, from .25 to .62, showed substantial cross-observer agreement on all five adjective factors. Similar results were seen in analyses of scales from the NEO Personality Inventory. Items from the adjective factors were used as guides in a discussion of the nature of the five factors. These data reinforce recent appeals for the adoption of the five-factor model in personality research and assessment.
Article
Full-text available
Norms and reliability and validity data are presented for an objectively scored Body Esteem Scale. Factor analysis of the scale revealed that body esteem is a multidimensional construct which differs for males and females. For males, the body esteem dimensions dealt with physical attractiveness, upper body strength, and physical condition. For females, the dimensions dealt with sexual attractiveness, weight concern, and physical condition. The three aspects of males' body esteem were more highly intercorrelated than those of the females, indicating a greater degree of body esteem differentiation for females than for males.
Article
Full-text available
The cultural pressures on women to be thin and diet have been linked to the expression of serious eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa. The current study attempts to document and quantify the shift toward a thinner ideal shape for females in our culture over the last 20 years. Data from Playboy centerfolds and Miss America Pageant contestants indicated a significant trend toward a thinner standard. Over the same period there was a significant increase in diet articles in six popular women's magazines. These changes occurred within the context of increasing population weight norms for young women. Biosocial implications including the apparent recent increase in anorexia nervosa are discussed.
Article
Full-text available
Evidence is presented showing that body fat distribution as measured by waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) is correlated with youthfulness, reproductive endocrinologic status, and long-term health risk in women. Three studies show that men judge women with low WHR as attractive. Study 1 documents that minor changes in WHRs of Miss America winners and Playboy playmates have occurred over the past 30-60 years. Study 2 shows that college-age men find female figures with low WHR more attractive, healthier, and of greater reproductive value than figures with a higher WHR. In Study 3, 25- to 85-year-old men were found to prefer female figures with lower WHR and assign them higher ratings of attractiveness and reproductive potential. It is suggested that WHR represents an important bodily feature associated with physical attractiveness as well as with health and reproductive potential. A hypothesis is proposed to explain how WHR influences female attractiveness and its role in mate selection.
Article
We hypothesized that the substantial difference in incidence of eating disorders between men and women would be correlated with a similar difference in sociocultural norms promoting thinness. The 10 popular magazines most commonly read by young men and young women were examined for advertisements and articles promoting weight loss or shape change. The women's magazines contained 10.5 times as many advertisements and articles promoting weight loss as the men's magazines (p < .005), the same ratio reported from several sources for cases of anorexia nervosa. Men, however, were disproportionately subjected to incentives to change body shape compared to weight loss (p < .01). This study supports the hypothesis that the comparative frequency of eating disorders in males vs. females is more closely related to the differing extent of gender-related reinforcement of related dieting behavior than any known biological parameter. It is plausible that a dose-response relationship exists between sociocultural reinforcements promoting thinness and the incidence of eating disorders in any particular population group.
Article
An investigation of current American society's depiction of the ideal female body was performed. Body measurements of Playboy magazine centerfolds and Miss America contestants for 1979-1988 indicated body weight 13-19% below expected weight for women in that age group. Miss America contestants showed a significant decrease in expected weight between 1979 and 1988. Comparisons were made with an earlier study which had demonstrated that body measurements of both groups had decreased during the period 1959-1978. Diet-for-weight-loss and exercise articles in six women's magazines were tabulated for 1959-1988. A significant increase in both diet articles and exercise articles occurred during this period. These findings suggest that the overvaluation of thinness continues and thinness is now sought through both dieting and exercise.
Article
The relations among gender, gender role, and self-perceptions of physical appearance were examined in this research. Women and men who differed in their gender roles rated the attractiveness of, importance of, and desire to change their physique and facial appearance. Results indicated that women considered all components of appearance except height to be more important than did men and were more interested in changing their appearance than were men. Masculine women perceived themselves as “too large” but were more satisfied with their facial appearance than were traditional (feminine) women. Few physical attributes distinguished among the male gender-role groups. Directions for future research on the relation among gender, gender role, and physical appearance are discussed.
Article
Unmarried female undergraduates (n = 204) completed the Bem Sex Role Inventory and measures of body image and self-esteem. Androgyny and masculinity were associated with self-esteem, body satisfaction, and sexual satisfaction. Androgynous and masculine subjects were generally similar and well adjusted; whereas feminine and undifferentiated subjects were similar and less well adjusted. Results are interpreted as evidence for the adaptive nature of changing female sex roles.
Article
L'auteur discute un modele a cinq facteurs de la personnalite qu'il confronte a d'autres systemes de la personnalite et dont les correlats des dimensions sont analyses ainsi que les problemes methodologiques
Article
This paper presents a sociocultural analysis of the present epidemic of bulimia on college campuses. It is suggested that the psychological stresses underlying bulimia derive from a historical change in the social demands and expections contronting women. Weight control and the obsessive drive for thinness are seen as the symptomatic efforts to manage these stresses and achieve some measure of control. The social dynamics of bulimia are also analyzed, particularly the role of imitation and social learning in the spread of the symptom, as well as the response of others to bulimic symptomatology. Finally, it is suggested that bringing and vomiting have become almost a normal social practice in certain group situations, raising the possibility that the behavior has become a kind of ritual activity. The social implications of this interpretation are discussed.
Article
Gender schema theory proposes that the phenomenon of sex typing derives, in part, from gender-based schematic processing— a generalized readiness to process information on the basis of the sex-linked associations that constitute the gender schema. In particular, the theory proposes that sex typing results from the fact that the self-concept itself is assimilated in the gender schema. Several studies are described, including 2 experiments with 96 male and 96 female undergraduates, that demonstrate that sex-typed individuals do, in fact, have a greater readiness to process information—including information about the self—in terms of the gender schema. It is speculated that such gender-based schematic processing derives, in part, from the society's ubiquitous insistence on the functional importance of the gender dichotomy. The political implications of gender schema theory and its relationship to the concept of androgyny are discussed. (36 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
In a study of 540 women residing in Ede, the Netherlands, the relationships between dieting, satisfaction with figure, and sex-role orientation was researched. Other variables in the study were actual body mass, level of education, anxiety, and negative self-concept. Degree of sex-role orientation was found to be significantly related to dieting and satisfaction with one's figure. However, the most striking finding was the high relationship between dieting and satisfaction with one's figure and actual body mass. In contrast to studies on college students, this suggests that, in the present study on community residents, concerns about figure and body weight are not likely to be preludes of epidemics of anorexia or bulimia nervosa. Instead, these concerns are understandable, since they seem based on actual (over)weight for most of the women.
Article
An examination was made of changes over the period 1967–1987 in the physical features of the female fashion models recruited by one agency. A significant increase in height and waist measurement was apparent, and there was a trend for the bust to increase similarly. There was no change in hip measurement over the study period. These findings confirm previous reports of a tendency for models' shapes to have become less curvaceous and correspondingly more tubular.
Article
We hypothesized that the substantial difference in incidence of eating disorders between men and women would be correlated with a similar difference in sociocul-tural norms promoting thinness. The 10 popular magazines most commonly read by young men and young women were examined for advertisements and articles promoting weight loss or shape change. The women's magazines contained 10.5 times as many advertisements and articles promoting weight loss as the men's magazines (p <.005), the same ratio reported from several sources for cases of anorexia nervosa. Men, however, were disproportionately subjected to incentives to change body shape compared to weight loss (p <.01). This study supports the hypothesis that the comparative frequency of eating disorders in males vs. females is more closely related to the differing extent of gender-related reinforcement of related dieting behavior than any known biological parameter. It is plausible that a dose-response relationship exists between sociocultural reinforcements promoting thinness and the incidence of eating disorders in any particular population group.
Article
Inspired by the earlier work of Rozin and Fallon (1988), this study investigated some potential determinants of the most recent increase of eating disorders among women in this country. Measures of current, preferred attractive, and acceptable body images for opposite- and same-gender figures, in addition to the thinnest and heaviest figures the subjects found attractive, were obtained from the same generation cohort as these students' parents. While gender differences were found, so were cohort differences. These cohort differences speak to factors relevant to understanding why there has been such an increase in the frequency of eating disorders in Western culture since the late 1960s, especially among adolescent women. Possible implications for treatment of eating disorders are discussed. However, the authors note that further studies are needed to determine if the cohort differences found might reflect a developmental or a definite cohort effect.
Article
A relationship between feminist attitudes and body satisfaction has been suggested in the literature, but has received no empirical support. Multiple regression analyses were performed on a sample of 200 primarily Caucasian women. Results indicated that after controlling for certain known predictors of body dissatisfaction, the Physical Attractiveness(PA) subscale of the CFIS was negatively related to both General and Specific Body Dissatisfaction, but that the total CFIS score was not. These findings suggest that women's feminist attitudes regarding physical attractiveness relate significantly to body satisfaction, but an overall feminist identification does not. Applications of this finding may contribute to the reduction of women's excessive concerns with their bodies.
Article
The relationship between gender role and body image was examined in this research. Females and males who differed in their gender roles (i.e., masculine, feminine, androgynous, or undifferentiated) completed the Body-Self Relations Questionnaire (B. A. Winstead & T. F. Cash, Reliability and Validity of the Body-Self Questionnaire: A New Measure of Body Image, paper presented at the meeting of the Southeastern Psychological Association, New Orleans, Louisiana, 1984) and a measure of self-esteem. Results indicated that feminine females evaluated their physical appearance less favorably than androgynous females, although physical appearance was equally important to both groups. The importance of the masculine component of gender role was reflected in the favorable body-image ratings of androgynous and masculine females in all domains (i.e., physical appearance, physical fitness, and physical health), and in the unfavorable ratings of feminine males in the physical fitness domain. Regression analyses to predict body-image ratings indicated that while self-esteem was an important predictor, it did not account for the relationships between gender, gender role, and body image. Implications of the findings for future research on the relationships between gender role, body image, and indices of mental health are discussed.
Article
Why do some cultures prefer thin women, while others value female fatness? Using the Standard Cross Cultural Sample, we investigated predictions derived from several socioecological hypotheses related to three biological functions of human female body fat (insulation, storage of calories, and regulation of fertility). Results suggest that attitudes toward fatness in women are related cross-culturally to (1) reliability of food supply, (2) climate, (3) relative social dominance of women, (4) the value placed on women's work, and (5) the probability that the expression of adolescent sexuality will have adverse consequences on girls. These hypotheses may be useful in providing an ultimate explanation for currently observed patterns in attitudes toward female fatnness, complementing the more proximate approach of the traditional social sciences.
Article
Researchers and clinicians assert that there is an association between femininity and eating disorders, particularly anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. This article evaluates the validity of the two major theories positing such an association, Boskind-Lodahl's femininity theory and Steiner Adair's discrepancy theory, by reviewing relevant research. This examination reveals that the relationship between sex role orientation and disordered eating is both complex and unclear, and is affected by the methodological sophistication of the study designs, the construct validity of the measures, and presence of moderator variables. Moreover, complexity of the relationship between sex role orientation and disordered eating is heightened by lack of concurrence in the definition of constructs of masculinity and femininity.
Article
Male (N = 248) and female (N = 282) subjects were given the Personal Attributes Questionnaire consisting of 55 bipolar attributes drawn from the Sex Role Stereotype Questionnaire by Rosenkrantz, Vogel, Bee, Broverman, and Broverman and were asked to rate themselves and then to compare directly the typical male and female college student. Self-ratings were divided into male-valued (stereotypically masculine attributes judged more desirable for both sexes), female-valued, and sex-specific items. Also administered was the Attitudes Toward Women Scale and a measure of social self-esteem. Correlations of the self-ratings with stereotype scores and the Attitudes Toward Women Scale were low in magnitude, suggesting that sex role expectations do not distort self-concepts. For both men and women, "femininity" on the female-valued self items and "masculinity" on the male-valued items were positively correlated, and both significantly related to self-esteem. The implications of the results for a concept of masculinity and femininity as a duality, characteristic of all individuals, and the use of the self-rating scales for measuring masculinity, femininity, and androgyny were discussed.
Article
Preferences for various occupations, school subjects, everyday activities, and hobbies and amusements were rated by 119 male and 145 female Ss. Discriminant analyses were conducted to compute gender diagnostic probabilities. Ss also rated themselves on Big Five traits and completed the Bem Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI) and the Personal Attributes Questionnaire (PAQ). Results indicated that (a) gender diagnosticity measures showed high reliability, (b) gender diagnosticity predicted sex of S and self-ascribed masculinity (M) and femininity (F) better than contrasted-groups M-F scales, (c) gender diagnosticity measures displayed substantial consistency across domains both within and across the sexes, and (d) gender diagnosticity measures were independent of the Big Five and PAQ and BSRI scales both within and across the sexes, whereas PAQ and BSRI scales loaded highly on Big Five dimensions.
Article
This study explores some possible causes of the recent increase in dieting and eating disorders among American women. Measures on body image, attitudes to eating and weight, and eating behaviors were collected from male (sons) and female (daughters) college students and their biological parents. All groups but the sons considered their current body shape to be heavier than their ideal. Mothers and daughters believed that men (of their own generation) prefer much thinner women than these men actually prefer. Mothers and daughters both showed great concern about weight and eating. Although fathers resembled mothers and daughters in their perception of being overweight, they were more similar to their sons in being relatively unconcerned about weight and eating. Hence, the major factor in concern about weight is sex rather than generation or discrepancy between perception of current and ideal body shape. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Using a set of nine figure drawings arranged from very thin to very heavy figures, 248 male and 227 female undergraduates indicated their current figure, their ideal figure, the figure that they felt would be most attractive to the opposite sex, and the opposite sex figure to which they would be most attracted. For men, the current, ideal, and most attractive figures were almost identical. For women, the current figure was heavier than the most attractive figure, which was heavier than the ideal figure. Both men and women err in estimating what the opposite sex would find attractive. Men think women like a heavier stature than females report they like, and women think men like women thinner than men report they like. Overall, men's perceptions serve to keep them satisfied with their figures, whereas women's perceptions place pressure on them to lose weight. The sex differences we report are probably related to the greater incidence of dieting, anorexia, and bulimia among American women than among American men.
Article
One hundred eighteen male and 190 female college students rated 24 body characteristics in terms of (a) how satisfied they were with each of these characteristics of their own body; (b) how important each part was in determining their own physical attractiveness; and (c) how important each part was in determining opposite-sex physical attractiveness. In addition, all subjects responded to a short self-concept scale. Results indicated that (a) males and females rated the importance of the body characteristics for both their own and opposite-sex physical attractiveness in a markedly similar manner; (b) mean satisfaction ratings were significantly related to self-concept among both males and females, and different body parts were differentially significantly related to self-concept; (c) weighting satisfaction ratings by corresponding importance ratings did not increase the satisfaction/self-concept relation; but (d) males' mean importance of opposite-sex body characteristics ratings were significantly related to self-concept, while the corresponding relation was not significant for females; and (e) subjects' physique type was not related to self-concept. The role of sex-linked body stereotypes and the differential role of the body in the personality development of males and females were discussed.
Article
Describes the development of a new sex-role inventory that treats masculinity and femininity as 2 independent dimensions, thereby making it possible to characterize a person as masculine, feminine, or "androgynous" as a function of the difference between his or her endorsement of masculine and feminine personality characteristics. Normative data, provided by 561 male and 356 female college and junior college students, are presented, as well as the results of various psychometric analyses. Findings indicate that: (a) The dimensions of masculinity and femininity are empirically and logically independent. (b) The concept of psychological androgyny is a reliable one. (c) Highly sex-typed scores do not reflect a general tendency to respond in a socially desirable direction, but rather a specific tendency to describe oneself in accordance with sex-typed standards of desirable behavior for men and women. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
82 COLLEGE STUDENTS COMPLETED 2 LISTS. ON THE 1ST, S INDICATED THE DEGREE OF SATISFACTION WITH HIS PHYSICAL APPEARANCE FOR 24 BODY PARTS, AND HOW IMPORTANT IT WAS TO HIM. THE 2ND LIST CONTAINED 17 ADJECTIVES. AS PREDICTED, THE CORRELATION BETWEEN SELF-CONCEPT AND BODY IMAGE WAS MODERATE (R = .58), AND WAS MORE ACCURATE AND REFINED WHEN THE IMPORTANCE FACTOR WAS CONSIDERED. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Research on the relation between sex role orientation and psychological well-being has been guided by one of three models. The traditional congruence model holds that psychological well-being is fostered only when one's sex role orientation is congruent with one's gender; the androgyny model proposes that well-being is maximized when one's sex role orientation incorporates a high degree of both masculinity and femininity regardless of one's gender; the masculinity model posits that well-being is a function of the extent to which one has a masculine sex role orientation. The adequacy of these three models was tested by means of a meta-analysis of 35 studies of the relation between sex role orientation and self-esteem, the indicator of psychological well-being most widely used in sex role studies. The results of the meta-analysis were most supportive of the masculinity model and showed that the strength of observed relations between sex role orientation and self-esteem varied as a function of both the sex role measure and the type of self-esteem measure used in the studies. In addition, a number of methodological issues was identified that should be taken into consideration in future research.
Article
The purpose of the present study was to develop a method of appraising the feelings of an individual towards his body and to ascertain whether or not variables derived from these appraised feelings are significant for personality theory." On the basis of results obtained on a scale designed by the authors, the following conclusions were reached: (1) Split-half reliabilities of the scale were satisfactory. (2) Feelings of the body are commensurate with feelings about the self. (3) Low body-cathexis is associated with anxiety concerning pain, disease, or bodily injury. (4) Low body-cathexis is associated with in-security.
Women and weight: A normative discontent Nebraska symposium on motivation: Vol 32
  • J Rodin
  • L R Siberstein
  • Striegel
  • R H Moore
Performance enhancers. Sports Illustrated
  • M Bamberger
Bamberger, M. (1988, April 20). Performance enhancers. Sports Illustrated, pp. 59–65.
Bulimina: A sociocultural interpretation
  • R A Gordon
Gordon, R. A. (1989). Bulimina: A sociocultural interpretation. Journal of College Student Psychotherapy, 3, 41–55.
Psychological androgyny
  • E P Cook
Cook, E. P. (1985). Psychological androgyny. New York: Pergamon.
Use of the Danish adoption register for the study of obesity and thinness The genetics of neurological and psychiatric disorders (pp. 115–120) Dieting, dissatisfaction with figure, and sex role orientation in women
  • A J Stunkard
  • T Sorenson
  • F Schlusinger
Stunkard, A. J., Sorenson, T., & Schlusinger, F. (1983). Use of the Danish adoption register for the study of obesity and thinness. In S. Kety, L. P. Rowland, R. L. Sidman, & S. W. Matthysse (Eds.), The genetics of neurological and psychiatric disorders (pp. 115–120). New York: Raven Press. Van Strien, T. (1989). Dieting, dissatisfaction with figure, and sex role orientation in women. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 8, 455–462.
Eating disorders Fasting girls: A history of anorexia nervosa The body project: An intimate history of American girls
  • H Bruch
Bruch, H. (1973). Eating disorders. New York: Basic Books. Brumberg, J. J. (1988). Fasting girls: A history of anorexia nervosa. New York: Plume Press. Brumberg, J. J. (1997). The body project: An intimate history of American girls. New York: Random House.
Rade, and Jaberg presence of this trend
  • Forbes
  • Adams-Curtis
Forbes, Adams-Curtis, Rade, and Jaberg presence of this trend (Garner, Garfinkel, Schwartz, & Thompson, 1980;
Sociocultural factors influencing weight among males
  • A D Mickalide
Mickalide, A. D. (1990). Sociocultural factors influencing weight among males. In A. E. Arnold (Ed.), Males with eating disorders. (pp. 30–39). New York: Brunner/Mazel.
The epidemiology of bulemia The eating disorders: Medical and psychological bases of diagnosis and treatment
  • R L Pyle
  • J E Mitchell
Pyle, R. L., & Mitchell, J. E. (1988). The epidemiology of bulemia. In B. J. Blinder, B. F. Chaitin, & R. Goldestein (Eds.), The eating disorders: Medical and psychological bases of diagnosis and treatment (pp. 259–266). New York: PMA Publishing.
Masculinity & femininity: Their psychological dimen-sions, correlates, and antecedents. Austin: University of Texas Press Ratings of self and peers on sex role attributes and their relationship to self-esteem and conceptions of masculinity and femininity
  • J T Helmreich
  • R L Spence
  • J T Helmreich
  • R Stapp
, J. T., & Helmreich, R. L. (1978). Masculinity & femininity: Their psychological dimen-sions, correlates, and antecedents. Austin: University of Texas Press. Spence, J. T., Helmreich, R., & Stapp, J. (1975). Ratings of self and peers on sex role attributes and their relationship to self-esteem and conceptions of masculinity and femininity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 32, 29–39.
Prevalence and incidence studies of anoroxia nervosa The eating disorders: Medical and psychological bases of diagnosis and treatment
  • P Leichner
  • A Gertler
Leichner, P., & Gertler, A. (1988). Prevalence and incidence studies of anoroxia nervosa. In B. J. Blinder, B. F. Chaitin, & R. Goldestein (Eds.), The eating disorders: Medical and psychological bases of diagnosis and treatment (pp. 131–149). New York: PMA Publishing. P1: VENDOR/GVG/GVM Sex Roles [sers] PP229-343644 August 23, 2001 11:5 Style file version Nov. 19th, 1999 484
Turning boys into girls. The Washington Monthly
  • M Cottle
Cottle, M. (1988, May). Turning boys into girls. The Washington Monthly, pp. 32–37.
The beefcaking of America
  • J Neimark
Neimark, J. (1994, Nov./Dec.). The beefcaking of America. Psychology Today, 27, 32–39.
Style file version Nov Style file version Nov Style file version Nov 11:5 Style file version Nov. 19th, 1999 Body Dissatisfaction in Women and Men P1: VENDOR/GVG/GVM Sex Roles [sers] PP229-343644
  • Rozin
  • Fallon
  • P1 Men
  • Vendor
  • Gvg
  • Gvm
  • Sex
Women, as a group, are more dissatisfied with their bodies than are men (Rozin & Fallon, 1988), and women's dissatisfaction with their bodies P1: VENDOR/GVG/GVM Sex Roles [sers] PP229-343644 August 23, 2001 11:5 Style file version Nov. 19th, 1999 P1: VENDOR/GVG/GVM Sex Roles [sers] PP229-343644 August 23, 2001 11:5 Style file version Nov. 19th, 1999 P1: VENDOR/GVG/GVM Sex Roles [sers] PP229-343644 August 23, 2001 11:5 Style file version Nov. 19th, 1999 Body Dissatisfaction in Women and Men P1: VENDOR/GVG/GVM Sex Roles [sers] PP229-343644 August 23, 2001 11:5 Style file version Nov. 19th, 1999 P1: VENDOR/GVG/GVM Sex Roles [sers] PP229-343644 August 23, 2001 11:5 Style file version Nov. 19th, 1999 Body Dissatisfaction in Women and Men P1: VENDOR/GVG/GVM Sex Roles [sers] PP229-343644 August 23, 2001 11:5 Style file version Nov. 19th, 1999 Body Dissatisfaction in Women and Men P1: VENDOR/GVG/GVM Sex Roles [sers] PP229-343644 August 23, 2001 11:5 Style file version Nov. 19th, 1999 P1: VENDOR/GVG/GVM Sex Roles [sers] PP229-343644 August 23, 2001 11:5 Style file version Nov. 19th, 1999 P1: VENDOR/GVG/GVM Sex Roles [sers] PP229-343644 August 23, 2001 11:5 Style file version Nov. 19th, 1999 Body Dissatisfaction in Women and Men P1: VENDOR/GVG/GVM Sex Roles [sers] PP229-343644 August 23, 2001 11:5 Style file version Nov. 19th, 1999 P1: VENDOR/GVG/GVM Sex Roles [sers] PP229-343644 August 23, 2001 11:5 Style file version Nov. 19th, 1999 Body Dissatisfaction in Women and Men P1: VENDOR/GVG/GVM Sex Roles [sers] PP229-343644 August 23, 2001 11:5 Style file version Nov. 19th, 1999 P1: VENDOR/GVG/GVM Sex Roles [sers] PP229-343644 August 23, 2001 11:5 Style file version Nov. 19th, 1999 Body Dissatisfaction in Women and Men P1: VENDOR/GVG/GVM Sex Roles [sers] PP229-343644 August 23, 2001 11:5 Style file version Nov. 19th, 1999 P1: VENDOR/GVG/GVM Sex Roles [sers] PP229-343644 August 23, 2001 11:5 Style file version Nov. 19th, 1999 Body Dissatisfaction in Women and Men REFERENCES Anderson, A. E., & DiDomenico, L. (1992). Diet vs. shape content of popular male and female magazines: A dose-response relationship to the incidence of eating disorders? International Journal of Eating Disorders, 11, 283–287.
The 1997 body image survey results Cultural expectations of thinness in women
  • D M Garner
Garner, D. M. (1997, January/February). The 1997 body image survey results. Psychology Today, pp. 30–44, 74–75, 78, 80, 84. Garner, D. M., Garfinkel, P. E., Schwartz, D., & Thompson, M. (1980). Cultural expectations of thinness in women. Psychological Reports, 47, 483–491.