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Two new species and a new record of Sinogastromyzon are described from Lixianjiang River of Yunnan province, China. Sinogastromyzon lixianjiangensis, new species, can be distinguished from its congeners by the following characters: pectoral fin with XIII–XIV, 15–17 rays; pelvic fin with X–XI, 10–12 rays; 60–65 lateral-line scales; no scales on the dorsum of paired fins or the region between axilla of pectoral fin and pelvic-fin origin; tip of pelvic fin close to anus; tip of anal fin close to caudal-fin base; anal-fin origin nearer to the caudal-fin base than to the posterior pelvic-fin base; anus nearer to anal-fin origin than to the posterior pelvic-fin base; dorsal side of the body with 9–11 black blotches. Sinogastromyzon macrostoma, new species can be distinguished from its congeners by the following characters: pectoral fin with XII–XIV, 12–15 rays; pelvic fin with VII–IX, 11–13 rays; 48–56 lateral-line scales; mouth extremely big, slightly arched; no scales on the dorsum of paired fins or the region between axilla of pectoral fin and pelvic-fin origin; tip of pelvic fin far beyond anus; tip of anal fin far from caudal-fin base; anal-fin origin about midway between the posterior pelvic-fin base and caudal-fin base; anus nearer to posterior pelvic-fin base than to anal-fin origin; dorsal side of the body uniformly gray, without regular blotches in formalin preserved specimen. Sinogastromyzon cf. multiocellum is firstly recorded in China.
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Two new species and a new record of the genus
Sinogastromyzon (Teleostei: Balitoridae)
from Yunnan, China
Shu-Wei Liu &Xiao-Yong Chen &Jun-Xing Yang
Received: 11 December 2008 / Accepted: 14 October 2009 /Published online: 12 November 2009
#Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2009
Abstract Two new species and a new record of
Sinogastromyzon are described from Lixianjiang
River of Yunnan province, China. Sinogastromyzon
lixianjiangensis, new species, can be distinguished
from its congeners by the following characters:
pectoral fin with XIIIXIV, 1517 rays; pelvic fin
with XXI, 1012 rays; 6065 lateral-line scales; no
scales on the dorsum of paired fins or the region
between axilla of pectoral fin and pelvic-fin origin; tip
of pelvic fin close to anus; tip of anal fin close to
caudal-fin base; anal-fin origin nearer to the caudal-fin
base than to the posterior pelvic-fin base; anus nearer to
anal-fin origin than to the posterior pelvic-fin base;
dorsal side of the body with 911 black blotches.
Sinogastromyzon macrostoma, new species can be
distinguished from its congeners by the following
characters: pectoral fin with XIIXIV, 1215 rays;
pelvic fin with VIIIX, 1113 rays; 4856 lateral-line
scales; mouth extremely big, slightly arched; no
scales on the dorsum of paired fins or the region
between axilla of pectoral fin and pelvic-fin origin; tip
of pelvic fin far beyond anus; tip of anal fin far from
caudal-fin base; anal-fin origin about midway be-
tween the posterior pelvic-fin base and caudal-fin
base; anus nearer to posterior pelvic-fin base than to
anal-fin origin; dorsal side of the body uniformly
gray, without regular blotches in formalin preserved
specimen. Sinogastromyzon cf. multiocellum is firstly
recorded in China.
Keywords Balitoridae .Sinogastromyzon .
New species .China
Introduction
The genus Sinogastromyzon was established by P. W.
Fang in 1930, with Sinogastromyzon wui which was
described from the Pearl River basin in Luocheng
county, Guangxi province (equals Loching county,
Kwangsi province in original paper) as the type
species. Sinogastromyzon can be distinguished from
other genera by the following characters: head and
anterior part of body short, depressed and ventrally
flattened; paired fins horizontal and expanded, with
more than 2 simple rays; pelvic fins completely
united posteriorly to form a suctorial disk; eyes
superolateral; mouth inferior and transverse, with
8 barbels, 4 rostral and 4 maxillary, both aligned in a
row; gill opening large, extending to the pectoral-fin
Environ Biol Fish (2010) 87:2537
DOI 10.1007/s10641-009-9554-8
S.-W. Liu :X.-Y. Chen (*):J.-X. Yang (*)
State Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources and Evolution,
Kunming Institute of Zoology,
Chinese Academy of Sciences,
32 Jiao Chang Dong Road,
Kunming, Yunnan 650223, Peoples Republic of China
e-mail: chenxy@mail.kiz.ac.cn
e-mail: yangjx@mail.kiz.ac.cn
S.-W. Liu
Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences,
10039 Beijing, Peoples Republic of China
origin on the ventral surface (Fang 1930; Chen and
Tan g in Yu e 2000).
At present, there are 19 valid species (Eschmeyer
2008) altogether in this genus inhabiting drainages of
southern mainland of China (Kottelat and Chu 1988;
Chen 1990;Lietal.1999; Chen and Tang in Yue
2000), Taiwan (Chen and Tang in Yue 2000;Chenet
al. 2002), Laos (Kottelat 2001b) and northern Vietnam
(Kottelat and Chu 1988; Kottelat 2001a; Nguyen
2005). Among which, ten species were recorded from
the Red River drainage of southwestern China and
northern Vietnam: Pellegrin and Chevey (1935)firstly
described S. tonkinensis; Mai (1978) described S.
rugocauda,S. minutum and S. chapaensis together;
and Nguyen (2005) described S. namnaensis,S.
hypercorpus,S. hagiangensis,S. daon,S. hexaocellum,
and S. multiocellum together. However, those ten
species do not distribute evenly all through the
drainage. All the ten species were first described from
northern Vietnam while only two of them, S. tonki-
nensis and S. chapaensis, were reported in China as
new records (Chen 1978; Liao and Tzeng 2002). Now
S. tonkinensis was recorded from almost all through the
Red River drainage (Kottela and Chu 1988; Chen
1990; and Chen and Tang 2000)andS. chapaensis was
only reported by Liao and Tzeng (2002)fromNanxihe
River (a tributary of Red River). Since 2003, a series of
fish surveys were made in Lixianjiang River drainage
of Yunnan, China, and two new species and a new
record of the genus Sinogastromyzon to China are
revealed by this study.
Material and methods
All specimens examined by this study are deposited
in Kunming Institute of Zoology (KIZ), Chinese
Academy of Sciences. Counts and measurements
generally followed Hubbs and Lagler (2004) and
Kottelat (2001b). Measurements were made with
digital calipers to the nearest 0.1 mm. Lateral-line
scales are counted including the last scale. Abbrevia-
tions used in this study are: standard length (SL), total
length (TL), body depth (BD), body width (BW),
head length (HL), head depth (HD), head width
(HW), length of snout (LoS), eye diameter (ED),
caudal-peduncle length (CPL), caudal-peduncle depth
(CPD), interorbital width (IOW), mouth width (MW),
predorsal length (Predl), preventral length (Prevl),
preanal length (Preal). All the specimens examined by
this study are collected by electrofishing.
Results
Sinogastromyzon lixianjiangensis, sp. nov. (Fig. 1)
Holotype KIZ 200401799, 44.0 mm SL, Sinanjiang
River (a tributary of Lixianjiang River which belongs
to the Red River drainage), Mojiang County, Yunnan,
China; 23°0738.13N, 101°4744.32E; Collected by
Chen XY, Cui GH; Jan. 2004.
Paratypes KIZ 200401788, 49.5 mm SL, KIZ
200401792, 43.9 mm SL, KIZ 200401798, 41.5 mm
SL; collected with the holotype (3 specimens). KIZ
200401801, 41.8 mm SL, KIZ 200401802, 42.3 mm
SL, KIZ 200401805, 44.8 mm SL, KIZ 200401812,
45.6 mm SL, KIZ 200401826, 44.7 mm SL, KIZ
200401828, 41.0 mm SL, KIZ 200401835, 45.3 mm
SL; Amojiang River (a tributary of Lixianjiang
River), Mojiang County, Yunnan, China, 23°02
47.44N, 101°4649.48E (7 specimens); Chen XY,
Cui GH; Jan. 2004. KIZ 2004007107, 40.9 mm SL;
Fig. 1 Dorsal, lateral and ventral view of Sinogastromyzon
lixianjiangensis, Holotype, KIZ 200401799, 44.0 mm SL,
Sinanjiang River, Mojiang County, Yunnan, China
26 Environ Biol Fish (2010) 87:2537
main channel of Lixianjiang River, Mojiang County,
Yunnan, China, 22°5037.98N, 101°4744.32E(1
specimens); Chen XY, Cui GH; Jan. 2004. KIZ
200401439, 40.1 mm SL, KIZ 200401442, 42.3 mm
SL; main channel of Lixianjiang River on boundary
of Jiangcheng and Lvchun County, Yunnan, China,
22°4457.50N, 102°427.90E (2 specimens); Col-
lected by Chen XY, Cui GH; Jan. 2004.
Diagnosis
Sinogastromyzon lixianjiangensis can be distinguished
from its congeners by the following characters:
pectoral fin with XIIIXIV, 1517 rays; pelvic fin with
XXI, 1012 rays; 6065 lateral-line scales; mouth
small, deeply arched; dorsal-fin origin nearer to tip of
snout than to caudal-fin base; no scales on the dorsum
of paired fins or the region between axilla of pectoral
fin and pelvic-fin origin; tip of pelvic fin close to anus;
tip of anal fin close to caudal-fin base; anal-fin origin
nearer to the caudal-fin base than to the posterior
pelvic-fin base; anus nearer to anal-fin origin than to
the posterior pelvic-fin base; with 811 black blotches
on the dorsal side of the body.
Description
Morphometric characters are presented in Table 1.
Views from different dimensions of the body are
presented in Fig. 1.
Head and anterior part of body short, depressed
and ventrally flattened and posterior part laterally
compressed. Dorsal profile slightly arched. Dorsum of
head densely covered with tiny tubercles. Snout blunt
and rounded, with thin edge. Mouth small, inferior
and deeply arched. Distinct groove between rostral
fold and upper lip. Three fleshy lobes in rostral fold,
the mid one bigger than others. Upper lip with a
single series of 1417 papillae, 1011 in the middle,
round and about the same size, 23 in the corner,
gradually small, with 810 papillae on the edge of
lower lip; upper and lower lip connect at the corner of
mouth. Upper jaw hidden, lower jaw exposed with
radiate ridges on the surface. Two pairs of rostral
barbels, the outer one bigger, about 1/2 of eye
diameter. Two barbels at each corner of mouth, both
weak, the outer one bigger, and the inner one like tiny
papillae. Eyes medium, superolaterally placed. Nos-
trils medium, next to eyes. Interorbital place wide and
flat. Gill opening large, extending to the pectoral-fin
origin on the ventral surface. Scales tiny, predorsal
scales 1618, lateral line complete, with 6065 scales
extending straight to the caudal-fin base.
Dorsal fin with III, 8 rays, without osseous spine, its
origin nearer to tip of snout than to caudal-fin base, and
its base length about equal to head length. Anal fin with
II, 5 rays, and its origin nearer to the caudal-fin base than
to posterior pelvic-fin base, simple rays slightly
strengthened; tip of the anal fin close to caudal-fin base.
Paired fins flat and broad, with strong expanded
muscular bands above the bases, and no scales on the
dorsum of paired fins or the region between axilla of
pectoral fin and pelvic-fin origin. Pectoral fin with XIII
XIV, 1517 rays, its origin vertically between the eye
and nostril, and its tip extending beyond the pelvic-fin
origin. Pelvic fin with XXI, 1012 rays, its origin
apparently before the dorsal-fin origin, entirely united
posteriorly, and its tip close to the anus. Anus nearer to
anal-fin origin than to posterior pelvic-fin base. Caudal
fin longer than head length, slightly forked, the lower
lobe longer than the upper one.
Coloration in preservative
After fixed in 10% formalin and storage in 75% ethanol,
dorsum of body olive brown, with 811 dark brown
traverse blotches in the middle. Dorsum of paired fins
with light brown spots. Caudal fin usually with 12
oblique broad gray bars and dorsal fin usually with one.
Anal fin light yellow, with one light gray spot.
Live coloration
The dorsal side of the body usually from brown to
dark gray, with 811 dark olive-green blotches, and
the ventral white and pink.
Distribution
Presently known from Amojiang River, Sinanjiang
River and main channel of Lixianjiang River in
Mojiang County and on the boundary of Jiangcheng
and Lvchun County, Yunnan, China (Fig. 4).
Etymology
The specific name is derived from the drainage where
this species inhabits.
Environ Biol Fish (2010) 87:2537 27
Table 1 Showing morphometric characters of Sinogastromyzon fishes
S. lixianjiangensis sp. nov. S. macrostoma sp. nov. S. multiocellum S. tonkiensis S. chapaensis
a,b,c
S. minutum
a,b,c
TL (mm) 48.360.2 48.268.9 47.176.2 45.963.0 65.0 40.047.0
SL (mm) 40.149.5 39.858.3 38.663.7 36.752.3 55.0 33.040.0
Dorsal-fin rays III, 8 III, 8 III, 7 III, 8 II, 8 II, 7
Anal-fin rays II, 5 II, 5 II, 5 II, 5 II, 5 II, 5
Pectoral-fin rays XIIIXIV, 1517 XIIXIV, 1215 XIIIXV, 1316 XIIXIII, 1315 XVI, 14 XV, 13
Pelvic-fin rays XXI, 1012 VIIIX, 1113 IXXI, 1113 IXX, 1112 XI, 10 XI, 10
Lateral-line scales 6065 4856 7076 4951 63 4550
%SL
BD 17.320.4 (18.0, 18.3, 1.0 ) 15.418.8 (17.9, 17.0, 1.2) 14.117.5 15.320.3 13.9 13.919.2
BW 23.127.2 (25.4, 24.9, 1.2) 22.026.3 (25.6, 24.6, 1.3) 20.225.3 22.529.4 ––
HL 19.222.6 (20.8, 21.0, 1.0) 19.923.5 (22.0, 21.9, 0.9) 18.221.6 22.628.0 20.4 20.823.8
CPL 11.114.6 (13.4, 13.3, 1.1) 13.316.8 (15.6, 15.5, 0.9) 13.919.2 11.815.9 16.7 13.919.6
CPD 6.57.9 (7.4, 7.3, 0.4) 7.38.8 (8.2, 7.8, 0.4) 7.59.7 8.79.8 6.5 7.48.3
Predl 44.749.4 (46.6, 47.3, 1.4) 44.550.1 (46.7, 47.1, 1.7) 42.547.4 46.852.5 ––
Prevl 35.641.4 (37.5, 38.5, 1.3) 39.744.8 (42.0, 42.1 1.3) 35.942.0 40.145.6 ––
Preal 72.782.6 (80.1, 80.7, 3.5) 74.481.0 (81.0, 78.4, 1.6) 76.882.5 76.281.7 ––
%HL
HD 55.465.0 (62.0, 58.7, 3.1) 42.564.3 (59.5, 50.1, 3.5) 45.961.2 53.670.8 ––
HW 103.3126.0 (114.5,114.3, 5.0) 120.1138.4 (131.9, 129.0, 5.0) 99.4106.3 109.8127.6 ––
LoS 50.161.4 (52.6, 55.0, 3.2) 57.969.5 (60.3, 61.9, 3.0) 51.263.0 45.159.7 54.6 50.063.7
ED 21.526.6 (23.7, 23.7, 1.4) 19.024.5 (21.3, 20.6, 1.4) 16.821.8 18.724.5 11.8 15.720.5
IOW 48.261.4 (57.0, 52.6, 5.5) 56.368.1 (62, 61.5, 3.3) 44.556.4 52.963.5 45.5 41.250.0
CPD%CPL 48.069.2 (57.6, 55.4, 6.1) 45.460.2 (52.8, 50.6, 4.0) 40.457.3 57.880.1 38.8 41.759.5
MW%HW 34.640.1 (37.8, 37.2, 2.6) 54.273.0 (69.7, 59.4, 5.5) 25.033.2 39.848.3 ––
28 Environ Biol Fish (2010) 87:2537
Table 1 (continued)
S. rugocauda
a,b,c
S. namnaensis
c
S. hypercorpus
c
S. hagiangensis
c
S. daon
c
S. hexaocellum
c
S. maon
c
S. wui
S. rugocauda
a,b,c
S. namnaensis
c
S. hypercorpus
c
S. hagiangensis
c
S. daon
c
S. hexaocellum
c
S. maon
c
S. wui
TL (mm) 44.060.0 39.042.0 64.3 42.845.1 53.087.0 54.062.0 48.058.0 55.867.7
SL (mm) 38.052.0 36.039.0 52.6 35.036.1 43.047.0 43.050.4 39.048.0 44.954.7
Dorsal-fin rays II, 8 III, 8 III, 8 II, 8 III, 8 III, 78 III, 8 III, 8
Anal-fin rays II, 5 II, 5 II, 5 II, 5 II, 5 II, 5 II, 5 II, 5
Pectoral-fin rays XIXV, 1416 XIIIXV, 1113 XIII, 14 XIII, 1315 XIII, 14 XVXVI, 13 XIIIXIV, 13 XIIXIII, 1415
Pelvic-fin rays VIIIIX, 1013 VIIIIV, 1013 X, 11 VIII, 11 IXX, 1112 X, 1114 IX, 1113 VIII, 1314
Lateral-line scales 3844 5962 50 5354 5051 6062 5457 5558
%SL
BD 15.020.4 13.014.9 21.3 17.919.2 20.020.8 13.014.9 18.219.2 12.314.1
BW ––25.026.3
HL 20.423.3 24.427.0 16.4 20.423.3 20.421.7 18.220.8 23.825.6 23.824.4
CPL 11.415.8 17.920.0 11.8 11.415.2 10.512.3 13.717.9 10.611.8 14.716.9
CPD 7.59.5 6.27.5 7.3 7.78.3 10.510.8 7.58.7 7.8 9.912.5
Predl –– –45.550.0
Prevl –– –41.743.5
Preal –– –76.983.3
%HL
HD –– –43.447.6
HW –– 91.0111.0
LoS 49.559.9 50.055.6 58.8 62.571.4 55.658.8 62.366.7 55.658.8
ED 15.022.9 12.714.1 16.4 16.716.9 18.220.8 13.914.5 22.223.8
IOW 45.059.9 40.043.5 50 50.055.6 55.5 66.776.9 38.541.7
CPD%CPL 50.069.9 31.338.5 76.9 55.666.7 100 45.566.7 23.831.3 66.776.9
MW%HW ––45.552.6
Table 1 (continued)
Environ Biol Fish (2010) 87:2537 29
Table 1 (continued)
S. nanpanjiangensis S. szechuanensis S. hsiashiensis S. sichuangensis S. dezeensis S. puliensis
d,e
S. nantaiensis
e
S. nanpanjiangensis S. szechuanensis S. hsiashiensis S. sichuangensis S. dezeensis S. puliensis
d,e
S. nantaiensis
e
TL (mm) 58.567.7 70.179.6 51.281.9 51.770.4 ––
SL (mm) 45.953.2 56.165.1 43.063.0 37.367.1 40.557.2 35.144.7
Dorsal-fin rays III, 8 III, 8 III, 8 III, 8 III, 8 III, 8 III, 89
Anal-fin rays II, 5 II, 5 II, 5 II, 5 II, 5 II, 5 II, 5
Pectoral-fin rays XIVXV, 1315 XXII, 15 XIIXIII, 1214 XXI, 1215 XIXII, 1214 XXII, 1214 XXIII, 1315
Pelvic-fin rays IXX, 1214 VIVII, 1415 VIVIII, 1216 VIVIII, 1214 VIVII, 911 VIVII, 1417 VIX, 1517
Lateral-line scales 6668 6163 5763 7176 5864 6165 4953
%SL
BD 17.218.5 12.813.0 12.719.6 13.518.5 16.117.2 18.2 16.017.7
BW 24.427.8 24.427.0 25.627.8 25.830.0 24.425.0 31.3 19.222.7
HL 23.324.4 19.621.3 20.823.8 18.924.1 22.223.8 25 26.329.6
CPL 12.713.9 13.514.7 9.310.5 12.614.5 18.518.9 11.4 8.211.4
CPD 7.67.9 7.98.1 6.48.1 6.59.0 6.97.0 12.5 10.812.6
Predl 47.650.0 45.550.0 47.652.6 43.547.6 47.652.6 49.652.6
Prevl 38.540.0 38.543.5 40.041.7 38.541.7 40.041.7 42.346.5
Preal 76.983.3 81.382.6 75.887.0 76.954.9 79.385.7
%HL
HD 47.652.6 47.652.6 47.655.6 41.747.6 50.052.6 ––
HW 111.1125.0 111.1125.0 111.1125.0 104.8125.0 100.0111.1 ––
LoS 50.058.8 50.058.8 47.671.4 47.658.8 47.650.0 55.6
ED 20.822.2 25.625.0 16.722.7 16.921.7 20.021.3 16.1
IOW 41.745.5 45.550.0 38.52.6 41.348.9 43.545.5 52.6
CPD%CPL 58.862.5 52.658.8 66.7100 71.457.1 35.737.0 ––
MW%HW 47.652.6 31.332.3 34.541.7 28.634.5 34.541.7 ––
a
from Mai (1978)
b
from Kottelat (2001a)
c
from Nguyen (2005)
d
from Chen and Tang (2000)
e
from Chen et al. (2002)
Note: The holotype, mean and SD (standard deviation) are in parentheses
Table 1 (continued)
30 Environ Biol Fish (2010) 87:2537
Habitat and ecology
Sinogastromyzon lixianjiangensis was collected from
tributaries of streams with swift current over a
substrate of gravels. They swim slowly and inhabit
the bottom of water. Several other species were
collected at the same time: Balitora kwangsiensis
(Balitoridae), Glyptothorax quadriocellatus (Sisori-
dae), Garra orientalis (Cyprinidae), Hemibagrus
pluriradtus (Bagridae), Poropuntius huangchieni
(Cyprinidae), Pseudecheneis paviei (Sisoridae), Sca-
phiodonichthys acanthopterus (Cyprinidae), Schistura
callichromus (Balitoridae), Schistura laterivittata
(Balitoridae), Sinogastromyzon macrostoma (Balitor-
idae), Sinogastromyzon multiocellum (Balitoridae),
Sinogastromyzon tonkinensis (Balitoridae), Vanma-
nensis tetraloba (Balitoridae).
Remarks
Sinogastromyzon lixianjiangensis can be distin-
guished from its congeners easily. And it is most
close to S.hexaocellum and S. multiocellum. However,
it can be distinguished from S.hexaocellum by the
following characters: pectoral fin with XIIIXIV,
1517 rays (vs. XVXVI, 13); 1618 predorsal
scales (vs. 14); body depth 17.320.4% of body
length (vs. 14.314.9%), anus nearer to anal-fin
origin than to posterior pelvic-fin base (vs. midway
between anal-fin origin and posterior pelvic-fin
base), with 811 blotches on the back (vs. 6); and
can be distinguished from S. multiocellum by the
following characters: 8 branched dorsal rays (vs. 7),
mouth width 34.642.9% of head width (vs. 25.0
33.2%) and head width distinctly longer than head
length (vs. about as long as).
Sinogastromyzon macrostoma, sp. nov. (Fig. 2)
Holotype KIZ 200401820, 48.8 mm SL; Amojiang
River, Mojiang County, Yunnan, China, 23°0247.44
N, 101°4649.48E; Collected by Chen XY, Cui GH;
Jan. 2004.
Paratypes KIZ 200401803, 43.2 mm SL, KIZ
200401811, 43.6 mm SL, KIZ 200401821, 39.8 mm
SL; collected with the holotype (3 specimens). KIZ
200401794, 45.1 mm SL; Sinanjiang River, Mojiang
County, Yunnan, China, 23°0738.13N, 101°47
44.32E (1 specimen); Chen XY, Cui GH; Jan. 2004.
KIZ 200401444, 58.3 mm SL, KIZ 200401460,
51.8 mm SL; Lixianjiang River, Mojiang County,
Yunnan, China, 22°5037.98N, 101°4744.32E(2
specimens); Chen XY, Cui GH; Jan. 2004. KIZ
2008003111, 46.3 mm SL, KIZ 2008003050, 49.0 mm
SL, KIZ 2008003064, 44.8 mm SL, KIZ 2008003083
46.7 mm SL; Lixianjiang River on boundary of
Jiangcheng and Lvchun County, Yunnan, China. 22°
4457.50N, 102°427.90E (4 specimens); Collected by
Yang J; Apr. 2008.
Diagnosis
Sinogastromyzon macrostoma can be distinguished
from its congeners by the following characters:
pectoral fin with XIIXIV, 1215 rays; pelvic fin
with VIIIX, 1113 rays; 4856 lateral-line scales;
mouth extremely large, slightly arched; dorsal-fin
origin nearer to tip of snout than to caudal-fin base;
no scales on the dorsum of paired fins or the region
between axilla of pectoral fin and pelvic-fin origin; tip
of pelvic fin extending far beyond anus; tip of anal fin
far from caudal-fin base; anal-fin origin about midway
Fig. 2 Dorsal, lateral and ventral view of Sinogastromyzon
macrostoma, Holotype, KIZ 200401820, 48.8 mm SL; Amo-
jiang River, Mojiang County, Yunnan, China
Environ Biol Fish (2010) 87:2537 31
between the posterior pelvic-fin base and the caudal-
fin base; anus nearer to posterior pelvic-fin base than to
anal-fin origin; dorsum of body uniformly gray,
without regular blotches on the dorsal side of the body.
Description
Morphometric characters are presented in Table 1.
Views from different dimensions of the body are
presented in Fig. 2.
Head and anterior part of body short, strongly
depressed and ventrally flattened, and posterior part
laterally compressed. Dorsal profile slightly arched.
Dorsum of head and body densely covered with tiny
tubercles. Snout blunt and rounded, with thin edge.
Mouth extremely big, inferior and slightly arched.
Distinct groove between rostral fold and upper lip.
Three fleshy lobes in rostral fold, the mid one bigger
than others with a small notch in the middle, nearly
rectangular. Upper lip with a single series of more
than 20 papillae, 14 in the middle, 7 small among 7
big, 34 in the corner, gradually small, no papillae on
the lower lip; upper and lower lip connect at the
corner of mouth. Lower jaw more exposed than the
upper one, and smooth on the surface. Two pairs of
rostral barbels, both small, the outer one bigger, about
1/4 of eye diameter. Two barbels at each corner of
mouth, both weak, the outer bigger, the inner one
papillae-like. Eyes relatively small, superolaterally
placed. Nostrils medium, next to eyes. Interorbital
space wide and flat. Gill opening large, extending to
the pectoral fin origin on the ventral surface. Scales
tiny, predorsal scales 1618, lateral line complete, with
4856 scales extending straight to the caudal-fin base.
Dorsal fin with III, 8 rays, without spine, its origin
nearer to tip of snout than to caudal-fin base; and its base
length about equals the head length; Anal fin with II, 5
rays, and its origin about midway between the posterior
pelvic-fin base and the caudal-fin base; simple rays
slightly strengthened; tip of the anal fin far from caudal-
fin base. Paired fins flat and broad, with strong expanded
muscular bands above the bases, and no scales on the
dorsum of paired fins or the region between axilla of
pectoral fin and pelvic-fin origin. Pectoral fin with XII
XIV, 1215 rays, its origin vertically between the eye
and nostril, and its tip extending beyond the pelvic-fin
origin. Pelvic fin with VIIIV, 1113 rays, its origin
apparently before dorsal-fin origin; entirely fused
posteriorly and its tip extending far beyond anus. Anus
nearer to the posterior pelvic-fin base than to anal-fin
origin. Caudal fin longer than head, slightly forked, the
lower lobe longer than the upper one.
Coloration in preservative
After fixed in 10% formalin and storage in 75%
ethanol, dorsum of body uniformly dark grey, without
blotches or just longitudinal irregular broken black
strips in the middle. Dorsum of paired fins uniformly
grey with light yellow margin. Caudal and dorsal fin
usually gray with white narrow bars. Anal fin light
yellow, with 1 light gray spot.
Live coloration
The dorsal side of the body uniformly dark olive-
green, and the ventral white and pink.
Distribution
Presently known from Amojiang River, Sinanjiang
River and main channel of Lixianjiang River in
Mojiang County and on the boundary of Jiangcheng
and Lvchun County, Yunnan, China. (Fig. 4)
Etymology
From the Greek, macro means long or big, and stoma
means mouth. macrostoma refers to relative larger
mouth when compared with its congers.
Habitat and ecology
Sinogastromyzon macrostoma usually coexists with S.
lixianjiangensis, its habitat and ecology is almost the
same to S. lixianjiangensis.
Remarks
Sinogastromyzon macrostoma can be very easily
separated from all of its congeners except S. nam-
naensis by having no blotches on the back. And it can
also be easily distinguished from S. namnaensis by
the following characters: caudal-peduncle depth 45.4
60.2% caudal-peduncle length (vs. 31.438.5%),
lateral-line scales 4856 (vs. 5962), no scales on
the dorsum of pectoral-fin (with scales on the dorsum
of pectoral-fin) dorsal-fin origin nearer to tip of snout
32 Environ Biol Fish (2010) 87:2537
than to caudal-fin base (vs. midway between tip of
snout and caudal-fin base) anus nearer to posterior
pelvic-fin base than to anal-fin origin (vs. midway
between posterior pelvic-fin base and anal-fin origin).
Sinogastromyzon cf. multiocellum, (Fig. 3)
Materials examined KIZ 20040170111, 38.6
63.7 mm SL; Lixianjiang River on boundary of
Jiangcheng and Lvchun County, Yunnan, China, 22°
4457.50N, 102°427.90E(11specimens).ChenXY,
Cui GH; Jan. 2004. KIZ 200401647, 51.2 mm SL, KIZ
200401657, 52.4 mm SL, KIZ 200401696, 49.8 mm SL;
Sinanjiang River, Mojiang County, Yunnan, China, 23°
0738.13N, 101°4744.32E (3 specimen); Chen XY,
Cui GH; Jan. 2004. KIZ 200401422, 57.6 mm SL, KIZ
200401460, 51.7 mm SL; Lixianjiang River, Mojiang
County, Yunnan, China. 22°5037.98N, 101°4744.32
E (1 specimens); Chen XY, Cui GH; Jan. 2004.
Diagnosis
Sinogastromyzon multiocellum can be distinguished
from its congeners by the following characters:
pectoral fin with XIIIXV, 1316 rays; pelvic fin
with IXXI, 1113 rays ; 6165 lateral-line scales;
mouth quite small, deeply arched; dorsal-fin origin
nearer to tip of snout than to caudal-fin base; no scales
on the dorsum of paired fins or the region between axilla
of pectoral fin and of pelvic-fin origin; tip of pelvic fin
relatively far from anus; tip of anal fin far from caudal-
fin base; anal-fin origin about midway between the
posterior pelvic-fin base and the caudal-fin base; anus
nearer to anal-fin origin than to posterior pelvic-fin base;
with 8 blotches on the back.
Description
Morphometric characters are presented in Table 1.
Views from different dimensions of the body are
presented in Fig. 3.
Head and anterior part of body relatively elongate,
depressed and ventrally flattened, and posterior part
laterally compressed. Dorsal profile slightly arched.
Dorsum of head densely covered with tiny tubercles.
Snout blunt and rounded, with thin edge. Mouth quite
small, inferior and deeply arched. Distinct groove
between rostral fold and upper lip. Three fleshy lobes
in rostral fold, the middle one a little bigger. Upper lip
with a single series of about 13 papillae in equal size,
with about 6 lognitudinal papillae on the edge of the
lower lip; upper and lower lip connect at the corner of
mouth. Two longitudinal ridge in the middle of chin.
Upper jaw slightly exposed, and lower jaw exposed with
radiate ridge on the surface. Two pairs of rostral barbels,
the outer one slightly bigger, about 3/4 of eye diameter.
Two barbels at each corner of mouth, in equal size or the
outer slightly bigger. Eyes medium, superolaterally
placed. Nostrils medium, next to eyes. Interorbital place
wide and flat. Gill opening large, extending to the
pectoral-fin origin on the ventral surface. Scales tiny,
predorsal scales 1618; lateral line complete, with 6165
scales extending straight to caudal-fin base.
Dorsal fin with III, 7 rays, without spine, its origin
nearer to the tip of snout than to caudal-fin base; and
its base length about equals the head length. Anal fin
with II, 5 rays, and its origin about midway between
the posterior pelvic-fin base and the caudal-fin base,
simple rays flat and slightly strengthened, and tip of
the anal fin far from caudal-fin base. Paired fins flat
and broad, with strong expanded muscular bands
above the bases, and no scales on the dorsum of
paired fins or the region between axilla of pectoral fin
and pelvic-fin origin. Pectoral fin with XIIIXV, 13
Fig. 3 Dorsal, lateral and ventral view of Sinogastromyzon cf.
multiocellum, KIZ 200401710, 45.4 mm SL; Lixianjiang River,
Lvchun County, Yunnan, China
Environ Biol Fish (2010) 87:2537 33
16 rays, its origin vertically between the eye and
nostril, and its tip extending beyond the pelvic-fin
origin. Pelvic fin with IXXI, 1113 rays, its origin
apparently before dorsal-fin origin, entirely fused
posteriorly and its tip relatively far from anus. Anus
nearer to anal-fin origin than to posterior pelvic-fin
base. Caudal fin longer than head, slightly forked, the
lower lobe longer than the upper one.
Coloration in preservative After fixed in 10% forma-
lin and storage in 75% ethanol, dorsum of body
brown, with 8 dark brown blotches on the middle, and
the blotches are rounded by light yellow strips.
Dorsum of paired fins with light brown spots. Caudal
fin usually with 2 oblique broad gray bars and dorsal
fin usually with 1. Anal fin light yellow.
Live coloration
The dorsal side of the body usually from brown to
dark gray, with about 8 dark olive-green blotches, and
the ventral white and pink.
Distribution
Presently known from Amojiang River, Sinanjiang
River and main channel of Lixianjiang River in
Mojiang County and on the boundary of Jiangcheng
and Lvchuan County, Yunnan, China (Fig. 4).
Habitat and ecology
S. multiocellum usually coexists with S. lixianjian-
gensis and S. macrostoma, its habitat and ecology is
the same to them.
Remarks
The specimens of S. cf. multiocellum we examined
here is very similar to the holotype of S. multiocellum
sensu stricto in the mouth structure, finsstructure,
number of lateral-line scales, coloration pattern and
almost all the morphometric characters. However, our
material is also slightly different from the description
of Nguyen (2005): head length about equals head
width (vs. head length slightly longer than head
width)andanal-finoriginmidwaybetweenthe
posterior pelvic-fin base and caudal-fin base (vs.
slightly nearer to posterior pelvic-fin base than to
caudal-fin base), besides we have no specimens of
this species to compare with. Considering these
differences may be caused by the different measure-
ment, we tentatively assign our specimen to S.
multiocellum.
Fig. 4 Map showing distribution of S. lixianjiangensis sp. nov.
(), S. macrostoma sp. nov. (), S. multiocellum (), S.
tonkinensis () and S. chapaensis ()
Key to species of Sinogastromyzon
1with scales on the dorsum of paired fins or the region between axilla of pectoral fin and pelvic-fin
origin…………………………………………………………….........………………..2
no scales on the dorsum of paired fins or the region between axilla of pectoral fin and pelvic-fin
origin…………………………………………………………...........................................…………………....4
2no regular blotches on the dorsal side of the body……….......................……………..S. namnaensis Nugyen
with regular blotches on the dorsal side of the body………............................…………………………………3
3no muscular band on the dorsum of the pelvic-fin base………………………..............................S .wui Fang
with muscular band on the dorsum of the pelvic-fin base.............................…….S. nanpanjiangensis Li
34 Environ Biol Fish (2010) 87:2537
Discussion
Till now, there are 5 Sinogastromyzon fishes recorded
in the Red River drainage of China. According to our
observation, 4 of them, S. tonkinensis,S. lixianjian-
gensis,S. multiocellum and S.mcarostoma, coexist in
Lixianjiang River in Mojiang County and on the
boundary of Jiangcheng and Lvchun County. How-
4tip of pelvic fin extending beyond anus………………..………………………………….............................5
tip of pelvic fin not reaching anus…………………………………………............................……………...15
5no regular blotches on the dorsal side of the body…………………............................S. macrostoma sp. nov.
with regular blotches on the dorsal side of the body…………….............................……………………………6
6caudal-peduncle length less than caudal-peduncle depth…………...........................……………………….7
caudal-peduncle length more than caudal-peduncle depth………...............................……………….…………8
74953 lateral-line scales, 1617 predorsal scales, no spots on the dorsum of the pectoral-fin
base………………………………………………….................................S. nantaiensis Chen, Han et Fang
6065 lateral-line scales, 2325 predorsal scales, with spots on the dorsum of the pectoral-fin
base…………………………………………………….............................................................S.puliensis Liang
83844 lateral-line scales…………………………….……..........................………………….S. rugocauda Mai
4868 lateral-line scales………………………….............................………………………………………...9
9body depth more than 5 times in body length…….........................………………………………………..10
body depth less than 5 times in body length…………………..........................………………………………11
10anus nearer to posterior pelvic-fin base than to anal-fin base, lower lobe of caudal fin equals the upper
one………………………….................................................………………………......……....S. daon Nguyen
anus nearer to anal-fin base than to posterior pelvic-fin base, lower lobe of caudal fin longer than the upper
one………..…………..…….......................................................…………....................S. hypercorpus Nguyen
11simples rays of anal fin not strengthened as spines……......................………………….…………………..12
simples rays of anal fin strengthened as spines…………….............................………………....………..13
12anus locates in the first 1/3 part from the posterior pelvic-fin base to the anal origin……..... S. szechuanensis Fang
anus locates in the last 1/2 part from the posterior pelvic-fin base to the anal origin.....S. hsiashiensis Fang
13anal fin with 1 weak spine………….......................………………..............S. tonkinensis Pellegrin et Chevey
anal fin with 2 weak spines…………………....................…………………………………………….....14
14anus midway between posterior pelvic-fin base and anal origin, with 1012 blotches on the dorsal side of the
body…………….............................................………...…………………………….. S. maon Nugyen et Nuc
anus nearer to anal origin than to posterior pelvic-fin base, with 67 blotches on the dorsal side of the
body…………………………………............................................………………….. S. hagiangensis Nugyen
154550 lateral-line scales……………………………………………......................……..…….S. minutum Mai
more than 55 lateral-line scales………………………………….................................……………………...16
167176 lateral-line scales…………………………………………….........................S. sichuangensis Chang
5965 lateral-line scales…………....…………………………..............................……………………….17
17pelvic fin with VIVII simple rays……………………………………….........................…….S. dezeensis Li
pelvic fin with IXXI simple rays………….……………………………............................………………..18
18two barbels at each corner of mouth, the inner one papillae-like.......................S. lixianjiangensis sp. nov.
two barbels at each corner of mouth, both long and strong.…………..........................…………………19
19anus midway between the posterior pelvic-fin base and anal origin.......................S. hexaocellum Nugyen
anus locates in the last 1/4 part from the posterior pelvic-fin base to the anal origin……..........................20
20dorsal fin with 7 branched rays……………………………........................…………S. multiocellum Nugyen
dorsal fin with 8 branched rays…………………………..…………...........................S. chapaensis Mai
Environ Biol Fish (2010) 87:2537 35
ever, they are very different from each other in the
mouth structure, the finsstructure, number of lateral-
line scales, anus position and color pattern. Especially
for the size of mouth, they can be distinctly divided
into four ranks, mouth width 25.033.2% of head
width rank for S. multiocellum, 34.640.1% rank for
S. lixianjiangensis, 39.848.3% rank for S. tonkinen-
sis and 54.273.0% rank for S. macrostoma (Fig. 5).
This maybe indicate their different food habits and
explain why they can coexist in the same area.
Sinogastromyzon chapaensis was first reported by
Liao and Tzeng (2002) in Hekou County, Yunnan,
China, just a few miles to the locality reported by
Nguyen (2005) (Views from different dimensions of
the body are presented in Fig. 6). But there is notable
deviation from the descriptions by Kottelat (2001a)
and Nguyen (2005) which corresponding to each
other in almost all the characters: XIVXV simple
pectoral rays (vs. XVI), XIXII branched pelvic rays
(vs. X), eye diameter 20.021.3% of head length (vs.
11.8%), caudal peduncle-length 7.17.9% of body
length (vs. 6.5%), dorsal-fin origin nearer to tip of
snout than to caudal-fin base (vs. midway between tip
of snout and caudal-fin base). Instead, we found it is
almost the same to S. multiocellum except the number
of branched dorsal fins (8 vs. 7) and color pattern (8
blotches on the back vs. 6); and to S. hexaocellum
except the position of anus (nearer to anal-fin origin
than to posterior pelvic-fin base vs. midway between
posterior pelvic-fin base and anal-fin origin) and anal-
fin origin (midway between posterior pelvic-fin base
and caudal-fin base vs. nearer to caudal fin base).
Unfortunately, for the lack of specimens, we can not
answer this question in this study.
Comparative materials
Sinogastromyzon nanpanjiangensis: KIZ 753010 (ho-
lotype) 53.2 mm SL, KIZ 753014 (paratype) 52.4 mm
SL, KIZ 753025 (paratype); 46.9 mm SL, Nanpan-
jiang River, Lunan County, Yunnan, China. Sinogas-
Fig. 5 Showing mouth
structures of aS. lixianjian-
gensis,bS. multiocellum,
cS. macrostoma,dS.
tonkinsis
Fig. 6 Dorsal, lateral and ventral view of Sinogastromyzon
chapaensis, NTHUB2198, 33.9 mm SL; Nanxihe River, Hekou
County, Yunnan, China (photographed by Dr. Tzeng Chyng-shyan)
36 Environ Biol Fish (2010) 87:2537
tromyzon szechuanensis: KIZ 19840004178, 56.08
65.12 mm SL, Leshan, Sichuan China. Sinogastro-
myzon dezeensis: KIZ 20060071867, 40.557.2 mm
SL, Niulanjiang River (a tributary of upper Yangtze ),
Deze town, Zhanyi County, Yunnan, China; KIZ
200600693941, 44.954.7 mm SL, Niulanjiang
River, Tuole town, Zhanyi County, Yunnan, China. S.
wui: Tuoniangjiang River (a tributary of upper Pearl
River drainage), Boyi couty, Yunnan, China; KIZ
2005000796803, 36.055.3 mm SL, Gulahe River
(a tributary of upper Pearl River drainage), Gula town,
Funing couty, Yunnan, China. Sinogastromyzon
sichuangensis: KIZ 795675, 67.1 mm SL, Yaan couty,
Sichuan, China; KIZ 8210093145, 37.360.4 mm SL,
Luobuhe River (a tributary of upper Yangtze) Weixin
couty, Yunnan, China. Sinogastromyzon hsiashiensis:
KIZ 99534748, 70.382.1 mm SL, Tongzi County,
Guizhou, China. Sinogastromyzon tonkinensis:KIZ
73714955, 42.951.3 mm SL; Chuanhe River (up-
stream of Babianjiang River which belongs to Red
River drainage), Jingdong County, Yunnan, China;
KIZ 2008001488, 59.0 mm SL, Lixianjiang River,
Lvchun County, Yunnan, China; KIZ 2004011530,
54.7 mm SL, KIZ 2004011507 49.7 mm SL, KIZ
2004011860, 62.9 mm SL, Lixianjiang River, Mojiang
County, Yunnan, China.
Acknowledgments We are deeply indebted to Cui Guihua for
her help in collecting specimens. Thanks are given to I-Shiung
Chen and Lee-Shing Fang for providing their paper on S.
nantaiensis; and given to Liao Te-yu and Tzeng Chyng-shyan
for the information and high quality pictures of S. chapaensis;
and also given to Mr. He Yuanhui for translating some
Vietnamese literatures into Chinese. The authors are grateful to
Yang Jian, Du Lina and Zheng Lanping who helped collecting
specimens, taking photos, gathering literatures and improving the
manuscript. This work was funded by National Basic Research
Program of China (973 Program) (2007CB411600), the National
Natural Science Foundation of China (30730017) and China
Datang Corporation.
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Environ Biol Fish (2010) 87:2537 37
... Because the surface of the abalone sucker has a hairy structure that can facilitate the formation of vacuum adsorption, it can be well sealed on the rough surface, and three kinds of forces that affect the adsorption performance of abalone are analyzed. A quantitative calculation method of the abalone total adsorption force is proposed [32,33]. Meanwhile, it is found that the suckers of the northern clingfish and Petromyzon marinus have a hairy structure, and this structure is conducive to adsorption on rough surfaces [34][35][36]. ...
... The Sinogastromyzon belongs to the Balitoridae, which is one unique kind of fish in China and Vietnam [33]. In addition, the Sinogastromyzon has evolved a suction cup that can stably adsorb on the rough rock surface to resist the rapid water flow. ...
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Ca Nuoc Ngot Viet Nam. Tap II [Freshwater fishes of Vietnam. Volume II]
  • Nguyen
Homalopteridae In: Yue R et al (eds) Fauna Sinica
  • Yy Chen
  • Tang
Poisson nouveau du Tonkin appartenant au gener sinogatromyzon
  • J Pellegrin
  • Chevey
Mojiang County, Yunnan, China Paratypes KIZ 200401788, 49.5 mm SL, KIZ 200401792, 43.9 mm SL, KIZ 200401798, 41.5 mm SL; collected with the holotype (3 specimens)
  • Holotype
  • Kiz
  • Sl
  • °07′38 Sinanjiang
  • °47′44 13″n
  • ″e
  • Chen Xy Collected
  • Cui
  • Gh
Holotype KIZ 200401799, 44.0 mm SL, Sinanjiang River (a tributary of Lixianjiang River which belongs to the Red River drainage), Mojiang County, Yunnan, China; 23°07′38.13″N, 101°47′44.32″E; Collected by Chen XY, Cui GH; Jan. 2004. Paratypes KIZ 200401788, 49.5 mm SL, KIZ 200401792, 43.9 mm SL, KIZ 200401798, 41.5 mm SL; collected with the holotype (3 specimens). KIZ 200401801, 41.8 mm SL, KIZ 200401802, 42.3 mm SL, KIZ 200401805, 44.8 mm SL, KIZ 200401812, 45.6 mm SL, KIZ 200401826, 44.7 mm SL, KIZ 200401828, 41.0 mm SL, KIZ 200401835, 45.3 mm SL; Amojiang River (a tributary of Lixianjiang River), Mojiang County, Yunnan, China, 23°02′ 47.44″N, 101°46′49.48″E (7 specimens);
Tuole town, Zhanyi County, Yunnan, China. S. wui: Tuoniangjiang River (a tributary of upper Pearl River drainage), Boyi couty
  • Sl
7 mm SL, Niulanjiang River, Tuole town, Zhanyi County, Yunnan, China. S. wui: Tuoniangjiang River (a tributary of upper Pearl River drainage), Boyi couty, Yunnan, China; KIZ 2005000796–803, 36.0–55.