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The use of analogies in written text (26)

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Although analogies are commonly used in instruction, little is known for whom and under what conditions they are most beneficial. This descriptive study investigated the use of analogies in the design of instructional text. Twenty-six science textbooks, ranging from elementary to post-secondary level, were analyzed for the presence of analogies. A total of 216 analogies were identified and organized into several categories which were then synthesized into a classification system. Based on these results, a set of prescriptions regarding the nature and characteristics of the vehicle and topic and their relationship, the presence and amount of grounds and limitations and the appropriate format and position for an analogy in written instruction are proposed. Recommendations for additional research are suggested.
... да ли је реч о примени у свакодневној комуникацији, у науци или у учењу и настави). Више је истакнутих научника, као што су Радерфорд, Максвел и Анштајн који су саопштавали да су користили аналогије приликом решавања проблема које су проучавали (Curtis & Reigeluth, 1984). Аналогије имају широку примену и у учењу и образовању. ...
... Oргел и Боднер су анализирали осам уџбеника биохемије и од 158 регистрованих аналогија у само седам случајева су нашли да аутори експлицитно говоре о ограничењима аналогија (Orgill & Bodner, 2006). Посматрано уопштено, уобичајено да су у уџбеницима аналогије које се детаљније елаборирају (подробнијим описивањем сличности или навођењем разлика) убедљиво у мањини (Curtis & Reigeluth, 1984;Pavlović, 2016). ...
... The representation and expression of some of the above processes also depend on the area in which the analogies are applied (for example, whether it is an application in everyday communication, in science or in learning and teaching). There are several prominent scientists, such as Rutherford, Maxwell, and Einstein, who reported using analogies in solving the problems they studied (Curtis & Reigeluth, 1984). Analogies have wide application in both learning and education. ...
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One of the biggest problems related to the application of analogies in teaching and learning relates to the possibility of misunderstanding the content of learning, which in such cases is caused by unjustified analogical transfer. The paper presents the results of research on unjustified analogical transfer in the application of analogies in situations that are typical for learning in an academic context. The aim of the research was to examine the extent to which the tendency towards unjustified analogical transfer was expressed in the learning with the application of analogy. A quasi-experimental research with elements of a field experiment was realised on a sample of 140 students. Respondents read two texts. In one, a fictional animal was compared to a known animal, and in the other, a fictional game was compared to a known game. The experimental factor was an explicit indication of the differences between the compared objects. Knowledge tests measured how much the respondents remembered about the characteristics by which the compared objects were similar, i.e. not similar. By analysing the responses from the tests, we registered the presence of unjustified analogue transfer. The results show that the propensity for unjustified analogical transfer is present to a significant extent. This tendency can be reduced if, in addition to the similarities on which the analogy is based, there are also differences between the objects that are compared in the analogy, but even then it will not be completely eliminated. The basic pedagogical implications that follow from the obtained results are the need to strengthen the awareness of teachers and textbook authors about the potential danger of unjustified analogical transfer and the recommendation to point out to students the differences between the base and target domain. This significantly reduces this danger.
... O primeiro é uma condição inerente ao ser humano e o segundo precisa da emissão de juízo de valor. Quando Selena diz que antes enunciava as analogias automaticamente (espontaneamente) corrobora com as ideias de alguns autores (CURTIS;REIGELUTH 1984;LAKOFF;JOHNSON, 1980) que relatam acerca da indissociabilidade entre o pensamento humano e a emissão de analogias. ...
... O primeiro é uma condição inerente ao ser humano e o segundo precisa da emissão de juízo de valor. Quando Selena diz que antes enunciava as analogias automaticamente (espontaneamente) corrobora com as ideias de alguns autores (CURTIS;REIGELUTH 1984;LAKOFF;JOHNSON, 1980) que relatam acerca da indissociabilidade entre o pensamento humano e a emissão de analogias. ...
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Analogies are comparisons between a known concept and an unknown concept. Teachers use them to facilitate the learning of scientific concepts in science teaching, but when using analogies, systematic planning is necessary. The goal of this study was to analyze the contribution of a collaborative and reflective continuing education initiative to the awareness of science teachers about the spontaneous use of analogies. The research approach was qualitative and involved the participation of three teachers. Reflections of the participants generated in the course and in a group-discussion session were the data used in the analysis. Discursive Textual Analysis was used as an analytical framework. Results indicate that the course permitted teachers to reflect on their practice and to question the initial teaching education they had had. The principles of reflection and collaboration are essential for the education of science teachers who use analogies in teaching.
... Weisen unterschiedliche Problemsituationen ähnliche relationale Strukturen auf, wird von analogen Grundstrukturen gesprochen , die in Quell-und spätere Zieldomänen differenziert werden (Gentner & Smith, 2012 Holyoak, 2005) Ähnlichkeitsbeziehungen differenzieren. ‚Einfache' Ähnlichkeitsbeziehungen basieren hauptsächlich auf oberflächlichen Ähnlichkeiten und sind als interpretativ und unspezifisch zu bezeichnen, während ‚erklärende' Ähnlichkeitsbeziehungen über die oberflächliche Zuordnung korrespondierender Elemente hinaus gehen und strukturelle Relationen fokussieren (Curtis & Reigeluth, 1984;Harrison & Treagust, 2006). Die Ähnlichkeitsbeziehungen (analoge Relationen) werden in der vorliegenden Studie nicht losgelöst von den Inhalten der jeweiligen Domänen, sondern in einem Problemkontext betrachtet. ...
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Band 39 aus Tagungsband der Gesellschaft für Didaktik der Chemie und Physik
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BOOK SYNOPSIS: A&M 20 years: training and performance of researchers in analogies, metaphors and models. What is possible to do when one has knowledge about a Universal Law? What has been done and what is being done with the knowledge about the Law of Gravity? It is possible to build huge buildings, move a car, command a ship, fly a plane, leave Earth's orbit… and… What can you do when you have knowledge of the Law of Analogy? Although this knowledge is still at the beginning for us, it is possible for the reader of A&M 20 years: training and performance of researchers in Analogies, Metaphors and Models to have a small idea of the immense possibilities and applicability, for many areas of human knowledge, research and attributes of analogical and/or metaphorical thinking. Going beyond their roles as figures of speech, Analogies and Metaphors - A&M - assume other functions linked to Education, Science, Technology and the Arts together with the models. The purpose of the book is to celebrate more than 20 years of study and investigation in Analogies, Metaphors and Models (A&M) in the training and performance of researchers in various areas of knowledge. Thus, it expands the visibility and memory of the work developed by the AMTEC Research Group and the GEMATEC Study Group, both linked to the Master's Program in Technological Education of the Federal Center for Technological Education of Minas Gerais - CEFET-MG, based in Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. The work proposes to conceptually disseminate the theme in order to promote dialogue between researchers in Education, Technology, Science and other areas, such as the Arts, expanding the network of collaboration and work on the subject. Organized by researchers Prof. PhD. Ronaldo Luiz Nagem – Post-doc in Science Education at UMINHO/Portugal, Prof. PhD. Siane Paula de Araújo – Post-doc in Technological Education at CEFET-MG/Brazil, Prof. MSc. Maria de Fátima Marcelos – Master in Technological Education by CEFET-MG/Brazil, the book contains three distinct, but communicating parts. The first one, entitled Guarda-Chuva de Ideias (Umbrella of Ideas) aims to present a synthesis of the primordial ideas and the main concepts and applications regarding the theme. The second one presents a compendium of 10 articles produced by active researchers from AMTEC related to inter-institutional research projects, master's dissertations, results of scientific works from the Group and/or disciplines offered in the Master's Course in Technological Education. Finally, the third one refers to a catalog of abstracts of theses, dissertations and scientific initiation research developed and defended by AMTEC members from its creation to the present edition of the book. In the preface, Prof. PhD. Dácio Guimarães de Moura points out that the AMTEC and GEMATEC groups highlight the concept of analogy formulated by the Argentine thinker Carlos B. González Pecotche, who distinguished it as a Universal Law that acts naturally in the development of the human mind, as well as in the learning and construction of knowledge. This conception gives A&M an enormous hierarchy in the set of cutting-edge issues in the fields of theories of knowledge and psychology of human development, which is fundamental in this book. Reference Nagem, R. L., Araújo, S. P. de, & Marcelos, M. de F. (Orgs). (2022). A&M 20 years: training and performance of researchers in analogies, metaphors and models. Fi publishing company. https://doi.org/10.22350/9786559173730
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Planlama ve Tasarım konularını farklı ölçek ve bakış açılarıyla ele almak üzere Endüstriyel Tasarım, İçmimarlık, Mimarlık ve Şehir ve Bölge Planlama olmak üzere farklı disiplinler ve meslek grupları ortaya çıkmıştır. Her bir disiplinin planlama/tasarım sürecine olan yaklaşımı farklılık göstermektedir. Amacın, ölçeğin ve sürecin değişmesinin yanı sıra; kavramlar, alan tanımı/algılaması/anlayışı da değişiklik göstermektedir. Ancak, hangi ölçekte çalışılırsa çalışılsın üst ya da alt ölçekler birbiriyle ilişkili olmak durumundadır. “Birimden Bütüne İnterdisipliner Tasarım Yaklaşımları” isimli bu kitapta da, ürün tasarımından, kentsel mekân tasarımına kadar geniş bir yelpazeye sahip tasarım fikirleri yer almakla beraber her bir disiplin birim-bütün anlayışını kendi meslek sınırları içinde de değerlendirerek ele almıştır. Bölüm yazarları, Türkiye’de yer alan farklı üniversitelerin endüstriyel tasarım, içmimarlık, mimarlık ve şehir ve bölge planlama bölümlerinde görev yapan değerli akademisyen ve paydaşlardan oluşmaktadır.
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Resumo O uso de aulas práticas investigativas para crianças e jovens estudantes no Brasil e no mundo, mediante microscópio e contextualizadas com questões do dia a dia, tem sido uma necessidade sinalizada cada vez mais pela pesquisa em Educação Científica. É comum a falta de conhecimento dos alunos sobre célula e micro-organismos, e quando presente, encontra-se, muitas vezes, fortemente arraigado em idéias equivocadas sobre o assunto. Este trabalho teve como objetivo investigar sobre o desenvolvimento conceitual adquirido pelos alunos dos Anos Iniciais sobre o tamanho, a estrutura e a funcionalidade de micro-organismos/células mediante aulas teórico-práticas ministradas na Cooperativa de Ensino de Central-BA-COOPEC. Realizamos a coleta de dados mediante pesquisa qualitativa associada ao método da entrevista semiestruturada. Analisamos os dados transcritos, de forma comparativa, indicando quatro níveis de desenvolvimento conceitual dos estudantes. Observamos um aumento gradativo nos conhecimentos científicos, envolvendo a estrutura e a função de micro-organismos/células, enfatizando a importância destes seres para o ser humano e para a Natureza. Palavras-chave:Conhecimento espontâneo, Conhecimento científico, Analogias. Abstract The use of practical investigative classes for children and young students in Brazil and worldwide, through a microscope and contextualized with everyday issues, has been a need increasingly signaled by research in Scientific Education. It is common the lack of knowledge by students about cell and microorganisms, and when present, is often strongly rooted in misguided ideas about the subject. This work aimed to investigate the conceptual development acquired by students in the Early Years on the size, structure and functionality of microorganisms/cells through theoretical-practical classes taught at the Central-BA-COOPEC Teaching Cooperative. Data collection was performed through qualitative research associated with the semi-structured interview method. We analyzed the transcribed data in a comparative way, indicating four levels of conceptual development of the students. We observed a gradual increase in scientific knowledge, involving the structure and function of microorganisms/cells, emphasizing the importance of these beings for humans and for nature.
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Any comprehensive theory of instruction must include ways to optimize the acquisition, organization, and retrieval of new knowledge. An important concern in this regard is making new knowledge meaningful by relating it to prior knowledge. Although meaningfulness is usually thought of in terms of relating new knowledge to prior superordinate knowledge (as with the advance organizer), there are at least six other kinds of prior knowledge that can facilitate the acquisition, organization, and retrieval of new knowledge. Seven kinds of prior knowledge are described below, followed by a section on instructional strategies that an instructional designer or teacher can use to help optimize the learner's use of the seven kinds of prior knowledge for acquiring, organizing, and retrieving new knowledge.
Chapter
This chapter reviews the idea that students can be taught to be more effective learners as opposed to being taught subject matter. Cognitive strategies facilitate the acquisition, retention, and retrieval of information. A cognitive strategy is composed of two parts: (1) a cognitive orienting task and (2) one or more representational, selectional, or self-directional capabilities. The term orienting task designates methods for inducing the student to perform particular kinds of operations. Orienting tasks help gauge performance of cognitive processes and enable more optimal usage of the same. Such processes utilize representational as well as selectional resources. Representational resources include propositional and appositional processes of the left and right cerebral hemispheres, chiefly language and imagery. Selectional resources consist of attentional and intentional processes. Self-directional resources include self-programming and self-monitoring processes. Although cognitive strategies are always performed by the student, initiation of their use may come from the student's self-instructions or from an instructional system. The processing operations students perform constitute a cognitive strategy that may or may not be apparent to them.
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The theoretical problems posed by metaphoric comprehension are discussed in the context of experiments on prompted recall. Listeners heard sentences of the form “Topic is (like) Vehicle.” In most cases, a statement of the implicit resemblance (the “ground”) was very effective in prompting recall of its related metaphor. This result could not be attributed to the activation, transfer, or additive combination of pre-existing properties of the topic and vehicle terms or to pre-existing associations between grounds and sentence terms. It is argued that the vehicle domain guides a novel schematization of the topic domain, that the perceived resemblance is a higher-order relation among entities (both explicit and implicit) in each domain, and that this abstract relation constitutes the “functional memory unit.” Prompted recall may begin with recognition of this previously experienced relation.
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It is hypothesized that learning and retention of unfamiliar but meaningful verbal material can be facilitated by the advance introduction of relevant subsuming concepts (organizers). 2 groups of 40 undergraduate Ss each were equated for sex, field of specialization, and ability to learn unfamiliar scientific material. Experimental Ss studied a 500-word-passage that supplied the subsuming concepts. Control Ss studied traditional type historical material of equal length. The learning material was then presented. Comparison of mean retention scores of the 2 groups unequivocably supported the hypothesis. From Psyc Abstracts 36:01:1CI67A. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).
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Includes bibliographical references (p. 41-44) Supported primarily by the National Institute of Education under Contract No. HEW-NIE-C-400-76-0116