Conference PaperPDF Available

Competence Management in Knowledge-Based Organisation: Case Study Based on Higher Education Organisation

Authors:

Abstract and Figures

Authors present the method and tools for competency management in knowledge-base organisation. As an example, the higher education organisation working under Open and Distance Learning condition is examined. Competency management allows to management knowledge in the efficient and effective way on the stuff’s and student’s level. Based on the system analysis the management model for educational organisation was created. Next, method for quantitative competence assessment was presented. Moreover, the authors explore possibilities of integrating new competence description standards with existing mathematical methods of competence analysis into one common framework. The product of this idea is the concept of reusable Competence Object Library.
Content may be subject to copyright.
D. Karagiannis and Z. Jin (Eds.): KSEM 2009, LNAI 5914, pp. 358–369, 2009.
© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009
Competence Management in Knowledge-Based
Organisation: Case Study Based on Higher Education
Organisation
Przemysław Różewski and Bartłomiej Małachowski
West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin,
Faculty of Computer Science and Information Systems,
ul. Żołnierska 49, 71-210 Szczecin, Poland
{prozewski,bmalachowski}@wi.ps.pl
Abstract. Authors present the method and tools for competency management in
knowledge-base organisation. As an example, the higher education organisation
working under Open and Distance Learning condition is examined. Compe-
tency management allows to management knowledge in the efficient and effec-
tive way on the stuff’s and student’s level. Based on the system analysis the
management model for educational organisation was created. Next, method for
quantitative competence assessment was presented. Moreover, the authors
explore possibilities of integrating new competence description standards with
existing mathematical methods of competence analysis into one common
framework. The product of this idea is the concept of reusable Competence
Object Library.
Keywords: competence, competence management, educational organisation,
open and distance learning.
1 Introduction
The continuous development of Web systems allows to created complete Internet
working environment on different organization level. This situation is special notable
in knowledge management systems [23]. The knowledge management systems are a
crucial component of modern organization [25]. In most cases the knowledge man-
agement systems decided about competitive advantage of organization [32]. New
approach for knowledge management expends the organization dimension on compe-
tence concept [31]. Application of competence in companies allows to optimized task
time, made more adequate human resources management and more efficient knowl-
edge transfer process [29]. In addition competence concept plays important role in
employ process. Every position can be described very precisely by the competence
and related qualification [12].
The competence management system becomes important elements of the knowl-
edge-base organization ecosystem. One of the good examples of the knowledge-base
organization is a modern educational organization. Modern universities can be seen as
continuously changing learning organizations [42]. An educational organization is
Competence Management in Knowledge-Based Organisation 359
considered as a complex system aimed at delivering knowledge to students in order to
expand their competences to the expected level [35]. The idea of life-long learning
(LLL) causes development of educational market. Moreover, the distance learning
tools and system are very effective method of knowledge transfer [19]. In addition the
concept of Open and Distance Learning (ODL) secures proper organization frame-
work for LLL [33], [27].
In the paper authors discussed the concept of the competence management. In the
first part different aspects of competence concept are analysed. In the second part the
structure of the conceptual model of educational organization is presented. The pro-
posed approach takes advantage of the theory of hierarchical, multilevel systems in
order to define the decision-making process in educational organisation. The educa-
tional organisation is treated as a knowledge-based organisation. Then, on the basis of
the fuzzy competence set model the cost estimation method is proposed. The method
focuses on the cost of personal competence expansion caused by the knowledge de-
velopment process. In the last part reusable Competence Object Library (COL) is
proposed. The COL corresponding to the idea o competence management and can be
used as a base for matching information system.
2 Research over the Competence Concept
2.1 Competence Concept
Within the space of the last decades many researches representing different fields of
science and humanities (ex. sociology, philosophy, psychology, pedagogy and educa-
tion etc.) attempted to give the definition of the term ‘competence’. Shapes of these
definitions were strongly conditioned by the context of their studies which resulted in
many different meanings of competence that can be found in the literature. Romain-
ville claims, that French word ‘compétence’ was originally used in context of voca-
tional training to describe capabilities to perform a task [30]. In the later period the
term competence settled in the general education, where it was mainly related to
“ability” or “potential” to act effectively in a certain situation. According to Perre-
noud competence is not only a knowledge how to do something, but it is a ability to
apply it effectively in different situations [28]. The European Council proposed to
define competence as general capabilities based on knowledge, experience, values
that can be acquired during learning activities [3].
Many management researchers, for example [2], [26], [4] acknowledge the work of
Boyatzis called “The competent manager” [1] as the first work that popularized and
introduced the notion of competence into management literature. Boyatzis defined
competence as description of a person characterized by motivation and skills ex-
pressed in his or her personal image, social role or actively applied knowledge. Such a
broad definition could be use for any distinctive feature of a someone’s personality,
however Boyatzis narrowed it only to these individual features that are important in
professional activities performed at workplace. Moreover, he distinguished compe-
tences from tasks and functions assigned to employees in their organizations claiming
that competence was a kind of an added value brought into professional duties [1].
360 P. żewski and B. Małachowski
Woodruff defined competence as a set of behavior patterns required to successfully
perform a task or function. According to him competence can comprise knowledge,
skills and capabilities but also can exceed these traditional characteristics by taking
into account some other personal factors like motivation and intentions [37]. Some
researches consider even more so called “below-the-waterline” characteristics of a
person like individual personality, temperament, outlook on life, etc. and claim that
these factors can have equal or sometimes even more significant influence of profes-
sional tasks performance, than for example technical skills [10].
In the literature the notion of competence model is often used interchangeably with
the term competence. Mansfield defined competence model as detailed, behavioral
description of employee characteristic required to effectively perform a task [22]. The
form of this description can be of any kind – from verbal description to formal,
mathematical model. Competence model can be used to describe a set of competences
connected with a task, job or role in organization.
The notion of competence and competence model is also researched by human re-
source management (HRM) specialists. In this field of management, competence
models are considered as useful tool in solving main HR problems like recruitment
and selection, training and development, performance evaluation, promotion and
redundancy, payroll management, etc. [26]. Elaboration of different competence
models provided efficient techniques for stuff and job description and analysis.
The above review of competence definitions shows, that its meaning is very broad
and sometimes even ambiguous. Very brief and precise definition is provided by the
International Standard Organization in its ISO 9000:2005 standard “Quality Manage-
ment Systems” [17]. The definition that can be found in this document describes
competence as “demonstrated ability to apply knowledge and skills”.
The recent research initiatives on competence provide more and more elaborated
formal models of competence. The good example of such an initiative is TENCompe-
tence Project – a large research network founded by European Commission through
the Sixth Framework Programme with fifteen partners throughout Europe [34]. The
main aim of this project is to develop a technical and organizational infrastructure to
support lifelong learning in Europe. Their research effort is focused mainly on the
problem of managing personal competences. Within this effort the TENCompetence
project group developed the TENCompetence Domain Model (TCDM) that covers
many important issues related to the notion of competence [34]. TENCompetence
project team proposed the definition of competence, which defines this term as “effec-
tive performance within a domain/context at different levels of proficiency”. This
definition of competence was contrasted with other definitions of competence and
especially with definitions of competency from IEEE RDC [15] and HR-XML [12].
Comparison of these definitions shows, that competency is more general term for
describing skills, knowledge or abilities (for example: Java programming), while
competence is more precise by adding information about context and proficiency
level (for example: advanced Java web programming). Furthermore, TCDM group
proposed collecting competences into competence profiles and distinguished acquired
competence profile (competences already acquired by a person) and required compe-
tence profile (competences to be acquired by a person). TCDM comprising notions
like competency, competence, context, proficiency level and other related to personal
competence management was built in as the UML class diagram.
Competence Management in Knowledge-Based Organisation 361
2.2 Competence Applications
The competence analysis based mainly on the visible result. In similarity to knowl-
edge the competence concept cannot be direct examined. The competence is a
construct concept which is derived or inferred from existing instance [21]. Proper
indicators of construct recognitions rely on many different factors: social, cultural and
cognitive [5]. The concept of competence has become an important issue for re-
searcher over the world [31], [32]. Tab. 1 discusses the competence issue following
two main competence applications: job description and leaning outcomes description.
Table 1. Main competence application analysis
Competence
application Job description Leaning outcomes description
Definition
Competence is shows by the actor
who plays some role. a
observable or measurable ability
of an actor to perform necessary
action(s) in given context(s) to
achieve specific outcome(s) [16]
Competence is an outcome from learning
process in Life-long Learning paradigm. The
competence is defined as any form of
knowledge, skill, attitude, ability or learning
objective that can be described in a context of
learning, education or training [14].
Motivation
The reason of research over the
competence concept is believe of
many managers that analysis of
organization’s structure and
resources is not satisfactory. The
managers focus on the output of
competencies [7].
Open and Distance Learning [33] presumes
that students are mobile across different
university and educational systems in the
frame of common learning framework i.e.
European Higher Education Area [20].
Moreover, the Life-long Learning concept
assumes that the student’s knowledge can be
supplemented and extended in other
educational system over the life time. For both
of these concepts the well established and
transparent method for student’s achievement
recording is required.
Main
characteristics
The competence in job context is
a dynamic system and provides
systemic, dynamic, cognitive and
holistic framework for building
management theory [32].
Moreover competence explains
the formal and informal way in
which human beings interact in
the border of technology, human
begins, organisation, culture [7],
[6].
The student’s competence can be certificated
on every single step of training, learning, etc
[11].
The competence achievement is mainly
founded on the cognitive process [20].
However, the competence, likewise other
human’s characteristic, can be discussed from
several different angels: pedagogical,
philosophical and psychological [9].
Standards HR-XML [12], ISO 24763 [16], IMS RDCEO [15], IEEE 1484.20.1 [14]
Projects TENCompetence [34] European Qualifications Framework (EQF)
[8], ICOPER [13], TENCompetence [34]
2.3 Mathematical Model of Competence
The concept of competence still lacks formal models allowing to create quantitative
methods for competence analysis. One of the most advanced idea of this type is the
approach called competence sets. This approach was for the first time introduced by
Yu and Zhang [38], [40] and is closely related to the concept of habitual domain [39].
362 P. żewski and B. Małachowski
These authors define competence set as the set containing skills, information and
knowledge of a person (acquired competence set denoted Sk) or related to a given job
or a task (required competence set Tr).
Most publications on competence sets deal with optimization and cost analysis of
the competence set expansion process. This process is described as obtaining new
skills and adding them to the actual acquired competence set of a person. The cost and
pace of obtaining new skills depends on elements of actual competence set and how
close these elements are related with the new skill. Methods of optimal competence
set expansion consist of determining the order of obtaining successive competences
that provides minimal cost. Competences that need to be obtained are defined by set
Tr(E)\Sk(P). The optimisation problem is usually solved by finding the shortest path
in an oriented graph, in which vertices represent competences and arcs represent the
relations between them [38].
In the early stage of the research on competence sets, competence was presented as
a classical set containing knowledge, skills and information necessary to solve a prob-
lem. However, assessing the presence of a competence in binary terms – one has a
competence or not at all – turned out to be insufficient regarding the continuous na-
ture of competence. On account of that, it was proposed to present human competence
as a fuzzy set, defined as follows [36]:
}))(,({ XxxxA A=
μ
where: )(x
A
μ
is the membership function assessing the membership of an element x
in relation to set A by mapping X into membership space [0; 1], ]1 ;0[: X
A
μ
.
Regarding the definition of the fuzzy set it is possible to define the notion of fuzzy
competence strength. For each competence g, its strength is a function of a person P
or an event E in the context of which the competence is assessed:
1] ;0[}or {: EP
α
.
Expansion optimization methods of fuzzy competence sets are computationally
more demanding but provide better accuracy and reproduction of nature of compe-
tence. Vast set of competence set expansion cost analysis methods can be found in
literature [36],[38],[40].
The methods for competence set analysis with its quantitative models provides
good background for development of competence management system. Example of a
system build around these methods can be found in [18].
2.4 Quantitative Assessment of Competence
The methods of competence set expansion cost assessment described in Section 2.3
can be applied to perform quantitative analysis of personal competence, that allows to
design and build different systems for competence management. Possible applications
of this approach are vast, for example in HRM the cost of competence expansion can
be used as criterion for candidate selection, in system for education competence set
expansion cost can be a measure for individual learning path design.
Competence Management in Knowledge-Based Organisation 363
The very significant issue in quantitative competence assessment is proper identifi-
cation of the acquired (Sk) and required competence set (Tr). In case of required
competence set identification it is useful to take advantage of universally accepted
standards (ex. ISO), different best practice databases or taxonomies. Identification of
acquired competence set comes down to detect competences from the set Tr in a per-
son being tested. The process of quantitative competence assessment is presented in
details in Figure 1.
Fig. 1. Assessment of competence expansion cost
3 Educational Organization Analysis
Modern educational organisation is focused on the processing of information-
knowledge-competence sequence. In this process, all members of educational organi-
sation participate: students, university’s stuff, and teachers. Based on the management
model of educational organisation we analyzed the decision about competence on all
management levels. Presented management model is created base on theory of hierar-
chical, multilevel systems [24]. There are two main reasons that educational organiza-
tion is changing and becoming knowledge-base organization: (i) Open and Distance
Learning concept [33], which creates open educational market based on standard and
unification framework, (ii) Life-Long Learning [31]: which creates continuous re-
quests for education and knowledge.
The analysis leads to identification of four embedded management cycles, which
differ in their operating time (Tab. 2). As can be seen in fig. 2, each cycle includes a
process that is being arranged by a certain decision maker [18]. Within the time limit
of each cycle, the system decision-maker compares knowledge areas in order to make
decisions by estimating their content and depth [42]. The management model de-
scribed the process of sequential knowledge processing during: (i) syllabus prepara-
tion, (ii) providing education services, (iii) developing didactic materials, (iv) process
of acquiring competences based on a specified knowledge model and (v) statistical
evaluation of students’ progress.
364 P. żewski and B. Małachowski
Fig. 2. Management model of educational organisation
Table 2. Educational organization’s life cycles and competence processes
Name Description Competence
management process Tools
Organization
life cycle
Subsystem of educational organization
strategic management aims at maintaining a
high position of organization’s graduates at
the job market.
Identification of
commences which are
demanded by the
market.
Knowledge
engineering
Profile life
cycle
Subsystem of managing the process of
adapting competence to the student’s profile
Market’s competences
adaptation in student’s
profile
Curriculum
design
Teaching/
learning life
cycle
Subsystem meant to provide an intelligent
and network space for the learning/teaching
system, assuring effective use of network
environment and developing or adapting
knowledge repository to student’s profile
and students contingent.
Market’s competences
adaptation to the
didactical material in
every course. Ensure
that each competence
will be posses by the
student in limited time.
Didactic
material
design
Student’s life
cycle
Subsystem that allows maintaining and
monitoring administrative correctness of the
learning process, and evaluating the
competence-gaining process with the given
knowledge model and teaching/learning
system
Student’s learning
process, competence
transfer based on the
didactic material and
cognitive methods.
Student
support
Competence Management in Knowledge-Based Organisation 365
4 Competence Object Library
Scientific research in the domain of competence and competence management has
been developing dynamically recently. The biggest effort of the researchers is put on
notions definition and competence structure modeling. Among several big initiatives
researching competence some of them like IEEE Reusable Competency Definition
[15] and HR-XML [12] has made a big step forward defining well common models
for competency interoperability. The most complete model of this type was proposed
by TENCompetence project [34]. TENCompetence Domain Model (TCDM) pro-
posed by this initiative provides complex structure model supporting development of
software tools for competence management purposes. However, TCDM still lacks
mathematical models of competence, that would enable development of system per-
forming quantitative analysis of competence.
One of the ideas of this article is to propose concept of reusable Competence Ob-
ject Library (COL) that integrates into one framework objective data structures pro-
posed in TCDM with the method for fuzzy competence set expansion cost analysis
(FCSECA) proposed in [36] (Fig. 3). This library would allow rapid development of
competence management systems for different purposes, for example: human re-
source management (employee assessment, staffing), e-learning (learning progress
assessment, individual learning path planning, etc.)
Fig. 3. Concept of the Competence Object Library
4.1 Conceptualization of the Competence Object Library
Two approaches TCDM and fuzzy competence sets provides completely different
perspective of competence modeling. The first one is very precise in terms of notions
definitions, structure modeling and link with competency standards, while the second
one defines competence on very general level but provides accurate and verified
methods for quantitative analysis. Development of software tools for advanced com-
petence analysis requires qualities of both of these approaches: complete and well
defined data structures and algorithms providing quantitative methods.
One of the main problem in integrating two approaches into one framework is to
properly match notions taking into consideration their semantic meaning. For example
fuzzy competence set analysis does not introduce the notion of competency. Semanti-
cally the closest notion to competency is skill. Competence in both approaches has
different definitions and cannot be considered as semantically identical. Table 3 con-
tains main notions from TENCompetence DM and Fuzzy Competence Set Analysis.
A row from the table indicates the closest semantic equivalents. This allows to com-
pare namespaces of two approaches and define namespace for COL.
366 P. żewski and B. Małachowski
Table 3. Comparison of main notions from COL with notions form its source approaches
TENCompetence Domain
Model Fuzzy Competence Set Competence Object Library
Competency Skill Competency
Competence
Element of competence
Competence Competence set
Competence set
Context Habitual domain Context
Competence profile - Competence profile
Proficiency level
Proficiency Level Competence strength Competence strength
4.2 Data Structures for the Competence Object Library
Theoretical analysis of two source approaches for Competence Object Library
provides background for its structure modelling. The COL structure was modelled
with UML as UML Class Diagram. The choice of UML was determined by the fact
that it is the most common and recognizable notation among software engineering
professionals.
The UML Class Diagram depicted in Figure 4 is a synthesis of two background
approaches: TENCompetence Domain Model and Fuzzy Competence Sets. The
basis for class structure modelling comes from TENCompetence DM. The original
structure was extended with classes representing notions form Fuzzy Competence
Competency
+glob alID
+glob alName
+Source
Competence
+Name
+Description
Elem ent OfCo mpe te nce
+Strength
Contex t
+Name
+Description
Profic ienc yLev el
+Name
+Level
+Description
1..*
1..*
CompetenceSet
+CompareSet()
CompetenceProfile
+Name
+Description
+CompareProfile()
RequiredCompetenceProfile AcquiredCompetenceProfile
Vacan cy
+Name
+Description
Person
+Name
+Surname
+...
*
Relatio n
+Strengt h
only for competences in the same context
and at the same proficency level
*
1
Cate go ry
+Name
*1
subcategory
*
0..1
comprise competences only in the same context
and at the same proficency level
Fig. 4. UML Class Diagram for Competence Object Library
Competence Management in Knowledge-Based Organisation 367
Sets in order to adapt COL to its analytical methods operating on sets, relations and
graphs defined by this relations.
Implementation of competence expansion cost computing algorithm [36] can be called
with methods CompetenceSet.CompareSet() and Competence-Profile.CompareProfile().
These methods return a real value proportional to the difference between two competence
sets/profiles. Details of UML Class Diagram are presented in Figure 4, while Table 4
describes all classes defined in the library.
Table 4. Competence Object Library classes
Class name Description
Competency Any form of knowledge, skill, attitude, ability or learning objective that
can be described in a context of learning, education, training or any
specific business context.
Competence Effective performance of a person within a context at a specific level of
proficiency.
Context Circumstances and conditions surrounding actions performed by a person.
Category Indicates the relative level in a taxonomic hierarchy.
Proficiency Level Indicates the level at which the activity of a person is considered.
Relation Arbitrary association of competences within a context and at specific
proficiency level.
Element of Competence Entity derived from competence that can form a set.
Competence Set Collection of elements of competence.
Competence Profile Collection of competence sets.
Required Competence
Profile
Requirements in terms of competence to be fulfilled by a person.
Acquired Competence
Profile
Description of competences possessed by a person.
Vacancy Activity, job, skill, attitude, ability or learning objective for which
competence requirements can be specified.
Person Competent actor performing activities.
5 Conclusion
The competence management issue is directly related to knowledge management.
Both knowledge and competence management require development of new tools and
methods which will be working on the cognitive level in quantitative way.
The concept of Competence Object Library proposed in the article allows rapid de-
velopment of applications for competence management and analysis. The main idea
of COL is to provide HR and e-Learning professionals with reusable library allowing
developing applications for quantitative competence analysis. Additionally, the inter-
face to open competence exchange standards like IEEE RCD and HR-XML creates
new possibilities for web-centric HR and e-Learning systems.
References
1. Boyatzis, R.E.: The competent manager: a model for effective performance. Wiley, New
York (1982)
2. Cardy, R.L., Selvarajan, T.T.: Competencies: Alternative frameworks for competitive ad-
vantage. Business Horizons 49, 235–245 (2006)
368 P. żewski and B. Małachowski
3. Council of Europe: Key competencies for Europe. Report of the Symposium in Berne
March 27-30, 1996, Council of Europe, Strasbourg (1997)
4. Crawford, L.: Senior management perceptions of project management competence. Inter-
national Journal of Project Management 23, 7–16 (2005)
5. Doninger, N.A., Kosson, D.S.: Interpersonal construct systems among psychopaths. Per-
sonality and Individual Differences 30(8), 1263–1281 (2000)
6. Drejer, A., Riis, J.O.: Competence development and technology: How learning and tech-
nology can be meaningfully integrated. Technovation 19(10), 631–644 (1999)
7. Drejer, A.: How can we define and understand competencies and their development?
Technovation 21(3), 135–146 (2001)
8. EQF: European Qualifications Framework for Lifelong Learning,
http://ec.europa.eu/education/lifelong-learning-policy/
doc44_en.htm
9. Frixione, M.: Tractable Competence. Minds & Machines 11(3), 379–397 (2001)
10. Hofrichter, D.A., Spencer, L.M.: Competencies: The right foundation for effective human
resource management. Compensation and Benefits Review 28(6), 21–24 (1996)
11. Holmes, G., Hooper, N.: Core competence and education. Higher Education 40(3),
247–258 (2000)
12. HR-XML: HR-XML Consortium (2006), http://www.hr-xml.org/
13. ICOPER - Interoperable Content for Performance in a Competency-driven Society. An
eContentplus Best Practice Network (2008–2011), http://www.icoper.org/
14. IEEE 1484.20.1/draft - draft standard for Reusable Competency Definitions (RCD),
http://ieeeltsc.wordpress.com/working-groups/competencies/
15. IMS RDCEO: Reusable Definition of Competency or Educational Objective (RDCEO),
http://www.imsglobal.org/competencies
16. ISO 24763/draft: Conceptual Reference Model for Competencies and Related Objects
(2009)
17. ISO 9000:2005, Quality Management Systems
18. Kusztina, E., Zaikin, O., Różewski, P., Małachowski, B.: Cost estimation algorithm and
decision-making model for curriculum modification in educational organization. European
Journal of Operational Research 197(2), 752–763 (2009)
19. Kusztina, E., Zaikin, O., Różewski, P.: On the knowledge repository design and manage-
ment in E-Learning. In: Lu, J., Ruan, D., Zhang, G. (eds.) E-Service Intelligence: Method-
ologies, Technologies and applications. Studies in Computational Intelligence, vol. 37, pp.
497–517. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)
20. Kusztina, E., Zaikine, O., Różewski, P., Tadeusiewicz, R.: Competency framework in
Open and Distance Learning. In: Proceedings of the 12th Conference of European Univer-
sity Information Systems EUNIS 2006. Tartu, Estonia, pp. 186–193 (2006)
21. Lahti, R.K.: Identifying and integrating individual level and organizational level core com-
petencies. Journal of Business and Psychology 14(1), 59–75 (1999)
22. Mansfield, R.S.: Building competency models: Approaches for HR professionals. Human
Resource Management 35(1), 7–18 (1996)
23. Marwick, A.D.: Knowledge management technology. IBM Systems Journal 40(4), 814–
830 (2001)
24. Mesarovic, M.D., Macko, D., Takahara, Y.: Theory of Hierarchical. Multilevel Systems.
Academic Press, New York (1970)
25. Nonaka, I.: A Dynamic Theory of Organisational Knowledge Creation. Organisation Sci-
ence 5(1), 14–37 (1994)
Competence Management in Knowledge-Based Organisation 369
26. Partington, D., Pellegrinelli, S., Young, M.: Attributes and levels of programme manage-
ment competence: an interpretive study. International Journal of Project Management 23,
87–95 (2005)
27. Patru, M., Khvilon, E.: Open and distance learning: trends, policy and strategy considera-
tions. UNESCO, kod: ED.2003/WS/50 (2002)
28. Perrenoud, P.: Construire des compétences dès l’école. Pratiques et enjeux pédagogiques.
ESF éditeur. Paris (1997)
29. Petts, N.: Building Growth on Core Competences – a Practical Approach. Long Range
Planning 30(4), 551–561 (1997)
30. Romainville, M.: L’irrésistible ascension du terme compétence en éducation, Enjeux, no.
37/38 (1996)
31. Sampson, D., Fytros, D.: Competence Models in Technology-Enhanced Competence-Based
Learning. In: Adelsberger, H.H., Kinshuk, Pawlowski, J.M., Sampson, D. (eds.) Handbook
on Information Technologies for Education and Training, 2nd edn., pp. 155–177. Springer,
Heidelberg (2008)
32. Sanchez, R.: Understanding competence-based management: Identifying and managing
five modes of competence. Journal of Business Research 57(5), 518–532 (2004)
33. Tait, A.: Open and Distance Learning Policy in the European Union 1985–1995. Higher
Education Policy 9(3), 221–238 (1996)
34. TENCompetence - Building the European Network for Lifelong Competence Develop-
ment, EU IST-TEL project (2005–2009), http://www.tencompetence.org/
35. Valadares, T.L.: On the development of educational policies. European Journal of Opera-
tional Research 82(3), 409–421 (1995)
36. Wang, H.-F., Wang, C.H.: Modeling of optimal expansion of a fuzzy competence set. In-
ternational Transactions in Operational Research 5(5), 413–424 (1995)
37. Woodruffe, C.: What is meant by competency? In: Boam, R., Sparrow, P. (eds.) Designing
and achieving competency. McGraw-Hill, New York (1992)
38. Yu, P.L., Zhang, D.: A foundation for competence set analysis. Mathematical Social Sci-
ences 20, 251–299 (1990)
39. Yu, P.L.: Habitual Domains. Operations Research 39(6), 869–876 (1991)
40. Yu, P.L., Zhang, D.: Optimal expansion of competence sets and decision support. Informa-
tion Systems and Operational Research 30(2), 68–85 (1992)
41. Zadeh, L.A.: Fuzzy sets. Information and Control 8, 338–353 (1965)
42. Zaikin, O., Kusztina, E., Różewski, P.: Model and algorithm of the conceptual scheme
formation for knowledge domain in distance learning. European Journal of Operational
Research 175(3), 1379–1399 (2006)
... La categoría de educación engloba trabajos asociados con sistemas tutores inteligentes (Nkambou et al., 1996), con la construcción de infraestructura (Paquette, 2007;Paquette et al., 2006) para la implementación de Learning Design (IMS Global Learning Consortium, 2003), gestión de contenidos para el desarrollo de competencias (Różewski & Małachowski, 2009), como soporte de un entorno de aprendizaje (Różewski & Małachowski, 2010) y soporte para el individuo (Biletska et al., 2010) y las instituciones (Cicortas et al., 2008) en el aprendizaje para toda la vida. En esta categoría, el artículo de Stoof et al. (2007) se enfoca a la construcción de mapas de competencias que sirvan para la especificación de perfiles de egreso. ...
... De manera aún más holística, algunos autores conciben a una competencia como una característica de un individuo o grupo, necesaria para producir un desempeño (Vasconcelos et al., 2001) o subyacente al mismo, habilitándolo (Cicortas et al., 2008), en tanto que otros autores las identifican como capacidades de usar los elementos o aplicar los elementos que las componen (May & Ossendorf, 2014;Różewski & Małachowski, 2009), para atender a las demandas del entorno (D. G. Sampson, 2009), producir desempeños (García-Barriocanal et al., 2012) o actuar de manera efectiva y eficiente en el entorno (Miranda et al., 2017). ...
... En dieciocho de los veintiséis artículos se deja suficientemente claro el tipo de competencias que se puede modelar con su esquema de representación. De estos, trece artículos indican que su esquema de representación es aplicable a cualquier tipo de competencia (Biletska et al., 2010;Competency Data Working Group, 2008;El Asame & Wakrim, 2018;García-Barriocanal et al., 2012;IMS Global Learning Consortium, Página 7 de 27 2002;Karampiperis et al., 2006;Leenheer et al., 2010;May & Ossendorf, 2014;Różewski & Małachowski, 2009;D. Sampson et al., 2007;D. ...
Article
Full-text available
En el marco general del diseño e implementación de un entorno virtual inteligente para dar seguimiento al desarrollo de competencias por los estudiantes, se presentan los resultados del análisis de las competencias genéricas establecidas para el Sistema Nacional de Bachillerato de México y la codificación de los resultados en la forma de mapas de competencias usando un lenguaje susceptible de ser procesado automáticamente por computadoras. Específicamente, se presentan una revisión de literatura sobre la representación computacional de competencias, un mapa de competencias genéricas con relaciones de subsume/es-un e incluye/parte-de y la aplicación del mapa para identificar la presencia de competencias genéricas en el diseño de cursos de bachillerato en el Sistema de Universidad Virtual de la Universidad de Guadalajara. In the general framework of designing and implementing an intelligent virtual environment to monitor the development of competences by students, we present the results of an analysis of the generic competences established for the National High School System of Mexico, and the coding of the results in the form of competence maps using a language that can be automatically processed by computers. Specifically, we present a literature review on the computational representation of competencies, a map of generic competencies with subsume/is-a and includes/part-of relationships, and the application of the competences map to identify the presence of generic competences in the design of high school courses in the Virtual University System of the University of Guadalajara.
... Today, more than ever human workforce needs to be included in the strategic plans of manufacturing companies to keep high the competitive advantage of companies in the fourth industrial revolution (Gehrke et al., 2015;Hecklau et al., 2016). Actually, competency is defined as "any form of knowledge, skill, attitude, ability or learning objective that can be described in a context of learning, education, training or any specific business context" (Różewski and Małachowski, 2009), and thus, this concept is closely related to the learning and training processes associated to business contexts and it takes into account all the skills and capabilities needed for it. On the other side, "competence" has been defined as "the ability to apply knowledge, understanding and skills in performing to the standards required in employment. ...
Article
Full-text available
Nowadays, the diffusion of digital and industry 4.0 (I4.0) technologies is affecting the manufacturing sector with a twofold effect. While on one side it represents the boost fastening the competitive advantage of companies, on the other hand it is often accompanied by several challenges that companies need to face. Among all, companies are required to invest in technologies to empower their production activities on the shopfloor without lagging behind their workforce in order to undertake a linear, aware, and structured path toward digitization. The extant literature presents some research conducted to support companies toward digitization, and they usually rely on maturity models in this intention. Nevertheless, few studies included the assessment of workforce skills and competencies in the overall assessment, and in this case, they provide a high level perspective of the investigation, mainly based on check lists which may limit the objectivity of the assessment, and usually they do not customize the assessment based on companies’ requirements. Therefore, considering the importance to balance investments in technologies with those in the workforce to move toward the same direction, this contribution aims to develop a structured, customizable, and objective skill assessment model. With this intention, it has been first clarified the set of job profiles required in I4.0, together with the needed related skills based on the extant literature findings; second, it has been identified the set of key criteria to be considered while performing the assessment of the workforce; third, it has been defined the method to be integrated in the maturity model to enable the initial setting of the weights of the criteria identified according to the company needs; and fourth, based on these findings, it has been developed the assessment model. The developed model facilitates the elaboration of the proper workforce improvement plans to be put in practice to support the improvement of the skills of the whole workforce based on company’s needs.
... 1. Evaluation. The competency approach to assigning candidates to job positions is defined as the ability to carry out the defined tasks in an effective way (Różewski & Małachowski, 2009). However, the usual evaluations of candidate competencies (especially facing some vague criteria in nature such as team working abilities or attention to detail) are based on subjective knowledge and influenced by uncertainty. ...
Article
Full-text available
p class="Abstract">In today’s competitive markets, the role of human resources as a sustainable competitive advantage is undeniable. Reliable hiring decisions for personnel assignation contribute greatly to a firms’ success. The Personnel Assignment Problem (PAP) relies on assigning the right people to the right positions. The solution to the PAP provided in this paper includes the introducing and testing of an algorithm based on a combination of a Fuzzy Inference System (FIS) and a Genetic Algorithm (GA). The evaluation of candidates is based on subjective knowledge and is influenced by uncertainty. A FIS is applied to model experts’ qualitative knowledge and reasoning. Also, a GA is applied for assigning assessed candidates to job vacancies based on their competency and the significance of each position. The proposed algorithm is applied in an Iranian company in the chocolate industry. Thirty-five candidates were evaluated and assigned to three different positions. The results were assessed by ten staff managers and the algorithm results proved to be satisfactory in discovering desirable solutions. Also, two GA selection techniques (tournament selection and proportional roulette wheel selection) were used and compared. Results show that tournament selection has better performance than proportional roulette wheel selection.</p
... Teamwork modeling and analysis has also been studied in detail since the mid-20th century [6][7][8]. A formal description of competency profiles is the subject of numerous studies and publications (e.g., [8,9]). ...
... Competence can be defined as the ability or potential to perform a particular task or job effectively (Rozewski & Malachowski 2009) or the capacity to perform a given activity (Guillaume et al 2014) to achieve a predetermined goal to a particular standard (Peters & Zelewski 2007). This involves the application of knowledge and skills and is likely to vary from one organisation or contractor to the next (Guillaume et al 2014). ...
Article
Various studies have been conducted to investigate the reasons for the comparative failure of small contractors. Many of these studies have found the reasons for failure to be primarily related to factors that are beyond the control of the contractor or business management. Little attention has been paid to technical factors. This study sought to investigate the correlation between the performance of emerging contractors in government infrastructure projects to their technical qualifications and experience. An archive research methodology was adopted where contractor performance information was collected on 30 CE and GB projects conducted in Mpumalanga Province. The project data was then used alongside contractor qualification and experience data to investigate their relationship. When evaluating the qualification level, it was found that contractors with higher qualifications show better performance. It was also found that contractors with more technical qualifications perform better than those without. This study also concluded that contractors with more years of experience in the construction industry show better project performance. It is recommended that a much broader investigation must be carried out to examine to what extent these conclusions are applicable throughout South Africa. If so, there are important implications for the modification of existing procurement policy and procurement practice.
... Accuracy/accuracy, availability, coverage, and minimal costs for local installations are the requirements for ap- Average euclidean distance between the estimated position and the true positions focuses on node placement [61], beacon placements [62], Proximity based localization [64], Fingerprinting emerges as a straightforward and plausible [69], novel indoor positioning method [65], fingerprint matching algorithm [66], Pseudo-lites [67] generating an accurate Radio Map from mapping, The data mining goal states project objectives in business terms could be defined as achieving a certain level of predictive accuracy [70] [71], Boosted Regression [72] [73], The transparent datamining model called as DT and a black box model known as RF [74] Availability low availability (if<95%), regular availability (if be-tween95%&99%), and high availability (if>99%), availability might be affected by some factors such as communications congestion and routine maintenance nonparametric Gaussian Process (GP) model is adopted to describe the relationship between estimated and observed RSS [75] Construction of the Feature-Vector Representation [76], AP clustering [77] Coverage Area Cost estimation algorithm and decision-making model [88] Privacy protect data from intrusion location-privacy preserving mechanism (LPPM) [89] collect and analyze sensitive data that is governed by privacy rules [90], The joint use of end-to-end security and identication of anomalous measurements to provide security for IoT devices directly connected to the Internet [91] plication environments. In order to get over this disadvantage, a great portion of research approaches is needed to deal with such problems. ...
Article
Full-text available
Internet of Things (IoT) is turning into an essential part of daily life, and numerous IoT-based scenarios will be seen in future of modern cities ranging from small indoor situations to huge outdoor environments. In this era, navigation continues to be a crucial element in both outdoor and indoor environments, and many solutions have been provided in both cases. On the other side, recent smart objects have produced a substantial amount of various data which demands sophisticated data mining solutions to cope with them. This paper presents a detailed review of previous studies on using data mining techniques in indoor navigation systems for the loT scenarios. We aim to understand what type of navigation problems exist in different IoT scenarios with a focus on indoor environments and later on we investigate how data mining solutions can provide solutions on those challenges.
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: The objective of this study was to present a current and exhaustive analysis of the contributions and studies carried out by experts regarding strategic management by competencies as a result of a bibliometric review. Theoretical framework: Recent literature, in the last decade, has reported the increase of the need for companies to obtain a sustainable competitive advantage. So, this study about trends in management by competencies becomes essential to review all these works. Design/Methodology/Approach: The bibliometric study was conducted using the SCOPUS database, examining 624 publications from 1966 to 2023. The main findings of this review show that only in the 21st century did the idea of people management by competencies models stand out in the scientific and business scenario. Findings: The evidence shows that the concept of "management," present in 75% of the clusters found (high occurrence), strongly correlates with the theme of the people management model by competencies. The symbiosis between them can become one of the most important strengths (competitive differential) in a significantly changing business scenario. Research, Practical & Social implications: We suggest a future research agenda and highlight the contributions made to other leaders and human resource managers. Originality/Value: The bibliometric analysis allows us to identify that research has been carried out that contributed with elements to the models of competencies and their advances, in order to understand the model of competency management as an integrated and strategic system of evaluation and improvement of the organizations and/or people that compose it.
Article
Full-text available
This research is intended to identify and classify the general and specific job competencies of the inspectors of government agencies. Regarding the purpose of the study, the content analysis method is selected to conduct it. Semi-structured interviews are used for data collection. The statistical population of this research included all employees and managers of the Inspection Office of Hamadan Province, as well as senior managers of the Hamadan Inspection Office, and the inspectors who were missioned to the provincial departments. The research followed a purposive sampling method resulting in the selection of 35 relevant experts who were interviewed. Job descriptions were reviewed to identify the most important information relating to job competencies of the employees. The data were analyzed through content analysis. Based on the results, the identified concepts were organized into 4 categories: general knowledge (5 classes), specific knowledge (2 classes), skills (4 classes), and personality traits (9 classes). The first three categories were determined as general competencies and the last category as the specific competency. Hence, it is suggested that a more specialized manner be fulfilled to achieve justice and progress in individuals' selections and supervisory investigations.
Conference Paper
In the knowledge-based economy intangible production (de-materialised production) plays the main role. Intangible production is an advanced manufacturing process performed on the information level, where input materials, semi products and final products are in a digital form. The production network consists of nodes, each of which performs processing of information and knowledge through collaboration with other nodes. The paper focuses on the kind of intangible production where the production process utilizes different types of knowledge and competence is the final product. The educational organizations and distance learning are a good example of this type of the intangible production. In the paper a model of intangible production network for competence development in the context of educational organization is discussed. The proposed approach can be used to develop and manage knowledge-base systems on the level of ontology.
Article
When the competence set is discrete and finite, its elements can be represented by nodes of a graph. An expansion process of the competence set from the existent skill set to the desired true competence set can be represented by a tree construction. Minimal spanning tree becomes an effective tool for studying the optimal expansion process. The following are addressed in this paper: (i) costs of expansion and reachable domains, (ii) minimal spanning tree, lexicographical optimality, next- best method, and optimal expansion processes, (iii) decision support for expanding competence set.
Article
The current use of the term core competencies in business and industry results in confusion since the term is utilized in a variety of different manners. Through a review of business and psychology literature combined with the benchmarking of companies and consulting firms, this article defines two levels of core competencies. These two levels are organizational level core competencies and individual level core competencies. Additionally, this article addresses approaches for identifying, integrating and validating these two levels of core competencies and is intended to serve as a foundation for future research and discussion in relation to core competencies.
Article
This paper offers an introductory view of the concept of habitual domains. It describes how they affect behavior, discusses their formation, dynamics, stability, and application, and points out how to expand and enrich them. Finally, this concept is related to the operations research profession to suggest how its habitual domains can be expanded and enriched to make OR workers more effective, both individually and collectively.
Article
This paper develops a taxonomy of five modes of competences that an organization must develop and maintain in its various activities to achieve overall competence. Each competence mode is distinguished by the specific forms of flexibility it brings to an organization to respond to the changing opportunities and threats in its environment. Each form of flexibility is in turn distinguished by the kinds of strategic options it creates for an organization. Key interrelationships among the five competence modes are identified, and important aspects of managing each of the competence modes and their interrelationships are discussed.
Article
Two widely used approaches to competency model building—the single-job approach and the “one-size-fits-all” approach—have limitations when competency models are needed for multiple jobs. This article describes the requirements of a multiple-job approach to competency model building: a set of common building block competencies, provision for customization of competencies for individual job models, defined levels of performance for each competency, and a quick, low-cost approach to model building. The article concludes with a discussion of the competencies needed to implement the multiple-job approach and of trends in the workplace that are making this approach more attractive. © 1996 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Article
The key questions this article seeks to address are to establish what policies for open and distance learning for post-secondary education have been developed in the European Union over the last 10 years; how they have come into being; what explicit intentions they embody; what implicit and underlying roles in terms of social process such policies can be identified as playing; and what appropriate frameworks of analysis can be identified. From small beginnings in questions raised by Members of the European Parliament in 1985, open and distance learning begins to appear in policy documents and funding programmes in 1988 and reaches the significant position of being specifically mentioned in 1994 in the Maastricht Treaty of Union. Open and distance learning policy is demonstrated as reinforcing the ideological role that education and training play in the drive for economic success and competitiveness, and a range of frameworks for policy analysis are explored within the unique international regime that is the European Union. Further research is proposed as necessary within the European Union as education and training increase in importance as areas of activity.© 1996 International Association of Universities. Higher Education Policy Vol. 9, (1996) 221–238