Differentiation of primary affective illness from situational, symptomatic and secondary depression

Archives of General Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 14.48). 07/1979; 36(6):635-43.
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Analysis of family history and antidepressant drug response variables of 100 "neurotic" depressives followed up prospectively over three to four years disclosed that primary depressions (unipolar and bipolar) could be distinguished from nonprimary cases by (1) the early occurrence of "pharmacological-hypomania;" (2) family history of bipolar illness; (3) family history for affective disorder in two or three consecutive generations, especially when "loaded." Although each of these variables alone occurred in only one fifth to one third of the primary group, they individually displayed better than 95% specificity for it. Thus, the confidence with which the diagnosis of primary affective illness could be made in the presence of any of these variables ranged from 88% to 100%. These findings argue for considering such nonsymptomatological variables for their potential in strengthening the phenomenologic diagnostic criteria for depressive illness.

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    • "Validity and reliability have been examined and discussed in numerous studies, showing a high relevant level (Cassano et al., 1989). The TEMPS-A (Akiskal and Akiskal, 2005) has been originally developed in Memphis (Akiskal and Mallya, 1987; Akiskal et al., 1979) and psychometrically tested in Italy: it has been shown to have excellent internal consistency and reliability (Akiskal et al., 1998b; Placidi et al., 1998). We used this instrument in its Italian Semi-structured Clinician or Interview version. "
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    ABSTRACT: Affective temperament and psychopathological traits such as separation anxiety (SA) and interpersonal sensitivity (IPS) are supposed to impact on the clinical manifestation and on the course of Bipolar Disorder (BD); in the present study we investigated their influence on the definition of BD subtypes. : Among 106 BD-I patients with DSM-IV depressive, manic or mixed episode included in a multi-centric Italian study and treated according to the routine clinical practice, 89 (84.0%) were in remission after a follow-up period ranging from 3 to 6 months (Clinical Global Impression-BP [CGI-BP] <2). Remitting patients underwent a comprehensive evaluation including self-report questionnaires such as the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego (TEMPS-A) scale, Separation Anxiety Symptom Inventory (SASI), Interpersonal Sensitivity Measure (IPSM) and the Semi-structured interview for Mood Disorder (SIMD-R) administered by experienced clinicians. Correlation and factorial analyses were conducted on temperamental and psychopathological measures. Comparative analyses were conducted on different temperamental subtypes based on the TEMPS-A, SASI and IPSM profile. : Depressive, cyclothymic and irritable TEMPS-A score and SASI and IPSM total scores were positively and statistically correlated with each other. On the contrary, hyperthymic temperament score was negatively correlated with depressive temperament and not significantly correlated with the other temperamental and psychopathological dimensions. The factorial analysis of the TEMPS-A subscales and SASI and IPSM total scores allowed the extraction of 2 factors: the cyclothymic-sensitive (explaining 46% of the variance) that included, as positive components, depressive, cyclothymic, irritable temperaments and SASI and IPSM scores; the hyperthymic (explaining the 19% of the variance) included hyperthymic temperament as the only positive component and depressive temperament and IPSM, as negative components. Dominant cyclothymic-sensitive patients (n=49) were more frequently females and reported higher number of depressive, hypomanic and suicide attempts when compared to the dominant hyperthymic patients (n=40). On the contrary, these latter showed a higher number of manic episodes and hospitalizations than cyclothymic-sensitive patients. The rates of first-degree family history for both mood and anxiety disorders were higher in cyclothymic-sensitive than in hyperthymic patients. Cyclothymic sensitive patients also reported more axis I lifetime co-morbidities with Panic Disorder/Agoraphobia and Social Anxiety Disorder in comparison with hyperthymics. As concerns axis II co-morbidity the cyclothymic-sensitive patients met more frequently DSM-IV criteria 1, 5 and 7 for borderline personality disorder than the hyperthymics. On the contrary, antisocial personality disorder was more represented among hyperthymic than cyclothymic patients, in particular for DSM-IV criteria 1 and 6. : No blind evaluation and uncertain validity of personality inventory. : Our results support the view that affective temperaments influence the clinical features of BD in terms of both clinical and course characteristics, family history and axis I and II co-morbidities. Hypothetical temperamental subtypes as measured by TEMPS-A presented important interrelationships that permit to reliably isolate two fundamental temperamental disposition: the first characterized by rapid fluctuations of mood and emotional instability, and the second by hyperactivity, high level of energy and emotional intensity. Dominant cyclothymic and hyperthymic bipolar I patients reported important differences in terms of gender distribution, number and polarity of previous episodes, hospitalizations, suicidality, rates of co-morbid anxiety and personality traits and disorders. Our data are consistent with the hypothesis that affective temperaments, and in particular cyclothymia, could be utilized as quantitative, intermediate phenotypes in order to identify BD susceptibility genes.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2012 · Journal of Affective Disorders
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    • "The General Behavior Inventory (GBI; Depue, 1987) was developed with the purpose of identifying bipolar and unipolar mood disorders across the full spectrum of severity, including full-blown major depression and bipolar disorder as well as their minor variants such as minor depression and cyclothymia. The GBI can thus be used in community samples of adolescents and young adults for the early identification of individuals who are at increased risk for developing major depressive disorder or bipolar disorder (Akiskal et al., 1979). "
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the usefulness of the General Behavior Inventory (GBI) to predict the development of mood disorders in the offspring of parents with bipolar disorder. The GBI and the K-SADS (first measurement) and the SCID (last measurement) were used to assess psychopathology among 129 adolescent and young adult offspring of a bipolar parent with an interval of 5 years. Based on the SCID results at the last measurement, the offspring were assigned to one of four groups: with bipolar mood disorder, with unipolar mood disorders, with non-mood disorders and without disorders and GBI-scores at the first measurement were compared across the four groups. The scores on the Depression scale of the GBI for the offspring who later developed a bipolar or any mood disorder were significantly higher than for the offspring who did not develop a mood disorder across a 5-year interval. For the offspring with a unipolar mood disorder at the first measurement, the scores on the Depression scale were significantly higher for those who switched to bipolar disorder versus those who remained unipolar. The GBI can be used in a high-risk sample of offspring of parents with bipolar disorder as a self-report measure as an aid to detect those who will develop bipolar disorder across a 5-year interval.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2006 · Journal of Affective Disorders
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    ABSTRACT: Retrospective comparisons between primary unipolar depression and depression secondary to anxiety in 65 inpatients revealed a number of differences. Secondary depression was associated with a significantly higher incidence of neurotic traits in childhood, chronic unhappiness, and unsupportive family. Tricyclic antidepressants and ECT were both more effective in primary depression, and some secondary depressives became worse on ECt. When primary depression was sub-divided into familial, nonfamilial and spectrum types, the greatest differences were noted between familial and secondary depressions. In the former group a more stable life style was noted. Secondary and spectrum types differed on only two variables and several similarities were noted. Platelet monoamine oxidase activity was significantly higher in secondary depression.
    No preview · Article · Jun 1980 · Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
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