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Locally prepared tempe that underwent natural fermentation was characterized by the growth of Lactobacillus plantarum, Streptococcus lactis , Bacillus sp., Salmonella sp., Klebsiella sp., Lactococcus lactis , Rhizopus sp. and Staphylococcus sp., while fermentation carried out with the addition of varying levels of baobab pulp powder had mainly lactic acid bacteria (LAB)— Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum , Lactobacillus acidophilus and Rhizopus sp. dominating. Increasing concentrations of baobab pulp powder led to an increase in the population of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from 2.3102 to 3.3104 while it reduced the population of inoculated Rhizopus from 102 to only six colonies on malt extract agar (MEA).
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Eur Food Res Technol (2005) 220:187–190
DOI 10.1007/s00217-004-0998-y
O. R. Afolabi · T. O. S. Popoola
The effects of baobab pulp powder on the micro flora involved
in tempe fermentation
Received: 26 September 2003 / Revised: 5 July 2004 / Published online: 8 September 2004
Springer-Verlag 2004
Abstract Locally prepared tempe that underwent natural
fermentation was characterized by the growth of Lacto-
bacillus plantarum, Streptococcus lactis, Bacillus sp.,
Salmonella sp., Klebsiella sp., Lactococcus lactis, Rhi-
zopus sp. and Staphylococcus sp., while fermentation
carried out with the addition of varying levels of baobab
pulp powder had mainly lactic acid bacteria (LAB)—
Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lac-
tobacillus acidophilus and Rhizopus sp. dominating. In-
creasing concentrations of baobab pulp powder led to an
increase in the population of lactic acid bacteria (LAB)
from 2.310
to 3.310
while it reduced the population
of inoculated Rhizopus from 10
to only six colonies on
malt extract agar (MEA).
Keywords Fermentation · Tempe · Baobab
Tempe is a nutritious fermented food obtained by the
fermentation of soybeans using the fungus Rhizopus oli-
gosporus. Although its consumption was initially con-
fined to the Asian countries, recently its consumption has
spread to other parts of the world, particularly developing
countries in Asia and Africa, including Nigeria, where it
plays an important role as a complementary food [1]. In
Nigeria, it is fast becoming popular as a dietary protein
supplement since animal protein is unaffordable by the
majority of the populace. The production of tempe varies
from one locality to another. In Indonesia and other parts
of Southeast Asia, tempe is prepared without the addition
of baobab pulp, but in Nigeria, where its consumption is
still limited, it is fermented with baobab pulp powder in
order to give the characteristic aroma and acidic taste
preferred by the local people. Baobab (Adansonia digi-
tata) pulp is rich in ascorbic acid, calcium, tartaric acid
and potassium bitartrate [2]. Its usage in food fermenta-
tion is a common practice in Nigeria, especially in the
northern part of the country where the Fulani Kraals use it
in the fermentation of cow milk for “nono” production.
The pulp is pounded gently into a powder by using a
pestle and mortar. It is then sieved to separate the seeds
from the powder. This is done to hasten the curdling
process as well as to improve the quality and quantity of
the product, especially during the dry season when cow
lactation is low and “nono” demand is high.
Production of tempe as it is done in Asia by fermen-
tation of soybeans with Rhizopus oligosporus brings about
changes in texture, aroma, and flavor, as well as reducing
anti-nutritional factors. It improves the nutritional quality
and produces an antibiotic effective against some gram-
positive bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus [3, 4].
Local communities in Nigeria are of the belief that the
addition of extracts of baobab to the fermentation medium
assist in achieving the improved sensory qualities desired.
Information on the process, microbiology and bio-
chemistry involved in tempe fermentation has been ex-
tensively reviewed [5, 6, 7, 8, 9]. Many pathogenic mi-
croorganisms such as Bacillus sp. [10, 11, 12], lactic acid
bacteria [13, 12] and yeasts [12] have been found in
tempe fermentation. The presence of these microorgan-
isms caused Tanaka et al. [14] and Nout et al. [16, 14]
to question the microbiological safety of tempe. They
demonstrated the ability of experimentally inoculated
species of Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium botulinum,
Salmonella sp., Yersinia enterolitica and Bacillus cereus
to exhibit strong growth in the non-acidified beans during
fungal fermentation. These authors emphasized the im-
portance of acidification of the beans prior to fungal
fermentation for controlling the growth of these patho-
gens, if they are present. Apart from the slight acidity that
occurred during the fermentation of tempe, little infor-
mation is available on the possible ways of controlling the
undesirable microbes that grow during the soaking period.
Thus, the objective of this research is to determine the
O. R. Afolabi · T. O. S. Popoola (
Department of Microbiology, College of Natural Sciences,
University of Agriculture,
P.M.B. 2240, 110001 Abeokuta, Nigeria
Tel.: +234-803-3280991
effect of the addition of baobab pulp on the pathogens that
develop in the fermentation medium during tempe pro-
Materials and methods
Collection of soybean samples
Soybean ( Glycine max. (L) Merr.) seeds used for the experiments
were obtained from the Department of Agronomy, Ladoke Akintola
University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria. The seeds were
sorted to remove extraneous materials and kept in a clean polythene
bag in the laboratory until used.
Preparation of tempe
Fifty grams of soybean seeds were weighed into six 1-l conical
flasks. The flasks were labeled A–F. Tempe was prepared from the
soybeans in each of the flasks according to the method of Robert et
al. [16]. The soybeans in each flask were boiled separately for
30 min, dehulled, and soaked in water. In each of the flasks (A–E),
5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 g of baobab pulp powder was added, respec-
tively. Baobab pulp powder was not added to flask F, however, as
this was to serve as the control experiment. Each flask was then
inoculated with 1 ml of Rhizopus oligosporus, obtained from the
University of Ibadan, Nigeria, to give 10
cfu/g. The flasks were
incubated overnight at room temperature (25 C) in a Mini/30/
CLAD/vis incubator.
Isolation procedure
The total viable counts of the microorganisms were determined on
plate count agar (PCA) (Oxoid) while lactic acid bacteria (LAB)
were isolated on MRS agar (pH 5.5) [17]. Yeasts and molds were
enumerated and isolated on malt extract agar (MEA) (Oxoid). The
Klebsiella sp. count was conducted on plates of MacConkey-Ino-
sitol-Potassium tellurite agar as described by Thomas et al. [18]. All
the plates were duplicated. Bacteria incubation was done using a
Mini/30/CLAD/vis incubator at 35 C, while fungi and mold were
incubated at 25 C in a separate incubator of the same model.
Determination of pH and titratable acidity
The pH of each tempe sample was determined using a combined
glass-calomel electrode and a pH meter (pHM61 Radiometer,
Copenhagen, Demark). Titratable acidity was done by titrating
25 ml of fermenting filtrate with 0.1 M NaOH. Three drops of 1%
phenolphthalein indicator were added. The titratable acidity present
in the sample was calculated based on the method of Nout et al.
Identification procedure
Systematic, morphological and biochemical tests were conducted
according to Cowan and Steel [19] with reference to Bergey’s
Manual of Systemic Bacteriology [20, 21]. Lactic acid bacteria
(LAB) were identified using the conventional method of Kandler
and Weiss [17] with complementary fermentation tests on API
50 CH gallery and CH medium (API system, Motalieu-Vercieu,
Data analysis
The data generated from the pH and titratable acidity readings were
subjected to statistical analysis. The linear model procedure method
was used to find out which of the concentrations of baobab pulp
power has a maximum effect on the acidity of the medium during
tempe fermentation at p0.05.
Results and discussion
The dominant microorganisms isolated from the fermen-
tation medium apart from the Rhizopus oligosporus in-
oculum were mainly lactic acid bacteria (LAB). These
were identified as Lactobaccillus plantarum, Lactobacil-
lus fermentum, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Lactococ-
cus lactis (Table 1). As the concentration of baobab pulp
powder increased, the acidic medium present in tempe
increased as well. This trend continued until the mold
(Rhizopus oligosporus) could no longer survive in the
medium. The mold was eliminated from the medium in
the flask containing 15 g of baobab powder. Hence, it
Table 1 Microorganisms isolated from tempe samples with baobab pulp
Sample Population (cfu/g) Microbial species
A 3.410
25 1.510
Streptococeus sp., Lactobaccillus plantarum, Klebsiella sp., Bacillus sp.
Staphylococcus sp., Rhizopus sp., Lactococcus lactis
B 2.910
15 - Streptococcus sp., Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus
plantarum , Rhizopus sp.
C 2.010
10 - Lactococcus lactis, Lactobaccillus fermentum, Lactobacillus plantarum,
Lactobacillus acidophilus, Rhizopus sp.
D 7.910
6- Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus plantarum,
Lactobacillus acidophilus, Rhizopus sp.
E 6.810
-- Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus plantarum,
Lactobacillus acidophilus
F 4.910
30 1.210
Streptococcus sp., Bacillus sp., Staphylococcus sp., Lactococcus lactis,
Rhizopus sp., Salmonella sp., Lactobacillus plantarum
MCIK MacConkey-Inositol-potassium tellurite
MEA Malt extract agar
PCA Plate count agar
MRS De Man Rogosa Sharpe agar
could be assumed that the medium containing 15 g of
baobab pulp powder and 50 g of soybeans or a ratio of
3:10, baobab powder and soybean seeds could be ideal for
tempe production involving the addition of baobab pow-
der. A concentration of the pulp powder above this value
would prevent fungal fermentation, while the concentra-
tion below it may not control the growth of pathogenic
microbes that colonize the soybeans during the fermen-
Presently, the preparation of tempe involving the use
of baobab pulp powder is still a traditional art. There is no
form of quantification of the amount of pulp powder or
the soybean seeds. The quantity of the powder used usu-
ally depends on the arbitrary judgment of the consumers,
thus the pH of the final product varies.
The results of the investigation on the isolated mi-
crobes from soybeans in flask F (control) agree with the
work of Nout et al. [13]. These authors implicated L
plantarum (along with other microbes) as the dominant
lactic acid bacteria species in tempe fermentation. In
addition to this organism, other species of lactic acid
bacteria such as Lactobaccillus fermentum, Lactobaccil-
lus acidophilus , and Lactococcus lactic were also iso-
lated form baobab pulp fermented tempe in this study.
This could be due to the acidic environment created by
the baobab powder, which favors their rapid proliferation.
This is beneficial to consumers since most of the lactic
acid bacteria species are nontoxic and have been reported
to produce an enzyme that breaks the oligosaccharides in
soybeans down to their mono and disaccharide con-
stituents [22, 23]. The presence of lactic acid bacteria in
tempe prepared as it’s being done locally in Nigeria will
not only improve the digestibility of tempe, but will also
extend the shelf life of the product because of the pre-
servative attributes of lactic acid bacteria.
Although the possible source of the lactic acid bacteria
encountered in this study was not investigated, the in-
volvement of lactic acid bacteria in a diverse range of
fermentation processes have been reported [24]. The
possibility of baobab pulp powder as the source cannot be
completely ignored. Investigations into this aspect of the
study are on-going.
Titratable acidity (expressed as a percentage of lactic
acid) increased throughout the process of fermentation,
resulting in a gradual decline in pH. However, the pH of
tempe in the control flask indicated the presence of little
acid created by the natural fermentation process, hence,
the highest pH value of 4.6. The pH and titratable acidity
of samples D and E were significantly different from the
pH and titratable acidity of the control. Other treatments
were not significantly different at p0.05 (Table 2).
In conclusion, this study established that an acidic
medium, created by the addition of baobab pulp powder
to tempe fermentation could prevent the growth of
pathogenic bacteria such as Salmonella sp., Bacillus sp.,
and Streptococcus sp. Although this process is being done
in the local production of tempe in Nigeria, there seems to
be good scientific basis for this practice, particularly
when aspects of microbiological safety are considered.
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Table 2 pH and titratable acid-
ity of tempe sample
Sample Concentration of Baobab pulp
powder (g)
pH Titratable acidity expressed as
lactic acid %
A 5 3.8€1.4
B 10 3.5€0.80
C 15 3.3€0.30
D 20 2.8€1.2
E 25 2.35€1.1
F 0 (control) 4.6€0.80
Values represent the mean scores (n=3); Scores followed by the same letter in a column are not
significantly different (p0.5)
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(1985) Evaluation of the microbiological safety of tempe made
from unacidified soybeans. J Food Protect 48:438–441
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... Baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) fruit trees are indigenous to Africa which is an income generation for the livelihood of rural population in Africa. Baobabs play an important role in providing a balanced nutrition because of their edible parts supply vitamins, mineral, proteins, and energy that are not commonly obtained from the cereal-dominated diets of drylands of Africa (41)(42)(43)(44)(45)(46)(47)49). African baobab is a very long-lived tree with multipurpose uses. ...
... Another theory is that the baobab trees in India might be due to the migration of African population to India particularly in Gujarat and Karnataka state (29)(30)(31)(39)(40)(41)(42)(43)(44)(45)(46)(47). The seed pods of Baobab might have been swept by sea currents and reached India. ...
... The seed pods of Baobab might have been swept by sea currents and reached India. Thus, the Baobab trees which love arid zones have been found growing as stragglers in the Indian subcontinent, including Sri Lanka (29)(30)(31)(32)(33)(34)(35)(36)(37)(38)(39)(41)(42)(43)(44)(45)(46)(47). This enormous baobab tree supposedly has its origin in the African continent and brought in by sailors who came to establish trade links with India; they thereafter planted them across the Indian subcontinent. ...
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This review paper highlights the medicinal properties particularly the immunogenic potentiality of iconic baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) (Kalphavraksha or Wish) tree species belongs to Malvaceae family. During the recent outbreak of second wave of coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) mutants, Delta variant (B. 1. 617.2) strain and Delta Plus (AY.1) in India has created a major health issue resulted in more hospitalizations and death. Another problem is fully vaccinated people with "breakthrough" infections is rare but reported. This has created a situation and therefore, promoted herbal medicine, fruit pulp of baobab as an immunity booster for controlling the coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). The baobab (Kalphavraksha or Wish tree) fruit pulp is very rich in vitamin C (280-350 mg/g of the fruit), zinc, and the source of protein and used as a herbal medicine long time ago by local traditional healers in India, Africa, Madagascar and other Asian countries. In addition to this, the baobab fruit pulp is acidic in nature and also known for protease inhibitors which limits the consumption of fruits. Plant protease inhibitors are directly involved in blocking the viral replication and inhibited the viral synthesis. Therefore, two dose vaccination with additional dietary and medicinal therapy will help to prevent the human body against invading viral antigen and improved the overall health condition of the Covid-19 patients. In India, the oral consumption of baobab (Kalphavraksha or Wish tree) fruit pulp with milk as an immunity booster has improved the Covid-19 patients health condition. However, there are no clinical evidences to support the scientific validation. Therefore, clinical experimental studies should be conducted particularly for the scientific validation of immunogenic potentiality of baobab fruit pulp. This will help in developing a novel drug for controlling the coronavirus infections in future pandemic.
... An acid medium, as created by the addition of baobab pulp powder to tempe fermentation could prevent the growth of pathogenic bacteria such as Salmonella sp., Bacillus sp. and Streptococcus sp. (Afolabi et al., 2005). Moreover, increasing concentrations of baobab pulp powder led to an increase in the population oflactic acid bacteria. ...
... This is beneficial to consumers since most of the lactic acid bacteria species are nontoxic and have been reported to produce an enzyme that breaks the oligosaccharides in soybean (main component of tempe) down to their mono-and disaccharide constituents. The presence oflactic acid bacteria in tempe prepared as it is being done locally in Nigeria will not only improve the digestibility of tempe, but will also extend the shelf life of the product because of the preservative attributes oflactic acid bacteria (Afolabi et al., 2005). There was some antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus faecalis, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Mycobacterium phlei cited in Maso la et al., 2009). ...
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Baobab (Adansonia digitata L., Malvaceae) is a multi-purpose tree species native to Africa. Its fruit pulp has very high vitamin C content (ffi ten times that of orange), and can be used in seasoning, as an appetizer and to make juices. Seeds contain appreciable quantities of crude protein, digestible carbohydrates and oil, whereas they have high levels of lysine, thiamine, Ca and Fe. They can be eaten fresh or dried, ground into flour and thus added to soups and stews. Processing eliminates a number of anti-nutritional factors present in the seed. Baobab leaves are superior in nutritional quality to fruit pulp, and contain significant levels of vitamin A. The leaves are a staple for many populations in Africa, and are eaten fresh or dried. Several plant parts have interesting anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, and baobab has been used extensively since ancient times in traditional medicine.
... An acid medium, as created by the addition of baobab pulp powder to tempe fermentation could prevent the growth of pathogenic bacteria such as Salmonella sp., Bacillus sp. and Streptococcus sp. (Afolabi et al., 2005). Moreover, increasing concentrations of baobab pulp powder led to an increase in the population of lactic acid bacteria. ...
... This is beneficial to consumers since most of the lactic acid bacteria species are nontoxic and have been reported to produce an enzyme that breaks the oligosaccharides in soybean (main component of tempe) down to their mono-and disaccharide constituents. The presence of lactic acid bacteria in tempe prepared as it is being done locally in Nigeria will not only improve the digestibility of tempe, but will also extend the shelf life of the product because of the preservative attributes of lactic acid bacteria (Afolabi et al., 2005). ...
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Background: Adansonia digitata also known as ''baobab'' is a tree attracting recent interest especially due to the high nutritional value of the fruit pulp. However, few studies are reported on the secondary metabolite content, showing high variability depending on the geographical region. Methods: In this study, the chemical profiles of baobab fruits, leaves and bark were investigated by HPLC coupled with a photodiode array (PDA)/UV and an electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometer (MS) and gas chromatography (GC)/MS. Results: The phytochemical screening of the plant samples revealed that phenols, Saponins, Flavonoids, Alkaloids, Tannin, Terpenoids and Cardiac glycoside were present. The presence of these compounds was known to show medicinal potentials as well as exhibiting physiological activity and this justified the use of baobab leaves as one of the major source of soup in African dishes. The results further implied that the species has potentials in food industry, pharmaceuticals and other allied industries. Copyright © 2020 S.N. Gimba et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
... People of age N 60 years and age group [51][52][53][54][55][56][57][58][59][60] come first with a frequency of use of medicinal plants of 25% for each. The age groups [41][42][43][44][45][46][47][48][49][50], [31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38][39][40], [20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30] have a non-negligible percentage of use which is 22%, 14% and 13% respectively. However, people aged b20 years use very little of the medicinal plants (1%), which explains why the younger generation ignores the traditional medicinal uses of plants, while the elderly are the most important source of information acquisition on the traditional therapeutic use of plants. ...
... It has been suggested that the Adansonia digitata pulp powder to could prevent the growth of pathogenic bacteria such as Salmonella sp., Bacillus sp., and Streptococcus sp. [43]. Various studies confirmed that cellulose, citric acid, mucilage, and tannins isolated from Adansonia digitata exhibit an Antidiarrheal activity [44]. ...
Background This study was carried out among the inhabitants of the province of Tarfaya (Moroccan Center South), in order to make an inventory of the medicinal plants used in traditional herbal medicine by the local population. Methods Information was obtained by means of open interviews with local people using the questionnaires. The data was analyzed using Use Value (UV), Relative Frequency of Citation (RFC), Fidelity Level (FL) and Informant Consensus Factor (ICF). Results The analysis of the results allowed us to identify 130 vascular plant species in 57 families with a significant representativeness of Lamiaceae (10%), Asteraceae (9.23%), Fabaceae (8.46%), Apiaceae (6.15%), Poaceae (3.85%), Solanaceae (3.07%) and Amaranthaceae (3.07%). These species are mainly used in the care of the digestive and genito-urinary disorders. The UV ranged from 0.01 (Aframomum melegueta) to 0.34 (Maerua crassifolia). The RFC ranged from 0.01 (Aframomum melegueta) to 0.32 (Maerua crassifolia). The highest FL (100%) was found for 38 species, while the highest values of ICF were recorded for gastrointestinal pains (0.972). Conclusion This study revealed rich ethnomedicinal knowledge in the Tarfaya province. Furthermore, ethnobotanical analysis will provide data for further pharmacological studies.
... Stimulation of Lactobacilli by pectin has indeed been reported before [43]. Moreover, when mixing baobab fruit powder with fermented soybeans (Tempeh-traditional Japanese fermented food), an enhancement of lactic acid bacteria was observed [44]. While baobab fruit pulp powder increased lactate levels for all donors at 6 h, lactate was fully consumed at subsequent timepoints, indicating that baobab fruit pulp powder stimulated cross-feeding interactions with lactate-consuming microorganisms, potentially including propionate [45] and/or butyrate-producing [46] Firmicutes members, a phylum that indeed increased for donors A and C. Overall, these findings, even if only based on qPCR analysis (that has low taxonomic resolution as opposed to next-generation sequencing), suggest the involvement of specific host microorganisms in the fermentation of baobab fruit pulp powder, highlighting its prebiotic potential. ...
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Increasing insight into the impact of the gut microbiota on human health has sustained the development of novel prebiotic ingredients. This exploratory study evaluated the prebiotic potential of baobab fruit pulp powder, which consists of pectic polysaccharides with unique composition as compared to other dietary sources, given that it is rich in low methoxylated homogalacturonan (HG). After applying dialysis procedures to remove simple sugars from the product (simulating their absorption along the upper gastrointestinal tract), 48 h fecal batch incubations were performed. Baobab fruit pulp powder boosted colonic acidification across three simulated human adult donors due to the significant stimulation of health-related metabolites acetate (+18.4 mM at 48 h), propionate (+5.5 mM at 48 h), and to a lesser extent butyrate (0.9 mM at 48 h). Further, there was a trend of increased lactate levels (+2.7 mM at 6h) and reduced branched chain fatty acid (bCFA) levels (−0.4 mM at 48 h). While Bacteroidetes levels increased for all donors, donor-dependent increases in Bifidobacteria, Lactobacilli, and Firmicutes were observed, stressing the potential interindividual differences in microbial composition modulation upon Baobab fruit pulp powder treatment. Overall, Baobab fruit pulp powder fermentation displayed features of selective utilization by host microorganisms and, thus, has promising prebiotic potential (also in comparison with the ‘gold standard’ prebiotic inulin). Further research will be required to better characterize this prebiotic potential, accounting for the interindividual differences, while aiming to unravel the potential resulting health benefits.
... Kandungan karbohidrat yang banyak terdapat pada tempe kacang Nagara dan arab berubah menjadi asam selama proses fermentasi pada pengolahan tempe. Hal ini dikuatkan dengan pendapat [3] Proses perendaman kacang sebelum dilakukan penggilingan sebenarnya dapat mengurangi rasa asam pada tempe. Akan tetapi, bagian asam dari kacang Nagara dan arab sangat sedikit dapat keluar selama proses perendaman. ...
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The study purpose was to determine consumer acceptance and physico chemical properties of Nagara and arab bean substituted soybean tempeh. Tempeh processed by the ratio between Nagara and arab bean with soybean is 100%; 75:25; 50:50; and 25:75. Nagara and arab bean can be made into tempeh with flavors and aromas slightly sour and bitter, pale bone white color and there are still remnants of the black hilum, and the soft and mushy texture and not crispy such as soybean tempeh. The water content of Nagara bean tempeh is similar to soybean and arab bean, which is 64.35 -68.64%; ash content of 1.43 to 2.12%. Nagara bean tempeh contain fat (2.81%) smaller than soybean tempeh (15.31%). Nagara bean tempeh also contain protein (29.25%) is smaller than soybean tempeh (42.73%). But Nagara bean tempeh contain carbohydrate (66.46%) are greater than soybean tempeh (39.99%). Nagara bean tempeh contain fat and protein is slightly higher than arab bean tempeh, which is 2.27% and 28.49%. Nagara bean tempeh contain carbohydrate less than arab bean (67.71%). Nagara bean substituted soybean tempeh at 50: 50 ratio is still acceptable to consumers in taste, aroma, texture, color and appearance.
... Due to their uses in foodstuff and various traditional medicine, Baobab is also named "The Small Pharmacy" or "Chemist Tree" [20,21] . Afolabiand Popoola [22] and Chadare [23] studied the composition and the nutritional value of many parts of baobab tree and demonstrated that the pulp was particularly rich in vitamin C. Reports suggest the content of vitamin C is as higher as 10 times of that is oranges [24,25] . ...
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High dietary fat intake associates with abnormal lipid metabolism and oxidative stress. As traditional remedies for these conditions medicinal plants used. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of Baobab (Adansonia digitata) fruit pulp extract on oxidative stress and hyperlipidemia induced by high fat diet (HFD). Male adult Wistar rats fed on HFD, normal laboratory diet or HFD supplemented with Baobab (Adansonia digitata). Three groups of rats fed with HFD supplemented with extracts with concentrations (2.5, 5.0, 10.0%) in drinking water. Upon characterization of Baobab fruit pulp found rich in total phenols (48.10 mg /g), total flavonoids (42.7 mg/g), and vitamin C (67.3mg/100g). The scavenging activity of lipid peroxides was 96.36%. Feeding rats in HFD for nine weeks resulted in a significant (P <0.05) increase body weight (93.0%). Total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, MDA also increased (p<0.05) while, HDL level showed a significant (p<0.05) decrease. Glutathione (GSH) and total antioxidant capacity in serum also reduced. Liver homogenate analysis showed significant increase in triglycerides (p< 0.05). Alteration in activity of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) also found. Supplementation of extract resulted in variable restoration of the above-mentioned parameters to their normal values. The restoration was a dose-dependent effect. The best improvement in studied parameters achieved with the 10% baobab extract supplementation. In nutshell, the fruit pulp of Baobab is a rich source of phytochemicals (e.g. total phenols, total flavonoids, and Vitamin C). Those phytochemicals managed to overcome the deleterious effects of HFD. [Althwab SA, Alsattame M, Al-mundarij TI, Hamad EM, Mousa HM. Protective Effect of Baobab Fruit Pulp (Adansonia digitata L.) from Oxidative Stress Induced in Rats by High-Fat Diet. Life Sci J 2019;16(1):63-71].
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Powdered stem bark of Adansonia digitata was extracted with chloroform and methanol using percolation method of extraction. The chloroform and methanolic extracts were screened for the presence of secondary metabolite using a standard technique. The result of the phytochemical screening indicated the presence of alkaloid, Flavanoid, tannin, reducing sugar and steroid in one or both the extracts. The extracts were further tested on confirmed clinical isolates of Escherichia coli, staphylococcus aureus and proteus mirabilis using disc diffusion method and micro-broth dilution technique. Stem bark extracts of adansonia digitata was found to have antimicrobial activity against the clinical isolates used in the study.
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This review paper highlights the use of herbal medicine in the management of the coronavirus disease COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, which has caused a worldwide outbreak of respiratory illness. This is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), which is zoonotic infecting both animal and human. Vaccines are the most promising solution to mitigate new viral strains. The Indian system of holistic medicine known as “Ayurveda” plays an important role in controling the viral disease SARS-CoV-2 and other health disorders. Dietary therapy and herbal medicine could be a complementary preventive therapy for COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2). Plants have been used as a expression systems for the production of diagnostic reagents and pharmaceutical proteins often described as „molecular farming. On the basis of literature survy presented, some of the plant secondary metabolites that showed prominent antiviral activity against coronaviruses SARS-CoV-2 through impeding the main machinery used in their pathogenesis and replication cycle. The in vitro, in vivo, and in silico investigations revealed numerous plant-derived compounds with promising anti- SARS-CoV and anti- SARS CoV-2 activity. Therefore, this review gathered all antiviral plants in a single platform to facilitate the laboratory-based research for the development of novel drug/molecular therapeutics to overcome the SARS-CoV-2 and future pandemic situations. Further detailed clinical trial experiments should be conducted for the scientific validation.
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Background and objective: This study investigated the nutritional and phytochemical composition, antioxidant characteristics of Adansonia. digitata (baobab) leaves as well as fractionation of its ethanolic extract using column chromatography. Materials and methods: Baobab leaves were collected from wukari, dried under shade and analyzed for proximate, minerals and phytochemical compositions. Results: Using the column chromatographic fractionation, the following ranges were observed: Total antioxidant capacity (355.56-2900mg/ml), Total phenolic content (2.92-365.42mg/ml), Total flavonoid content (0.41-30.05mg/ml), Metal chelating activity (361.54-5476.92mg/ml) and Beta carotene content (2.89-217.39mg/ml). Proximate composition of baobab leaves revealed the following levels: protein (19.84±0.022%), fat (3.72±0.014%), fibre (4.16±0.014%), ash (8.66±0.014%), Moisture (9.86±0.00%), and Carbohydrate (53.78±0.05%). The result of the Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of the following at indicated levels: Tannins (31.43±0.022mg/100g), Alkaloids (9.35±0.014mg/100g), Flavonoids (63.43±0.022mg/100g), Phenolics (124.36±0.05mg/100g), Glycosides (14.63±0.014mg/100g), Terpenes (12.65±0.02mg/100g) and steroids (6.13±0.022mg/100g). The mineral composition analysis revealed the presence of the following minerals: Ca (415.63±0.020mg/100g), Fe (10.93±0.014mg/100g), Mg (155.92±0.00mg/100g), K (345.41±0.00mg/100g), Na (21.43±0.022mg/100g), P (226.75±0.00mg/100g), Cr (1.06±0.02 µg/100g), S (0.17±0.022mg/100g), Zn (8.32 ±0.02mg/100g), Mn (35.16±0.05mg/100g), Cu (7.52±0.014mg/100g). Conclusion: This study has shown that Adansonia digitata leaves contain appreciable levels of nutrient components, useful minerals and phytochemicals such as cardiac glycosides and phenolics which are beneficial to heart and also have antioxidant properties for scavenging free radicals.
A survey of the microbiological quality of commercial tempeh was done in The Netherlands. A total of 110 samples were examined. Most (98%) of the samples had an aerobic plate count above 10⁷ CFU/g. Numbers of Enterobacteriaceae exceeded 10⁵ CFU/g in 67% of the samples, whereas numbers of lactic acid bacteria exceeded 10⁷ CFU/g in 81% of the samples. Staphylococcus aureus was found in 13%, Bacillus cereus in 11% and Escherichia coli in 3% of the samples at levels of 10⁵ CFU/g. Yersinia enterocolitica was found in six samples, whereas Salmonella was absent in 25 g of all the samples examined. Many (69%) of the samples had a yeast count above 10⁵ CFU/g. Trichosporon beigelii was the most frequent yeast species. Besides Rhizopus oryzae and Rizopus oligosporus, which obviously represent the mold species responsible for the fermentation, Mucor indicus was often associated with the mycoflora of the tempeh. The reasons for the poor microbiological quality are discussed and some recommendations are proposed.
Studies were done to evaluate the safety of tempeh made from unacidifed soybeans and inoculated with different bacterial pathogens. Pathogens were added to either the soybeans before fermentation by Rhizopus oligosporus or the tempeh after fermentation and steaming. In the latter method, the inoculated products were incubated at several different temperatures (5, 10, 15 and 25°C). Clostridium botulinum (types A and/or B) toxin was produced in 2 d during the fermentation and within 5 d at 25°C or 4 wk at 15°C in tempeh inoculated and incubated in vacuum packages after fermentation and steaming. Staphylococcus aureus grew very well (>6-log10 CFU/g increase) in 2 d during the fermentation, and grew from ca. 103 CFU/g to 108 CFU/g in 7 d at 25°C and 21 d at 15°C in tempeh inoculated after fermentation and steaming. Staphylococcal enterotoxins were detected in some of these samples. Salmonella typhimurium also grew well during the fermentation (>6-log10 CFU/g increase in 1 d), but grew relatively slowly at 25 and 15°C in tempeh inoculated after fermentation and steaming. Yersinia enterocolitica grew very well (>6-log10 CFU/g increase) in 1 d during the fermentation, and also grew well in tempeh inoculated after fermentation and steaming, with a >6 log10 CFU/g increase in 2 d at 25 or 15°C and 5 d at 10°C. Results of these studies indicate the need for maintaining: (a) a high level of sanitary practices during production and (b) good refrigeration (≤5°C) of the product following fermentation until it is used.
Three phases can be distinguished in the tempeh fermentation of soybeans with Rhizopus oligosporus. During the first phase a rapid increase in free fatty acid (FFA) content, number of bacteria and temperature is observed, along with a copious growth of the mould. The second phase is characterised by little or no change in FFA content, bacterial and mould growth and by a declining temperature. During the third phase the FFA development and bacterial growth recommence. Organoleptically, tempeh scores best at the end of the first phase (30 h at 32° C) and keeps its good quality during the second phase (one additional day at 32° C), but deteriorates rapidly during the third phase. Upon frying in coconut oil, tempeh undergoes a sharp reduction in FFA content with a concomitant increase in the FFA content of the frying oil. While frying alters the percentage composition of the glycerides of tempeh because of coconut oil absorption, the glyceride composition of the frying oil barely changes.
α-Galactosidase activity was observed in six strains of Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from fermented cereal products, human intestinal flora and fermented tea. The cultural conditions under which the enzyme activity was detected suggest that the enzyme is inducible. Development of mutants in four out of the six strains was observed and the mutants recorded high enzyme activity than the parent strains. Effect of different carbohydrates on enzyme activity showed glucose and raffinose being repressive in the parent strains. Although all the carbohydrate sources supported growth, highest amount of enzyme activity was recorded on lactose and glucose. The enzymatic potential of L plantarum in reducing flatulence properties of the raw material base of some West African fermented foods is suggested.
During the traditional Indonesian tempe manufacturing process, spontaneous and uncontrolled fermentations of soyabeans take place during the soaking stage prior to fungal fermentation. Often, such fermentations result in an acidification of the beans. A comparison of industrial tempe processes suggested that fermentative acidification during soaking inhibits the multiplication of spoilage causing bacilli. The acidification during soaking could be controlled by recycling part of the soak water from a previous batch as an inoculum, resulting in a soak water pH of 4·1–4·9 depending on soaking temperature and recycling rate. Soaks at 19°C and 25°C were dominated by Lactobacillus plantarum. Isolates of L. plantarum added as an inoculum to freshly started soaks were able to acidify the beans to pH ≤ 4·30 yielding tempe of good quality in which bacilli and Enterobacteriaceae could not be detected. Yeasts, notably Saccharomyces dairensis, present in soaks at 19°C and 25°C, did not contribute to the acidification and could not prevent early spoilage of tempe. Pediococcus spp. dominated soaks at 37°C, and though able to acidify soyabeans, inhibited the growth of Rhizopus oligosporus; hence no tempe could be formed. Our findings indicate that a simple recycling process can result in predictable acidification during soaking of soyabeans, contributing to the shelf-life and safety of tempe.