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Carved trees in grazed forests in boreal Sweden—analysis of remaining trees, interpretation of past land-use and implications for conservation

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Abstract

Culturally modified trees (CMTs) provide unique insights into traditional knowledge and uses of the forest ecosystems. In close relation to pre-industrial livestock herding in central Sweden, it was a custom to carve text and symbols on trees and use them as notice boards in the forest. The main aim of this study was to document and analyse remaining carved trees in a managed forest landscape of 160km2. The same area was surveyed twice, once in 1986 and once in 2003. 488 carved trees were documented and classified into legible themes that were interpreted in the light of past herding practices. Name was the most common theme, found in 85% of the carvings. Most of the carvings were made in the period from the 1750s until the early 1900s. The custom of carving on trees was closely related to important grazing areas and the need to establish rights to them. The main losses of carved trees nowadays are due to their natural death and decay as most of the carved trees are located in areas that are not targeted for management. A primary recommendation for preservation is therefore to continue documentation of the trees because of the noticeable deterioration in readability of the carvings.

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... Researchers broadly refer to these altered trees as CMTs (Culturally Modified Trees), and more specifically as scarred trees, marked trees, and carved trees (Andersson 2005;Deur 2007;Etheridge 1918;Kaelin 2003;Long 2005). Although in its broadest sense, CMT refers to any tree, stump or log that shows physical evidence of human harvesting, modification or other activity (Andersson 2005;British Columbia, Archaeology Branch 2001;Ö stlund et al. 2002;Stryd 1997), in this study we restrict our treatment to trees that have remained living following harvesting or modification. ...
... Researchers broadly refer to these altered trees as CMTs (Culturally Modified Trees), and more specifically as scarred trees, marked trees, and carved trees (Andersson 2005;Deur 2007;Etheridge 1918;Kaelin 2003;Long 2005). Although in its broadest sense, CMT refers to any tree, stump or log that shows physical evidence of human harvesting, modification or other activity (Andersson 2005;British Columbia, Archaeology Branch 2001;Ö stlund et al. 2002;Stryd 1997), in this study we restrict our treatment to trees that have remained living following harvesting or modification. We explore here the commonalities and differences in the practices of living tree modification, the reasons behind them, and the implications for future management and protection of CMTs and forests. ...
... Growing recognition of the importance of CMTs has lead to a proliferation of focused studies of their occurrence and cultural and ecological significance around the world (e.g., Altman 1994; Andersson 2005;Andersson et al. 2005Andersson et al. , 2008Arcas Consulting Associates 1986;Blackstock 2001;British Columbia, Archaeology Branch 2001;Deur 2007;Ertug 2006;Mack 1996;Mobley and Eldridge 1992;Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources 2007;Ö stlund et al. 2002, 2003Satıl et al. 2006;Speer and Hansen-Speer 2007;Stafford and Maxwell 2006;Stryd and Feddema 1998;Wessen 1995). This paper presents a review of some of the important and emerging understandings of CMTs and reasons behind their creation, a comparison of some of the similarities and differences of CMTs as they occur in different parts of the world and under the influence of different cultural management regimes, and a discussion of the relationships of CMTs to land tenure, ecosystem management, and environmental stewardship. ...
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Los árboles culturalmente modificados, o CMTs (por su sigla en ingles), son un fenómeno asociado a grupos humanos que habitan los bosques alrededor del mundo, desde Norte América hasta Escandinavia, hasta Turquía, hasta Australia. Árboles vivientes de los cuales materiales son recolectados (como corteza interna comestible, brea y resina, corteza, ramas), o que son modificados a través de producción de vástagos y poda basal para producir madera de determinado tamaño y calidad, o para indicar linderos y caminos, representan el potencial para el uso y manejo sostenible de árboles y regiones forestales. A menudo el uso de estos árboles esta asociado con sistemas de creencias o acercamientos a otras formas de vida que dan como resultado la conservación de árboles en pie y bosques, preservando o mejorando el valor y la productividad de estos hábitats sin importar que ellos sirven como recursos para comunidades humanas. Diferentes tipos de árboles modificados tiene importancia religiosa o espiritual, enlazando a las comunidades contemporáneas con sus ancestros que usaron los árboles antes que ellos, y dándole significado de uso tradicional y ocupación a una región. Aunque algunos CMTs están de alguna manera legalmente protegidos en algunas jurisdicciones, muchos están en riesgo debido a prácticas forestales industriales, expansión urbana y adecuación de tierras para la agricultura. Un inmenso numero de CMTs de siglos y décadas pasadas han sido destruidos. Los diversos tipos y patrones para la creación y uso de CMTs necesita mayor estudio. Estos árboles, colectivamente, son un importante legado de herencia humana.
... Rackham 2003;Emanuelsson 2009;Eriksson and Cousins 2014). However, biological cultural traces have to a lesser extent been placed in the context of conservation of cultural heritage (but see, for example, Östlund, Zackrisson, and Hörnberg 2002;Emanuelsson 2003;Ljung, Lennartsson, and Westin 2015;Andersson, Östlund, and Lundqvist 2005;Eriksson 2018). ...
... Thus, specific individuals, for example trees, which are indications of previous human activity (e.g. Andersson, Östlund, and Lundqvist 2005) will ultimately die. On the other hand, some species may instead reproduce and disperse, implying that the trace may change and become difficult to interpret. ...
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This is a study about cultivated and ‘wild’ plants as components of the material heritage of crofters, an overlooked group of people in former agrarian landscapes. Despite abundant remains of crofts in Sweden, inhabited during the period from the eighteenth century until the 1940s, crofters have been subject to few studies. We used a survey conducted 1967 of botanical remains at abandoned croft as a basis for a re-survey in 2019. As with all biological traces of former human activities, cultivated plants and wild species favoured by former management ultimately disappear, but with long delays. We describe the patterns of this decline. In general, about a third of the species were gone after 52 years. The rate of disappearance of single species occurrences was about 1% annually. We discuss the interpretation of botanical remains from since long abandoned crofts in the context of heritage. In some cases, the botanical remains were the only material evidence left. We conclude that the material heritage of crofters deserves further studies and that botanical remains at abandoned crofts should be documented and at least at some sites protected.
... Dendrograffiti are carvings made by land users, such as shepherds and pastoralists, and often display names, dates, symbols and images that mark boundaries, communications and light entertainment (e.g. Andersson et al. 2005;Lewis Attributes, preservation and management of dendroglyphs from the Wet Tropics rainforest of northeast Australia ARTICLES 2014; Mallea-Olaetxe 2001). Although dendrografitti do not encode the same level of cultural information, they can provide useful comparative information on the potential preservation of dendroglyphs. ...
... Dendrografitti demonstrate the ability of carved trees to be preserved over a considerable length of time where land practices and human intervention have had less of an impact on the natural environment. In Sweden, carvings made by shepherds to mark grazing routes and claim grazing territory have survived since the 1750s, and the oldest reported tree scars on living trees are blazes on a section of walking trail made in the early 1500s (Andersson et al. 2005;Ericsson and Andersson 2003). Forestry practices and the life span of individual trees appear to have the greatest influence on the survival of living dendroglyphs. ...
Conference Paper
If dendroglyphs were a faunal species they would be classified as critically endangered. They are the Giant Panda of the archaeological world, threatened by loss of habitat and natural decay. This paper describes the significance, attributes and preservation of Aboriginal dendroglyphs in the Wet Tropics World Heritage Area, the only dendroglyphs recorded in a tropical rainforest environment. For Dugulbarra and Waribarra clan group of Mamu the dendroglyphs represent not only the old people and their use of the rainforest as a cultural landscape, they also assert Mamu cultural survival after a history of land clearing, logging and ‘locking the gate’ on the world heritage protected area. Our research identifies the attributes of rainforest dendroglyphs on Mamu and other rainforest Aboriginal cultural estates. Rainforest dendroglyphs are usually on single trees depicting abstract linear or figurative designs and associated with Aboriginal walking tracks and other sites. Tree carving was probably practised over a much larger area, but the surviving dendroglyphs appear to have been protected by their inaccessibility, forestry management and national park / world heritage tenure. Comparison of records of the dendroglyphs made 25 years ago suggests the main threat to surviving rainforest dendroglyphs is the finite lifespan of the trees themselves.
... International studies have demonstrated the utility of CMTs as a data source and as a focus of management efforts, but there has been little research on CMTs compared with other types of archaeological sites. Publications on CMTs mainly focus on western North America and Scandinavia (Andersson et al. 2005;Ö stlund et al. 2002b). These studies demonstrate that CMTs can be used to increase our understanding of many important aspects of indigenous lifeways that are inaccessible through other archaeological sources. ...
... There are a number of important reasons for undertaking CMT research. CMTs represent finite resources that are very likely to be destroyed through natural and anthropogenic processes (Andersson et al. 2005;Ericsson et al. 2003;Josefsson et al. 2012;Turner et al. 2009). Furthermore, indigenous peoples in many areas of the world consider CMTs to be important elements of their cultural heritage and often advocate strongly for their documentation and preservation (Barkley et al. 2008;McNeil 2003;Nicholas 2006;Rhoads 1992;Stryd 1998). ...
Article
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Developing holistic accounts of indigenous peoples' lifeways in colonial intercultural settings requires data that provide insights into patterns of landscape use and variations in social, economic, and cultural practices away from nodes of colonial activity. However, the mobile settlement patterns of some indigenous peoples mean that the data necessary for such investigations can be rare. In western Cape York Peninsula of northeastern Australia, culturally modified trees (CMTs) associated with the collection of wild honey or ''sugarbag'' provide opportunities to investigate indigenous patterns of landscape use and processes of economic change within colonial settings. Here we use CMT data to suggest that increased engagement with invader-settlers resulted in intensification of indigenous wild food production. This study exemplifies the complexity of socioeconomic shifts that accompanied European colonization worldwide, and illustrates how landscape-level data can provide information on the broader histories of indigenous peoples within colonial settings.
... Dendrograffiti are carvings made by land users, such as shepherds and pastoralists, and often display names, dates, symbols and images that mark boundaries, communications and light entertainment (e.g. Andersson et al. 2005;Lewis Attributes, preservation and management of dendroglyphs from the Wet Tropics rainforest of northeast Australia ARTICLES 2014; Mallea-Olaetxe 2001). Although dendrografitti do not encode the same level of cultural information, they can provide useful comparative information on the potential preservation of dendroglyphs. ...
... Dendrografitti demonstrate the ability of carved trees to be preserved over a considerable length of time where land practices and human intervention have had less of an impact on the natural environment. In Sweden, carvings made by shepherds to mark grazing routes and claim grazing territory have survived since the 1750s, and the oldest reported tree scars on living trees are blazes on a section of walking trail made in the early 1500s (Andersson et al. 2005;Ericsson and Andersson 2003). Forestry practices and the life span of individual trees appear to have the greatest influence on the survival of living dendroglyphs. ...
Article
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This paper describes the attributes, preservation and management of Aboriginal dendroglyphs in the Wet Tropics World Heritage Area of northeast Australia, the only known dendroglyphs recorded in a tropical rainforest environment worldwide. Our research identifies that dendroglyphs are usually single trees with abstract linear or figurative designs carved into their outer bark and are often associated with Aboriginal walking tracks and other cultural sites. Using existing historical field notes and records, including a fibreglass model of one carving made in 1991, we conclude that the dendroglyphs have changed little over 20 years. They appear to be more resilient to extreme climatic events than previously predicted, and the main threat to their preservation appears to be vulnerability from the effects of ageing, such as insect and fungal attack. Difficulties for traditional owners in accessing dendroglyphs within the Wet Tropics World Heritage Area highlight tensions between natural and cultural site management practices.
... Human artefacts were found attached to the most urbanised of the trees encountered. Of the 824 trees studied, 205 we classed as cultural modified trees (CMTs) according to the term introduced by Andersson, Stlund, and Lundqvist (2005). CMTs were marked Figure 6. ...
Article
Cultural landscapes can often be identified by the presence of sacred trees which have been retained and can be recognised as distinctive veteran trees. The characteristics of these trees such as huge size and longevity give them an enduring presence in the landscape, while their conceptualisation as the ‘domesticated’ wild, transform them into symbols of spirituality and local history. In Zagori, NW Greece, trees gain sanctity by virtue of proximity or connection with sacred sites often associated with churches. In these sites, trees can grow into natural shapes as a result of strong taboos, which prevent use for private needs. There is an association between tree species and the nature of the sacred site: broadleaved oaks and maples are associated with outlying churches; plane trees are located in central squares, next to the church and provide a focal point for community life, while in cemeteries native evergreens are nowadays replaced by planted conifers. In the present day local communities appreciate sacred trees as living elements of their collective memory and local history.
... In our study area, trees modified by former human activities in the boreal forest landscape have been described by Bele & Norderhaug (2004); scars were identified as blazes marking boundaries and trails, and girdling for forest cultivation and utilisation of raw materials (birch bark and axe shafts). Ericsson et al. (2003) and Andersson et al. (2005) have emphasised that such trees provide unique insights into traditional knowledge and former utilisation of the forest ecosystems. In Nordli, dead, burnt pine trees still provide evidence of swidden practices in the past to improve grazing (Bele & Norderhaug 2004). ...
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Analysing forest history is crucial to understanding how shifting harvesting methods have different effects on forest landscape structure. Two main harvesting regimes in a Norwegian boreal forest landscape over a period of 150 years were detected by the study. A homogeneous impact regime resulting from selective logging changed the forest structure by logging the oldest and largest trees evenly throughout the forest, resulting in a homogeneous landscape structure. However, population growth in the 19th century led to a substantial increase in traditional subsistence forestry to obtain building materials, firewood, etc. The most intensive stage of this regime started in c.1860 when farmers began selling logging contracts to companies and timber traders. Despite this being termed a homogeneous landscape impact, the actual exploitation of the forest was strongly influenced by local factors such as the location of farms, summer farms, lakes, and rivers. Clear-cutting from the 1950s has resulted in a new heterogeneous impact regime, giving a landscape structure dominated by patches of even-aged stands. This regime still predominates. The analysis is based on a study of Nordli and the Sandøla drainage basin in Nord-Trøndelag. Such studies should give a better understanding of the interaction between natural ecological conditions in and human impact on boreal forest landscapes.
... There are several cultural features associated with outland use specifically related to secondary farms. Their management was largely a female activity, including not only handling milking and dairy products, but also transporting and herding of cattle, in turn creating a mind-map of large tracts of the outland landscapes, manifested as paths, resting stones, and messages carved into trees [136,137]. Again, we have a complex of aspects of both culture and environment, obviously causally related to each other, but where it is difficult to define a direction of the causal arrow. The causality worked in both directions. ...
Article
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Infield systems originated during the early Iron Age and existed until the 19th century, although passing many transitions and changes. The core features of infield systems were enclosed infields with hay-meadows and crop fields, and unenclosed outland mainly used for livestock grazing. We examine the transitions and changes of domesticated landscapes with infield systems using the framework of human niche construction, focusing on reciprocal causation affecting change in both culture and environment. A first major transition occurred during the early Middle Ages, as a combined effect of a growing elite society and an increased availability of iron promoted expansion of villages with partly communal infields. A second major transition occurred during the 18th and 19th centuries, due to a then recognized inefficiency of agricultural production, leading to land reforms. In outlands, there was a continuous expansion of management throughout the whole period. Even though external factors had significant impacts as well, human niche construction affected a range of cultural and environmental features regarding the management and structure of domesticated landscapes with infield systems. Thus, niche construction theory is a useful framework for understanding the historical ecology of infield systems.
... In boreal Sweden, some carved trees have been dated to the 1500s (Ericsson and Andersson 2003), although observations from New South Wales demonstrate the loss of one carving in only twenty years (Spennermann 2015). In Sweden, only 10% are estimated to survive (Ericsson and Andersson 2003), with predicted loss of 38 trees per year (Andersson, Östlund, and Lundqvist 2005) and in Chatham Islands, only 30% of the 600 trees recorded in 1950s remain, threatened mainly by pastoralism, tree clearing and wind exposure (Barber, Maxwell, and Hemi 2014). New South Wales dendroglyphs were of special interest to anthropologists in the early 1900s who photographed, described, and removed carved trees from ceremonial sites (Black 1941;Etheridge 1918;Mathews 1896;Purcell, Briggs, and Sutherland 2011;Taçon, South, and Hooper 2003). ...
Article
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Australian Aboriginal rainforest dendroglyphs are a rare and enigmatic cultural resource. Only twenty-three individual rainforest carved trees have been recorded, all in remote parts of the Wet Tropics of Queensland World Heritage Area which are rarely visited. The Western Yalanji dendroglyph is a near life size male anthropomorphic or zoomorphic figure carved into the trunk of a yellow walnut (Beilschmedia bancroftii) five metres above ground level on the Windsor Tableland, in the Western Yalanji estate. The Yalanji dendroglyph is a reminder of the vulnerability of rainforest dendroglyphs to natural processes. Inspections in 2015 identified significant fungal rot in the tree and by 2018 the tree had fallen. This paper documents the history, death and replication of the Yalanji dendroglyph by Western Yalanji Aboriginal Corporation.
... In North America, Styrd and Feddema (1998:8) investigated the varied use of different parts of cedar trees for clothes, food, medicine and dye, and Kawa et al. (2015) considered the use of trees as a medium for art and explored how 'trail trees' were used as living signs and symbols or 'signposts' indicating tracks through the countryside. For the Indigenous Samì people of Sweden, research in the Boreal forested landscapes of Scandinavia revealed that the bark of Scot's Pine was an important food source, whilst 18 th century cattle herders in Scandinavia stripped bark from trees to act as markers of socio-political borders and routes through the landscape (Andersson et al. 2005;Andersson et al. 2008;DeKoninck 2003;Östlund et al. 2002;Östlund et al. 2003). In these studies CMTs were used to demonstrate detailed aspects of past lifeways that could not be accessed through more conventional archaeological data sources. ...
... In northern Sweden, for example, Scots pine trees were used for bark peeling and marking from prehistoric times until the nineteenth century by indigenous nomads (Sami) dwelling in the mountainous regions of Scandinavia [10][11][12][13][14]. Practices leading to creation of CMTs ranged from extraction of resources, through marking territory and trails, to the religious and magic uses of trees [12,15]. Some CMTs, apart from scars, bore carvings that carried particular messages-in central Sweden for example, trees were often used by Swedish farmers as "notice boards" from the 1750s until the early 1900s [16]. In Australia, scarred trees and trees with dendroglyphs are considered one of the most distinctive forms of Aboriginal heritage [17][18]. ...
Article
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Studies of past forest use traditions are crucial in both understanding the present state of the oldest European forests, and in guiding decisions on future forest conservation and management. Current management of Poland’s Białowieża Forest (BF), one of the best-preserved forests of the European lowlands, is heavily influenced by anecdotal knowledge on forest history. Therefore, it is important to gain knowledge of the forest’s past in order to answer questions about its historical administration, utilisation, and associated anthropogenic changes. Such understanding can then inform future management. This study, based on surveys in Belarussian and Russian archives and a preliminary field survey in ten forest compartments of Białowieża National Park, focuses on culturally-modified trees (CMTs), which in this case are by-products of different forms of traditional forest use. Information about the formation of the CMTs can then be used to provide insight into former forest usage. Two types of CMTs were discovered to be still present in the contemporary BF. One type found in two forms was of 1) pine trees scorched and chopped in the bottom part of the trunk and 2) pine trees with carved beehives. A second type based on written accounts, and therefore known to be present in the past (what we call a ‘ghost CMT’), was of 3) lime-trees with strips of bark peeled from the trunk. Written accounts cover the period of transition between the traditional forest management (BF as a Polish royal hunting ground, until the end of the eighteenth century) and modern, “scientific” forestry (in most European countries introduced in the second half of the nineteenth century). These accounts document that both types of CMTs and the traditional forest uses responsible for their creation were considered harmful to “rational forestry” by the nineteenth-century forest administration. Thus the practices which created CMTs were banned and the trees gradually removed from the forest. Indeed, these activities drew the attention of forest administrators for several decades, and in our view delayed the introduction of new, timber-oriented, forest management in the BF.
... Trees with traces of ringbarking, production of axe-handles, boundary marks and trees for magic use are abundant in northern Sweden (Östlund et al. 2002(Östlund et al. , Rautio et al. 2014. Some trees bear written messages, a kind of forest notice board (Andersson et al. 2005). Many plant species may persist as slowly declining populations over quite long time. ...
Article
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There is currently a growing concern that biocultural heritage is threatened in many landscapes. This paper focuses on biological cultural heritage, broadly meaning biological cultural traces that are considered as heritage, but leaving out other aspects of the biocultural heritage concept. An operational definition of biological cultural heritage (BCH) is suggested, based on niche construction theory: “biological manifestations of culture, reflecting indirect or intentional effects, or domesticated landscapes, resulting from historical human niche construction”. Some factors that influence recognition of BCH are discussed, using a comparison between Swedish open to semi-open vs. forested landscapes. While the former landscapes are generally associated with biological cultural values, BCH is generally over-looked in forests. Two main reasons for this are suggested: loss of cultural memory and a perception of forests as wilderness. A conclusion is that recognition of BCH is essential for guiding development of biological conservation programmes in forests, irrespective of whether the conservation goal is to focus on culturally impacted forests or to conserve what is considered as close to pristine forests. Furthermore, recognising BCH in forests will promote interest and learning of the history of forests and their values and will be informative for developing conservation programmes for all biota in forests, not only those that historically were favoured by culture. Hence, there is no inherent conflict between preserving relatively untouched forests and those with remaining traces of pre-industrial forest management. The recognition of BCH in forests will inspire and promote further integration of cultural and natural heritage research.
... The motifs on living trees by Moriori are consistent with Polynesian carving traditions ( Barber 2012). The application on living trees is unique in Polynesia and rare internationally ( Andersson, Östlund, and Lundqvist 2005;Barber 2012;Barber, Maxwell, and Hemi 2014;Turner et al. 2009). The methods used by Moriori to carve/indent long lasting marks on living trees in such a way that the trees were not damaged has now been lost. ...
Article
Moriori agroforestry practices led to the creation of forests dominated by an introduced tree, kōpi (Corynocarpus laevigatus). Kōpi trees produce an edible drupe which was essential to the successful settlement of Rēkohu (Chatham Island). It is also only on kōpi trees that Moriori created a unique art form, called rākau momori, marking the trees with anthropogenic, animal and abstract images. The remaining stands of old growth forest which include kōpi trees and rākau momori are in varying states of decline and until recently were not identified as a cultural landscape. The acknowledgement of the forests as cultural landscapes has resulted in changes to the conservation and management practices of these spaces. The current management practices have been designed following paleo-ethnobotanical research (palynology and anthracology), ethnography and archaeological excavations which suggest Moriori planted and managed the forests until they were abandoned following an invasion in 1835.
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The chance discovery of a carved symbol on a waterlogged tree of the six–ninth century AD may be the earliest mark on a living tree that has so far come to light. Given its rarity, an obvious interpretation remains elusive, but the authors review a wide range of possibilities from analogies ancient and modern. Symbols on trees have been used to mark trails, the ownership of land and resources, and all manner of votive moments from superstitious sign-making, worship of a god, thanks for a successful hunt or the memory of a loving tryst.
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Culturally modified trees (CMTs) in northern forests are rare traces of past human activity that provide unique information on past land use and the relationship between people and forests throughout history. There is an apparent need to provide probability sampling methods for these traces. This article describes the simulation and evaluation of circular plot sampling and strip surveying for estimating the density of culturally modified trees in 25 ha of a forest reserve in northern Sweden. CMTs were surveyed, documented, and prepared for use in simulator software and the bias, precision, and cost of different inventory strategies were calculated. For a given level of precision circular plot sampling was found to be more efficient than strip surveying for estimating the abundance frequencies of all CMTs. For smaller subpopulations of scarce CMT types, the strip-surveying method was superior. Probability sampling would be an important tool for examining larger areas and gaining more CMT information at a lower cost. The results are important for studies of cultural history in sparsely populated forested regions in northwestern North America, northern Scandinavia, and northern Russia, but there are also implications for finding other rare objects in forest ecosystems.
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During the Middle Ages and the early modern period the cultivation of the chestnut tree became dominant in various mountain regions in Western Europe. Large numbers of giant chestnut trees have been reported throughout the continent that may be considered the living heritage of this period. In this paper we used a systematic inventory of giant chestnut trees in southern Switzerland for reconstructing the eco-cultural niche related to the long-term cultivation and conservation of such remarkable trees. To this purpose we implemented a retrospective logistic modelling approach with the presence of giant chestnuts as response variable compared with 65 environmental and cultural predictors. We performed different logistic regression analyses using untransformed and transformed variables. Out of the 42 models produced, we finally selected two models, on the basis of their parsimony and accuracy. Many of the selected predictors, such as distance from the lake, abundance of small livestock or number of secondary settlements, reveal that former local and regional socio-economic conditions and environmental constraints have considerable explanatory power. The approach allows us to detect several aspects of the targeted eco-cultural niche that may have acted in the distant past to support the development of the traditional fruit chestnut culture, as well as more recently, to preserve the giant chestnut tree population during the disruption phase of this culture. Most results are in line with the historical documentation, while others go beyond the dictates of written history and reveal interesting traits of the past economic and cultural systems.
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The study deals with the prehistoric development of the Bezdez - Doksy region in Northern Bohemia, with special regard to the excavation of the La Tene settlement at Okna that is cautiously ascribed to the Kobyly group. The settlement is assessed according to the data obtained by palaeobotanic, geobotanic and sedimentologic research of the site as well as the whole studied region which is largely comprised of boreal forest. Its possible use in prehistory and the reasons of late colonization of agricultural lands in its immediate vicinity, which occurs only in late La Tene period and subsequently in the Middle Ages, are discussed. Survey of the alluvial plain of the Robecsky brook revealed two erosion events which may be results of deforestation and establishment of fields, first during the existence of the La Tene settlement and the last probably upon foundation of the medieval village of Okna.
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Utmarksbete har historiskt varit Sveriges mest omfattande grupp av kulturpräglade naturtyper. Skogsbetesmarker har utgjort den största andelen av dessa utmarksbeten. Trots det är såväl den historiska som den ekologiska forskningen om Sveriges utmarker begränsad. Det har varit lättare att studera inägomarkens ängar, åkrar och hagar än svåravgränsade och svårdefnierade betade utmarker och skogar. Denna kunskapssammanställning samlar olika typer av historisk­ekologisk kunskap om svenska skogsbeten. Den baseras huvudsakligen på publicerad litteratur, men också på författarnas egna erfarenheter inom forskning och naturvård.
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Three-dimensional (3D) digital models have been used globally to investigate archaeological carvings on natural surfaces. However, the associated capital costs and technical requirements can discourage the uptake of digital modelling for primary field analysis. One solution is to employ lightweight handheld laser scanners to generate basic 3D models of selected object areas for visual examination and immediate feedback. This targeted approach is illustrated in the investigation of a novel, threatened type of archaeological art form: carvings indented into live trees by Moriori people of the southern Polynesian Chatham Islands. In this investigation, variously lighted and rotated 3D models and paired photographs of Moriori tree carvings are examined to address research questions and assist in conservation planning.
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The contribution aims at complex study of forest as the most important component of the prehistoric economic system. The natural composition of forest vegetation and the exploitation of trees, forest and forest products are examined on the basis of pollen, anthracological and macro-remains analysis results, archaeology, ethnography and modelling. None of the aforementioned disciplines, however, has at present adequate unambiguously interpretable data that could be used as basis for a more detailed reconstruction of the form and extent of Holocene forest vegetation and in particular its anthropogenic changes.
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During the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the sheep ranching industry in the western United States had become an important economic focus for Basque immigrants. One explanation put forth by historians and demographers for the eventual prevalence of the Basque in the sheep industry is found in the idea of chain migration, the process of immigration of individuals from one region to another through time and across generations. To test this hypothesis, data in the form of carvings from aspen trees in the northern Sierra Nevada were collected and cross-referenced with the name and place of individuals listed in birth data available in World War I draft registration cards from seven northern California and western Nevada counties and relating those data to the high mountain aspen carvings. The results show the chain migration hypothesis to be supported by the archaeological and historical data.
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Traditional ecological knowledge enables pastoralists to cope with social-ecological changes, thereby increasing the sustainability of their practices and fostering social-ecological resilience. Yet, there is a significant knowledge gap concerning the extent to which pastoral traditional ecological knowledge has changed over time at the global level. We aim to fill this gap through a systematic literature review of 288 scientific studies on pastoral traditional ecological knowledge. We reviewed 152 papers in detail (selected randomly from the 288) for their content, and focused specifically on 61 papers that explicitly mentioned one of the four types of knowledge transition (i.e., retention, erosion, adaptation, or hybridization). Studies on pastoral traditional knowledge represent less than 3% of all the scholarly literature on traditional ecological knowledge. Geographical distribution of the 288 case studies was largely biased. Knowledge domains of pastoral knowledge such as herd and livestock management, forage and medicinal plants, and landscape and wildlife were relatively equally covered; however, climate-related knowledge was less often studied. Of the 63 papers that explicitly mentioned transition of pastoral traditional ecological knowledge, 52 reported erosion, and only 11 studies documented explicitly knowledge retention, adaptation, or hybridization of traditional knowledge. Thus, adaptation and hybridization was understudied, although some case studies showed that adaptation and hybridization of knowledge can efficiently help pastoralists navigate among social-ecological changes. Based on the review, we found 13 drivers which were mentioned as the main reasons for knowledge transition among which social-cultural changes, formal schooling, abandonment of pastoral activities, and transition to a market economy were most often reported. We conclude that future research should focus more on the diverse dynamics of pastoral traditional knowledge, be more careful in distinguishing the four knowledge transition types, and analyze how changes in knowledge impact change in pastoral practices and lifestyles. Understanding these phenomena could help pastoralists' adaptations and support their stewardship of their rangeland ecosystems and biocultural diversity.
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The contribution aims at complex study of forest as the most important component of the prehistoric economic system. The natural composition of forest vegetation and the exploitation of trees, forest and forest products are examined on the basis of pollen, anthracological and macro-remains analysis results, archaeology, ethnography and modelling. None of the aforementioned disciplines, however, has at present adequate unambiguously interpretable data that could be used as basis for a more detailed reconstruction of the form and extent of Holocene forest vegetation and in particular its anthropogenic changes.
Article
Early gender archaeology formulated two statements: men are visible, women are invisible, and men work in hard materials, women work in soft materials. We discuss these dichotomies in connection with nineteenth-century folklore and an excavated eighteenth-century cottage at a summer-farm. We conclude that much of the gendered order-of-work tasks broke down in pragmatic day-to-day life, especially by women crossing the gender border. However, social chaos was held at bay by ritual acts and magic objects. KeywordsFolklore–Gender–Ritual–Summer farm–Sweden
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Ericsson, T.S., Östlund, L. & Andersson, R. 2003. Destroying a path to the past – the loss of culturally scarred trees and change in forest structure along Allmunvägen, in mid-west boreal Sweden. Silva Fennica 37(2): 283–298. The tradition to blaze trees to mark trails and boundaries is very old in northern Scan-dinavia. The disappearance of culturally modifi ed trees (i.e. trees with trail blazes) and changes in forest structure along a section of an old bridle trail in boreal Sweden was analyzed using historical maps and forest surveys from the period 1876 to the year 2000. Remaining blazed trees were located during a fi eld study and selected scars were dated. In total 104 scarred living and dead trees were found. The scars originated from the early 1500s to the early 1900s. Analysis of the forest surveys showed that the forest along the trail was dominated by older trees, and that the majority of the scarred trees probably were present, throughout the 19 th century. By the mid 20 th century logging had begun to affect the tree age along the trail and in 1974 no stands older than 180 years were present. A conservative estimate shows that around 90% of the original blazed trees have vanished. The trail was interpreted as have being lined for centuries with scarred trees which gradu-ally have been destroyed during the 20 th century. Culturally modifi ed trees constitute an unique source of information for understanding pattern of old trails as well as of past human land use and movement in the landscape prior to the 20 th century. This biological archive have to a large extent been destroyed by forestry activities and it is therefore very important to survey, recount and protect the trees that are still present.
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This paper discusses the characteristics and application of Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Wisdom (TEKW) of aboriginal peoples in British Columbia, Canada. Examples are provided from various groups, most notably, the Secwepemc (Shuswap) Interior Salish and Kwakwaka'wakw and Nuu-Chah-Nulth peoples of the Northwest Coast, covering a range of features comprising TEKW: knowledge of ecological principles, such as succession and interrelatedness of all components of the environment; use of ecological indicators; adaptive strategies for monitoring, enhancing, and sustainably harvesting resources; effective systems of knowledge acquisition and transfer; respectful and interactive attitudes and philosophies; close identification with ancestral lands; and beliefs that recognize the power and spirituality of nature. These characteristics, taken in totality, have enabled many groups of aboriginal peoples to live sustainably within their local environments for many thousands of years. In order for TEKW to be incorporated appropriately into current ecosystem-based management strategies, the complete context of TEKW, including its philosophical bases, must be recognized and respected. A case study of ecological and cultural knowledge of the traditional root vegetables yellow avalanche lily (Erythronium grandiflorum) and balsamroot (Balsamorhiza sagittata) illustrates ways in which these components can be integrated.
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Like so much rock art, the Neolithic/Bronze Age petroglyphs of Galicia have been studied mainly as a source of stylistic information. This paper contends that it may be more rewarding to see them as a vital component of the prehistoric landscape. In this paper we study their siting in relation to Galician ecology and the movement of wild animals across the terrain. We also consider the organization of the panels of carved rock at a more local level and attempt to interpret their distinctive use of the local topography. We should not treat rock carvings as if they were portable artefacts. A more flexible approach to this material may help to break down the functionalist bias of landscape archaeology.
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We investigated the transformation of a large (135 000 ha) forest landscape in boreal Sweden from the end of the 19th century to the end of the 20th century. Historical documents were used to obtain quantitative data on fire influence, historical logging, the development of forest management, and the ecological changes of the forest landscape over the last century. The imprint of the fire-regenerated preindustrial forest is still discernible in the present landscape, although very important ecological structures; e.g., old trees and multiple-storied stands, have been removed and fundamental processes, e.g., forest fire, have ceased. The 19th century boreal forest landscape was shaped by recurrent forest fires and was characterized by continuous multistoried old-growth forest, containing also a deciduous component that no longer exists. Our data indicate that many of the interpretations of previous natural landscape properties used as base-line conditions in forest management must be seriously questioned. Historical records and their limitations when used for reconstruction of forest stand structure are discussed.
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The historical use of Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) inner bark by the Saami near Lake Sdvajaure, N. Sweden was studied with dendro-ecological methods. Damming of the lake for hydroelectric power enabled destructive sampling of all pines with scars from bark peeling in an area of 870 ha. A total of 111 dead and live pines with 136 bark peelings were found. Stem-sections were taken for cross-dating to determine the precise peeling year and season. The oldest peeling was dated to 1618, which is the oldest reported evidence of Saami use of inner bark. No bark peelings were made after 1870 in the studied area which coincides with a shift to more extensive reindeer herding, and with colonization by Swedish farmers in the area. The regular use of inner bark over time and the absence of peeling peaks in known agrarian famine years support the hypothesis that inner bark was used regularly, and not only as an emergency food. Changes in spatial peeling activity around the lake is interpreted as temporal changes in nomadic fishing activity. We conclude that tree ring studies can provide valuable information about former mobile use of natural resources by Saami in boreal forest landscapes.
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The Norwegain mountains have had a central role in the subsistence agroecosystems by providing vast biological resources for humans and their livestock since 4000–3500BP as indicated by paleoecological records. Later with the development of the summer farming system the use of the mountains was intensified. This long-term use of the mountains has shaped a montane cultural landscape by livestock grazing, mowing for hay, fuel collection and a variety of other uses. The result is a significant increase of the grassland areas at the expense of the forest. Those semi-natural grasslands and heathlands with specific biological diversity have until recently dominated the mountains but are today decreasing due to forest invasion – which in turn is a result of changes in human land use. The present paper focuses on changes in landscape pattern and differences in landscape development in two mountain valleys with summer farming activities, in Mid-Norway, over the period 1960s–1990s, and seeks to interpret the changes in relation to differential land use and environmental factors. This study contributes examples from human shaped ecosystems in mountains where the fragmentation of semi-natural habitats is addressed. A set of landscape pattern indices commonly used in landscape ecological studies is also used here, and their ecological relevance in the present context is dealt with. The implications of changed land use for biodiversity conservation in those mountains and the relationships to future sustainable agriculture is also briefly discussed.
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Sub-alpine, semi-natural grasslands induced by mountain summer farming in Budalen, central Norway, can be divided into two main habitats: small enclosures at each summer farm site, and the pastures surrounding them. Enclosures are exposed to different land-use regimes including grazing, mowing, fertilisation and soil disturbance. Pastures have never been fertilised or ploughed and the current grazing pressure is moderate. All investigated pastures are former haymaking areas. Higher conservation values of pastures compared to enclosures is reflected both in patterns of species richness and the occurrence of vulnerable species. Higher species richness in pastures is related to lower nutrient levels, lower loss of ignition in the soil, and higher levels of pH. Vulnerable species are concentrated in species-rich pastures, and have low local abundance and regional distribution. Enclosures reflect a complexity in land-use, were the effects of mowing, fertilising and ploughing on plant community patterns could not be separated. Tree and shrub species are common in both habitats, and indicate a successional invasion of woody species. Maintenance of land-uses that have created semi-natural grasslands in the long term perspective (grazing, cutting of trees and shrubs, and mowing) is necessary to prevent forest succession, and a prerequisite for future conservation of sub-alpine, semi-natural grasslands.
Article
According to an East -Finnish custom that came to an end around the beginning of the 20th century, the karsikko (conifer shorn of branches) and the cross-tree were prepared when the deceased was taken for burial. The Roman-Catholic Church and the Reformation introduced into folk beliefs the idea that the deceased did not journey all the way to the community of the dead. Restoring the social order of the community that had been disturbed by death then required that the dead be placed in the intermediary stage dictated by the tripartite division of the rite of passage in status. It was also necessary to establish a boundary between the living and the dead as a precaution against the undesired return of the deceased.
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This paper discusses the characteristics and application of Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Wisdom (TEKW) of aboriginal peoples in British Columbia, Canada. Examples are provided from various groups, most notably, the Secwepemc (Shuswap) Interior Salish and Kwakwaka'wakw and Nuu-Chah-Nulth peoples of the Northwest Coast, covering a range of features comprising TEKW: knowledge of ecological principles, such as succession and interrelatedness of all components of the environment; use of ecological indicators; adaptive strategies for monitoring, enhancing, and sustainably harvesting resources; effective systems of knowledge acquisition and transfer; respectful and interactive attitudes and philosophies; close identification with ancestral lands; and beliefs that recognize the power and spirituality of nature. These characteristics, taken in totality, have enabled many groups of aboriginal peoples to live sustainably within their local environments for many thousands of years. In order for TEKW to be incorporated appropriately into current ecosystem-based management strategies, the complete context of TEKW, including its philosophical bases, must be recognized and respected. A case study of ecological and cultural knowledge of the traditional root vegetables yellow avalanche lily (Erythronium grandiflorum) and balsamroot (Balsamorhiza sagittata) illustrates ways in which these components can be integrated.
Article
The Samis have been present in the Swedish boreal forest for a long time. Their land-use practices were dominant over vast tracts until the late nineteenth century, but little is known Cl about their impact on forest ecosystems. In this study former land use around an old Sami settlement situated in a forest reserve was analysed through historical sources and field investigations. The area around the Sami settlement (about 2.5 ha) comprised young forest (mean age approximately 140 yrs) with little dead wood present. The forest outside this area was much older and contained more dead wood. Scars dating from 1721 to 1962 were found on 118 culturally modified trees, derived from bark-peeling practices and blazes for marking trails and borders. The patterns found constitute a characteristic Sami forest landscape, well distinguished from other types of forest use. The results may be used to identify such areas to preserve crucial structures for posterity.
Article
The Samis have been present in the Swedish boreal forest for a long time. Their land-use practices were dominant over vast tracts until the late nineteenth century, but little is known about their impact on forest ecosystems. In this study former land use around an old Sami settlement situated in a forest reserve was analysed through historical sources and field investigations. The area around the Sami settlement (about 2.5 ha) comprised young forest (mean age approximately 140 yrs) with little dead wood present. The forest outside this area was much older and contained more dead wood. Scars dating from 1721 to 1962 were found on 118 culturally modified trees, derived from bark-peeling practices and blazes for marking trails and borders. The patterns found constitute a characteristic Sami forest landscape, well distinguished from other types of forest use. The results may be used to identify such areas to preserve crucial structures for posterity.
Article
Detailed spatial changes in forest structure in a central Swedish landscape were examined using geographic information system techniques. First, the influence of grazing and burning on forest density and structure in the 19th century landscape were analyzed. Then, the development of the landscape during the 20th century, together with the impact of modern forest management methods on forest structure, were analyzed using historical sources. In 1907, over 20% of the 2200 hectare study site was sparsely-wooded (12 m^3 ha^−1) with old trees. These areas have been reforested with single-storied middle-aged and old pine stands (66 m^3 ha^−1in 1989) during the 20th century. Fire suppression and changes in land use from subsistence-to-industrial forestry, facilitated Norway spruce regeneration as undergrowth in open Scots pine stands after logging. This natural regeneration has, to a large extent, been cut down and replaced by pine afforestation. During the second half of the 20th century, the standing timber volume has steadily increased, while the mean age of the forest has decreased. Today's young dense forests will result in higher timber values in the coming decades, but the forest has lost a range of ecological niches.
Article
In this study we analyzed culturally modified trees in boreal Sweden in a broader perspective. We defined CMTs in this study as trees which have been deliberately modified to produce a certain feature, or in which the scar is a secondary result of traditional forest use.5 Our basic assumption is that during the twentieth century a vast cultural heritage in the form of culturally modified trees has been destroyed in northern Scandinavia. These losses were caused by a combination of three factors: the exploitation of the old-growth forest since the end of the nineteenth century, the cessation of certain practices during the last few centuries and a fundamental change in attitude toward forests and trees during the twentieth century. A further hypothesis of the study is that the occurrence of culturally modified trees in forest reserves in boreal Sweden indicates that even the reserves must, to some extent, be regarded as a cultural landscape and interpreted as such. Our principal aims were to analyze the known types of culturally modified trees in boreal Sweden, and to discuss the spatial and temporal patterns of such trees. We have also related the culturally modified trees to historical and ethnological records from medieval times onwards. Further goals were to quantify the loss of culturally modified trees during the twentieth century, to define the cultural and ecological contexts of culturally modified trees, to argue for protection of the last remaining examples, and their connection with ecological values. The different types of culturally modified trees are presented in four categories. We have limited the timespan by primarily including CMTs originating prior to the industrial period.
Article
The well‐practised strategy of integrating non‐site phenomena into regional studies has little or no expression in Australian research. This study, a cultural resource management project, represents a first step toward such an enterprise through an investigation of a uniquely Australian archaeological feature, scarred trees. The paper follows a systematic analytical approach aimed at elucidating both methodological influences (e.g. sampling biases, attribute measures) and cultural behaviour (e.g. scar shape/size variability, chronology, distribution patterns). The mathematical routines employed include parametric and non‐parametric statistics, correspondence analysis and clustering techniques. The results of this research offer new avenues for studying the Australian archaeological record. Moreover, they raise questions about three views widely held among Australian archaeologists: (1) environmental features and prehistoric cultural behaviour are spatially related; (2) broad‐scale cultural patterns are a recognizable component of the archaeological record, and (3) culture change is a characteristic of Holocene prehistory in Australia.
Article
Pine cambium is a food resource that was regularly utilized by foraging populations of the interior of British Columbia from at least ad1790 to 1950. The scars left on living pine trees (Culturally Modified Trees, or CMTs) by cambium stripping are directly datable evidence for this subsistence activity by utilizing forestry increment borers to extract cores. Further, pine cambium is generally regarded as a marginal, or supplementary resource, with changes in the frequency of cambium collection being related to natural cycles in the abundance of staple resources. This paper discusses the dating of these subsistence features, and in comparing two areas of the Nechako River drainage of British Columbia, suggests that pine cambium was more intensively utilized in areas lacking salmon, the staple of the greater region.
Article
The influence of pre-industrial animal husbandry on the boreal forest in south-central Sweden has been studied by pollen and charcoal analyses of peat profiles from two mires in the vicinity of a shieling site. The impact of farming on the local vegetation development is demonstrated from cal. A. D. 1300–1500 in three ways: forest clearance and cultivation of cereals at the local shieling site; alterations of hydrology and vegetation, such as an increase in Cyperaceae, at mires used for hay production; changes in the composition in the surrounding forest, with decreasing proportions of Betula, Picea and boreo-nemoral broadleaved trees and a consequent increase in Pinus, due to grazing and a change of fire regime. Similar alterations to the forest vegetation are noted at other sites in central and northern Sweden during the last thousand years, when the system of using shielings became more widespread. Hence, early animal husbandry is demonstrated to have had a regional impact on the long-term boreal forest development, replacing the original mixed deciduous-coniferous forest with Pinus dominated forest.
Article
A multidisciplinary study of use by Sami people ofPinus sylvestris L. (Scots pine) inner bark was performed in northern Sweden. We combined linguistic, historical and archaeological records with ecological data collected from field studies to investigate important cultural and ecological factors associated with previous use of bark. Our data from bark peeled trees at 313 sites were used to describe patterns in space and time in the land-scape. Sites with bark peeled trees were mainly found in the central and northern part of Lapland (6500–6814N). Large numbers of barked trees were found in undisturbed forests in national parks and reserves but few were found in forests under commercial management. The dendroecological analysis revealed a continuous use of inner bark from A.D. 1450 to 1890. Large sheets of bark were taken from trees in the spring, prepared and stored as a staple food resource. Inner bark was eaten fresh, dried or roasted. Smaller bark peelings were used for the wrapping of sinews. The cessation of bark use in the 19th century was driven by several factors, but the availability of other products that could replace traditional use of bark was specifically important. The previous common and varied use of bark, the great age of Sami terminology and a possible association with archaeological remains of potential great age indicate that peeled bark was used long before the historic period. Our study also focused on the ongoing loss of culturally-modified trees in forests outside protected areas.
Article
Changes in the structure and composition of 123 000 ha of boreal forests in Sweden, were analysed using historical records. These forests had not been commercially logged when the first forest surveys took place in the late 1800s, so the earliest surveys provide unique data on structure of the natural boreal forest. The pre-exploitation forests had many large-diameter living and standing dead trees (Pinus sylvestris L. and Picea abies (L.) Karst.), and were dominated by stands > 200 years old. Commercial exploitation in the late 1800s, subsequent intensive forest management and fire protection have generated a forest landscape dominated by relatively young and dense stands, totally different from the pre-exploitation forests. Since the late 1800s, both the number of large trees and the volume of snags have been reduced by about 90%, and the area of old stands has diminished to < 1%. These fundamental changes have reduced the number of habitats for many red-listed species considerably. We conclude that the essential characteristics of the natural forest landscape have to be re-created in order to restore and maintain natural biodiversity.
Article
Logging and modern forest management reduced the frequency of key features of old-growth forest, especially old, dying and dead trees in the Scandinavian boreal forest during the 20th century. To quantify the decline and spatial differences, we have analysed density changes of old trees between 1926 and 1996 on a regional scale (approximately 50,000 km2) in boreal Sweden. The occurrence of old-conifer trees (+159 years) has dramatically decreased in the studied area and today only one third as many old Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruces (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) can be found as in the 1920s. However, the density of old deciduous trees (+99 years) has not decreased since the early 20th century. Historical baseline data such as these are needed for modern forest management, conservation programmes and ecological restoration projects. Existing old trees are very important for biodiversity, and may also preserve elements of cultural heritage from pre-industrial times.
Article
Thesis (doctoral)--Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, 2001. Includes bibliographical references.
Article
Thesis (doctoral)--Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, 2001. Includes bibliographical references.
Spatial patterns, density changes and implications on biodiversity for old trees in the boreal landscape of northern Sweden Land-use impact on plant communities in semi-natural sub-alpine grasslands of Budalen, central Norway
  • R Östlund
  • L G Olsson
  • E G A Grøntvedt
, R., Östlund, L. (2004). Spatial patterns, density changes and implications on biodiversity for old trees in the boreal landscape of northern Sweden. Biological Conservation, 118, 443–453. DOI 10.1016/j.biocon.2003.09.020 Austrheim, G., Olsson, E.G.A., Grøntvedt, E. (1999). Land-use impact on plant communities in semi-natural sub-alpine grasslands of Budalen, central Norway. Biological Conserva-tion, 87, 369–379. DOI 10.1016/S0006-3207(98)00071-8
Ristade träd i skogen: klotter eller kultur-minne? [Carved trees in the forest: Graffiti or cultural her-itage?] Kulturmiljövård Speaking through the aspens: Basque Tree Carvings in California and Nevada Carving out history: The Basque aspens
  • R Lundqvist
Lundqvist, R. (1994). Ristade träd i skogen: klotter eller kultur-minne? [Carved trees in the forest: Graffiti or cultural her-itage?] Kulturmiljövård, 1:60–62 Mallea-Olaetxe, J. (2000). Speaking through the aspens: Basque Tree Carvings in California and Nevada. University of Nevada Press, Reno & Las Vegas Mallea-Olaetxe, J. (2001). Carving out history: The Basque aspens. Forest History Today, Spring/Fall, 44–50
Från vildmark till bygd: en etnologisk undersökning av nybyggarkulturen i Lappland före industrialismens genombrott [From wilderness to countryside: an ethnological study of the settler culture in Lappland county before the breakthrough of industrialization
  • Å Campbell
Campbell, Š. (1982). Från vildmark till bygd: en etnologisk un-dersökning av nybyggarkulturen i Lappland före industrialis-mens genombrott [From wilderness to countryside: an ethno-logical study of the settler culture in Lappland county before the breakthrough of industrialization] (With English summary).
Faces in the forest: First Nations art created on living trees. McGill-Queen's University Press Rock art research as landscape archaeology: a pilot study in Galicia, north-west Spain
  • M D Blackstock
  • Kingston Montreal
  • R Bradley
  • F C Boado
  • R F Valcarce
Blackstock, M.D. (2001). Faces in the forest: First Nations art created on living trees. McGill-Queen's University Press, Montreal, Kingston Bradley, R., Boado, F.C., Valcarce, R.F. (1994). Rock art research as landscape archaeology: a pilot study in Galicia, north-west Spain. World Archaeology, 25:374–390
Yuranighs aboriginal grave historic site: Plan of management. National Parks and wildlife Service Settlement and Land-Use History in the Central Swedish Forest Region: The use of pollen analysis in interdisciplinary studies
  • Norrländska
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  • B Debus
Norrländska skrifter, Umeå Debus, B. (1999). Yuranighs aboriginal grave historic site: Plan of management. National Parks and wildlife Service, New South Wales Emanuelsson, M. (2001). Settlement and Land-Use History in the Central Swedish Forest Region: The use of pollen analysis in interdisciplinary studies. PhD-thesis. Acta Universitatis Agri-culturae Sueciae.
Fäbodväsendet i övre Dalarna. [The summer farm system in the north of Dalarna county Ore sockens fäbodar
  • S Montelius
  • Stockholm Akademilitteratur
  • S Montelius
Montelius, S. (1977a). Fäbodväsendet i övre Dalarna. [The summer farm system in the north of Dalarna county]. Akademilitteratur, Stockholm Montelius, S. (1977b). Ore sockens fäbodar. In: Landberg, G. (eds) Ore, del 2: Socknen och kommunen. [summer farms in Ore parish]. Rättviks kommun, Malung, pp 37–97
Träd med kulturspår i urskogen. [Culturally modified trees in natural forest]. (With English summary)
  • R Andersson
  • L Östlund
Faces in the forest: First Nations art created on living trees
  • M D Blackstock
  • M.D. Blackstock
Yuranighs aboriginal grave historic site: Plan of management. National Parks and wildlife Service
  • B Debus
  • B. Debus
Dendroglifi i geoglifi. [Dendroglyphs and geoglyphs]. Voprosi istorii
  • A A Formozov
The dendroglyphs, or “carved trees” of New South Wales
  • R Etheridge
Med Dalälven från källorna till havet: del 1, öster Dalälven. [With river Dalälven from the sources to the sea]
  • K.-E Forsslund
Om skogseldar förr och nu och deras roll i skogarnas utvecklingshistoria. [Forest fires in the past and present and their role in the history of forests
  • A G Högbom
Ärteråsen i Ore: Ett fäbodreservat i bild
  • B Hallerdt
Moriori tree carvings, Chatham Islands: Close-range photogrammetic record and survey. Department of Conservation Technical Series 20
  • F W Jopson
  • C R Mckibbin
Fäbodar och fäbodkultur i Ore
  • T Kronestedt
  • T. Kronestedt
Övre Dalarnes Bondekultur under 1800-talets förra hälft. [Agriculture in upper Dalarna County in the first half of the 19th century
  • L Levander
Inskrifter i lefvande Träd
  • P O Liljevalch
The Ship Island Site: Tree-ring Dating the Last Battle Between the Stikine Tlingit and the Tsimshian. A Report to the Alaska Humanities Forum
  • C M Mobley
  • C.M. Mobley
Fäbodväsendet i övre Dalarna. [The summer farm system in the north of Dalarna county
  • S Montelius
Culturally Modified Trees of British Columbia: A Handbook for the Identification and Recording of Culturally Modified Trees. Ministry of Forests, Province of British Columbia
  • A H Stryd
Gränser och gränstvister Ore, del 1: Socknen och kommunen
  • O Veirulf
Herdar och husdjur: En etnologisk studie över Skandinaviens och Mellaneuropas beteskultur och vallningsorganisation
  • M Szabó