Article

Selenicereus wittii (Cactaceae): An epiphyte adapted to Amazonian Igap� inundation forests

Authors:
  • verein für schtsamkeit - osterloh
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

The biology, ecology, and distribution ofSelenicereus (Strophocactus)wittii, one of the least known taxa ofCactaceae, are described. This epiphyte climbs appressed to tree trunks with leaf-like, flattened stems and is found exclusively along the high waterline of black water rivers (Rio Negro, Vaups, Apaporis) in the Igap inundation forests of Amazonia. Ecophysiologically,S. wittii is a crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plant. It bears white, nocturnal flowers 25 cm in length which emit a fragrance consisting mainly of benzylalcohol, benzyl benzoate, and benzyl salicylate. They exhibit an extreme sphingophilous syndrome as an adaptation to pollination by probably only two species of hawkmoth from the generaAmphimoena andCocytius. The seeds, aberrant for the family, contain air-filled chambers and are water-dispersed. Thus,S. wittii represents the paradoxical life form of an hydrochorous epiphytic cactus which withstands periodical inundation.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... MORFOLOGÍA DE LA SEMILLA Diferentes autores han propuesto que la variabilidad morfológica y tamaños de semilla influyen en la dispersión y germinación de éstas (Lux 1990, Bravo-Hollis & SánchezMejorada 1991, Elizondo-Elizondo et al. 1994, Barthlott et al. 1997, Henrickson & Johnston 1997, Barthlott & Hunt 2000, Sánchez-Salas et al. 2012, 2015. Sin embargo, pocos estudios consideran que ambos atributos constituyen una presión selectiva (Farji-Brener et al. 2005) que tiende a ubicar las semillas en áreas físicas apropiadas que permiten disminuir la competencia intraespecífica. ...
... Britton & Rose (Sánchez-Salas et al. 2012, 2015 y la epifita Selenicereus wittii (K. Schum) G.D. Rowley del rio Igapó del Amazonas ( Barthlott et al. 1997), poseen estructuras que son llamadas cámaras de aire, consideradas como estructuras inusuales en especies de ambientes semiáridos (Chambert & James 2009). Sin embargo, dichas estructuras son comunes en semillas de plantas de ambientes semiáridos que son dispersadas mediante hidrocoria (Barthlott et al. 1997). ...
... Schum) G.D. Rowley del rio Igapó del Amazonas ( Barthlott et al. 1997), poseen estructuras que son llamadas cámaras de aire, consideradas como estructuras inusuales en especies de ambientes semiáridos (Chambert & James 2009). Sin embargo, dichas estructuras son comunes en semillas de plantas de ambientes semiáridos que son dispersadas mediante hidrocoria (Barthlott et al. 1997). Estas estructuras fueron encontradas en A. victoriae-reginae y se encuentran alrededor de todo el tegumento formando una hipodermis porosa como las reportadas en A. myriostigma y A. capricorne (SánchezSalas et al. 2012). ...
Article
Full-text available
Agave victoriae-reginae is an endemic species from Chihuahuan Desert which grows on canyon walls. It has flattened seeds that can be dispersed during episodic flood events. This study was focused on examining possible morphological and anatomical adaptations which promote seed hydro-dispersion. A morphological and anatomical seed analysis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was performed. Aspects of permeability, flotation, germination and germination rate (T50) for treatment and seed sizes were evaluated. The seeds are different in length, diameter, thickness, but not in weight; lacryform semi-flat shape and covered with porous air chambers in the hypodermis and were considered neutral photoblastic. We conclude that seeds of A. victoriae-reginae have hydro-dispersion characteristics.
... From their appearance we suspected that seeds from Astrophytum may be adapted to hydrochory and are also able to germinate when immersed in water. These seeds are hat-shaped (Lux, 1990;Bravo-Hollis and Sánchez-Mejorada, 1991;Elizondo-Elizondo et al., 1994;Barthlott et al., 1997;Henrickson and Johnston, 1997;Barthlott and Hunt, 2000), have a prominent hilum (Bregman, 1988a;Lux, 1990;Elizondo-Elizondo et al., 1994) and possess air chambers (Becerra-López et al., 2010). These structural traits are considered unusual for arid environments (Chambert and James, 2009), but occur in some cacti from moist environments (Barthlott et al., 1997), and they are typical for hydrochory (Bregman, 1988a;Chambert and James, 2009). ...
... These seeds are hat-shaped (Lux, 1990;Bravo-Hollis and Sánchez-Mejorada, 1991;Elizondo-Elizondo et al., 1994;Barthlott et al., 1997;Henrickson and Johnston, 1997;Barthlott and Hunt, 2000), have a prominent hilum (Bregman, 1988a;Lux, 1990;Elizondo-Elizondo et al., 1994) and possess air chambers (Becerra-López et al., 2010). These structural traits are considered unusual for arid environments (Chambert and James, 2009), but occur in some cacti from moist environments (Barthlott et al., 1997), and they are typical for hydrochory (Bregman, 1988a;Chambert and James, 2009). Therefore, we studied seed structures of Astrophytum capricorne (A. ...
... Seeds of Astrophytum capricorne and A. ornatum have traits consistent with water dispersal, viz. a hat shape (Lux, 1990;Bravo-Hollis and Sánchez-Mejorada, 1991;Elizondo-Elizondo et al., 1994;Barthlott et al., 1997;Henrickson and Johnston, 1997;Barthlott and Hunt, 2000), a prominent hilum (Bregman, 1988a;Lux, 1990;Elizondo-Elizondo et al., 1994) and air-filled chambers (Becerra-López et al., 2010). This is similar to what Barthlott et al. (1997) reported for seeds from Selenicereus wittii (Cactaceae), an epiphyte adapted to Amazonian Igapó inundation forests. ...
... In all cases of non-damaged seeds, a portion can be incorporated into a soil seed bank and can germinate if they are deposited onto a safe microsite where conditions are suitable. Buchenau, 1964Buchenau, , 1966Otero & MeyraH n, 1966;Antesberger, 1991 Hat-like Lophophora williamsii, Astrophytum capricorne, Leuchtenbergia principis Bravo-Hollis, 1967;Elizondo-Elizondo et al., 1994;Bravo-Hollis & SaH nchez-Mejorada, 1991 Ovoid Ariocarpus kotschoubeyanus, Ferocactus haematacanthus, Disocactus kimnachii Kimnach, 1984;Bravo-Hollis & SaH nchez-Mejorada, 1991 Mussel-shaped Selenicereus wittii Barthlott et al., 1997 Lens-shaped Pereskia Dau & Labouriau, 1974 Colour and appearance Black to brown colour Most seeds, Neobuxbaumia spp, Peniocereus castellae Bravo-Hollis et al., 1970SaH nchez-Mejorada, 1973 Reddish black ...
... Hydrochory has been demonstrated to occur in species which are prevalent in river valleys, such as the Peruvian genus Matucana (Anon., 1997b) and Selenicereus wittii, which has a seed structure that functions as a floating device (Barthlott et al., 1997). Seeds dispersed by water have floating mechanisms provided mainly by a large hilum, deep hilum cup, thin seed coat, and small embryo (Bregman, 1988). ...
Article
Full-text available
The present review tries to give a general overview of the available information on cactus seed germination. First, information about the family Cactaceae is discussed, concerning aspects such as distribution and general characteristics. Seed distinctive features are mentioned, such as colour, form, and size. Aspects of seed physiology, such as germination and dormancy, as well as seed dynamics including dispersal, predation, and soil seed bank formation, are included in the discussion. Techniques of propagation and some aspects of longevity and conservation are mentioned. The areas where there is scarce information available are highlighted, and, therefore, are important areas in which to continue research in order to generate data for immediate and future conservation efforts. 2000 Academic Press
... The energetic demands of hovering flight, pheromone-based mating systems, and specialized host-plant relationships compel many hawk moth species to feed on floral nectar and fly great distances (Casey 1976;Janzen 1984;Miller 1997). The nectar rewards documented here were qualitatively and quantitatively consistent with those of other hawk moth-pollinated flowers (Pyke and Waser 1981;Baker and Baker 1983;Haber and Frankie 1989), previous data for D. wrightii , and survey data for other hawk moth-pollinated cacti (Scogin 1985). Mean nectar standing crops from Datura and Peniocereus flowers provide from fourfold to 100-fold greater caloric content at anthesis than do most diurnal flowers pollinated by bees, by butterflies, and by hummingbirds at the onset of visitation ). ...
... In contrast, the oxygenated aromatic compounds (e.g., benzyl 887 alcohol, methyl salicylate, benzyl benzoate) common to all but P. striatus ( fig. 5) are frequent constituents of floral scents (Knudsen et al. 1993) and are emitted copiously by hawk moth-pollinated plants (Kaiser 1993;Knudsen and Tollsten 1993;). Among other hawk mothpollinated cacti, P. greggii is most similar to Selenicereus wittii, an epiphytic Amazonian species emitting a simple blend of benzyl alcohol, benzyl benzoate, and benzyl salicylate (Barthlott et al. 1997). However, Kaiser and Tollsten's (1995) analyses of sphingophilous cacti from three subfamilies (which did not include the genus Peniocereus) revealed fragrance blends exceeding that of D. wrightii in chemical complexity. ...
Article
The floral biology of night-blooming Peniocereus cacti and Datura plants was studied in North America's Sonoran Desert. In populations of two rare cactus species ( Peniocereus greggii and Peniocereus striatus), individual plants bloom synchronously on less than five nights per year and are self-incompatible. In contrast, the abundant Datura discolor and Datura wrightii bloom nearly continuously from spring to autumn and are self-compatible. Flowers of all species studied are visited by hawk moths at dusk and by honeybees and native bees the following morning. Hawk moths have the appropriate behavior and body dimensions to pollinate Peniocereus effectively, but visits are rare. Nonnative honeybees also visit P. greggii and may contribute incrementally to fruit set. Peniocereus and Datura flowers are highly reflective at all wavelengths above 400 nm but lack UV reflectance or contrast. All species studied secrete 10-80 muL of sucrose-rich nectar within flared corollas so deep that moths must land within them, ensuring pollen carriage. These flowers provide rich energetic resources for hawk moths because the caloric content of a single flower would support from 3 to 20 min of hovering flight. Floral scents were more species specific than visual cues because D. discolor and D. wrightii emit complex blends of terpenoid, benzenoid, aliphatic, and nitrogenous scent compounds, whereas flowers of P. greggii produce only eight benzenoid compounds ( all of which are present in Datura species) and Peniocereus striatus is scentless. Peniocereus cacti may benefit from sequential mutualism with the more abundant Datura species by way of pollinators nurtured as larvae by Datura foliage and as adults by Datura floral nectar.
... There is no obvious relationship between odor complexity and hawkmoth pollination in cacti, as other studies have identified from less than ten (Barthlott et al. 1997, Raguso et al. 2003) to more than 50 scent components (Kaiser and Tollsten 1995) per species. The two most dominant compounds in ssp. ...
... ancistrophora, (E)-nerolidol and germacrene D, are often (but not exclusively) found in sphingophilous flowers of other families (Kaiser 1993, Knudsen andTollsten 1993). However, in several genera of mothpollinated cacti studied so far, these two substances were mostly absent (Kaiser and Tollsten 1995, Barthlott et al. 1997, Raguso et al. 2003. Interestingly, we found comparable amounts of germacrene D in bee-and hawkmoth-pollinated populations, but (E)-nerolidol was emitted in significantly smaller amounts from hawkmoth pollinated populations. ...
Article
Variation in floral phenotype (color, depth, nectar) suggests incipient specialization for bee or hawkmoth pollination across the geographic distribution of Echinopsis ancistrophora, with flower depth ranging from 4.5 to 24 cm. We used chemical and behavioral analyses to test whether fragrance has evolved in concert with morphology in these Andean cacti. Floral scent (145 total compounds) was collected using dynamic headspace methods and analyzed with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, revealing subspecies-specific odors dominated by sesquiterpenes in E. ssp. ancistrophora and arachnacantha and fatty acid derivatives or aromatics in E. ssp. cardenasiana and pojoensis. Compounds indicative of sphingophily were not consistently found in moth-pollinated plants, and total scent emissions were significantly lower in populations with nocturnal anthesis. In wind tunnel assays, Manduca sexta moths were attracted to scent of ssp. ancistrophora from both bee and hawkmoth-pollinated populations, but not to scent of ssp. cardenasiana. However, hawkmoths were most attracted to the methyl benzoate-dominated scent of a distant relative, Echinopsis mirabilis. Thus, hawkmoth-pollinated descendants of the E. ancistrophora lineage may be phylogenetically constrained to emit weak, sesquiterpene-dominated fragrances that are not optimally attractive to hawkmoths, or floral scent may be under stronger selection by destructive flower visitors.
... In all cases of non-damaged seeds, a portion can be incorporated into a soil seed bank and can germinate if they are deposited onto a safe microsite where conditions are suitable. Buchenau, 1964Buchenau, , 1966Otero & MeyraH n, 1966;Antesberger, 1991 Hat-like Lophophora williamsii, Astrophytum capricorne, Leuchtenbergia principis Bravo-Hollis, 1967;Elizondo-Elizondo et al., 1994;Bravo-Hollis & SaH nchez-Mejorada, 1991 Ovoid Ariocarpus kotschoubeyanus, Ferocactus haematacanthus, Disocactus kimnachii Kimnach, 1984;Bravo-Hollis & SaH nchez-Mejorada, 1991 Mussel-shaped Selenicereus wittii Barthlott et al., 1997 Lens-shaped Pereskia Dau & Labouriau, 1974 Colour and appearance Black to brown colour Most seeds, Neobuxbaumia spp, Peniocereus castellae Bravo-Hollis et al., 1970SaH nchez-Mejorada, 1973 Reddish black ...
... Hydrochory has been demonstrated to occur in species which are prevalent in river valleys, such as the Peruvian genus Matucana (Anon., 1997b) and Selenicereus wittii, which has a seed structure that functions as a floating device (Barthlott et al., 1997). Seeds dispersed by water have floating mechanisms provided mainly by a large hilum, deep hilum cup, thin seed coat, and small embryo (Bregman, 1988). ...
Article
Full-text available
The present review tries to give a general overview of the available information on cactus seed germination. First, information about the family Cactaceae is discussed, concerning aspects such as distribution and general characteristics. Seed distinctive features are mentioned, such as colour, form, and size. Aspects of seed physiology, such as germination and dormancy, as well as seed dynamics including dispersal, predation, and soil seed bank formation, are included in the discussion. Techniques of propagation and some aspects of longevity and conservation are mentioned. The areas where there is scarce information available are highlighted, and, therefore, are important areas in which to continue research in order to generate data for immediate and future conservation efforts.
... Some floral species may adapt to changing eco-climate regimes by targeting different pollinator groups (Fleming 2000). Along with unique flora catering to specialized pollinator groups (Kaiser and Tollsten 1995;Barthlott et al. 1997;Levin et al. 2001;Raguso et al. 2003;Cronk and Ojeda 2008), alterations in display patterns of blooming flowers may affect the productivities of insect-pollinated crops (Rodriguez-Saona et al. 2011;Klatt et al. 2013), and exert additional pressures on high-stress vulnerable ecosystems, such as mangroves (Kathiresan 2010) and tropical montane rainforests (Boehmer 2011; Rehm and Feeley 2015;Basnett et al. 2019). Schweiger et al. (2010) further concluded that specialist components of native communities are more likely to be threatened, at least in terms of food availability and health of pollinators, and reproductive success of flowering plants, by climate change than generalists and invasive species. ...
Article
Full-text available
Floral displays constitute signals conveyed to potential pollinators by pigments and fragrance compounds, which are secondary metabolites biosynthesized through a limited number of major metabolic pathways. In recent years, the role of defensive secondary metabolites, targeted to tolerate/resist herbivory, pathogen-borne diseases and other kinds of stress, has become apparent in the context of floral displays. Apart from pigments and volatile compounds, these defensive compounds include alkaloids, specialized molecules such as glucosinolates (in Brassicaceae), and proanthocyanidin phenolics. All these functionally overlapping groups of metabolites vary in floral concentrations under different kinds of environmental conditions as well as due to endogenous regulatory factors, resulting in metabolic and functional synergies or trade-offs according to the physiological status of the flowers. In this review, we discuss such associations among varying secondary metabolites in flowers, and their implications in context of plant stress-response mechanisms.
... Estos hallazgos son apoyados por la secuenciación del DNA/matK del cloroplasto, que arroja 12 bases borradas y 3 tripletes cambiados. (Rowley,1986), género que mantiene Barthlott et al. (1997) y Biedinger (2002. Es un cactus epífito de filoclados muy planos que crece adpreso a troncos de árboles a lo largo de las orillas de ríos de aguas oscuras (Rio Negro, Vaupés, Apaporis) en los bosques inundados tipo Igapó de la Amazonía de Brasil, Venezuela, Colombia y Perú. ...
Article
Full-text available
Strophocactus krammii (Cactaceae) from the Peruvian Amazon region is described. It was first determined as Strophocactus wittii, a species form the Northern Amazon region, but thanks to the research of the German palinologist and ethnobotanist Erich Kramm from 1993 to 2019, enough data and material were collected in order to differentiate it as a new taxon, first described as a subspecies of S. witti, and later recognized as different species. The new species is distinguished mainly by its longer, narrower, up to 6m long phylloclades, that ascend straight and parallel to the main trunks of helophytic trees and bushes, branching freely and abundantly with up to 30 cm long lanceolate pendent phylloclades. Areoles are opposite instead of alternate. The color of some stems can be bright lobster red compared to the paler or darker dull red of S. wittii. Its flowers are shorter, with conspicuous longer bristle hairs born from scale axils, outer tepals yellow orangish instead of reddish. Fruits are dark red, slightly larger, and contain twice more seeds that are brown and wedge-shaped instead of black and roundish. These differences are supported by the sequencing of chloroplast DNA/matK, with 12 bases deleted and 3 triplets changed.
... Britton & Rose has tightly adpressed, flattened, green stems (cladodes). It climbs by adventitious roots arising along the leafless stems and occurs in rainforests of South America (Barthlott et al., 1997). It is excluded from consideration here, as it does not have leaves; although, the selective pressures that led to its unusual habit may be similar to those that led to the shingle-leaf climber habit among leafy plants. ...
Article
The curious habit of shingle-leaf climbers – root-climbing plants whose leaves are closely adpressed to the phorophyte and often overlap like shingles – has attracted the attention of both botanists and horticulturists for more than a century. The habit has arisen in ten families, 22 genera, and at least 158 species and is especially common in several genera of Araceae and Marcgravia (Marcgraviaceae). Herein, the species are tabulated, and various hypotheses for the evolution of the habit are reviewed. Two hypotheses that emerge as having explanatory power for understory shingle-leaf climbers are 1) Trapping & Recycling CO2 and 2) Stemflow Nutrient Capture, but other hypotheses may also have support in some cases. Three hypotheses (Balancing Carbon Allocation, Avoiding Damage from Falling Objects, and Avoiding Herbivory) have some support for some species. One hypothesis (Protecting against Desiccation of Roots and Leaves) has some support for shingle-leaf climbers in exposed, sunny habitats (viz., Hoya, Dischidia, Cattleya cernua and other orchids). Different selective pressures may have led to convergence on the shingle-leaf habit in different habitats. Moreover, these hypotheses are not necessarily mutually exclusive. Few hypotheses have been explicitly tested, and so the adaptive significance of the shingle-leaf climber habit remains uncertain.
... Members of the genus are pollinated by small bees 13 -this was confirmed by field observation, though taxa could not be captured for identification. 8 [42,43] 9 [44] 10 [45] 11 [46] 12 [12] 13 [47] Phoradendron poeppigii Van Tiegh.) Kuijt (Santalaceae) Individuals of this mistletoe species were seen occasionally on E. tenuifolia trees. ...
Article
Full-text available
Research Highlights: Our study establishes the biennial nature of flowering intensity as a life-time energy-conserving strategy; we show unexpectedly high flower:fruit ratios despite extensive predation of buds and flowers by insect larvae; ‘selective’ bud abortion may be a key annual energy-saving strategy. Background and Objectives: We aim to explain the strongly biennial flowering pattern of Eschweilera tenuifolia, an ecologically key tree species of Amazon blackwater-flooded forest, inundated for up to nine months annually, and with large flowers (6 cm in width). Materials and Methods: We quantified the insect infestation of central Amazonian Eschweilera tenuifolia buds and flowers; we measured nectar production from flower opening onwards, examined flower duration and monitored pollen theft. We tested the role of infestation in bud abortion, nectar production and fruit production initiation. Results: Our study shows extensive predation of buds and flowers by insect larvae, as well as selective abortion of heavily infested buds, and limited loss to pollen thieves which fed largely on infertile fodder pollen. Nectar production peaked in the morning, with no nocturnal nectar production recorded. Sucrose levels were similar to congeneric values (mean 37.4%), and near-constant during production. Flower duration (4–5 days) was longer than reported for other congenerics. Conclusions: Insect infestation of buds can play an important role in regulating flower:fruit ratios, thus setting limits on individual total seed set. Individual Eschweilera tenuifolia appear to invest highly in reproduction every second year. Extended flower duration may be a strategy to enhance pollination success, but increases overall reproductive investment. Abortion of heavily infested buds may minimize allocation of energy to malformed flowers, which have a lower chance of attracting pollinators, thus functioning as a short-term energy-saving strategy. Additionally, biennial flowering in E. tenuifolia is likely to be an energy-conserving response in a highly physiologically-challenging environment. Thus, E. tenuifolia exhibits energy-conservation strategies at two divergent temporal scales.
... Armatocereus 9 Experimental evidence of floating capabilities (hat shape, a funicular envelope covering a prominent hilum, and air chambers throughout the tegument) and potential water dispersal of hat-shaped seeds in Cactaceae have been found in Astrophytum capricorne and Astrophytum ornatum (Sánchez-Salas et al. 2012), as well as in Astrophytum myriostigma (Romero-Méndez et al. 2018). Seeds of Selenicereus wittii from the Amazonia, in Brasil, are mussel-shaped, and also have an air chamber and are adapted to inundation hydrochory (Barthlott et al. 1997). Unlike the high variability in terms of shape, seed color in the family is mainly between black and brown (Leuenberger 1986, Barthlott & Hunt 2000, Arias & Terrazas 2004, Arroyo-Consultchi et al. 2006, Seal et al. 2009, Arias et al. 2012, Loza-Cornejo et al. 2012, Franco-Estrada et al. 2014). ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Cactaceae is the fifth taxonomic group with the highest proportion of threatened species. One way to contribute to the preservation of this family is to understand the processes that promote seed germination. Questions: How common is dormancy and seed banks in Cactaceae? Are there general patterns in cacti germination response to temperature, light, water, salinity, phytohormones, hydration/dehydration cycles, mechanical or chemical scarification? Data description: A total of 333 studies on cactus germination with information on 409 taxa. Study site and dates: since 1939 to January 2020. Methods: A search of scientific articles in Google Scholar was performed with the words Cactaceae, cacti and cactus, in combination with various matters on germination in English, Spanish and Portuguese. Results: The main germination studies in cactus deal with photoblasticism (275 taxa), temperature (205 taxa) and seed longevity (142 taxa). Other lines of study in cactus germination (e.g., desiccation tolerance, vivipary, phytohormones, mechanical or chemical scarification, in vitro germination, hydration/dehydration cycles, water and saline stress, serotiny, storage in cold, high temperature tolerance and soil seed bank) include between 14 and 65 taxa. Cacti have only physiological dormancy and optimal germination for most species occur between 20 and 30 °C. Conclusions: Mexico, Brazil and Argentina are the three leading countries in the study of cactus germination.
... Flora 242 (2018) 89-101 (Sánchez-Salas et al., 2012, Espostoa, Frailea, Gymnocalycium and Matucana have flotation mechanisms, mainly a broad and deep hilum, small and light embryos, thin testa and naviform shape, that allow them to be transported by runoff caused by heavy rains (Bregman, 1988). In the particular case of Selenicereus wittii, seeds have an air chamber that allows them to float (Barthlott et al., 1997). The presence of the aerenchyma in the aril of S. disciformis supports its role as a flotation structure; however, our data on seed flotation did not show differences between arillate and non arillate seeds. ...
Article
Seed development, germination and seedling establishment were compared between Strombocactus species, S. corregidorae, S. disciformis ssp. disciformis and S. disciformis ssp. esperanzae, emphasizing the origin and role of the seed appendage, which is present only in both S. disciformis subspecies. The development and morpho-anatomy of both seeds and seedlings were evaluated using standard light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Embryo and seed development proceeded similarly in all three taxa. However, we unequivocally demonstrate the funicular origin and aerenchymatic structure of the seed appendage, the aril in S. disciformis ssp. disciformis and S. disciformis ssp. esperanzae, which differentiates soon after fertilization. Other distinguishing features include the delayed growth of the testa in the micropyle in S. corregidorae, and testa micromorphology in mature seeds. Seed potential and production were similar between species, although seed efficiency was higher in both subspecies of S. disciformis, which may reflect pollination problems in S. corregidorae natural populations. Seed flotation occurs in the three taxa, due to the presence of air spaces in the lumen of the seed coat cells and the aril aerenchymatic, when present. Neither physiological nor structural dormancy were detected in Strombocactus, and a high percentage of seeds germinated in the different taxa, as no scarification or disinfection treatments were necessary. The absence of the aril in S. corregidorae shows that further genetic, phylogenetic and comparative ontogenic studies that include the three taxa of Strombocactus and the nearest genera, such as Ariocarpus, Turbinicarpus and Epithelantha, are required in order to determine if this structure was gained or lost during evolution of Strombocactus. This research provides a greater understanding of the reproductive biology of this endangered genus endemic to Mexico, necessary for the establishment of future restoration and conservation programs.
... Strophocactus wittii is an epiphyte from the inundation forests in the Amazonian Igapó region. It has flattened stems that adhere to the trunks of trees through numerous aerial roots and it is unique in Cactaceae in having water-dispersed seeds (Barthlott et al. 1997). Barthlott and Hunt (1993) included it in Selenicereus because of the large, white flowers with spines and bristles on the receptacle it shares with the other Selenicereus species. ...
Article
Full-text available
The tribe Hylocereeae are represented by mainly Central American-Mexican epiphytic, hemi-epiphytic and climbing cacti. They are popular due to their spectacular nocturnal flowers and have some importance as crops grown for their edible fruits. We present the first comprehensive phylogenetic study of the Hylocereeae sampling 60 out of the 63 currently accepted species and 17 out of 19 infraspecific taxa. Based on four plastid regions (trnK/matK, the rpl16 intron, rps3-rpl16, and trnL-F) we find a highly supported core Hylocereeae clade that also includes Acanthocereus and Peniocereus p.p., while Strophocactus is depicted as polyphyletic and is resolved outside of the Hylocereeae tribe. The clades found within Hylocereeae agree, in general terms, with the currently accepted genera but none of the genera are entirely monophyletic in their current circumscription. A new concept for the Hylocereeae is presented to include the genera Acanthocereus (incl. Peniocereus p.p.), Aporocactus, Disocactus, Epiphyllum, Selenicereus (incl. Hylocereus and Weberocereus p.p.), Pseudorhipsalis, Kimnachia gen. nov., and Weberocereus. New nomenclatural combinations are provided to make these genera monophyletic. The genus Deamia is reinstated for Strophocactus testudo and S. chontalensis, while Strophocactus is newly circumscribed to include S. wittii, Pseudoacanthocereus brasiliensis, and P. sicariguensis. Both genera are excluded from Hylocereeae. A taxonomic synopsis of Hylocereeae is provided.
... R.D. Rowley, an epiphytic cactus endemic to the Rio Negro of Amazonian Brazil, which grows in the same area as d. amazonica, also has a water-dispersed seed, a feature unique in Cactaceae (Barthlott et al. 1997). The remaining South American drosera taxa with short scapes also seem to rely heavily on water as a vector for seed dispersal (whereas wind dispersal can be assumed for the majority of other drosera species). ...
Article
Full-text available
Drosera amazonica Rivadavia, A. Fleischm. & Vicent. (Droseraceae) is described from the northern Amazon Basin in northeastern Amazonas State and central Roraima State, Brazil. The morphological characteristics which distinguish this new species are discussed, together with its distribution and ecology. Hydrochory is assumed for this new species, which would be the first record in the genus Drosera.
... R.D. Rowley, an epiphytic cactus endemic to the Rio Negro of Amazonian Brazil, which grows in the same area as d. amazonica, also has a water-dispersed seed, a feature unique in Cactaceae (Barthlott et al. 1997). The remaining South American drosera taxa with short scapes also seem to rely heavily on water as a vector for seed dispersal (whereas wind dispersal can be assumed for the majority of other drosera species). ...
... Schum.) G.D. Rowley ( Barthlott et al., 1997), species of Stenocereus (A. Berger) Riccob., Pilosocereus Byles & G.D. Rowley, and Subpilocereus Backeb. ...
... Irrespective of the actual mechanism, the basic conclusion retains its validity: size-related changes in ecophysiological parameters do exist and have to be adequately addressed in future studies. & Nobel 1996 Pessin 1925 Barthlott et al. 1997 Hew 1984 Popp et al. 1987 Benzing & Burt 1970 Hew et al. 1984 Rada & Jaimez 1992 Benzing & Friedman 1981 Hew et al. 1991 Renner 1933 Benzing & Pockman 1989 Hew et al. 1993 Rickson 1979 Benzing & Renfrow 1974a Hew et al. 1995 Schäfer & Lüttge 1986 Benzing & Renfrow 1974b Schlesinger & Marks 1977 Benzing et al. 1982 Hew et al. 1998 Schmitt et al. 1988 Beßler et al. 1998 Hietz & Briones 1998 Sengupta et al. 1981 Biebl 1964 Ho et al. 1983 Shreve 1908 Bonates 1993 Jordan 1984 Sinclair 1983a Borland & Griffiths 1990 Kluge et al. 1973 Sinclair 1983b Borland et al. 1992 Kluge et al. 1989 Sinclair 1984 Boyer 1964 Kluge et al. 1995 Sipes & Ting 1985 Burt & Benzing 1969 Lieske 1915 Smith et al. 1985 Carter & Martin 1994 Loeschen et al. 1993 Smith et al. 1986 Clarkson et al. 1986 Lüttge et al. 1986a Starnecker & Winkler 1982 Cockburn et al. 1985 Martin & Adams III 1987 Stewart et al. 1995 Coutinho 1965 Martin & Schmitt 1989 Stiles & Martin 1996 Coutinho 1969 Martin & Siedow 1981 Stuart 1968 Diaz et al. 1996 Martin et al. 1985 Ting 1989 Donovan et al. 1984 Martin et al. 1986 Ting et al. 1987 Dycus & Knudson 1957 Maxwell et al. 1992 Treseder et al. 1995 Earnshaw et al. 1987 Maxwell et al. 1994 Winter et al. 1983 Erickson 1957 Maxwell et al. 1995 Winter et al. 1985 Feild et al. 1997 McWilliams 1970 Winter et al. 1986 Fisher et al. 1990 Medina & Minchin 1980 Wong & Hew 1975 Goh 1983 Medina & Troughton 1974 Wong & Hew 1976 Goh et al. 1983 Medina 1974 Yong & Hew 1995a Gregg 1982 Medina et al. 1977 Yong & Hew 1995b Griffiths & Smith 1983 Medina et al. 1989a Zimmerman & Ehleringer 1990 Griffiths 1989 Milburn et al. 1968 Zotz & Winter 1994a Griffiths et al. 1984 Mooney et al. 1989 Zotz & Winter 1994b Griffiths et al. 1986 Neales & Hew 1975 Zotz & Winter 1994c Griffiths et al. 1989 Nobel et al. 1984 Zotz & Winter 1996 Guralnick et al. 1986 Nowak & Martin 1997 Zotz et al. 1994 Harper 1919 Nyman et al. 1987 Harris 1918 Ong et al. 1986 Hew & Lim 1989 Pessin 1924 ...
Article
A central objective of many ecophysiological investigations is the establishment of mechanistic explanations for plant distributions in time and space. The important, albeit mostly ignored, question arises as to the nature of the organisms that should be used as representative in pertinent experiments. I suggest that it is essential to use a “demographic approach” in physiological ecology, because physiological parameters such as photosynthetic capacity (PC, determined under non-limiting conditions with the oxygen electrode) may change considerably with plant size. Moreover, as shown for nine epiphyte species covering the most important taxonomic groups, the intraspecific variability in PC was almost always higher than the interspecific variability when comparing only large individuals. In situ studies with the epiphytic bromeliad V. sanguinolenta revealed that besides physiological parameters (such as PC) almost all morphological, anatomical and other physiological leaf parameters studied changed with plant size as well. Likewise, important processes proved to be size-dependent on whole-plant level. For example, long-term water availability was clearly improved in large specimens compared to smaller conspecifics due to the increased efficiency of the tanks to bridge rainless periods. As model calculations on whole-plant level for V. sanguinolenta under natural conditions have shown photosynthetic leaf carbon gain as well as respiratory losses of heterotrophic plant parts scaled with plant size. The resulting area related annual carbon balances were similar for plants of varying size, which corresponded to observations of size-independent (and low) relative growth rates in situ. Under favorable conditions in the greenhouse, however, small V. sanguinolenta exhibited surprisingly high relative growth rates, similar to annuals, which clearly contradicts the prevalent, but barely tested notion of epiphytes as inherently slow growing plants and simultaneously illustrates the profound resource limitations that epiphytes are subjected to in the canopy of a seasonal rain forest. From habitat conditions it seems that size-related differences in water availability are the driving force behind the observed size-dependent ecophysiological changes: the larger an epiphyte grows the more independent it is with regard to precipitation patterns. In conclusion, the results strongly emphasize the need to treat plant size as an important source of intraspecific variability and thus urge researchers to consider plant size in the design of ecophysiological experiments with vascular epiphytes. Eines der Hauptziele zahlreicher ökophysiologischer Studien ist eine mechanistische Erklärungen für Pflanzenverteilungen in Raum und Zeit. Eine für diese Zielsetzung zentrale Frage, nämlich nach den Pflanzen, die in entsprechenden Experimenten als Repräsentanten einer Art verwendet werden sollen, wurde bisher allerdings meist vernachlässigt. Den Resultaten dieser Dissertation folgend, ist bei Arbeiten mit vaskulären Epiphyten eine „demographische Herangehensweise“ auch für Belange der Ökophysiologie notwendig, da sich z.B. physiologische Parameter wie Photosynthesekapazität (PC, unter nicht limitierenden Bedingungen in der Sauerstoffelektrode gemessen) regelhaft mit der Pflanzengröße änderten. Darüber hinaus war die intraspezifische Variabilität von PC meist höher als zwischenartliche Unterschiede, wie für neun Epiphyten aus den wichtigsten taxonomischen Gruppen gezeigt wurde. In situ Studien mit der epiphytischen Tankbromelie Vriesea sanguinolenta ergaben, dass sich neben physiologischen Parametern wie PC fast alle untersuchten morphologischen, anatomischen und anderen physiologischen Blattparameter mit der Pflanzengröße ändern. Auch auf der Ebene gesamter Pflanzen erwiesen sich wichtige Prozesse als stark größenabhängig. Zum Beispiel war die Wasserverfügbarkeit aufgrund einer steigenden Effizienz der Wassertanks für große Individuen deutlich verbessert gegenüber kleineren Artgenossen. Desweiteren ergaben Modellberechnungen für V. sanguinolenta unter natürlichen Bedingungen, dass der photosynthetischen Kohlenstoffgewinn der Blätter, ebenso wie Respirationsverluste heterotropher Organe regelhaft mit der Pflanzengröße anstiegen. Die resultierenden Blattflächen bezogenen Jahreskohlenstoffbilanzen waren für Pflanzen verschiedener Größen ungefähr gleich, was Beobachtungen von größenunabhängigen (und niedrigen) relativen Wachstumsraten in situ entsprach. Unter günstigen Bedingungen im Gewächshaus stiegen die relativen Wachstumsraten kleiner V. sanguinolenta auf ein überraschend hohes Niveau, vergleichbar dem von terrestrischen, anuellen Pflanzen. Dies widerspricht klar der gängigen, aber kaum belegten Vorstellung von Epiphyten als inherent langsam wachsende Organismen und zeigen gleichzeitig auf, dass Epiphyten im Kronenraum eines saisonalen Regenwaldes aufgrund erheblicher Ressourcenlimitierung ihr Wachstumspotential bei weitem nicht ausschöpfen können. Von den Habitatsbedingungen scheint der systematische Unterschied in der Wasserverfügbarkeit bei verschieden großen Artgenossen die treibende Kraft für die beobachteten größenabhängigen Veränderungen zu sein: Je größer eine Pflanze wird, desto weniger wird sie von unterschiedlichen Niederschlagsmustern beeinflusst. Die Ergebnisse verdeutlichen den nachhaltigen Einfluss von Pflanzengröße auf die intraspezifische Variabilität ökophysiologischer Parameter und unterstreichen somit die Dringlichkeit Pflanzengröße in experimentellen Designs von ökophysiologischen Studien mit vaskulären Epiphyten zu integrieren.
... Consequently, a number of studies have examined the relationship of fragrance composition to type of floral visitor Tollsten, 1993, 1995;Borg-Karlson et al., 1994;Kaiser and Tollsten, 1995;Bestmann et al., 1997;Dobson et al., 1997;Miyake et al., 1998;Grison et al., 1999). The fragrances of hawkmoth-pollinated flowers in a number of plant families have been of particular interest Kaiser and Tollsten, 1995;Raguso and Pichersky, 1995;Barthlott et al., 1997;Miyake et al., 1998). Such flowers often have similar morphologies, with long, tubular perianths that are usually white, occasionally yellow or pink (Grant, 1983;Haber and Frankie, 1989). ...
Article
We present results of dynamic head-space collections and GC-MS analyses of floral and vegetative fragrances for 20 species in three genera of Nyctaginaceae: Acleisanthes, Mirabilis and Selinocarpus. Most of the species included in this study are either hawkmoth or noctuid moth-pollinated. A wide variety of compounds were observed, including mono- and sesquiterpenoids, aromatics (both benzenoids and phenylpropanoids), aliphatic compounds, lactones, and nitrogen-bearing compounds. Intraspecific variation in fragrance profiles was significantly lower than interspecific variation. Each species had a unique blend of volatiles, and the fragrance of many species contained species-specific compounds. The fragrance profiles presented here are generally consistent with previous studies of fragrance in a variety of moth-pollinated angiosperms.
... Acicular crystals are uncommon in the Cactaceae. They were only observed in Selenicereus spinulosus and Epiphyllum crenatum (group Ib), but they have not been reported in other species studied (Barthlott et al. 1997). Both types of crystals are calcium oxalate and affect the photosynthetically active radiation path through dermal system and chlorenchyma (Gibson and Nobel 1986). ...
Article
Dermal and hypodermal anatomical features of 70 species representing 21 genera of North American Cactoideae were studied. Results show that all species examined have parallelocytic stomata and anticlinal wall surface varies from straight to undulate. Cuticle thickness is mostly narrow (1-10 microm) contrary to the general opinion that cuticle is thick in most cacti; however, few species such as Ariocarpus fissuratus and several species of Pachycereus show a distinctive thick cuticle. More than 80% of the species studied have a single-layered epidermis. Papillae occur in eight species belonging to four genera. Notable papillae are a feature shared by all members of Peniocereus subg. Peniocereus. Other species show a bullate surface produced by irregular patches of secondary epidermal cell divisions. Commonly, the hypodermis is composed of more than two cell layers with distinctive collenchymatous walls as reported in many South American species. Silica bodies, prismatic crystals, druses, sphaerocrystals, and tannins are the most common cellular inclusions that distinguish several genera and appear to have taxonomic value. However, a more thorough search in species of Cephalocereus, Coryphantha, Echinocereus, Mammillaria, Neobuxbaumia, Pilosocereus, and Turbinicarpus is needed to support the previous assertion.
... Among them, cactus fruits and seeds adapted to different biotic and abiotic dispersal agents such as wind (Barthlott and Hunt, 1993;Anderson, 2001), birds (Silvius, 1995;Wolf and del Rio, 2000), bats (Naranjo et al., 2003), terrestrial mammals (Montiel and Montaña, 2000), reptiles (Cortes Figueira et al., 1994), and ants (González-Espinosa and Quintana-Ascenicio, 1986; cited in Montiel and Montaña, 2000; Barthlott and Porembski, 1996). As a most conspicuous mechanism, adaptation to water dispersal was found in seeds of an epiphytic cactus native to Amazonian inundation forests (Barthlott et al., 1997). ...
Article
Rhipsalis juengeri was described in 1995 as an unusual representative of epiphytic cacti, forming more than 3 m long curtains, hanging from the canopy of the Atlantic Rainforest in eastern Brazil. At the apex of thin, pendant shoots, green-brownish berries are formed. We report here as a novelty for the Cactaceae that these berries are strongly scented, and present an odour analysis along with an olfactoric survey of fruits of about 50 species and varieties of the cactus tribe Rhipsalideae. The volatile blend of berries of R. juengeri is dominated by ketones, some of which are responsible for the characteristic blackcurrant-like scent, as is shown by GC-olfactometry. The odour and inconspicuous colour stand out among fruits of other epiphytic cacti that are thought to be consumed by birds. Fruit characters of R. juengeri and the flagellicarpic presentation indicate adaptation to chiropterochory.
... res.). Selenicereus wittii has amazing two-ribbed shoots that press themselves tightly against trees at high water line in Amazonian inundation forests; the exposed side of the two ribs has a thick cuticle and deep chlorophyllous palisade cortex, the side that adheres to the tree has adventitious roots, thin cuticle and is weakly chlorophyllous ( Barthlott et al., 1997). Shoots of Epiphyllum always grow out initially as terete, smooth shoots with neither tubercles nor ribs, but after they reach a specified length, their SAM switches from spiral phyllotaxy to distichous, and all further growth is as a two-ribbed leaf-like cladode: individual shoots are terete at one end, flat at the other (Fig. 3D). ...
Article
Full-text available
Background and aims: Cacti are extremely diverse structurally and ecologically, and so modified as to be intimidating to many biologists. Yet all have the same organization as most dicots, none differs fundamentally from Arabidopsis or other model plants. This review explains cactus shoot structure, discusses relationships between structure, ecology, development and evolution, and indicates areas where research on cacti is necessary to test general theories of morphogenesis. Scope: Cactus leaves are diverse; all cacti have foliage leaves; many intermediate stages in evolutionary reduction of leaves are still present; floral shoots often have large, complex leaves whereas vegetative shoots have microscopic leaves. Spines are modified bud scales, some secrete sugar as extra-floral nectaries. Many cacti have juvenile/adult phases in which the flowering adult phase (a cephalium) differs greatly from the juvenile; in some, one side of a shoot becomes adult, all other sides continue to grow as the juvenile phase. Flowers are inverted: the exterior of a cactus 'flower' is a hollow vegetative shoot with internodes, nodes, leaves and spines, whereas floral organs occur inside, with petals physically above stamens. Many cacti have cortical bundles vascularizing the cortex, however broad it evolves to be, thus keeping surface tissues alive. Great width results in great weight of weak parenchymatous shoots, correlated with reduced branching. Reduced numbers of shoot apices is compensated by great increases in number of meristematic cells within individual SAMs. Ribs and tubercles allow shoots to swell without tearing during wet seasons. Shoot epidermis and cortex cells live and function for decades then convert to cork cambium. Many modifications permit water storage within cactus wood itself, adjacent to vessels.
Article
Full-text available
Los ambientes semiáridos son dominados por condiciones extremas que influyen de manera directa en la dispersión y germinación de semillas, así como el establecimiento, desarrollo y mantenimiento de la cubierta vegetal. Este ciclo depende directamente de la disponibilidad del recurso hídrico. Sin embargo, en las zonas semiáridas el agua es limitada, por lo que las especies que ahí habitan presentan adaptaciones para su dispersión como el desarrollo de estructuras y estrategias de movilidad para asegurar su supervivencia. Las etapas de la dispersión hasta el establecimiento de las semillas se manifiestan mediante distintas estrategias o mecanismos para pasar de una fase a otra. Lo anterior aunado a la humedad, la disponibilidad de agua y los sustratos favorecen la dispersión. La interacción de los bancos de semillas y sus estructuras constituyen un factor decisivo para que las especies se adapten a las zonas áridas y semiáridas. Adicionalmente, las microestructuras seminales juegan un papel particular en cada especie al proporcionar ventajas ante las inclemencias que deben sortear, como sucede con el hilo prominente y los tegumentos delgados de las semillas, así como las formas singulares que facilitan no sólo la absorción de agua, sino la dispersión hacia sitios seguros que hagan posible iniciar el proceso de establecimiento.
Article
Premise: Capparis spinosa is a widespread charismatic plant, in which the nocturnal floral habit contrasts with the high visitation by diurnal bees and the pronounced scarcity of hawkmoths. To resolve this discrepancy and elucidate floral evolution of C. spinosa, we analyzed the intrafloral patterns of visual and olfactory cues in relation to the known sensory biases of the different visitor guilds (bees, butterflies, and hawkmoths). Methods: We measured the intrafloral variation of scent, reflectance spectra, and colorimetric properties according to three guilds of known visitors of C. spinosa. Additionally, we sampled visitation rates using a motion-activated camera. Results: Carpenter bees visited the flowers eight times more frequently than nocturnal hawkmoths, at dusk and in the following morning. Yet, the floral headspace of C. spinosa contained a typical sphingophilous scent with high emission rates of certain monoterpenes and amino-acid derived compounds. Visual cues included a special case of multisensory nectar guide and color patterns conspicuous to the visual systems of both hawkmoths and bees. Conclusions: The intrafloral patterns of sensory stimuli suggest that hawkmoths have exerted strong historical selection on C. spinosa. Our study revealed two interesting paradoxes: not only are the flowers phenotypically biased towards the more inconsistent pollinator, but also floral display demands an abundance of resources that seems maladaptive in the habitats of C. spinosa. The transition to a binary pollination system accommodating large bees has not required phenotypic changes, owing to specific eco-physiological adaptations, unrelated to pollination, which make this plant an unusual case in pollination ecology. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Chapter
Opuntia cacti, which have been known since the fifthteent century, are commonly found in America and the Mediterranean. This genus is best known to man because of its economical importance and its capacity to flourish in poor soils and arid places. The most widely studied plants are Opuntia ficus-indica called prickly pear or Indian fig. The colorants present in Opuntia plants are normally found in the flowers and fruit, these colorants are betalains (also found in beet root, amaranth, and all cacti), which are divided in two groups: betacyanins that have red or purple color, or betaxanthins with yellow or orange color. The main betalains in prickly pear are betanin and indicaxanthin, and in less quantity, vulgaxanthin, miraxanthin, portulaxanthin, and neobetanin can be present. Besides betalains, prickly pear contains vitamins and phenolics. All these compounds have characteristics such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anticarcinogenic. Although prickly pear is consumed fresh, there are some products based on its juice such as wine and candies. Since only juices is used, seeds and peel are considered as wastes. In this work, the content of betalains, phenolics and antioxidant activity (DPPH ans TEAC) were evaluated in four varieties of prickly pear seeds and peel (Amarilla Montesa, Blanca Cristalina, Roja Lisa, and Esmeralda). Betacyanins were more abundant in reddish prickly pear seeds and peels, while betaxhantins in green and yellow varieties. Phenolics in peels were higher in red and yellow varieties. Phenolics contents in seeds averaged 344, 170 and 45 mg/100 g for Total phenolics, Tannins and Flavonoids, respectively.
Chapter
Flowers of Cactaceae have a peculiar structure. As in all Angiosperms, their flowers are modified shoots, but in this family the shoot is more complex: it is externally covered by stem tissue. The cactus flowers show a wide variety of forms, sizes and structural characters related to the evolutionary history of their lineages. This richness in morphology provides a wide spectrum of pollination syndromes and, therefore, flowers are important food resources for bats, bees, birds, and other fauna components, providing pollen and nectar. These ecological interactions highlight the importance of conservation of cacti for ecosystems maintenance.
Chapter
Several species of Non-Conventional Food Plants are still under-exploited and can be an alternative source of food and income, especially in family agriculture. Currently, vegetables of this category are not commercially produced. These plants can be included in diversification of agricultural production mainly by low-income groups, since they present reduced hydric and agricultural inputs requirements, contributing to generation of healthier foods. In recent years, cacti of genus Pereskia have attracted increasing interest from food and pharmaceutical industries, mainly due to their high protein content with high digestibility, mucilage type fibers, and calcium and iron minerals. The Cactaceae family is composed by three subfamilies: Cereoideae, Opuntioideae and Pereskioideae, latter being considered less evolved. Ora-pro-nobis, the popular name of Pereskia aculeata Miller and Pereskia grandifolia Haword species, is consumed by rural and urban populations, mainly in the mining regions of Minas Gerais state, Brazil, and contribute to complement feeding and family economy. These cacti have been used since ancient times by indigenous peoples, and are currently being employed as antibiotics, analgesics and diuretics, in combating diarrhea, burns treatment, ulcers healing, and in the control of cardiac and nervous pathologies. In addition, in the last decades have been studied the effect of several compounds of these plants in the prevention and/or treatment of obesity, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidaemias, osteoporosis and iron-deficiency anemia. In this chapter will be approached the general characteristics of these plants, their metabolic effects already studied, highlighting the importance of their consumption for improve nutritional status and income of economically disadvantaged people, in urban and rural environment of different regions in Brazil and the world; especially in those areas where climate and soil are more favorable to cultivation of these cacti known as non-conventional vegetables.
Article
The epithelium of the basal part of the inside floral tube (hypanthium) of Selenicereus grandiflorus (L.) Britton & Rose was investigated with ultrastructural and cytochemical methods, while a Gas Chromatography/Gas Mass analysis was performed on the secretion products of this flower tissue. Despite its position (frequently occupied by "classical" nectaries in many representatives of Cactaceae) the cells of the investigated epithelium show features that are typical of cells involved prevailingly in lipidic production. Lipids are stored in the big vacuole which fills almost the whole cell in the last developmental stage. The secretion is of holocrine type and probably started by the mechanical action of the pollinator itself. However sugars conveying from the underlying parenchyma towards the epithelium and a strong PAS-positive reaction at the vacuolar level was observed. These observations suggest also an important presence of carbohydrates in the last products. The formation of subcuticular spaces indicates also an eccrine type of secretion. The results obtained with Gas Chromatography/Gas Mass analysis indicate the production of some phenols, that we link to flower scent. This is the first report on oils producing flowers among Cactaceae and the first for nocturnal flowers.
Article
Full-text available
The Cactaceae with c. 1,435 species are the most important plant family of the arid regions of the Americas. Recent revisions and molecular studies resulted in an improved knowledge of the phylogeny and taxonomy of this group. Due to their high value as ornamental plants, countless publications with data on ecological preferences and geographic occurrence of the species are available. In this volume, the distribution areas of all cactus species are mapped. On this basis, we identified and characterized seven geographical centers of cactus diversity. Overall diversity patterns of the family, as well as, diversity patterns of all taxonomic subgroups, growth forms, and pollination syndromes are presented and mapped on the phylogeny of the Cactaceae. More than 50% of the species have extremely small distribution ranges, resulting in potential threat and insufficient coverage by existing protected areas. This volume presents the most comprehensive biogeographical analysis of one of the larger plant families, illustrated by 333 colored maps and c. 60 color figures on c. 200 pages.
Article
Two colloidal probe particles are held with optical traps orthogonal to a uniformly flowing suspension of colloidal bath particles. Using confocal microscopy, the local bath suspension microstructure is characterized as a function of the probe separation and flow velocity. At sufficiently close separations, bath particles are excluded from passing between the probes, resulting in an asymmetric, non-equilibrium microstructure in which the major features are a depleted region between the probes and dense boundary layers along the surfaces that face away from the neighboring probe. As a consequence, the drag force acting on the probes is lower than that acting on a single probe and a net force pushes the probes together along their line of centers. The strength of the latter mutual force increases with increasing flow velocity. These experiments demonstrate that depletion-like forces can be induced between two particles by a non-equilibrium microstructure in a strongly driven suspension.
Article
: We studied the pollination of the epiphytic cactus Weberocereus tunilla (Weber) Britton and Rose at the La Selva Biological Station in the Atlantic lowland rain forest of Costa Rica. The large, night-blooming, unpleasantly-smelling flowers were suspended on elongated main stems that hang down as much as 2 m below canopy tree branches, resulting in a unique form of flagelliflory. The only visitors to flowers were three species of glossophagine bats: Glossophaga commissarisi, Hylonycteris underwoodi and Lichonycteris obscura. Patterns of nectar secretion and concentration were found to be typical for bat-pollinated flowers. Flowering phenology and the occurrence of pollen on bats were recorded during a 1-yr period. Preliminary observations suggest that at least two other Costa Rican species of Weberocereus, W. biolleyi and W. trichophorus and possibly other species of the tribe Hylocereeae, are also pollinated by glossophagine bats.
Article
Basic anatomical features of Cactaceae have been studied since the sixteenth century. This anatomical research has focused on selected features related to different external forms or on stem photosynthetic metabolism. Anatomical stem features, however, have rarely been taken into consideration in systematic studies. Recent work has focused on the subfamily Cactoideae because it is the largest and most diverse subfamily of Cactaceae. Molecular analyses support the monophyly of Cactoideae, but tribal and generic relationships are mostly unresolved. A major goal of this study was to synthesize the available information about anatomical stem features of Cactoideae and to evaluate their usefulness in phylogenetic analysis. Although dermal and vascular tissues have been studied for nearly 350 species of Cactoideae, comprehensive investigations are needed for most members of specific genera or tribes. Phylogenetic analysis based on structural data (morphology and anatomy) showed that the subfamily Cactoideae is monophyletic. This result supports molecular evidence and corroborates that highly reduced leaves are the synapomorphy of this clade. With the exception of Cacteae and Rhipsalideae, the tribes are not monophyletic. The morphological characters that have been used to define the tribes are not synapomorphies and have evolved independently in different lineages. Some anatomical features are unique characters that distinguish terminal taxa; for example, silica grains in dermal and hypodermal cells inStenocereus, prismatic crystals in dermal and hypodermal cells ofNeobuxbaumia, and lack of medullary bundles in members of Cacteae. Most anatomical features, however, behave in a highly homoplasious manner in the analysis of the subfamily. Other studies at the tribal or generic level show that anatomical features are informative and contribute to support different clades. Further studies of Cactoideae, at different taxonomic levels, that include anatomical features, are needed in order to understand their evolution. Desde el siglo dieciseis se inició el estudio los caracteres anatómicos en Cactaceae. La investigación se ha enfocado a caracteres relacionados con las diferentes formas y el metabolismo fotosintético de los tallos. Sin embargo, en pocos estudios las estructuras anatómicas se han empleado en la sistemática de la familia. La investigación se ha centrado en la subfamilia Cactoideae porque es la más grande y diversa dentro de Cactaceae. Estudios moleculares apoyan la monofilia de Cactoideae; sin embargo, las relaciones tribales y genéricas son inciertas. Uno de los objetivos de este trabajo fue sintetizar la información sobre los caracteres anatómicos del tallo en Cactoideae y evaluarla desde una perspectiva filogenética. Aunque se ha estudiado el tejido dérmico o vascular de alrededor de 350 especies de Cactoideae, se requieren estudios que incluyan a la mayoría de las especies de géneros y tribus específicos. El análisis filogenético basado en datos estructurales (morfología y anatomia) mostró que la subfamilia Cactoideae es monofilética. Este resultado apoya las evidencias moleculares y corrobora que las hojas altamente reducidas son la sinapomorfia de este clado. Excepta por las tribus Cacteae y Rhipsalideae, las otras tribus no se recuperaron como monofiléticas. Los caracteres morfológicos que se han empleado para circunscribir las tribus no son sinapomorfias y se han adquirido en forma independiente en varios linajes. Varios caracteres anatómicos son únicos y distinguen a algunos taxa terminales como son la presencia de cuerpos de sílice en la epidermis e hipodermis deStenocereus, los cristales prismáticos en la epidermis e hipodermis deNeobuxbaumia y la ausencia de haces medulares en especies de Cacteae. Sin embargo, la mayoría de los caracteres anatómicos son homoplásicos en el análisis de la subfamilia, pero otros estudios a nivel tribal o genérico han mostrado que son informativos y contribuyen a diferenciar clados. Existe la necesidad de un mayor número de estudios a diferentes niveles taxonómicos que incluyan características anatómicas con la finalidad entender su evolución.
Article
Full-text available
Leaves of Kalancho daigremontiana Hamet et Perr. at a photon flux density (PFD) above 220 molm–2s–1 (400–700 nm) or at leaf temperatures above 27.0 C showed a rapid loss of rhythmicity, and a more or less pronounced damping-out of the endogenous circadian rhythm of CO2 exchange under continuous illumination. This rhythm was reinitiated after reduction of the PFD by 90–120 molm–2s–1 or reduction of leaf temperature by 3.5–11.0 C under otherwise unchanged external conditions. The reduction in the magnitude of the external control parameter of the Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) rhythm (i.e. PFD or leaf temperature) set the phase of the new rhythm. The maxima of CO2 uptake occurred about 5, 28, 51, 75 h after the reduction. Simulations with a CAM model under comparable conditions showed a similar behaviour. The influence of temperature on the endogenous CAM rhythm observed in K. daigremontiana in vivo could be simulated by incorporating into the model temperature-dependent switch modes for passive efflux of malate from the vacuole to the cytoplasm. Thus, the model indicates that tonoplast function plays an important role in regulation of the endogenous CAM rhythm in K. daigremontiana.
Book
The analysis of stable isotope ratios represents one of the most exciting new technical advances in environmental sciences. In this book, leading experts offer the first survey of applications of stable isotope analysis to ecological research. Central topics are - plant physiology studies - food webs and animal metabolism - biogeochemical fluxes. Extensive coverage is given to natural isotopes of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and strontium in both terrestrial and marine ecosystems. Ecologists of diverse research interests, as well as agronomists, anthropologists, and geochemists will value this overview for its wealth of information on theoretical background, experimental approaches, and technical design of studies utilizing stable isotope ratios.
Article
Summary 1. The anatomical structure of the epidermal cells of Epiphyllum chrysocardium in different stages of life has been investigated. 2. The anatomical structure and genesis of the stomatal-complex has been described. The porus is straightened in the direction of the longitudinal axis of the stem. 3. The ontogeny of the allelocytic stomatal-complex was found. This corroborates the opinion of Payne 1970 that the parallelocytic subtype is characteristic of the Cactaceae .
Book
In this investigation of orchids, first published in 1862, Darwin expands on a point made in On the Origin of Species that he felt required further explanation, namely that he believes it to be 'a universal law of nature that organic beings require an occasional cross with another individual'. Darwin explains the method by which orchids are fertilised by insects, and argues that the intricate structure of their flowers evolved to favour cross pollination because of its advantages to the species. The book is written in Darwin's usual precise and elegant style, accessible despite its intricate detail. It includes a brief explanation of botanical terms and is illustrated with 34 woodcuts.
Article
Maximum fruiting of the trees coincides with the period of inundation, and the specific timing of diaspore release appears related to special dispersal mechanisms, dormancy, and/or requirements for germination and seedling establishment. Due to the possession of specific tissues or other devices that provide buoyancy, the diaspores of most tree species of the inundated forests are capable of floating for prolonged periods. A comparison of diaspore characteristics between hydrochorous tree species and their congeners in noninundated habitats reveals recurrent patterns: some lineages that in noninundated habitats possess dehiscent fruits with anemochorous or zoochorous seeds, in inundatable habitats switch to the production of hydrochorous seeds. Other lineages that in noninundated habitats have dehiscent fruits, in inundatable habitats switch to the production of indehiscent hydrochorous fruits. Lineages that in noninundated habitats produce indehiscent fruits remain indehiscent when switching to hydrochory in inundatable habitats. In the inundated forests virtually all diaspores that fall into the water are consumed by fish, with rates of destruction differing greatly. Most hydrochorous diaspores can be dispersed by fish, if they are not destroyed by them (facultative ichthyochory). Others depend on fish for dispersal (obligatory ichthyochory), for example, because their diaspores are very heavy and would sink to the ground under the parent tree, or because their seeds are enclosed in a hard shell from which they can be freed only by the jaws of characins. The dormancy of many kinds of seeds is probably broken by their exposure to the hypoxic conditions that prevail in still water. -from Authors
Article
Hawkmoths were the primary pollinators of c10% of the tree species; they also pollinate various species of shrubs, herbs, lianas, and epiphytes. A total of 65 hawkmoth species were found, and 31 native plant species were adapted primarily for hawkmoth pollination. Abundance of both hawkmoths and hawkmoth flowers peaked in the first half of the wet season (May-July). Numbers of hawkmoths decreased through the dry season (December-April) with lowest numbers during April. Species of hawkmoth flowers also decreased through the dry season, but several species began flowering before onset of the wet season and before the sudden increase in hawkmoth numbers that followed shortly after the first rains. Tube lengths of hawkmoth flowers ranged from 0-19 cm (mean 5.1 cm), matched by the range in length of hawkmoth tongues (1-20 cm, mean 4.9 cm). Hawkmoth tongue lengths were correlated with body size (wing length). Long flower tubes restricted access to nectar to long-tongued moths, but hawkmoths visited many species of flowers adapted for other pollinator types (hummingbirds, bees, and bats) along with hawkmoth flowers whose tubes were much shorter than their tongue lengths. Some flowers were always heavily visited, other species were virtually ignored. In less attractive flowers, nectar accumulated during the night and attracted a variety of diurnal visitors the following morning. Hawkmoth flowers that opened before dark attracted diurnal and crepuscular visitors (bees, wasps, hummingbirds, butterflies) that robbed nectar and pollen, possibly decreasing flower attractiveness to hawkmoths. -from Authors
Article
Plants of the monotypic Blossfeldia liliputana have the smallest bodies of all Cactaceae. The button-like plants with a diameter of usually some 10 mm occur in rock crevices in arid regions between S Bolivia and N Argentina. Based on observations and experiments in the field and in cultivation, morphology, anatomy, reproductive biology, certain aspects of ecophysiology, and behaviour under water stress are described. The very small flowers are autogamous; the arillate hairy seeds are unique within the family and represent a particular adaptation to ant dispersal. These CAM-plants virtually lack stomata: 0.6 stomata/mm2 represents the lowest number in terrestrial autotrophic vascular plants. However, all other xeromorphic features characteristic for globular cacti are absent (e.g. no thickened cuticle, no thickended outer cell walls, no thickened hypodermal layers). These features allow a high degree of desiccation: under water stress the plants lose up to 80% of their weight within one year and can withstand an additional drought of at least another year. Thus Blossfeldia is poikilohydric like many lichens and mosses and represents the unique life form of a succulent resurrection plant.
Article
The ratio of deuterium to hydrogen (expressed as δD) in hydrogen released as water during the combustion of dried plant material was examined. The δD value (metabolic hydrogen) determined on plant materials grown under controlled conditions is correlated with pathways of photosynthetic carbon metabolism. C3 plants show mean δD values of-132‰ for shoots and -117‰ for roots; C4 plants show mean δD values of -91‰ for shoots and-77‰ for roots and CAM plants a δD value of-75‰ for roots and shoots. The difference between the δD value of shoot material from C3 and C4 plants was confirmed in species growing under a range of glasshouse conditions. This difference in δD value between C3 and C4 species does not appear to be due to differences in the δD value (tissue water) in the plants as a result of physical fractionation of hydrogen isotopes during transpiration. In C3 and C4 plants the hydrogen isotope discrimination is in the same direction as the carbon isotope discrimination and factors contributing to the difference in δD values are discussed. In CAM plants grown in the laboratory or collected from the field δD values range from-75‰ to +50‰ and are correlated with δ(13)C values. When deprived of water, the δD value (metabolic hydrogen) in both soluble and insoluble material in leaves of Kalanchoe daigremontiana Hamet et Perr., becomes less negative. These changes may reflect the deuterium enrichment of tissue water during transpiration, or in field conditions, may reflect the different δD value of available water in areas of increasing aridity. Whatever the origin of the variable δD value in CAM plants, this parameter may be a useful index of the water relations of these plants under natural conditions.
Article
Micromorphology and surface sculpture of seed-coats of about 900 species ofCactaceae out of 120 genera (sensuBackeberg 1976) were examined by light and scanning electron microscopy. A survey of the seed coat characteristics (forms of testa cells, wall sculpturings, cuticular fold patterns etc.) is given. A terminology for the taxonomic application of these microstructures is proposed and their taxonomic significance is discussed.
Article
The limitations on carbon dioxide assimilation by plants caused by stomata, particularly when the plant is under stress, are discussed. Mechanisms by which stomatal movement is integrated with photosynthesic requirements are described.
Article
The results described represent the first detailed measurements of gas exchange of epiphytic plants with crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) in the humid tropics. A portable steady-state CO2 and H2O porometer was used to measure net exchange rates of CO2 and H2O vapour (JCO2, JH2O), leaf temperature (T1), air temperature (TA), air relative humidity (RH) and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) for bromeliads in the field during the dry season in February and March 1983 on the tropical island of Trinidad. Different lengths of tubing (up to 25 m) were used so that the gas exchange could be measured of bromeliads in situ in their epiphytic habitats. Derived parameters such as leaf-air water-vapour-concentration difference (Δw), water-vapour conductance of leaves (g) and internal CO2 partial pressure (pⁱCO2) could be calculated.
Article
Due to the considerable annual fluctuations of water level of the Amazonian rivers, their river banks are fringed with periodically flooded forests of vast extension. The biota of these communities are adapted to annual inundations that can last for more than half a year. Water chemistry is most important for the floristic differentiation of these flooded forests. White water rivers, which carry a rich load of suspended material originating from the erosion of the Andes, have a floristic composition related to that of the noninundatable Amazonian forest. Clear water and black water rivers, which originate in the Amazon Basin or its adjacent crystalline shields, are nutrient-poor and more or less acidic; their flora is related to that of peculiar woodland and savannah vegetation on oligotrophic white sand. The distribution patterns of floodplain species of nutrient-poor waters point to a centre of diversity in the Upper Rio Negro region, and another one in the Guayana lowland. These coincide with diversity centres for species of non-flooded habitats. Hence it seems unlikely that species diversity is directly influenced by pluviosity. The flooded forests have developed biotic interactions with the fish fauna of the Amazon Basin, which are vital for their continued existence. It is assumed that the origin of these habitats, their biota and their interactions dates back long into the Tertiary.
Article
The acyclic homoterpene 4,8-dimethylnona-1,3,7-triene is a metabolite of (3S)-nerolidol. The absolute configuration of the precursor was established by GC-MS analysis of the molecular ion of the homoterpene produced after feeding a mixture consisting of equal amounts of (3S)-[12-2H3, 13-3H3]- and (3R)-[4-2H2, 15-2H3]nerolidol to various plants. The degree of the enantioselectivity of the converting enzyme was found to be characteristic for the selected plant or the plant cultivar. Thus leaves of Phaseolus lunatus and leaves of Spatiphyllum wallisii convert specifically (3S)-nerolidol, whereas leaves of Fragaria × magna and leaves of Gossypium herbaceum exhibit only a moderate degree of enantioselectivity (3S:3R, 66:34). The isotope distribution of the homoterpene emitted from leaves of G. herbaceum (herbivore inducible biosynthesis) and that of the homoterpene released from the blossoms (endogeneously controlled biosynthesis) of the plant is identical (S:R, 66:34) suggesting that the same enzyme is active within the different tissues or organs of the plant. A highly enantioselective synthesis of (3S)-[12-2H3, 13-3H3]- and (3R)-[4-2H2, 15-2H3]-nerolidol is described.
Die Grog-Schmetterlinge der Erde. 6. -Stuttgart: Crassulacean acid metabolism
  • A Seitz
  • Kemer
  • K W~ter
  • J A C Smrth
SEITZ, A., 1940: Die Grog-Schmetterlinge der Erde. 6. -Stuttgart: Kemer. W~TER, K., SMrTH, J. A. C., 1996: Crassulacean acid metabolism. -Ecol. Stud. Analysis Synth. 114. -Berlin, Heidelberg, New York: Springer.
3524 (MO); ZARUCCHI 1616 (US)
  • J Solomon
SOLOMON, J. 3524 (MO); ZARUCCHI 1616 (US).
Sphingidae mundi. Hawk moths of the world 1862: On the various contrivances by which British and foreign orchids are fertilized by insects Biosynthesis of acyclic homoterpenes: enzyme selectivity and absolute configuration of the nerolidol precursor
  • D Abrera
  • B Classey
  • C Darwin
  • Murray
  • J Donath
  • W Boland
D'ABRERA, B., 1986: Sphingidae mundi. Hawk moths of the world. -London: Classey. DARWIN, C., 1862: On the various contrivances by which British and foreign orchids are fertilized by insects. -London: Murray. DONATH, J., BOLAND, W., 1995: Biosynthesis of acyclic homoterpenes: enzyme selectivity and absolute configuration of the nerolidol precursor. -Phytochemistry 39: 785-790.
Trapping, investigation and reonstitution of flower scentsEds): Perfumes, art, science, technology The scent of orchids
  • R Kaiser
KAISER, R., 1991: Trapping, investigation and reonstitution of flower scents. -In MOLI.ER, R M., LAMPARSKY, D., (Eds): Perfumes, art, science, technology. -Elsevier Applied Science 1991, pp. 213-250. -Amsterdam, Oxford, New York: Elsevier. -1993: The scent of orchids. -Amsterdam, Oxford, New York: Elsevier.
For gas exchange measurements, the middle part of a stem was enclosed in situ in a fully climatized plexiglass chamber of an open compact system
  • Ecophysiology
Ecophysiology. For gas exchange measurements, the middle part of a stem was enclosed in situ in a fully climatized plexiglass chamber of an open compact system (Walz;
Carbon cycling and stability of the photosynthetic apparatus in CAM Crassulacean acid metabolism
  • C B Osmond
  • I R Tin~
  • M Gibbs
OSMOND, C. B., 1982: Carbon cycling and stability of the photosynthetic apparatus in CAM. -In TIN~, I. R, GIBBS, M., (Eds): Crassulacean acid metabolism, pp. 112-127. -Rockville: American Society of Plant Physiologists. PEUr:ERT, D. E., 1980: Zur Anatomie yon Epiphyllum chrysocardium ALEXANDER (Cactaceae): Epidermis und Stomatogenese. -Flora 169: 1-8.
Hydrogen isotope discrimination in higher plants: correlation with photosynthetic pathway and environment Meckenheimer Allee 170, D-53115 Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany Federal Republic of Germany
  • H Zn~gler
  • B Osmond
  • P Strchler
  • R Tpdmborn
  • M Hesse
  • I Krisai-Greilhuber
Zn~GLER, H., OSMOND, B., STrCHLER, P., TPdMBORN, R, 1976: Hydrogen isotope discrimination in higher plants: correlation with photosynthetic pathway and environment. -Planta 128: 85-92. Addresses of the authors: W. BARTHLOTT, S. POREMBSrd, Botanisches Institut der Universit~it Bonn, Meckenheimer Allee 170, D-53115 Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany. -M. KLtJGE, Institut f'tir Botanik der Technischen Hochschule Darmstadt, Schnittspahn-strasse 10, D-64287 Darmstadt, Federal Republic of Germany. -J. HOPKE, Institut ffir Organische Chemie und Biochemie der Universit~t Bonn, Gerhard-Domagk-Strasse 1, D-53121 Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany. -Lord Sc~vlmT, Stiftung zum Schutze gefiihrdeter Pflanzen e.V., Steintorweg 8, D-20099 Hamburg, Federal Republic of Germany. Accepted September 23, 1996 by M. HESSE and I. KRISAI-GREILHUBER
A tropical hawkmoth community
  • W A Haber
  • G W Franioe
HABER, W. A., FRANIOE, G. W., 1989: A tropical hawkmoth community. -Biotropica 21: 155-172.
Die Pollenmorphologie derCactaceae und ihre Bedeutung für die Systematik
  • B Leuenberger
  • B. Leuenberger
Sphingidae mundi. Hawk moths of the world
  • D Abrera
Carbon cycling and stability of the photosynthetic apparatus in CAM
  • C B Osmond
  • C. B. Osmond
In search of flowers of the Amazon Forests
  • M Mee
  • M. Mee
Sphingidae mundi. Hawk moths of the world
  • B D'abrera
  • B. D'Abrera
Analysis of an ecological adaptation. ? Ecol. Stud. Analysis Synth.30
  • M Kluge
  • I P Ting
  • M. Kluge
Die Blüte vonCereus wittii
  • K. Schumann
Monophily and pollination mechanisms inAngraecum arachnites Schltr. (Orchidaceae) in a guild of long-tongued hawk moths (Sphingidae) in Madagascar. ?
  • L A Nilsson
  • L Jonsson
  • L Rason
  • E Randrianjohanny
  • L. A. Nilsson
Die Groß-Schmetterlinge der Erde
  • A Seitz
  • A. Seitz