Examining the Relationship Between Parental Involvement and Student Motivation

ArticleinEducational Psychology Review 17(2):99-123 · June 2005with 1,371 Reads 
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Abstract
Parent involvement has a sound research base attesting to the many potential benefits it can offer in education. However, student motivation as an academic outcome of parental involvement has only recently been investigated. The purpose of this article is to show how parent involvement is related to students motivation. Studies of students from the elementary school to high school show a beneficial relationship between parental involvement and the following motivational constructs: school engagement, intrinsic/extrinsic motivation, perceived competence, perceived control, self-regulation, mastery goal orientation, and motivation to read. From the synthesis of the parent involvement and motivation literature, we offer potential explanations for their relationship. Directions for areas of continued research are also presented.

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    Bu çalışmada ortaokul öğrencilerinin, ebeveynlerinin ve ortaokul matematik öğretmenlerinin matematik eğitimine ebeveyn katılım algıları, bu algıları etkileyen bazı faktörler açısından incelenmiştir. Araştırmanın örneklemini 2017-2018 eğitim-öğretim yılında Sakarya ili Serdivan, Adapazarı ve Karapürçek İlçelerindeki 3 farklı ortaokulda 6, 7 ve 8. sınıftaki 196 öğrenci, aynı okullardaki 210 ebeveyn ve tüm Türkiye genelindeki 194 öğretmen oluşturmaktadır. Ortaokul öğrencilerinin matematik eğitimine ebeveynlerinin katılım düzeylerini ölçmek amacıyla Ortaöğretim Okullarında Aile Katılımı: Ebeveyn, Öğretmen, Öğrenci Ölçeği Kısa Formu kullanılmıştır. İlişkisel tarama yönteminin kullanıldığı araştırmanın sonucunda; öğrencilerin matematik eğitimlerine ebeveynlerinin katılım algılarının baba eğitim durumuna göre anlamlı olarak değişmezken, anne eğitim durumuna göre ise anneleri ortaokul mezunu olan öğrencilerin ebeveyn katılım algıları, anneleri ilkokul ve lise mezunu olan öğrencilerin ebeveyn katılım algılarından yüksek olduğu görülmektedir. Diğer taraftan kendisini matematikte başarısız gören öğrencilerin ebeveynlerinin eğitimlerine katılım algıları; kendisini matematikte orta ve başarılı seviyede gören öğrencilerin ebeveyn katılım algılarından, kendisini matematikte orta seviyede gören öğrencilerin ebeveyn katılım algıları ise başarılı seviyede gören öğrencilerin ebeveyn katılım algılarından daha yüksek olduğu görülmektedir. Öğretmenlerin ebeveynlerin öğrencilerinin matematik eğitimlerine katılımı algıları öğretmenlerin cinsiyeti, mesleki tecrübe süresi ve eğitim durumu açısından farklılaşmazken, çalışan ebeveynlerin ebeveyn katılımı test puanlarının çalışmayan ebeveynlerin test puanlarından daha yüksek olduğu ve babaların katılımlarının annelerin katılımlarından daha fazla olduğu görülmüştür. Abstract In this study, perceptions of middle school students, parents of these students and middle school mathematics teachers regarding parental involvement in mathematics education were examined in terms of some factors affecting these perceptions. The sample of the research consists of 196 6 th ,7 th and 8 th grade students at 3 different middle schools in Serdivan, Adapazarı and Karapürçek districts of Sakarya province in 2017-2018 academic year, 210 parents of those students at the same schools and also 194 teachers across Turkey. To measure the level of parental involvement in mathematics education of middle school students, "Parental Involvement in Middle Schools: Parent, Teacher, Student Scale Short Form" was used. Results of the research in which relational screening method was used have shown that while the perceptions of the students regarding parental involvement in mathematics education does not change significantly according to the education level of the fathers, according to the education level of the mothers, perceptions of the students whose mothers are middle school graduates are higher than those of the students whose mothers are primary and high school graduates. On the other hand, perceptions of the students who consider themselves unsuccessful in mathematics are higher than those of the students who consider themselves at the intermediate and successful levels in mathematics. Also, perceptions of the students who consider themselves at the intermediate level in mathematics are higher than those of the students who consider themselves successful in mathematics. In terms of the teachers' perception it was found that there is no significant relationship between teachers' perceptions of parental involvement in mathematics education of the students and the gender, professional experience, and educational background of the teachers. Furthermore, it was seen that scores of the working parents are higher than scores of the parents who do not work, and involvement of the fathers are higher than involvement of the mothers.
  • Article
    The purpose of this study was to investigate to what extent student-perceived parental involvement predicted academic motivation in vocational education and training (VET) students. The sample comprised 2108 young adults participating in a VET institute. Thirty-three items were developed to measure student-perceived parental involvement in VET, as no appropriate questionnaire was available for this educational setting. This questionnaire was analysed with factor analyses which resulted in a new, short, and valid questionnaire with 10 items to measure parental involvement on five indicators. Consistent with prior research, parental involvement significantly predicted motivation in VET students. Three out of five parental involvement indicators were found related to motivation. Specifically, two indicators were positively related to motivation: (1) parent–child educational discussions, and (2) parental aspirations and expectations. The indicator ‘reinforcement of learning at home’ was negatively related to motivation. These findings provide additional evidence for the significance of parental involvement based upon its link with students’ motivation in a VET context.
  • Thesis
    Full-text available
    Schools are a social system for educating students. Educational systems aim to help students discover their talents and develop a passion for learning. Motivating students to improve the quality of their education can foster their passion for academic achievement. Therefore, it is crucial to model students’ motivation to develop such a motivation in a concerned educational system. In addition, it is important to create an environment to motivate students. The environment covered in this paper is not a way to improve the facilities of a school, but an environment created by teachers and guardians collaborating together to improve students’ academic performance. Previous research has dealt with teacher-student relationships, guardian-student relationships, and their influence and importance to a student’s motivation. However, to date, there are limited number of works reporting on the cooperation among teachers, students and guardians. This paper proposes evaluation criteria and measures by modeling students’ motivation with new expectancy theory based on the original expectancy theory. In original expectancy theory, three factors are influenced by one person and measure motivation. However, in new expectancy theory, three factors are influenced by three persons which is teacher, student and guardian. In addition, by adding reward and punishment functions, the measured motivations can improve students’ motivations and, furthermore, it can improve their academic performance. This paper first models and evaluates the external motivational differences between using the reward and punishment functions as a scenario and the not in use. In addition, used standard deviations and z-table to reward or punish students for their efforts, not to judge them by their scores. The results of the experiment showed that new expectancy theory and the added reward and punishment functions can students could be motivated externally and that they could be given the possibility and appropriateness of creating a better educational environment.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Starting from the basic idea that identifying predictive family factors for children's well-being is among the levels of the psychology of sustainable human development, our study aimed to investigate the impact of mothers’ achievement goal orientations and parental self-efficacy on their children’s academic well-being, considering children’s own achievement goals as a mediator variable. The entire sample comprised 350 participants: 175 children (42.86% boys) and their respective mothers. Children were enrolled in the 4th grade (n = 85; Mage = 10.44, SD = 0.49), in the 8th grade (n = 62; Mage = 14.45, SD = 0.53), and in the 12th grade (n = 28; Mage = 18.39, SD = 0.62). The results indicated that mothers’ motivational orientations had a strong effect on their children’s corresponding motivational orientations. Mothers’ achievement goal orientations and parental self-efficacy had significant effects on children’s well-being, mediated by children’s goal orientations. Children’s well-being was positively predicted by mothers’ mastery and performance-approach goal orientations, with variations between age groups. The importance of the parental motivational orientations in the development of the children’s corresponding orientations and well-being suggests that changing academic adaptation might be possible by operating early interventions at the parents’ level. Further research is necessary to explore why performance-approach goals had a positive impact on well-being in this cultural context, as previous studies revealed that this type of goal orientation may be detrimental to well-being.
  • Article
    This study’s main purpose was to identify adult learners’ motivation to pursue learning at Saudi Arabia’s Yanbu adult-education schools. The study also investigates if there is a difference by gender, by age, and among learners in terms of their internal and external motivation to learn. The study’s theoretical framework came from Knowles’ theory of andragogy. A survey consisting of a self-administered questionnaire was used. The study population included all adult learners ( n = 463) at the Yanbu adult-education schools in Saudi Arabia. The results revealed the importance of the five motivators (social contact, family togetherness, social stimulation, cognitive interest, and religious stimulation) for adult learners at Saudi Arabia’s Yanbu adult-education schools. However, this study indicated that adult learners are more motivated internally than externally. Therefore, teachers should pay attention to the internal factors more than the external factor to keep up with their students’ level of motivation.
  • Chapter
    Effective family-school partnerships can enhance family-school involvement, and increase school and student outcomes. In low-resourced rural areas, many challenges hinder the development of such collaborative relationships, including expansive geographic distances between families and schools and the multiple roles that teachers and administrators assume. School-University partnerships can potentially help meet these challenges. This chapter describes a School-University partnership program, the Middle School Parent-Teacher Leadership Academy (MPTLA). MPTLA equips rural middle school parents and teachers to impact school and student outcomes. The chapter highlights the need for school-university partnerships in rural areas, discusses the uniqueness of the middle school context, explains the structure of the MPTLA and the partnership team model, provides two examples of the MPTLA partnership model in action, and recommends universities implement similar programs.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Potrošniška socializacija je del splošnega socializacijskega procesa ter predstavlja nujen in neizogiben proces. V tem procesu otroci pridobijo znanje, spretnosti in stališča v zvezi s potrošniškim vedenjem. Opozoriti je potrebno, da medtem, ko so starši agensi primarne socializacije otrok, je učenje potrošniških vedenjskih vzorcev pogosto posledica vplivov mnogih drugih oseb in predmetov, predvsem televizije. Oglaševalci to s pridom izkoriščajo, saj se zavedajo, da so otroci ranljiva skupina, ker jim primanjkuje znanja in izkušenj, ter tako preko njih vplivajo na nakupne odločitve celotne družine. Consumer socialization is a part of the general socialization process and represents a necessary and inevitable process. In this process, children acquire knowledge, skills and attitudes relating to the consumer behavior. It should be noted, that while the parents are the primary agents of socialization of children, learning of consumer behavior is often influenced by many other people and objects, especially television. Advertisers are aware that children are a vulnerable group because of their lack of knowledge and experience, and that they influence the purchase decisions of the whole family.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Several decades of research has generated a near-consensus on the link between positive student outcomes and effective engagement between educators and families. Despite the widespread acknowledgement of this connection, many educators continue to struggle to engage families in ways that are both culturally responsive and sensitive to power dynamics. Though barriers to family engagement have been explored in depth, little research exists about what family engagement looks like in schools with above-predicted student outcomes. This research offers insight into family engagement through two case studies of secondary schools in New York State-chosen for study for their odds-beating graduation outcomes. Educators in these schools share in common the strategies of drawing on local resources and engaging family members in culturally responsive and collaborative ways with particular sensitivities to power imbalances. These findings hold implications with regard to how barriers to family engagement may be overcome in demographically diverse contexts with histories of better graduation outcomes.
  • Article
    The research we present aims to describe the profile of parents´ involvement and its relationship with the teacher's perception of the students' commitment and their school performance. The study involved teachers, parents and students in the second cycle, 4th to 6th grade, the primary level of education. Two questionnaires and final grades were used for data collection. A mainly quantitative analysis of data was carried out presenting results that show that the communication of expectations and the help on the school tasks by the families is associated with a better perception about the student's engagement in the activities and classroom work reported by the teacher, also associated with a better school performance. The results, while encouraging, show the importance of continuing to weave better links and spaces where the actions of all educational agents, school and home are combined.
  • Thesis
    Full-text available
    L’entrée à l’université représente une période de transition majeure jalonnée de différents changements de rôles, de statuts et de milieux. Cette période de transition correspond aux débuts du devenir adulte. Au cœur de ce défi développemental se situent les questions d’autonomie et d’indépendance. L’autonomie et l’indépendance s’acquièrent de manière progressive et s’expriment au travers des représentations que les jeunes adultes ont du fonctionnement de leur système familial et de leur propre fonctionnement. Ainsi, l’environnement familial, les représentations d’attachement, la transition d’habitation et les processus d’autodétermination sont des expressions du devenir adulte progressif des individus qui vont être particulièrement questionnées lors de cette transition majeure. En adoptant une vision holistique-interactionniste, ce travail de recherche s’est donné pour objectif d’interroger le développement psychosocial des jeunes adultes entrant à l’université en tenant compte des spécificités propres à leur période de développement. Notre population d’étude se compose d’étudiants primo-entrants. En suivant une approche longitudinale, ce travail de recherche comportait trois temps de mesure et a donné lieu à la réalisation de deux cohortes successives. Le premier temps de mesure a eu lieu lors de la rentrée universitaire, en septembre/octobre (N = 1 142) ; le deuxième temps en milieu d’année universitaire, en février/mars (N = 248) ; et le troisième temps en fin d’année universitaire en juin/juillet (N = 101). A chaque temps de mesure, les participants ont été invités à répondre à un questionnaire qui évaluait leurs perceptions de leur environnement familial (i.e., relation parents-enfant et relations familiales), leurs représentations d’attachement, la transition d’habitation qu’ils vivaient, leurs processus d’autodétermination (i.e., motivation à la poursuite d’études et besoins psychologiques de base) et leur ajustement psychosocial (i.e., bien-être psychologique, estime de soi globale, dépressivité et résultats académiques). Les données ont été analysées en adoptant une approche à la fois centrée sur les personnes et sur les variables ainsi qu’en considérant les différentes formes de variabilités. Nos résultats soulignent l’hétérogénéité et la multiplicité des profils d’environnement familial, d’attachement et d’autodétermination, des classes de transition d’habitation ainsi que des patterns de développement lors de l’entrée à l’université. Ces différents profils d’environnement familial, d’attachement et d’autodétermination présentent une évolution singulière au cours de la première année universitaire. Au niveau de l’ajustement psychosocial, nos résultats montrent que les caractéristiques personnelles (i.e., attachement et autodétermination) ont un effet sur l’ajustement au cours de la première année contrairement aux contextes dans lesquels évoluent l’individu (i.e., environnement familial et transition d’habitation). L’évolution de l’ajustement psychosocial au cours du temps s’avère positive et stable pour les profils positifs d’environnement familial, d’attachement et d’autodétermination alors qu’il est instable pour les profils négatifs. Enfin, nos résultats conduisent à considérer les besoins psychologiques de base comme des leviers permettant une meilleure adaptation en période de transition. Ces différentes observations apportent un regard complémentaire à la littérature et permettent de venir discuter des applications possibles dans l’accompagnement des adultes en devenir en contexte universitaire.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    This study sought to establish lived experiences and roles of Lusaka parents in the education of their children with autism. The study employed the qualitative paradigm and the research design used was Phenomenology. The objectives of this study were; to establish parents' lived experiences in the education of their children with autism, to establish teachers' views about parents' participation in the education of their children with autism and to find out parents' roles in the education of their children with autism. The sample for this study comprised of 20 participants, consisting of 10 parents of children with autism and 10 teachers. Parents were the main target sample while teachers complemented the sample as informers to enrich the data in this study. Purposive sampling procedure was used to select the participants. The study established different experiences of parents of children with autism. Parents suffered frustration, stigmatization, embarrassment and psychological stress in the upbringing of their children with autism. It was also revealed that with support from the community, experiences of parents in educating their children would be seen to be less stressful and encouraging. Further, the study reveals that some parents did not actively participate in the education of their children with autism, limiting their roles to helping in homework, taking their children to school and buying the children books. A few parents that were engaged in the education of their children gained confidence and satisfaction of their role.-21 Based on the study findings it was recommended that, schools should link parents to support groups where they acquire knowledge and skills to manage unusual behaviors of their children with autism, community sensitization about the negative attitudes towards parents and children with autism needs to be carried out, thus emphasis on laws against stigmatization should be made clear to members of the community and that the Ministry of General Education in Zambia through schools with learners with autism should embark on sensitization of parents about the roles in the education of their children with autism.
  • Article
    Parents’ level of involvement in children’s schooling is related to children’s academic success; yet, few studies have considered factors that may play a role in this relation. This study examined an interactional model to determine whether children’s affect toward maternal involvement and autonomy supportive versus controlling parenting moderated relations between three involvement types and children’s academic motivation and achievement. Participants were 213 third through fifth-grade children, their mothers and teachers. Unexpectedly, interactions for perceived competence (β = − .26, b = − 0.34) and grades (β = − .14, b = -1.28) indicated that when children’s affect was negative, higher school involvement was associated with higher perceived competence (p < .001) and grades (p = .038). Another interaction (β = .22, b = 2.28) indicated that, as predicted, when mothers were autonomy supportive, higher personal involvement was associated with more autonomous self-regulation (p = .003). This interaction was not present for other outcomes. Findings suggest ways to optimally involve mothers in children’s schooling.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Background: Many studies on parental involvement in their children's education have limitations in cross-sectional designs in spite of examining the relationships between this involvement and achievement goal orientations. Thus, little is known about whether and how parental involvement affects achievement goal orientations over time. Aims: This study examines the influence of parental involvement on achievement goal orientations among Chinese high school students. Sample: The participants included 741 high school students (367 girls; Mage = 15.51 years, SD = .46) in China. Methods: The data were collected in five waves with a 6-month interval, starting in the autumn of tenth grade and ending in the autumn of twelfth grade. In each wave, participants reported their perceived degree of parental involvement, mastery goal orientation, performance-approach goal orientation and performance-avoidance goal orientation. Results: Over time, a decline was seen in these high school students' perceived level of parental involvement and mastery goal orientation, while an increase in their performance-approach goal orientation and stability in terms of their performance-avoidance goal orientation were found. In addition, the results indicated that the level of and changes in parental involvement had significant effects on the changes in mastery goal orientation, and were unrelated to those of two performance goal orientations. Conclusions: These findings evidence the dynamic nature of parental involvement and students' achievement goal orientations, as well as the positive influence of such involvement on the endorsement and development of mastery goal orientation, while this was not the case for the other two performance goal orientations.
  • Chapter
    The aim of this chapter is to discuss parent-child stress among different cultures in relation to parents' perceptions and their involvement in mathematics homework and children's academic achievement. Several decades of research have demonstrated that parental involvement in children's achievement is associated with a variety of positive and negative academic and motivational outcomes. It is argued that parents' involvement may matter more for some children than for others and parents are active participants rather than passive observers in children's education. This chapter provides insights on how parental involvement in homework can make a difference and why excessive involvement of parents can cause stress for both parents and children. Further, it is discussed how the cultural differences between Asian and European groups appear to narrow down with acculturation over the years.
  • Article
    Objectives Parental involvement plays an important role in adolescents’ cognitive, emotional, and social development. However, whether parental involvement will influence adolescents’ academic emotions and, if so, what the underlining mechanism is have not been explored. This study aims to examine the mediation effects of adolescents’ academic self-efficacy and academic value between parental involvement and academic emotions. Methods In total, 391 triads (including students and their parents) participated in the study. Students ranged from 10 to 18 years old (M = 13.57, SD = 2.48) and included 194 males and 197 females. We established two models (both demonstrated acceptable model fit) to examine the mediation effects of academic value (academic intrinsic value and academic extrinsic value, respectively) and academic self-efficacy (academic self-efficacy of behavior and academic self-efficacy of ability, respectively). Results Our results indicate that academic intrinsic value played a full mediating role between parental involvement and academic emotions (enjoyment and boredom). Academic self-efficacy of behavior exhibited full mediation between parental involvement and academic boredom, whereas academic self-efficacy of ability fully mediated the relationship between parental involvement and academic enjoyment. Conclusions This study indicates that academic value and academic self-efficacy mediate parental involvement and academic emotions, broadening the research on parental involvement and supporting the control-value theory of academic emotions.
  • Parent Involvement: The Relationship Between School-to-Home Communication and Parents' Perceptions and Beliefs
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    • M Khoju
    • T Watkins
    Ames, C., Khoju, M., and Watkins, T. (1993). Parent Involvement: The Relationship Between School-to-Home Communication and Parents' Perceptions and Beliefs (Report No. 15).
  • Teachers' School-to-Home Com-munications and Parent Involvement: The Role of Parent Perceptions and Beliefs
    • C Ames
    • L Stefano
    • T Watkins
    • S Sheldon
    Ames, C., de Stefano, L., Watkins, T., and Sheldon, S. (1995). Teachers' School-to-Home Com-munications and Parent Involvement: The Role of Parent Perceptions and Beliefs (Report No. 28). East Lansing, MI: ERIC Document Service No. ED383451, Center on Families, Communities, Schools, and Children's Learning, Michigan State University.
  • A New Generation of Evidence: The Family is Critical to Student Achievement, National Committee for Citizens in Education Why do parents become involved in their children's education? Rev
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    Henderson, A. T., and Berla, N. (1994). A New Generation of Evidence: The Family is Critical to Student Achievement, National Committee for Citizens in Education, Columbia, MD. Hoover-Dempsey, K. V., and Sandler, H. M. (1997). Why do parents become involved in their children's education? Rev. Educ. Res. 67(1): 3–42.
  • Effects of the Parent Volunteer Program Upon Students' Self-Perception as a Reader, ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED404617 Achievement goals in the classroom: Students' learning strate-gies and motivation processes
    • D Adunyarittigun
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    • C Ames
    • J Archer
    Adunyarittigun, D. (1997). Effects of the Parent Volunteer Program Upon Students' Self-Perception as a Reader, ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED404617, University of Maryland, College Park, MD. Ames, C., and Archer, J. (1988). Achievement goals in the classroom: Students' learning strate-gies and motivation processes. J. Educ. Psychol. 80(3): 260–267.
  • A New Generation of Evidence: The Family is Critical to Student Achievement
    • A T Henderson
    • N Berla
    Henderson, A. T., and Berla, N. (1994). A New Generation of Evidence: The Family is Critical to Student Achievement, National Committee for Citizens in Education, Columbia, MD.
  • from U.S. Department of Education Web site: http://www
    No Child Left Behind Act. (2001). Retrieved September 23, 2004, from U.S. Department of Education Web site: http://www.ed.gov/policy/.
  • Effects of the Parent Volunteer Program Upon Students' Self- Perception as a Reader
    • D Adunyarittigun
    Adunyarittigun, D. (1997). Effects of the Parent Volunteer Program Upon Students' Self- Perception as a Reader, ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED404617, University of Maryland, College Park, MD.
  • Article
    Sixteen teachers and their 162 first-grade students participated in this study to explore the impact of book-rich classroom environments and home rereading, with and without an audio model, on reading motivation, comprehension, and fluency. Classrooms with both students who speak English as a second language and native English-speaking students were in 1 of 4 conditions: book-rich classroom environment, book-rich classroom environment and daily rereading of books at home, book-rich classroom environment and daily rereading of books with audiotapes at home, and unmodified reading instruction at school. There was enhanced comprehension for book-rich classrooms, both with and without a home component. Furthermore, home-based rereading increased students' reading motivation and promoted parental involvement. Use of audio models provided particular benefits for students learning to speak English.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    This study examined a process model of relations among children's perceptions of their parents, their motivation, and their performance in school. Children's perceptions of their parents on dimensions of autonomy support and involvement were measured with the new children's perceptions of parents scale. Three motivation variables-control understanding, perceived competence, and perceived autonomy-were hypothesized to mediate between children's perceptions of their parents and their school performance. Analyses indicated that perceived maternal autonomy support and involvement were positively associated with perceived competence, control understanding, and perceptions of autonomy. Perceived paternal autonomy support and involvement were related to perceived competence and autonomy. In turn, the 3 motivation variables, referred to as inner resources, predicted children's performance. Structural equation modeling generally supported the mediational model.
  • Article
    Both sport and academic work play large roles in school life, yet there is little comparative evidence on the nature or generality of achievement motivation across these domains. In this study, beliefs about the causes of success in school and sport of 207 high school students were found to be related in a logical fashion to their personal goals. The ego-involved goal of superiority was associated with the belief that success requires high ability, whereas task orientation (the goal of gaining knowledge) was associated with beliefs that success requires interest, effort, and collaboration with peers. These goal-belief dimensions, or theories about success, cut across sport and schoolwork. However, little cross-domain generality was found for perceptions of ability and intrinsic satisfaction. Intrinsic satisfaction in sport primarily related to perceived ability in that setting. Task orientation, not perceived ability, was the major predictor of satisfaction in schoolwork.
  • Article
    Research has investigated a wide range of factors associated with dropout behavior, including family-related factors. However, most investigations of family-related factors have relied on structural measures, such as socioeconomic status, parental education, and family income. Such measures reveal little about the processes by which families influence students' achievement. This study explores in greater detail a series of variables that reveal some of the mechanisms by which families influence students' decisions to drop out of school. The results suggest that families exert an important influence on dropout behavior, just as they do on other measures of students' academic achievement. Compared to other students, even other students who have similar demographic and grade profiles, dropouts are more likely to come from families in which they have to make decisions on their own and in which their parents are less involved in their education.
  • Book
    How to Design and Evaluate Research in Education provides a comprehensive introduction to educational research. The text covers the most widely used research methodologies and discusses each step in the research process in detail. Step-by-step analysis of real research studies provides students with practical examples of how to prepare their work and read that of others. End-of-chapter problem sheets, comprehensive coverage of data analysis, and information on how to prepare research proposals and reports make it appropriate both for courses that focus on doing research and for those that stress how to read and understand research. The authors' writing is simple and direct and the presentations are enhanced with clarifying examples, summarizing charts, tables and diagrams, numerous illustrations of key concepts and ideas, and a friendly two-color design.
  • Article
    There are competing theories on the effects of parental involvement and control on adolescent development. Each theory holds implications for parents, adolescents, and counselors working with parents and adolescents. Using a national data set, this study sought to support or disconfirm theory and research regarding parental involvement with and control over various aspects of highschool seniors' lives. Findings support the contention that parental involvement and parental control are conditional on one another in predicting adolescents' locus of control. From high‐school seniors' perspectives, parental control with parental involvement was related to internal locus of control, whereas control without involvement was related to external locus of control.
  • Article
    This article reviews psychological theory and research critical to understanding why parents become involved in their children’s elementary and secondary education. Three major constructs are believed to be central to parents’ basic involvement decisions. First, parents’ role construction defines parents’ beliefs about what they are supposed to do in their children’s education and appears to establish the basic range of activities that parents construe as important, necessary, and permissible for their own actions with and on behalf of children. Second, parents’ sense of efficacy for helping their children succeed in school focuses on the extent to which parents believe that through their involvement they can exert positive influence on their children’s educational outcomes. Third, general invitations, demands, and opportunities for involvement refer to parents’ perceptions that the child and school want them to be involved. Hypotheses concerning the functioning of the three constructs in an additive model are suggested, as are implications for research and practice. Overall, the review suggests that even well-designed school programs inviting involvement will meet with only limited success if they do not address issues of parental role construction and parental sense of efficacy for helping children succeed in school.
  • Article
    The literature on parent involvement in education contains many implications for teacher education. Numerous studies have established that different approaches to parent involvement produce various outcomes for parents and students, including different achievement for elementary students. The teacher's role, particularly in the elementary school, interacts with 6 types of parent involvement: (1) parent as audience, (2) parent as volunteer, (3) parent as paraprofessional, (4) parent as teacher of own child, (5) parent as learner, and (6) parent as decision maker. Unfortunately, the number of courses and professional experiences in parent involvement included in the preservice and in-service preparation of teachers is insufficient. 10 recommendations for teacher education are drawn from the literature.
  • Article
    The purposes of this study were to explore the influence of both parenting style (demandingness and responsiveness) and parental involvement on the achievement outcome of early adolescents and to explore the relations both adolescents' and their parents' perceptions ofparenting, and to compare the influence that the differentperceptions have on adolescents' achievement. Subjects were 247 ninth-grade boys and girls and their parents from urban, suburban, and rural communities in the southeast and the midwest. Questionnaire measures of adolescents' and parents' perceptions of maternal and paternal demandingness, responsiveness, and parental involvement were designed for this program of research. Adolescents'reports ofparenting were found to correlate only moderately with parents' reports. Adolescents'(both boys'and girls'), but not parents', reports of parenting significantly predicted their achievement outcome, with parental involvement significantly predicting achievement above and beyond dimensions of parenting style. The importance of considering both adolescents'and parents'perceptions of parenting is discussed.
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    Examined the direct and indirect effects of TV time, homework, and parental involvement on high school seniors' achievement using 28,051 high school seniors selected from the dataset of the High School and Beyond Longitudinal Study conducted by the National Opinion Research Center (1980). Data indicate that homework had an important, positive effect on student achievement, and TV time had a smaller, negative effect. Parental involvement had no direct effect on seniors' achievement scores but did positively influence the amount of time that seniors spent on homework. Further analysis suggested the possibilities of low homework demands and of excessive weekday TV viewing. Given the time spent on TV and homework and their influence on achievement, it is suggested that these variables be considered in the push for educational improvement. (38 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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    The purposes of this study were to examine the relations of both family and school contexts on students' academic achievement and to explore the mediating effects of students' perceptions of their motivations and academic self-competence between the family and school contexts and achievement. Participants were 230 fifth- and sixth-grade students. Students' perceptions of parenting style (demandingness and responsiveness), parental involvement (parental values and involvement in school functions), teaching style (teacher control and responsiveness), and school atmosphere (school responsiveness and supportive social environment) significantly predicted their school achievement; however, students' motivations and self-competence mediated the relations between students' contexts and their academic achievement. Furthermore, parental values, teacher responsiveness, school responsiveness, and supportive social environment predicted students' motivations and academic competence above and beyond parenting style, parental involvement, and teacher control. The importance of students' supportive relationships and the internalization of the messages conveyed to them underscore the need for a contextual view by school psychologists when consulting with parents and education staff regarding achievement concerns. © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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    The purpose of this study was to examine relationships among Baumrind's three parenting styles, parent involvement (both parenting variables as perceived by student), and mastery and performance goal orientations of high school students. The sample consisted of 196 students enrolled in two Florida high schools. Many expected relationships appeared in line with the parenting and goal theory literature. Maternal authoritativeness was related to a mastery orientation. Maternal authoritarianism and permissiveness were related to a performance orientation. Differential findings were evident with regard to student ethnicity. Appearance of stronger relationships among maternal parenting styles and student goal orientation may be due to the nontraditional living arrangements reported; a number of students reported not living with their fathers. Parent involvement was positively related to a mastery orientation for all students. Student gender and parental education were not significant factors in this study. Conclusions are tempered by limitations of a relatively small sample.
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    This study examined a process model of relations among children's perceptions of their parents, their motivation, and their performance in school. Children's perceptions of their parents on dimensions of autonomy support and involvement were measured with the new children's perceptions of parents scale. Three motivation variables—control understanding, perceived competence, and perceived autonomy—were hypothesized to mediate between children's perceptions of their parents and their school performance. Analyses indicated that perceived maternal autonomy support and involvement were positively associated with perceived competence, control understanding, and perceptions of autonomy. Perceived paternal autonomy support and involvement were related to perceived competence and autonomy. In turn, the 3 motivation variables, referred to as inner resources, predicted children's performance. Structural equation modeling generally supported the mediational model.
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    This article examines the impact of authoritative parenting, parental involvement in schooling, and parental encouragement to succeed on adolescent school achievement in an ethnically and socio-economically heterogeneous sample of approximately 6,400 American 14-18-year-olds. Adolescents reported in 1987 on their parents' general child-rearing practices and on their parents' achievement-specific socialization behaviors. In 1987, and again in 1988, data were collected on several aspects of the adolescents' school performance and school engagement. Authoritative parenting (high acceptance, supervision, and psychological autonomy granting) leads to better adolescent school performance and stronger school engagement. The positive impact of authoritative parenting on adolescent achievement, however, is mediated by the positive effect of authoritativeness on parental involvement in schooling. In addition, nonauthoritativeness attenuates the beneficial impact of parental involvement in schooling on adolescents achievement. Parental involvement is much more likely to promote adolescent school success when it occurs in the context of an authoritative home environment.
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    This study had 2 goals. The first was to examine a multidimensional conceptualization of parent involvement in children's schooling, defined as the allocation of resources to the child's school endeavors. A second goal was to evaluate a model in which children's motivational resources (i.e., perceived competence, control understanding, and self-regulation) are mediators between parent involvement and children's school performance. 300 11-14-year-old children and their teachers participated. Factor analyses of a set of parent involvement measures supported the hypothesized 3 dimensions of parent involvement: behavior, intellectual/cognitive, and personal. Path analyses revealed indirect effects of mother behavior and intellectual/cognitive involvement on school performance through perceived competence and control understanding, and indirect effects of father behavior on school performance through perceived competence. The results argue against a unidimensional understanding of parent involvement and support the view of the child as an active constructor of his or her school experience.
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    This study examined 3 familial factors--parental surveillance of homework, parental reactions to grades, and general family style--in relation to children's motivational orientation and academic performance. Family, parent, and child measures were obtained in the home from 93 fifth graders and their parents. Teachers provided a measure of classroom motivational orientation, and grades and achievement scores were obtained from school records. Higher parental surveillance of homework, parental reactions to grades that included negative control, uninvolvement, or extrinsic reward, and over- and undercontrolling family styles were found to be related to an extrinsic motivational orientation and to lower academic performance. On the other hand, parental encouragement in response to grades children received was associated with an intrinsic motivational orientation, and autonomy-supporting family styles were associated with intrinsic motivation and higher academic performance. In addition, socioeconomic level was a significant predictor of motivational orientation and academic performance.