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Sustainable aquaculture: Developing the promise of aquaculture



As experience with aquaculture grows worldwide, the concept of sustainable aquaculture is increasingly recognized to incorporate both spatial and temporal dimensions of environmental, economic, and social parameters. Practitioners have discovered that sustainable aquaculture must not only maximize benefits, but also minimize accumulation of detriments, as well as other types of negative impacts on natural and social environment. Therefore, sustainable aquaculture development must be advanced in a manner that is environmentally sustainable and that protects the quality of the environment for other users, while it is equally important for society to protect the quality of the environment for aquaculture. This paper provides a brief review of the worldwide aquaculture development in the last decade, and gives a few examples of sustainable aquaculture activities in the coastal areas that are using natural coastal habitats and ecosystems. Based on already existing national and international efforts to promote sustainable aquaculture, key recommendations are provided, including what should be the next proactive steps.
#2003 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands.
Sustainable aquaculture: developing the promise
of aquaculture*
Center for Coastal Resources Management, Virginia Institute of Marine Science, College of William &
Mary, PO Box 1346, Gloucester Pt, Virginia 23062, USA; *Author for correspondence (e-mail:
Received 19 November 2002; accepted in revised form 13 June 2003
Key words: Ecosystem integrity, Environmental impacts, Integrated coastal management, Polyculture,
Socio-economic impacts, Sustainable aquaculture, Sustainable development
Abstract. As experience with aquaculture grows worldwide, the concept of sustainable aquaculture is
increasingly recognized to incorporate both spatial and temporal dimensions of environmental, eco-
nomic, and social parameters. Practitioners have discovered that sustainable aquaculture must not only
maximize benefits, but also minimize accumulation of detriments, as well as other types of negative
impacts on natural and social environment. Therefore, sustainable aquaculture development must be
advanced in a manner that is environmentally sustainable and that protects the quality of the environment
for other users, while it is equally important for society to protect the quality of the environment for
aquaculture. This paper provides a brief review of the worldwide aquaculture development in the last
decade, and gives a few examples of sustainable aquaculture activities in the coastal areas that are using
natural coastal habitats and ecosystems. Based on already existing national and international efforts to
promote sustainable aquaculture, key recommendations are provided, including what should be the next
proactive steps.
Landings from worldwide aquaculture have been increasing rapidly in the last decade,
approximately 10–15% per year depending on the reference sources. According to
FAO 2002, total aquaculture in 1996 was 26.7 million tons, and in 2001 increased to
37.5 million tons. The rapid growth was due to the combined effects of an increasing
world population, decreasing catches from traditional fisheries (Caddy and Griffiths,
1995), and changing consumer preferences in developed countries (Lem and Shehadeh
1997; Tacon 1997). Aquaculture production in developing countries and low-income
food-deficit countries(LIFDs) has been growingabout 10% per year since 1970s (FAO
2002). In contrary, aquaculture production in developed countries has been growing at
only 3.7% per year since 1970s, and in the period between 1999 and 2000 showed a
decrease of 2.4% growth (FAO 2002).
Landings from the marine environment in 1996 accounted for 51% of total world
aquaculture output. Although the proportion of total aquaculture production by
weight and value originating from marine waters in 1996 is high (17.5 million
*Presented at the Global Conference: Oceans and Coasts at Rio+;10, UNESCO, Paris, December 3–7,
Aquaculture International 517–530, 2003.11:
metric tones), over 90% of mariculture production is still centered on primary users
of nutrients (e.g., aquatic plants and lter feeding invertebrates) and only 7% for
mainly carnivorous nsh species (FAO 1998a,b). Moreover, when aquatic plants
are excluded from the marine environment total, about 86% of the contribution of
total nsh and shellsh production originates from lter-feeders such as mussels,
oysters, scallops and cockles. Predominant use of plants and lter feeders in
mariculture may also contribute to minimizing the levels of nutrient enrichment of
coastal waters resulting from other human activities and resource uses (FAO
1998a,b; Stickney and McVey 2002).
Although a few developed countries such as Japan, USA as well as European
Union (EU) countries feature amongst top aquaculture producers, production is
predominately an activity in LIFDs, which in turn are greatly inuenced by devel-
opments in China. China is the dominant producer, followed by India, the Philippines
and Indonesia. Although Asia is by far the leading region in aquaculture production
(89%), Latin America and parts of Africa are showing steady growth (FAO 2000a,b).
Despite these trends, aquaculture development continues to be hindered by a
number of constraints. These include limited suitable sites, concerns regarding
negative environmental impacts, and multi-use conicts (Goldburg and Triplett
1997). One problem is intensive use of the natural coastal habitats and ecosystems
for monoculture technology until it often exceeds the carrying capacityof the
area. This often causes environmental degradation, disease outbreaks, and reduced
growth (e.g., coastal mangroves devastation by pond aquaculture of penaeid
prawns; Binh et al. 1997; Treece 2002; Davenport et al. 2003).
One solution to avoid and lessen these problems could be extensive and balanced
polyculture:anintegratedsh farming practice adopted over 4000 years ago in
China, and over 1500 years ago in Hawaii (Costa-Pierce 1987; Chan 1993; FAO
2000a,b). Polyculture techniques mix fed species (e.g., nsh, shrimp), herbivorous
species and extractive species (lter feeders, such as shellsh, and seaweeds) in a more
balanced ecosystem-approach aquaculture (Naylor et al. 2000; McVey et al. 2002;
Davenport et al. 2003). While polyculture has not been implemented to any great
extent, it may offer opportunities for reducing or transferring nutrient loads. Ecosys-
tems are inherent recyclers of energy, and can provide the resources humans need as
long as critical processes are left undisturbed. Ecosystems, although frequently de-
scribed as fragile, have remarkable powers of resiliency. As long as basic processes
are not irretrievably upset, ecosystems will continue to recycle and distribute energy. A
healthy functioning ecosystem not only sustains itself, it also sustains local commu-
nities, regional economies and resource-based industries, in this case aquaculture.
Without proper management of all components within the ecosystem, the via-
bility of the ecosystem is threatened. However, since there is no consensus re-
garding the concept of sustainable development, no base exists for establishing
criteria for attainment. Frequently, a single-issue approach to ocean and coastal
management creates overlapping and uncoordinated laws and jurisdictions that
result in conict and increasing ineffectiveness with increasing coastal activities.
The sustainable development of aquaculture requires adequate consideration of
interactions among environmental, social, and economic factors that accompany any
development (Chua 1992; WB 1998; NACA/FAO 2000). Around the world, sustain-
able aquaculture has proven to be a revitalizing economic force in a number of rural
and coastal communities areas where sustainable economic development is often
difcult (FAO 2000a,b; Davenport et al. 2003). In such communities, however, the
introduction of aquaculture into areas traditionally used largely for commercial sh-
eries and a variety of recreational activities have sometimes coincided with impas-
sioned user group conict. To overcome this imbalance a planned, balanced and
inclusive community approach to rural economic and social development is required.
Through effective research, development, monitoring and incentive programs in
support of an integrated watershed and coastal management approach to maintaining
ecosystem integrity and balancing human values, economic development can be at-
tained in an environmentally and socially sustainable manner.
General facts related to aquaculture activities
.Aquaculture is a global, inevitable and a fast growing industry.
.Part of our past and present history, and its needed in our future.
.There are environmental, social, and economic problems.
.Use conictsare everyday scenarios in the coastal areas.
.Growing consumer demand for environmentally responsible products (e.g.,
Marine Stewardship Council, Marine Fisheries Conservation Program/SCS,
Protected Harvest, ecolabeling, ISO 14000, EMAS,
.Continuing development of indicators for environmental, social and economic
aspects of aquaculture activities, in order to monitor and evaluate impacts and
sustainability of its nature.
.Continuing development and implementation of biologically integrated best
management practices.
.Globalization is an inevitable developmental process in the world, but in order
for each country to become part of the globalization process in a sustainable
manner, it rst has to become self-sustaining.
.Aquaculture on islands is a great example of how to become sustainable and
show how not to; they represent small globesand show how the process of
globalization and self-sustainability can be implemented.
Benefits of aquaculture
.Increase household food supply and improve nutrition.
.Increase household economy through diversication of income and food sources.
.Strengthen marginal economies by increasing employment and reducing food
.Improve water resource and nutrient management at household or community
.Preserve aquatic biodiversity through re-stocking, and recovering of protected
.Reduce pressure on shery resources if done sustainably.
.Improving/enhancing habitats.
.Stimulates research and technology development.
.Increase education and environmental awareness.
Risks of aquaculture
.Sediment hypoxia/anoxia resulting from organic enrichment (generally local but
occasionally far-eld).
.Carbon/nutrient enrichment of the water column and benthos (leading to redu-
cing conditions and hypoxia) (often with far-eld implications).
.Reduced levels of dissolved oxygen in a water column (as a result of eu-
trophication) (often with far-eld effects).
.Chemical, pharmaceutical, and toxicant inputs to sediments and water column
(with local and far eld effects).
.Debrisfrom foods, aquaculture structures, and support vessels.
.Consequences of redistributions, including bioinvasions, pathogens and disease
(often as a consequence of crowding), changes in natural community structure,
and introductions of genetically modied culture stocks (ICLARM 1997, 1999;
Naylor et al. 2000).
.Directly causes negative impacts and pressure on mangroves ecosystem
(GESAMP 2001).
.Changes in trophic (food web) interactions and productivity.
.Changes in biodiversity.
.Increase in multiple use-conicts by and on aquaculture.
Activities related toward improving environmentally sound
aquaculture practices
Growth in aquaculture has its own paradoxes. Many sh farmers feed high protein
pellets made from wild sh to raise carnivorous species like shrimp and salmon.
This practice has been contributing to increasing use of industrial shing to support
aquaculture and squeezing sh resources in a shing down and farming up fashion
(Pauly et al. 2001; Watson and Pauly 2001). During the period 19851995, the
worlds shrimp farmers used 36 million tons of wild sh to produce just 7.2 million
tons of shrimp. Farmed shrimp is the most protable commodity in aquaculture, but
it is also the most polluting (Naylor et al. 2000; Treece 2002). However, producers
of nsh feeds are improving the chemical, nutrient, and physical shape and
structure of food for nsh. Field observations report signicant reductions in
accumulations of unused food stuffs. For example culture enclosures can be towed
to other grow out areas which allows improvements in the original benthic habitats
by reducing organic buildup, eutrophication, and hypoxia (Stickney and McVey
2002). Japan developed a new type of feed using substitute protein such as soy bean
cake, corn gluten instead of shmeal, and achieved a feeding efciency approxi-
mately 1015% less than the original feed (Morikawa 1999). Moreover the ap-
pearance of the nsh color, taste and quality fresh meat was better than the sh
reared on fresh sh feeds. This approach contributes to avoiding sea pollution as
well as to more efcient and sustainable utilization of marine living resources. One
of the tasks still remaining in the aquaculture industry is to determine how to
prevent pollution of rearing waters by articial feeds.
In northern Europe and Canada considerable efforts have been made to assess
interactions between aquaculture and the environment. Most guidelines, modeling
tools and environmental standards are, however, directed at salmon farming. In the
Mediterranean, the environment is quite different from the one encountered in northern
Europe. Culture of sea bass and sea bream is expanding rapidly but relatively little is
know about its impacts. In order to secure sustainable aquaculture development in the
Mediterranean it is important that the industry and environmental authorities have
access to suitable management and regulation tools (Davenport et al. 2003; EC 2002).
The EU sponsored the MERAMED programme that studies environmental interac-
tions near sh farms in the Mediterranean and develops models, methods and standards
that can be used for production optimization as well as environmental assessment and
monitoring. The project was designed by the Norwegian company Akvaplan-niva, and
the work was carried out in cooperation with researchers from the Institute for Marine
Biology Crete (Greece), Institut fu
¨r Meereskunde in Kiel (Germany) and Dunstaffnage
Marine Laboratory (Scotland) (MERAMED 2000).
Another similar project has been funded under the EU FAIR
program entitled
Monitoring and Regulation of Marine Aquaculture(MARAQUA). This project,
which started in January 1999, is a Concerted Action, which means it does not
involve new research but instead concentrates on a review of existing information
and establishment of agreed guidelines for monitoring and regulating marine
aquaculture. The project facilitates establishment of a European Network to bring
together scientists, producers, regulators and volunteer organizations, in an effort to
co-ordinate and provide means for the efcient exchange and review of information
(MARAQUA 1999). The overall aim of MARAQUA is to dene scientic guide-
lines for Best Environmental Practices (BEP) for the monitoring and regulation of
marine aquaculture in Europe.
The goal of sustainable development, which is now integrated into the EU ob-
jectives, calls for use of a wider range of tools for environmental policy. It is essential
that sh farmers demonstrate a responsible approach to managing environmental
impacts of the industry and provide external assurance of environmental manage-
ment performance. One of the tools is the voluntary Eco-Management and Audit
Scheme (EMAS). The application of EMAS to the aquaculture sector should help the
industry improve the transparency of the productive process, while improving re-
source management and environmentally sound practices (MARAQUA 2001).
Another tool that can provide assurance of environmentally sound aquaculture
practices is through certication of the international environmental management
system, for example ISO14001. The potential benets of ISO14001 to the aqua-
culture industry could include:
.Regulatory compliance avoiding costs of prosecution and nes.
.Brand enhancement and protection avoid damage to brand value and market
position by avoiding incidents and prosecution, enhance brand value through
ISO14001 label.
.Loss of control and process efciency reduce costs, particularly energy, ef-
uent discharge and waste management.
.Meet customer requirements ISO14001 provides external third party assurance
link to quality and food safety issues.
.Improve performance drives systematic management of environmental im-
pacts, often leading to other business improvements.
.Responds to stakeholder concern provides assurance of good environmental
performance to NGOs, local communities and to other external interested parties
(Westwood, MARAQUA 2001).
In the United States, studies and projects related to establishment of protocols and
models for site suitability analysis were undertaken for different types of aqua-
culture in coastal areas. Poor site selection and farming practices will result in a
stressed ecosystem, cultured species and decreased production (Naylor et al. 2000;
Stickney and McVey 2002). There is an urgent need for more comprehensive
assessments and multidisciplinary research to generate data on the positive and
negative roles of marine aquaculture in the habitats and ecosystems of coastal
oceans. In addition, globally collected data on aquaculture should be integrated,
analyzed and generated as useful and accessible GIS information and maps.
Japan has been addressing problems of use-conicts and limited space for
aquaculture activities by moving aquaculture offshore, as well as creating arti-
cially suitable sites for aquaculture (Morikawa 1999). Similar approaches have
been initiated in the United States (Cicin-Sain 2000). Two pilot project sites
(Hawaii and New Hampshire) were established to better understand offshore
aquaculture implementation, its complexity, interactions with the marine ecosys-
tem, and potential for long-term sustainability. However, moving aquaculture ac-
tivities offshore is not going to solve emerging environmental issues in the coastal
areas, sometimes caused by unsustainable aquaculture practices, but also ex-
acerbated by other types of uses (e.g., tourism, sheries, agriculture).
What is sustainable aquaculture?
‘‘The earth provides every human beings need, but not every human beings
greed!’’ (Gandhi)
‘‘Sustainable development is the management and conservation of the natural
resource base and the orientation of technological and institutional change in
such a manner as to ensure the attainment and continued satisfaction of human
needs for present and future generations. Such sustainable development (in
agriculture, forestry, sheries sectors) conserves land, water, plant, and animal
resources, is environmentally non-degrading, technically appropriate, econom-
ically viable, and socially acceptable.’’ (Code of Conduct, FAO 1995).
Sustainability refers to the ability of a society, ecosystem, or any such on-going
system to continue functioning into the indenite future without being forced into
decline through exhaustion or overloading of key resources on which that system
depends. In general, the concept of sustainable development is simple and im-
portant, but translating it into specic standards or criteria is difcult, often sub-
jective and misused. Although many specic sustainability criteria have been
proposed there is no single universally agreed criteria set. In assessing the sus-
tainability of any enterprise or technology, consideration should be given to at least
the following:
.the sustainability (or continuity) of supply, and quality of inputs;
.the social, environmental and economic costs of providing the inputs (e.g., de-
pletion of resources elsewhere);
.the long-term continuity (or sustainability) of production;
.nancial viability;
.social impact and equity;
.environmental impact; and
.efciency of conversion of resources into useful product.
When dening sustainability, we must be clear what the objective of the denition
is, and come to a conclusion of what it means to a particular concept, in this case
different types of aquaculture practices. Sustainability can only be attained when
environmental conditions are appropriate and maintained, and this includes eco-
logical, socio-anthropological and economic aspects of environment. Therefore,
any activity, use or practice should comprehend and include the next six general
steps for sustainable resource management (Frankic and Hershner 2001):
Environmental resource assessment
Inventories of marine, coastal and islands natural and human resources are a ne-
cessary rst step for successful management programs. To enhance resource de-
velopment capabilities, a country/local community should acquire and maintain a
comprehensive inventory of the physical and biological resources of the coastal
area as well as their uses and users. The inventory will provide a database for
making decisions about long-term goals, such as ecosystem preservation, that might
conict with the immediate development of aquaculture. This rst step is necessary
for assessing the coastal zone vulnerability to various activity impacts, and it
provides one of the basic requirements for development of an integrated coastal
resource management program. Environmental resource assessment has to include
a long term and in depth research studies of organisms that are being cultured or are
intended for culture, as well as understanding of utilized ecosystems biocomplexity
and healthy functioning.
Environmental impact assessment
Information about the impact that aquaculture will have on the environment must be
provided in a clear form to decision-makers and stakeholders. Impact assessments
should be incorporated in each phase of aquaculture development projects. It also has
to present clear options for the mitigation of impacts and for environmentally sound
management. Impact assessment should be based on the best available knowledge
and provide timely technical information to environmental decision-makers while
acknowledging uncertainties. The most important development in the environmental
decision process in the last decade has been the inclusion of environmental impact
assessments by regulatory managers (Power and Adams 1997).
Policy framework and regulatory measures
This is a basic tool for training and educating, as well as for local community
participation in decision-making processes. The policy statement should declare the
intention of a state/nation to review and regulate, in this case aquaculture activities
affecting the sustainable use of the coastal renewable natural resources (PAP/RAC
1996). Formulation of a policy framework for coastal and marine management must
address cross-sectoral issues that infringe on coastal resource management and na-
tional development planning. The basic approach is to review and analyze existing
institutional and legal mechanisms (including regulations and enforcement) for in-
tegrated coastal and marine management and aquaculture development potential.
Based on this review, the country should propose a generic institutional and leg-
islative framework to address coastal issues and encourage integrating aquaculture in
the coastal zone management plan. Through a series of application scenarios, the
policy framework will become a basic tool for training and educating decision-
makers, resource managers, scientists, stakeholders, and the public in general. In
addition, comprehensive policies and institutional legal frameworks should re-
cognize the potential benet of traditional tenure and management systems, and
ensure that they are incorporated into the rules and regulations for conservation and
sustainable use, where relevant (WWI 1999).
Socio-cultural and economic assessment
Socio-cultural and economic evaluations are important components of a systematic
assessment of coastal resources and potential aquaculture development. It provides an
economic framework from which differing adaptation strategies (solutions) can be
studied. In an assessment of alternatives, decision-makers should be provided with
information on how each option compares in respect to the relative costs and benets
for each aquaculture impact (Sorensen and West 1992). Identication of the full range
of reasonable alternatives to resolve a conict among competing interests means that
no feasible options for maximizing benets and minimizing costs have been missed.
Therefore, successful selection of suitable locations for aquaculture and the long-term
maintenance of site suitability require accurate assessment of both existing conditions
and probable trends in environmental, economic, and social factors.
The success of a coastal resource management program is based on the countrys
ability to understand how an effectively established program manages natural and
human coastal resources. It is necessary to establish monitoring and evaluation of
land use decisions and changes in coastal resources as well as in their integral uses.
The basic question of an implementation strategy is how to apply science, and
develop and implement best management practice (BMP) for aquaculture? Com-
prehensive BMP should become a living document, open to revisions and ex-
pansion (Frankic 1998). Established BMP provides consistent national standards
and practices for implementation of different types of aquaculture in the coastal
areas. They provide constant monitoring and control, strengthening environmental
protection and sustainable aquaculture development in the coastal areas. Aqua-
culture and other coastal industries, agencies, and environmental organizations have
recognized the need for BMPs. BMPs for site planning and for ICZM practices
provide opportunities for early intervention and collaborative review of new ac-
tivities. By publishing public standards and goals in advance of the submission of
plans by a private developer, for example, one can provide guidance before major
investments are made in site development. These standards (local, national, and
international) also provide objective measures (indicators and criteria) that can be
used by communities and environmental NGOs to question specic elements of
aquaculture development proposals, as well as to award if it is environmentally
sound and sustainable.
Monitoring and evaluation
Monitoring means acquisition, management, synthesis, interpretation, and analysis
of data with an emphasis on temporal and spatial scales. It should be coupled with
research programs designed to improve the appropriateness of routine measure-
ments and allow interpretations of the implications of monitoring results (NAS
1990). A useful monitoring program provides mechanisms to ensure that knowl-
edge is used to convert data collected into useful information. In addition, the
purpose for monitoring implementation of aquaculture practices is to assure that the
major policies (goals, comprehensive plans, and agency authorities) are properly
implemented. Monitoring will assess the cumulative effects of changes and assure
that management program elements for aquaculture are updated to reect changing
needs and circumstances, consistent with its basic requirements. This approach will
provide a basis for a general evaluation of the aquaculture success or failure in
achieving its overall objectives of balanced development and resource protection/
conservation (Oregon CMP 1997).
Practitioners have discovered that sustainable aquaculture must not only max-
imize benets, but also minimize accumulation of detriments, as well as other types
of negative impacts on natural and social environment. One of the early lessons
learned has been that increasing the density of organisms in a culture operation
results in signicant waste disposal problems. For example the intensive culture of
carnivorous sh and prawns risks organic pollution from uneaten food or feces
(Brooks et al. 2002; Davenport et al. 2003). This results in a potential degradation
of the environment and a loss of suitability for the culture practice. Determination
of suitability for aquaculture involves an evaluation of natural and anthropogenic
limitations of a certain area in order to decide if the locality can support the activity.
The carrying capacity for aquaculture is dened as the maximum number of users
(marine species) that can be supported by a natural or man-made resource without
producing negative environmental consequences to their future activity, pro-
ductivity and quality (PAP/RAC 1996).
The usual sequence in aquaculture practices has been development and research
rather than research and development, resulting in environmental damage in many
cases. As more research is conducted, more information is gathered, and more case
studies are evaluated, the levels of uncertainty will be reduced and our predictions
should get better. Yet, we must realize that when we address a new issue (e.g.,
introduction of transgenics, GMOs) our knowledge base is almost nil and a huge
amount of uncertainty therefore exists. Even if we do laboratory experiments, de-
velop the best possible models and make predictions, only the introduction of
transgenics and a complete study of their effects will allow us to reach some con-
clusions about actual effects. However, fundamental to the need for sustainability is
the development of government-approved and industry/stakeholders-led, for ex-
ample, Environmental Codes of Practicethat incorporate science-based standards
and principles of adaptive risk management and that are supported by transparency
and accountability in monitoring, evaluation, reporting and enforcement.
Based on existing national and international efforts to promote sustainable aqua-
culture, here is a list of key regulations and policies that should continue to be
addressed, developed and implemented:
Forming integrated coastal and rural/community management plans (IUCN 2000).
Emphasize use of processed feeds and not fresh feeds such as low valued marine
sh (WB 1998; Naylor et al. 2000).
Setting suitability standards and indicators for aquaculture (e.g., benthic fauna as
Setting monitoring and evaluation mechanisms (M&E).
Establishing quality standards (certications) for environmentally friendly
practice, processing and sale in the aquaculture industry.
Expanding nsh aquaculture industry should farm low trophic level sh in
extensive, more responsible practices (e.g., polyculture of herbivorous carps)
(Stickney and McVey 2002).
Developing integrated farming systems integrated aquacultureagriculture
(ICLARM 1999; FAO 2000a,b).
Developing extensive polyculture practices (Naylor et al. 2000; Stickney and
McVey 2002).
Eliminating government subsidies for ecologically unsound practices, and es-
tablish enforced regulatory measure for protection of coastal and ocean eco-
systems (the same should apply to agriculture and sheries).
There is a need to establish and implement environmental site suitability indicators
for sustainable aquaculture development. Indicators are key variables that signal
change, and can be physical, biological, chemical, social, or/and economic. They
may be directly measurable or calculated from measurements of a number of data
sets, or derived from other information (derived indicators) (NRC 2000). In addi-
tion, indicators can and should guide policy and help direct scientic research
(Frankic and Hershner 2001).
International, regional and national regulations related to environmental quality
standards and indicators are well developed for the control of water quality and
chemicals, although further development is required for sediment and ecosystem
quality (e.g., FAO 1999; ICES/NASCO). Environmental monitoring surveys should
use the best available practices and technologies for the environmental monitoring
of impacts and modeling of carrying capacity at farm sites (Frankic 1998). Multiple
criteria analysis must be considered when determining the suitability of a site for
different types of aquaculture. Regions characterized by poor circulation, extensive
accumulations of organic sediment, overwhelming recreational and commercial
endeavors (marinas, race-courses, diving, shing, port activities, etc.) will, gen-
erally, not be effective culture sites. In general, the larger the number of indicators
evaluated, the more comprehensive the assessment of aquaculture development
potential will be. The assessment process has to include:
Environmental assessment and EIA.
Social and cultural heritage assessment.
Economic development assessment.
Land use/land cover acquire satellite images to identify each crop type, which
relates to better information on pesticide pollution and negative impacts of land based
activities; especially in the areas within 1 km of water (Kapetsky et al. 1987).
Use conict assessment and analysis, taking into account current and future
regional and local development plans (Frankic 1998).
Many of the difculties that aquaculture activities face today with regard to impact
on wildlife, can be avoided through a proactive stance. This includes opening
communication channels with anti-aquaculture activists; continuing research into
rectifying the negative impacts of aquaculture on other wildlife; building en-
vironmental awareness addressing positive value of sustainable aquaculture and the
numerous ways in which it can benet social communities as well as natural
wildlife. Although, the level of uncertainty regarding certain issues remains sub-
stantial (GMOs, transgenics, etc), todays knowledge and available technology
generally provide an adequate basis for action to remedy present situation
(GESAMP 2001; EC 2002; FAO 2002).
Often, comprehensive policies and associated legal frameworks have been
overlooked because development has been seen mainly in technical terms and
support has been largely focused on technical aspects of production. Also, policy-
makers have often treated aquaculture in isolation from other sectors and other
uses, thus ignoring important linkages and integrated system approach. The need to
incorporate political, economic, social, environmental and legal aspects has been
neglected, usually with negative consequences for this particular use. The recent
emergence of industrial aquaculture and growing competition for resources has
focused attention on the need for policy measures and regulatory frameworks (FAO
1998a,b; Cicin-Sain 2000; EC 2002).
It is essential for appropriate operational conditions to be established at all levels
(local, national, regional, and international) to make development of aquaculture in
a sustainable and environmentally sound manner attractive to farmers, shers, local
communities and other entrepreneurs and stakehoders. Often, the publics lack of
interest in the issue leads to misconceptions and misinformation that later need to
be readdressed by a government agency and industry. In order to develop consensus
in an area like aquaculture that requires access to unbiased scientic knowledge, it
is critical that all the stakeholders have condence in their background information.
Therefore, a framework of common policy elements required for effective aqua-
culture management includes (based on GESAMP 2001):
.Cross-sectoral and holistic management.
.Rational, equitable and sustainable allocation of resources (includes siting suit-
ability areas for different types of aquaculture).
.Clear commitment by both government and public.
.Regional and global international cooperation.
The health and sustainable use of coastal and ocean products are of critical im-
portance given their role in food production, economic activity, genetic biodiversity
and recreation. In creating a sustainable aquaculture, it is essential to strike a
balance between the need for aquaculture development and the need for natural
resources conservation. In this context it is necessary to recognize and deal with the
increasing competition for resources (use conicts). The diminishing role of the
public sector as a promoter of development and the globalization of markets must
also be taken into consideration. However, free trade and globalization ignores the
fact that we cannot trade ecosystems and community services (Hawken et al. 2000).
Therefore, inevitable process of globalization might become more sustainable if the
local level development becomes more self-sustainable, considering the capacities
of natural resources that are necessary for a long-term sustainable environmental,
social and economic development.
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... The globalization of the commerce and the advantageous economics of large-scale intensive farming have helped to dramatically increase the production of species like salmon, shrimp, and catfish. Globally, aquaculture is expanding, and the idea of sustainable aquaculture is becoming more widely understood to include both spatial and temporal aspects of environmental, economic, and social characteristics [1]. ...
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Histological investigation and β-carotene analysis of different egg stages of anomuran crab, Emerita asiatica was studied. This investigation characterized the morphological and histological features of the ovaries; eggs and also resulted in the identification of the following structures such as Previtellogenic Oocyte, Vitellogenic Oocytes, Atretic Oocyte, matured Oocyte and its associated structures which are quiet common structures that are found in almost every Sand Crab. This study can be further used in studying the reproductive biology of this Sand Crab (Emerita asiatica). It can also be used in determining the structural and morphological changes that can happen in gonads due to the action of various microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses and fungi by artificial infections. The observation described in this study will serve as a reference for future research aimed at studies based on environmental factors, temperature, climatic conditions, and feeding that might have an effect on this species. The conversion of β-carotene into vitamin A (retinol), for clear eyesight and healthy eyes, a robust immune system, and healthy skin and mucous membranes, we require vitamin A. Large amounts of vitamin A can be hazardous, but our bodies only make as much of the vitamin from β-carotene as is required. The sand crab serves as a different source of β-carotene than vitamin A, even though E. asiatica is not widely used. Though E. asiatica is not a commercially viable crab, it plays a vital role in the environment to maintain a stable marine ecosystem. Several steps and preventive measures should be taken to conserve these members of the marine food chain to have a stable ecosystem and also to protect this species from extinction. Further, this study can potentially benefit as baseline information for the future research on the species.
... By the end of the decade, researchers and other voices, such as NGOs, were raising concerns for the industry's social and environmental impacts, questioning the efficacy of the responsibility discourse. One of the criticisms was that the sector had focused on 'development and research' rather than 'research and development', resulting in adverse environmental outcomes in many cases, the antithesis of the precautionary principle (Frankic and Hershner 2003). Certainly, technological advancements in the industry have been widely beneficial for particular economic and environmental dimensions of the activity. ...
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How sustainable is salmon aquaculture? The criteria for responding to this question are set by different organisations, since the concept of sustainable aquaculture is a social construction and there are no agreed criteria for establishing this sustainability condition and its evolution. Using an historical political ecology perspective, this paper unravels the evolution of this social construction over the past 50 years in order to establish how sustainability, responsibility, and sustainable development have been (re)constructed over time in response to changing demands. These constructions are traced through scientific publications, business reports, international organisation literature, and in terms of regulatory and consumer pressures. The documents provide evidence of the ways in which the sector evolved a particular conception of sustainability alongside the emerging global agenda set in motion by the Stockholm Conference of 1972, precisely at a time when the collapse of many capture fisheries became evident and aquaculture was presented as a more sustainable alternative. The conclusions point to the importance, for the sector, of restricting the sustainability concept to a narrow definition of business responsibility based on eco-efficiency, bio-security, and innovation, and separating this responsibility from the broader-based concept of sustainable development promoted by most UN agencies, governments, and NGOs.
... While ecosystems are naturally resilient and can absorb, adapt and recycle a range of inputs, this resilience is undermined by cumulative impacts that potentially result in significant and irreversible damage (Frankic and Hershner, 2003). Furthermore, there are concerns about how aquaculture affects other coastal activities such as fisheries and tourism. ...
Technical Report
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Historically the management of our ocean has been fragmented by natural, legal and administrative boundaries. Land-based and ocean-based activities have been governed independently creating a disconnect between where impacts are experienced and where they originate. It is widely recognised that land-based human activities significantly impact the marine environment. For instance, estimates suggest that 80 per cent of marine pollution originates on land. Still, there are very few, if any, truly effective governance mechanisms that take account of land-ocean interactions. Since 2007 the International Resource Panel has provided independent, authoritative and policy-relevant scientific assessments on the status, trends and future state of natural resources. In this report, our focus is on coastal resources, specifically how land-based human activities affect the quality and availability of coastal and marine resources. This report identifies the numerous pathways through which land-based activities generate impacts on coastal resources, acknowledging that they can differ, depending on the location, type, condition and resilience of the local ecosystems. It also identifies implications for the sustainable blue economy of changes to the coastal resource base caused by land-based activities. This is further explored in detailed assessments of shrimp aquaculture and coastal mining. Based on its scientific findings, the report calls for vastly improved governance approaches to reduce the negative impacts of land-based activities on coastal resources as well as supporting the transition to a sustainable blue economy. We have a significant opportunity and responsibility to reverse human impacts on our shared ocean
... Sustainability reflects the ability of a society, ecosystem, or any ongoing system of this type to continue to function in the future without declining through depletion or overuse of key resources on which the system depends. The concept of sustainability is simple and important, but it is difficult to translate into specific standards or criteria (Frankic and Hershner, 2003;Troell et al., 2009;Belton, 2020). ...
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Over the last few decades, aquaculture has undergone a dramatic expansion in production, becoming a key source of food for people in many countries. Indeed, aquaculture has become extremely important for food security. However, the rapid expansion has led to many concerns, such as the effects of water shortages, pollution, disease and the depletion of natural fish stocks used as protein and fat sources for aquaculture diets. Against this backdrop, there has been a growing awareness of the need for sustainability to ensure the long-term future of aquaculture. Thus, there have been tremendous efforts made to incorporate the latest procedures to ensure sustainability. For example, the industry has not been slow to address the benefits of polyculture, offshore rather than coastal sites for mariculture, the use of aquaponics and land-based recirculation systems, and improved disease management, including mitigation against the adverse effects of pollution, such as the use of biofloc technology. The therapeutic approach to disease control has moved towards prophylaxis, notably immunoprophylaxis and the use of probiotics and phytobiotics. Unfortunately, there are challenges resulting from the effects of environmental change, i.e. global warming. Some solutions have been found by use of new technologies, including nanotechnology. All these aspects are considered in this review.
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This study reviews the implementation of policies regarding coastal management in Pariaman City. Coastal regions have huge potential to be developed and maintained through the utilization of coastal resources and the use of functional regions in a planned, rational, responsible, harmonious and balanced manner. A descriptive qualitative approach was used for this study, focusing on coastal management policies and the impact of the implementation of those policies. The results of this review refer to the Regional Spatial Planning Regulation (RTRW) 2010-2030 for Pariaman City. With the implementation of the strategy for the development of coastal management in a sustainable manner listed in the RTRW 2010-2030 for Pariaman City, there are several positive impacts, including from an economic perspective, namely controlling the mangrove forest area. From a social perspective, there are three positive impacts, namely 1) increasing the spirit of cooperation/togetherness between communities; 2) the emergence of new mangrove farmer groups; and, 3) stimulating the growing sense of community participation in the activities carried out by the government. From an environmental perspective, there are three positive impacts as well, namely 1) a wider area for mangroves, which increased from 29 ha to 31 ha; 2) the planting of mangroves that is carried out has a sustainable impact in the long term; and, 3) prevent abrasion, and dampen waves.
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As the number of inhabitants in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) increases, demand for animal-source proteins outstrips the current supply. Aquaculture is promoted to sustain livelihood and for improved food security. However, the production in SSA is still low at less than 1% of the total global production. Poor water quality is cited to be one of the factors limiting the growth of the aquaculture sector and is attributed to limited familiarity with standard aquaculture practices. Thus, a knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAPs) survey was carried out among fish farmers in five districts of the Rwenzori region. Our results showed that 81% and 80% of them had poor knowledge and practices concerning water quality in aquaculture, respectively. Seventy percent did not know that fish farming caused pollution, while 68% believed that there was no need to treat fish farm effluents. Only 45% showed good attitudes towards water quality management. Fish farmers that fed fish with only complete pellets and those that combined them with locally available products (LAP) were 8 and 5 times more likely to possess more knowledge (p < 0.01) on water quality as compared to others that used only LAP. Slight improvements in attitudes and practices for every unit increment in knowledge were observed (p < 0.05). This limited familiarity with water quality management could severely impede the growth of aquaculture, as well as the sustainable utilization of available water resources. Therefore, there is a need for more training and improvement of extension services among fish farming communities.
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Taking “blue granary” as the research object, this study focuses on the mechanism and evolution of coupling coordination relationship between green transformation and the quality of economic development, to explore the path of sustainable development. Firstly, the theoretical framework of coupling relationship between green transformation and the quality of development is constructed. Secondly, an evaluation index system is established to measure green transformation and the quality of economic development. Thirdly, the entropy approach and coupled coordination degree model are used to calculate the coordination of green transformation and the quality of economic development in different provinces in China from 2009 to 2018. The results show that: (1) Green transformation affects the quality of economic development through resource effect, social effect, and technological effect; the quality of economic development affects green transformation through new growth momentum effect, income distribution effect, scale effect, and opening up effect. (2) Both the quality of economic development and the level of green transformation continue to improve, but the growth rate of green transformation is relatively slow. (3) The overall coupled coordination relationship improves from a barely balanced stage to a favorably balanced stage, but it has not reached the ideal state of superiorly balanced, and there is significant regional heterogeneity. It will help to clarify the difference in coordinated development levels in different regions and provide a reference value for the precise implementation of eco-economic coordinated development.
Research Proposal
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Dear Colleagues, The main prerequisite for successful aquaculture production is maintaining the optimal quality of the breeding environment, i.e., the water in which aquaculture production is carried out. The basic parameters of water quality in aquaculture are temperature, amount of dissolved oxygen and carbon dioxide, pH value, alkalinity, amount of dissolved ammonia and nitrate, and microbiological properties. Maintaining these parameters at an optimal level, which differs depending on the cultivated species, requires specific methods in different cultivation systems. The primary aim of this Special Issue is to collect and publish papers that are focused on the effects of water quality on aquaculture production and/or on the maintanance of water quality parameters at an optimal level in different aquaculture systems. We are open to contributions from a wide range of fields, from the impact of water quality on the production itself, to the optimization of cultivation technologies, water quality and safety in integrated aquaculture systems and the mitigation and reuse of wastewater in aquaculture production.
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2 ‫اﺳﺪي‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻲ‬ ، 3 ‫و‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﺰاده‬ ‫ﻧﺎدر‬ 4 1 ، ‫روﺳﺘﺎﻳﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺳﻌﻪ‬ ‫ارﺷﺪ‬ ‫ﻛﺎرﺷﻨﺎس‬ ‫ﻛﺸﺎورزي،‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺳﻌﻪ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﮔﺮوه‬ ‫ﺗﻬﺮا‬ ‫داﻧﺸﮕﺎه‬ ‫ﻛﺸﺎورزي‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺳﻌﻪ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻗﺘﺼﺎد‬ ‫داﻧﺸﻜﺪه‬ ‫ن‬ 2 ، 3 ، ‫اﺳﺘﺎدان‬ ‫ﻛﺸﺎورزي،‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺳﻌﻪ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﮔﺮوه‬ ‫ﺗﻬﺮان‬ ‫داﺷﮕﺎه‬ ‫ﻛﺸﺎورزي‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺳﻌﻪ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻗﺘﺼﺎد‬ ‫داﻧﺸﻜﺪه‬ 4 ‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣ‬ ‫ارﺷﺪ‬ ‫ﻛﺎرﺷﻨﺎس‬ ، ‫ﺗﻌ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﻛﺰي‬ ‫ﺳﺎزﻣﺎن‬ ‫روﺳﺘﺎﻳﻲ،‬ ‫رﻳﺰي‬ ‫ﻪ‬ ‫اﻳﺮان‬ ‫روﺳﺘﺎﻳﻲ‬ ‫ﺎون‬ ‫درﻳﺎﻓﺖ:‬ ‫)ﺗﺎرﻳﺦ‬ 29 / 9 / 91-‫ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺐ:‬ ‫ﺗﺎرﻳﺦ‬ 4 / 5 / 94 (‫ﭼﻜﻴﺪه‬ ‫ﻣﻄﺎﻟﻌﻪ‬ ‫از‬ ‫ﻫﺪف‬ ‫ﺣﺎﺿﺮ،‬ ‫ﺑﺮرﺳﻲ‬ ‫دﻻﻳﻞ‬ ‫ﭘﺮو‬ ‫ﮔﺮاﻳﺶ‬ ‫رش‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺎن‬ ‫ﺳﺮدآﺑﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﻫﻴﺎن‬ ‫دﻫﻨﺪﮔﺎن‬ ‫ﺑﻮد‬ ‫ﻣﺎﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﭘﺮورش‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺨﺘﻴﺎري‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﭼﻬﺎرﻣﺤﺎل‬ ‫ﻣﻄﺎﻟﻌﻪ‬ ‫اﻳﻦ‬. ‫ا‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﭘﻴﻤﺎﻳﺸﻲ‬ ‫روش‬ ‫از‬ ‫ﺳﺘﻔﺎده‬ ‫ﺻ‬ ‫ﻮرت‬ ‫ﮔﺮﻓﺖ‬. ‫ﺷﺎﻣﻞ‬ ‫ﭘﮋوﻫﺶ‬ ‫آﻣﺎري‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻣﻌﻪ‬ 263 ‫اﺳﺘﻔﺎده‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﺣﺠﻢ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺑﻮد‬ ‫ﻣﺎﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﭘﺮورش‬ ‫واﺣﺪ‬ ‫از‬ ‫ﻛﻮﻛﺮان‬ ‫ﻓﺮﻣﻮل‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﺮاﺑﺮ‬ ، 119 ‫ﺑﺮآو‬ ‫واﺣﺪ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﮔﺮدﻳﺪ‬ ‫رد‬ ‫دو‬ ‫در‬ ‫ﮔﻴﺮي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺣﻠﻪ‬ ‫از‬ ‫ﺳﺘﻔﺎده‬ ‫ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ‬ ‫روش‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻨﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫اﻧﺘﺴﺎﺑﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺼﺎدﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﮔﻴﺮي‬ ‫ﺣﺠﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﺷﺪ‬ ‫اﻧﺠﺎم‬. ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫اﺑﺘﺪا‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ‬ ‫ﺑﺪﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺟﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺷﻬﺮﺳﺘﺎن‬ ‫از‬ ‫ﻛﺪام‬ ‫ﻫﺮ‬ ‫ﺳﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﺷﻬﺮﺳﺘﺎن،‬ ‫ﻫﺮ‬ ‫در‬ ‫ﻣﺎﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﭘﺮورش‬ ‫ﻣﺰارع‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺪاد‬ ‫ﻣﺸ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ‬ ‫در‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺨﺺ‬ ‫ﮔﺮدﻳﺪ‬. ‫ﺳﭙﺲ‬ ، ‫ﭘﺮورش‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻦ‬ ‫از‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺷﻬﺮﺳﺘﺎن‬ ‫ﻫﺮ‬ ‫دﻫﻨﺪﮔﺎن‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﺼﺎدﻓﻲ‬ ً ‫ﻛﺎﻣﻼ‬ ‫ﺻﻮرت‬ ‫ﻧﺘﺨ‬ ‫ﺎب‬ ‫ﮔﺮدﻳﺪ.‬ ‫ﺟﻤﻊ‬ ‫اﺑﺰار‬ ‫داده‬ ‫آوري‬ ‫اﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﻮده‬ ‫ﭘﺮﺳﺸﻨﺎﻣﻪ‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﮔﺮاﻳﺶ‬ ‫دﻻﻳﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﻴﺎس‬ ‫ﭘﺎﻳﺎﻳﻲ‬ ‫ﭘﺮورش‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﺮوﻧﺒﺎخ‬ ‫آﻟﻔﺎي‬ ‫از‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻔﺎده‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﻫﻲ‬ 73 / 0 ‫ﺑﺮآورد‬ ‫ﮔﺮدﻳﺪ.‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺟﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﭘﺮﺳﺸﻨﺎﻣﻪ‬ ‫رواﻳﻲ‬ ‫ﺑ‬ ‫اﺳﺎﺗﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺮ‬ ‫ﻪ‬ ‫داده‬ ‫وﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﺠﺰﻳﻪ‬ ‫ﮔﺮﻓﺖ.‬ ‫ﻗﺮار‬ ‫ﺗﺄﻳﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻮرد‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﭘﺮورش‬ ‫ﻛﺎرﺷﻨﺎﺳﺎن‬ ‫و‬ ‫راﻫﻨﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺑ‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﺮم‬ ‫ﻛﻤﻚ‬ ‫اﻓﺰار‬ Winspss16 ‫اﻧ‬ ‫اوﻟﻮﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﺷﺪ.‬ ‫ﺠﺎم‬ ‫ﭘﺮورش‬ ‫ﮔﺮاﻳﺶ‬ ‫دﻻﻳﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﻨﺪي‬ ‫ﭘ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫دﻫﻨﺪﮔﺎن‬ ‫ﺮورش‬ ‫ﻣﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫داد‬ ‫ﻧﺸﺎن‬ ‫ﻣﺎﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫دﻟﻴﻞ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﻮده‬ ‫ﺷﺨﺼﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﭘﺮورش‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﮔﺮاﻳﺶ‬ ‫دوره‬ ‫ﺷﻨﺎﺳﺎﻳﻲ‬ ‫آﺧﺮ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻣﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﻮان‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﺮوﻳﺠﻲ‬ ‫ﺧﺪﻣﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﺮاﻛﺰ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺳﻂ‬ ‫ﺷﺪه‬ ‫ﺑﺮﮔﺰار‬ ‫آﻣﻮزﺷﻲ‬ ‫ﻫﺎي‬ ‫ﻧﺘﺎﻳ‬ ‫اﺳﺎس‬ ‫ﺑﺮ‬ ‫ﮔﺮدﻳﺪ.‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻣﻠﻲ،‬ ‫ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﺞ‬ ‫دﻻﻳﻞ‬ ‫در‬ ‫ﻣﺎﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﭘﺮورش‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﮔﺮاﻳﺶ‬ 4 ‫ﻃﺒﻘﻪ‬ ‫دﺳﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺑ‬ ‫ﻨﺪي‬ ‫ﻣﺠﻤﻮع‬ ‫در‬ ‫ﻋﻮاﻣﻞ‬ ‫اﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﮔﺮدﻳﺪ‬ 77 / 70 ‫ﺗﺒﻴﻴﻦ‬ ‫را‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫وارﻳﺎﻧﺲ‬ ‫از‬ ‫درﺻﺪ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﻮد‬ ‫اﺳ‬ ‫ﻋﻮاﻣﻞ‬. ‫ﺘﺨﺮاج‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻣﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ‬ ‫از‬ ‫ﺷﺪه‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺎرت‬ ‫اﻫﻤﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ‬ ‫ﺑﻮد‬ ‫ﻋ‬ ‫از:‬ ‫ﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﺮدي‬ ‫ﻣﻞ‬-‫ﻋﺎﻣﻞ‬ ‫اﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ،‬ ‫ﻃ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻌﻲ،‬ ‫آﻣﻮزﺷﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻣﻞ‬ ‫اﻗﺘﺼﺎدي،‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻣﻞ‬-‫ﺗﺮوﻳ‬ ‫ﺠﻲ.‬ ‫واژه‬ ‫ﻫﺎي‬ ‫ﻛﻠﻴﺪي‬ : ‫ﭘﺮورش‬ ‫ﮔﺮاﻳﺶ،‬ ‫ﻣﺎﻫﻲ،‬ ‫ﭘﺮورش‬ ‫ﺑﺨﺘﻴﺎري‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﭼﻬﺎرﻣﺤﺎل‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺎن‬ ‫دﻫﻨﺪﮔﺎن،‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺪﻣﻪ‬ ‫اراﺿﻲ‬ ‫ﺳﻄﺢ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻫﺶ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺎن‬ ‫ﺟﻤﻌﻴﺖ‬ ‫اﻓﺰاﻳﺶ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﺸﺎورزي‬ ‫اراﺿﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺒﺪﻳﻞ‬ ‫ﺟﻤﻠﻪ‬ ‫از‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ‬ ‫دﻻﻳﻞ‬ ‫اﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺷﺪه‬ ‫ﺳﺒﺐ‬ ‫ﺻﻨﻌﺘﻲ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻣﺴﻜﻮﻧﻲ‬ ‫اراﺿﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﺸﺎورزي‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫اﻓﺰاﻳﺶ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫رو‬ ‫ﺟﻤﻌﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺎز‬ ‫ﻣﻮرد‬ ‫ﻏﺬاي‬ ‫ﺗﺄﻣﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﺎ‬ ‫رو‬ ‫ﺟﺪي‬ ‫ﻣﺸﻜﻼت‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﮔﺮدد‬ ‫رو‬ (Ansari, 2010) ‫ﻃﺮف‬ ‫از‬ .
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Global production of farmed fish and shellfish has more than doubled in the past 15 years. Many people believe that such growth relieves pressure on ocean fisheries, but the opposite is true for some types of aquaculture. Farming carnivorous species requires large inputs of wild fish for feed. Some aquaculture systems also reduce wild fish supplies through habitat modification, wild seedstock collection and other ecological impacts. On balance, global aquaculture production still adds to world fish supplies; however, if the growing aquaculture industry is to sustain its contribution to world fish supplies, it must reduce wild fish inputs in feed and adopt more ecologically sound management practices.
This book contains 17 chapters. Topics covered are: management of marine aquaculture: the sustainability challenge; marine mammals and aquaculture: conflicts and potential resolutions; recreational fishing and aquaculture: throwing a line into the pond; aquaculture: opportunity of threat to traditional capture fishermen; advances in marine stock enhancement: shifting emphasis to theory and accountability; aquatic polyculture and balanced ecosystem management: new paradigms for seafood production; the role of marine aquaculture facilities as habitats and ecosystems; mangroves and coastal aquaculture; environmental effects associated with marine netpen waste with emphasis on salmon farming in the Pacific Northwest; issues associated with non-indigenous species in marine aquaculture; genetic changes in marine aquaculture species and the potential for impacts on natural populations; what role does genetics play in responsible aquaculture; understanding the interaction of extractive and fed aquaculture using ecosystem modelling; shrimp farm effluents; fish meal: historical uses, production trends and future outlook for sustainable supplies; the use of wild-caught juveniles in coastal aquaculture and its application to coral reef fishes; contending with criticism: sensible responses in an age of advocacy.
This book contains 17 chapters. Topics covered are: management of marine aquaculture: the sustainability challenge; marine mammals and aquaculture: conflicts and potential resolutions; recreational fishing and aquaculture: throwing a line into the pond; aquaculture: opportunity of threat to traditional capture fishermen; advances in marine stock enhancement: shifting emphasis to theory and accountability; aquatic polyculture and balanced ecosystem management: new paradigms for seafood production; the role of marine aquaculture facilities as habitats and ecosystems; mangroves and coastal aquaculture; environmental effects associated with marine netpen waste with emphasis on salmon farming in the Pacific Northwest; issues associated with non-indigenous species in marine aquaculture; genetic changes in marine aquaculture species and the potential for impacts on natural populations; what role does genetics play in responsible aquaculture; understanding the interaction of extractive and fed aquaculture using ecosystem modelling; shrimp farm effluents; fish meal: historical uses, production trends and future outlook for sustainable supplies; the use of wild-caught juveniles in coastal aquaculture and its application to coral reef fishes; contending with criticism: sensible responses in an age of advocacy.
Fisheries and the economic and social benefits they offer society are under siege around the globe. Most of the world's marine fish stocks and primary fishing grounds are in decline. Nearly one-third of all fish are thrown back to sea dead or dying each year because of wasteful fishing practices. The food security of more than 1 billion people who rely on fish for much of their anomal protein is also at risk because one of every three fish captured goes to feed animals and other uses. The roots of the crisis run deep. They include the open acess nature of fishing - which draws people; into the industry well after profits and catches begin falling; widespread technological change and fleet growth; and national development policies that promote expansion at the expense of the resource. The industry barely stays afloat, even as billions of dollars in subsidies are poured into it. The author identifies several steps to reverse the precipitous declines in fish stocks while protecting food supplies and jobs. Impelemented sustainability, aquaculture can continue to meet growing demand. Community-based management, marine protected areas, and more selective fishing gear can rehabilitate fish populations and habitats. Efforts to restore market discipline by limiting access and by charging what fish actually cost, combined with consumer education and eco-labelling programs, can also contribute to rescuing today's collapsing fisheries.