A Simplified, Colorimetric Micromethod for Xylose in Serum or Urine, With Phloroglucinol
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- SourceAvailable from: Adam J Moeser
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- "The collected pig serum (20 μL) was subjected to a modified micro method [27,28] first described by Eberts et al.  for determination of plasma D-xylose. To each 20 μL plasma sample, 2 mL of phloroglucinol (Sigma Chemical Co., Saint Louis, MO 63178–9916) color reagent was added and heated for 4 min at 100°C. "
ABSTRACT: Creep feeding is used to stimulate piglet post-weaning feed consumption. L-Glutamine (GLN) is an important source of fuel for intestinal epithelial cells. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of creep feeding and adding GLN or AminoGut (AG; containing glutamine + glutamate) to pre- and post-weaning diets on pig performance and intestinal health. Litters (N = 120) were allotted to four treatments during 14--21 d of lactation: 1) No creep feed (NC, n = 45); 2) creep fed control diet (CFCD, n = 45); 3) creep fed 1% GLN (CFGLN, n = 15); 4) creep fed .88% AG (CFAG, n = 15). After weaning, the NC and CFCD groups were sub-divided into three groups (n = 15 each), receiving either a control nursery diet (NC-CD, CFCD-CD) or a diet supplemented with either GLN (NC-GLN, CFCD-GLN) or with AG (NC-AG, CFCD-AG). Litters that were creep fed with diets containing GLN or AG also were supplemented with those amino acids in the nursery diets (CFGLN-GLN, CFAG-AG). Glutamine was added at 1% in all three post-weaning diet phases and AG was added at .88% in phase 1 and 2 and at .66% in phase 3. Feed conversion (feed/gain) showed means among treatment means close to significance (P = 0.056) and Tukey's test for pairwise mean comparisons showed that Pigs in the CFGLN-GLN group had the best feed conversion (feed/gain) in the first three-week period post-weaning, exceeding (P = 0.044) controls (CFCD-CD) by 34%. The NC-AG group had (P = 0.02) the greatest feed intake in the last three weeks of the study, exceeding controls (CFCD-CD) by 12%. CFGLN-GLN, CFCD-GLN and sow reared (SR) pigs had the greatest (P = 0.049) villi height exceeding the CFCD-AG group by 18%, 20% and 19% respectively. The CFAG-AG group had the deepest (P = 0.001) crypts among all treatments. CFGLN-GLN, CFCD-GLN and SR groups had the greatest (P = 0.001) number of cells proliferating (PCNA) exceeding those in the NC-CD group by 43%, 54% and 63% respectively. Sow reared pigs showed the greatest (P = 0.001) intestinal absorption capacity for xylose and mannitol. Supplementation of creep feed and nursery diets with GLN and/or AminoGut in the first three weeks improved feed conversion possibly due to improved intestinal health.
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- "The birds with longer villi likely had increased nutrient absorption that could subsequently be linked to a lower feed intake. Study of gut absorption potential of the birds through transfer of an indicator sugar, such as d-xylose, from the upper small-intestinal tract to the blood (Eberts et al., 1979; Doerfler et al., 2000) could provide a deeper understanding to the examination of gut condition and specific rates of nutrient transfer in future studies. "
ABSTRACT: The effect of metabolic efficiency and associated gut characteristics of laying hens on the variability of transfer of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) to the egg was examined in laying hens at 56 wk of age. An empirical energetics model was used to categorize individual hens into energetically efficient or nonefficient treatments based on residual maintenance ME requirement. Birds were then provided a diet containing an extruded flax product as a source of n-3 PUFA for 14 d. Egg traits were determined and yolks collected at 0 d and 14 d for measurement of fatty acid composition and variation in fatty acid levels within hen efficiency class. Gut length and duodenal histomorphometric indices were assessed after the 14-d experimental period. Efficient hens had a 96.01% rate of lay compared with 88.63% in nonefficient hens. After 14 d of feeding, the concentration of n-3 PUFA increased (151.6 vs. 315.8 mg/egg) in the egg yolk whereas n-6 PUFA, saturated fatty acids, and monounsaturated fatty acids were reduced (P < 0.001). Energetic efficiency had no additional effect on these measurements. However, egg yolks from efficient birds had less α-linolenic acid but more docosapentaenoic acid than nonefficient birds, suggesting a greater up-conversion of medium-chain (α-linolenic acid) to long-chain fatty acids (docosapentaenoic acid) in efficient birds. After 14 d, the CV for total n-3 PUFA in egg yolks from efficient hens was lower than that from nonefficient birds (11.1 vs. 21.4), indicating a more uniform level of enrichment. Furthermore, efficient hens had longer duodenal villi (P = 0.02), resulting in a greater absorptive villi surface area (0.13 mm(2)/villi) than in nonefficient birds (0.10 mm(2)/villi; P = 0.01). Increased uniformity of n-3 PUFA enrichment of table eggs could be possible through focus on metabolic efficiency and gut absorptive condition in laying hens.
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- "Functional regeneration of the irradiated intestines were determined by measuring intestinal absorption by a xylose uptake assay . To quantify intestinal absorption as a physiological indicator of mucosal barrier integrity in different treatment group (n = 5/group) a xylose uptake assay was performed, at various time points (1, 3.5, 7 and 10 days) after irradiation. "
ABSTRACT: Radiation-induced gastrointestinal syndrome (RIGS) is due to the clonogenic loss of crypt cells and villi depopulation, resulting in disruption of mucosal barrier, bacterial invasion, inflammation and sepsis. Intestinal macrophages could recognize invading bacterial DNA via TLR9 receptors and transmit regenerative signals to the neighboring crypt. We therefore investigated whether systemic administration of designer TLR9 agonist could ameliorate RIGS by activating TLR9. Male C57Bl6 mice were distributed in four experimental cohorts, whole body irradiation (WBI) (8.4-10.4 Gy), TLR9 agonist (1 mg/kg s.c.), 1 h pre- or post-WBI and TLR9 agonist+WBI+iMyd88 (pretreatment with inhibitory peptide against Myd88). Animals were observed for survival and intestine was harvested for histological analysis. BALB/c mice with CT26 colon tumors in abdominal wall were irradiated with 14 Gy single dose of whole abdominal irradiation (AIR) for tumor growth study. Mice receiving pre-WBI TLR9 agonist demonstrated improvement of survival after 10.4 Gy (p<0.03), 9.4 Gy (p<0.008) and 8.4 Gy (p<0.002) of WBI, compared to untreated or iMyd88-treated controls. Post-WBI TLR9 agonist mitigates up to 8.4 Gy WBI (p<0.01). Histological analysis and xylose absorption test demonstrated significant structural and functional restitution of the intestine in WBI+TLR9 agonist cohorts. Although, AIR reduced tumor growth, all animals died within 12 days from RIGS. TLR9 agonist improved the survival of mice beyond 28 days post-AIR (p<0.008) with significant reduction of tumor growth (p<0.0001). TLR9 agonist treatment could serve both as a prophylactic or mitigating agent against acute radiation syndrome and also as an adjuvant therapy to increase the therapeutic ratio of abdominal Radiation Therapy for Gastro Intestinal malignancies.
Questions & Answers about this publication
- How do I measure xylose concentration without using HPLC?
is there any method to quantify the concentration of xylose (xylose only, not in mixture form) other than using HPLC. for example, detection by using any assay, o uv-vis maybe?
exist an ancient colorimetric method in the link, used in human clinical chemistryFollowing