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A Strategy Model of Multilingual Learning

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Abstract

In this chapter, a collection of characteristic features of multilingual language processing, based on empirical studies, will be presented first. Afterwards there will be a short overview of some well-known models, regarding their capacities of representing these features. Finally, a new model of language production and comprehension, adjusted specifically to the conditions of third language acquisition, will be proposed.

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... Actualmente la investigación en esta área lo reconoce como "un fenómeno cognitivo de gran complejidad que se ve afectado por las percepciones, concepciones y asociaciones mentales de los usuarios de la lengua y elecciones individuales" (Cita original "a highly complex cognitive phenomenon that is often affected by language users´ perceptions, conceptualizations, mental associations, and individual choices", Jarvis y Pavlenko, 2007, p. 13). A esta consideración, sin duda, ha contribuido también la reciente línea de investigación en Adquisición de terceras lenguas o lenguas adicionales o Multilingüismo (ATL), en la que dicho fenómeno resulta objeto principal de estudio en numerosos trabajos (Ringbom, 1987(Ringbom, , 2001Cenoz, 2001;Dewaele, 1998Dewaele, / 2001Odlin y Jarvis, 2004;De Angelis, 2005;Singleton, 1994Singleton, / 2006Williams y Hammarberg, 1998;Hammarberg, 2001;Ecke, 2001;De Boot, 2004;Navés, Miralpeix y Celaya, 2005;Tremblay, 2006;Lindqvist, 2006;Müller, 2001Müller, , 2003. ...
... Por otra parte, las implicaciones de esas investigaciones han llevado a proponer diversos modelos explicativos sobre cómo tiene lugar la producción oral en una tercera lengua y, por ende, cómo podrían explicarse los casos de aparición de transferencias desde lenguas ya conocidas (Grosjean, 2001;Hall y Ecke, 2003;Müller, 2001Müller, , 2003Herdina y Jessner, 2000. ...
Article
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Este estudio se centra en el fenómeno de la influencia interlingüística y su efecto en la eficacia comunicativa durante el proceso de adquisición de español como L3 en un contexto internacional y multilingüe. Se basa en el análisis de errores léxicos de las producciones orales de cuatro aprendices adultos de español como L3, con diferentes L1, pero con L2 comunes. Los resultados evidencian errores léxicos por influencia de las lenguas previamente adquiridas, pero no muestran diferencias entre tipos de error con relación a sus distintas LM/L1. Sí reflejan, en cambio, diferencias en función del distinto nivel de dominio de la lengua objeto (español). Asimismo, se observa que, a pesar de los errores detectados en sus interlenguas, ello no parece representar un serio problema desde el punto de vista de la eficacia comunicativa. De acuerdo con lo anterior, estos datos indicarían la importancia de la influencia interlingüística como factor de estrategia comunicativa.
... (1) reflecting the naturalistic language production in a cross-cultural translation setting (Pavlenko 2003), (2) involving visual elicitation (Englert et al. 2006), and (3) simulating a think-aloud narrative protocol (cf. De Bot 2003;Dong et al. 2005;Müller-Lancé 2003). Here is the rationale for designing this task. ...
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The purpose of this study is to draw on the conceptual blending hypothesis from the socio-cognitive approach to investigate the conceptually equivalent translation written in L2—English—of bilingual students via two tasks of translating and defining individual words and translating texts from L1 to L2. Next, the study demonstrates how translation abilities that vary amongst groups can affect students’ lexical density, lexical diversity, lexical sophistication, and lexical idiosyncrasies in translated text. The translating process in bilinguals could be interpreted via the lens of the conceptual blending hypothesis and dueling contexts framework to demonstrate that bi/multilingual students do not differ from monolingual ones pertaining to cognitive or linguistic abilities. Rather, the distinctive difference between bilingual and monolingual language users is bilingual speakers’ abilities of the third competence of formulating a synergism across word concepts and utilizing a bidirectional translation between two languages. When a word in L2 is acquired, there is a conceptual blending between the new conceptual information, encoded after each time the L2 word is used in an L2 socio-cultural context and the existing socio-cultural conceptual information in L1. The new concept created after the blending is called a synergic concept. If the synergic is not well developed, the language user selects incorrect or inappropriate words in a context, resulting in lexical idiosyncrasies. Data gathered from 30 English–Chinese bilingual university students in a transnational program in sociology were collected and compared against 15 monolingual American students. The preliminary findings are as follows: (1) regardless of the location of where the English (L2) socio-cultural meaning conceptualization mainly takes place (in China or the U.S.A.), English–Chinese bilingual language users demonstrated a significant difference in connotative meaning knowledge of noun word concepts and idiomatic concepts, compared with English native speakers; (2) the synergic concepts were detected in all experimental concepts and demonstrated the conceptual blending to a varying degree that affects their translating process and its outcomes: the domineering L1 socio-cultural concept, the well-blended L1 and L2 socio-cultural concept that results in a “third culture”, and the assimilating L2 socio-cultural concept; (3) the synergistic blending of two socio-cultural loads embedded in lexical concepts detected in the bilingual students in the U.S.A. was more robust than those in China, resulting in significantly fewer sophisticated words and lexical idiosyncrasies in their English translated essays. The study sheds new light on understanding the dynamism in bilingualism via translation tasks to indicate bilingual learners’ lexical development. Implications for using translation tasks and analysis of word concepts across languages to support bi/multilingual students in language and academic learning are discussed.
... It accounts a specific area of multi-competence and multilingual lexicon. Research studies have focused on various aspects of multilingual lexicon which deal interconnections between the different lexicons in a multilingual mind, such as: multilingual processing [3]; transfer in multilingual speakers [1]& [10]; and the specific aspects of multilingual learning [13]. ...
Conference Paper
This study examines the organization of multilingual lexicon and monitors the cross-linguistic influence of bilingual speakers in the process of acquiring a third language. It focuses on the code-switching and transfer in oral communication, by comparing two groups of bilingual speakers with different L2 proficiency. Subjects of the study were 115 bilingual students who were learning English as a third language. The students were asked to talk about a text in English and all categories and functions of code-switching during the conversation were analyzed and discussed as related to Hammarberg Model (2001) of code-switching in the multilingual lexicon. The data elicited through this study contains a great deal of evidence for cross-linguistic influence allowing insights into the mechanisms used by bilingual students during the L3 acquisition process.
... .' (Zimmermann, 1992: 306; translations added by the author). The latter are mostly of a general agreeing or disagreeing character or they express doubt which can indicate insecurity about any dimension of lexical competence, awareness of transfer or simplification (see also Müller-Lancé, 2003). ...
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The increase of multilingualism in both natural and formal contexts has provoked a number of studies which have concentrated on providing evidence of multilingual processing and finding out about the differences and similarities between second and third language learning. This paper deals with the use of metalanguage in multilingual students in an introspective study of their problem-solving behaviour in lexical search. The study shows that the multilingual students make use of metalanguage in languages other than the target language during the production process. Furthermore metalanguage was found to have several functions when preceding switches and thus a control function in multilingual processing was identified. A qualitative analysis of the individual use of metalanguage turned out to support the tentative results. From the tendencies found in this study it can be concluded that investigations of metalanguage might form a valuable methodological tool for further research on the roles of, and relationship between, a multilingual’s languages.
... Les travaux en psycholinguistique (par exemple, Cenoz, 2003 ;El Euch, 2002Herdina et Jessner, 2002 ;Herwig, 2001 ;Jessner, 2003 ;Mü ller-Lancé, 2003) et en neurolinguistique (voir Franceschini et al., 2003 ;Kim et al., 1997) nous portent à croire en l'existence d'un système plurilingue hybride qui aurait des connexions multiples et dynamiques entre des ensembles de langues distincts. Le nombre de ces connexions et leurs forces dépend de plusieurs facteurs, tels que la psychotypologie des langues, l'âge et le contexte d'acquisition, la compétence langagière, la fréquence d'utilisation des langues, l'aspect linguistique sur lequel se basent les connexions (phonologie, sémantique, syntaxe, etc.). ...
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Résumé Cet article est dédié à une de nos respectables collègues, Josiane Hamers, qui nous aurait activement accompagnée dans cette dialectique sur le plurilinguisme. Alors que sa distinction entre bilinguisme et bilingualité (Hamers et Blanc, 1995, 2000) est utile dans les domaines de l'acquisition des langues secondes et du bilinguisme, son utilisation de ces termes dans des situations impliquant plus de deux langues est discutable. Cet article décrit certains aspects des dimensions psychologiques de la bilingualité qui font que le plurilinguisme soit différent du bilinguisme. En exposant les différents facteurs impliqués dans une situation multilingue et en proposant une typologie du plurilinguisme, nous mettons en évidence l'importance de voir le plurilinguisme dans une perspective holistique et de voir l'individu plurilingue en tant que système psycholinguistique complexe. Les types de plurilinguisme suggérés visent à dresser le portrait de l'ensemble des facteurs à considérer dans de futures recherches interdisciplinaires sur le plurilinguisme.
... In fact, the different studies in psycholinguistics [e.g 51,52,53,54,55] and in neurolinguistics (see [56,57]) lead us to believe in the existence of a hybrid plurilingual system that would have multiple and dynamic connections between sets of distinct languages. The number of these connections and their strength is function of many factors, such as language distance, age and context of acquisition, language proficiency, frequency of language use, linguistic aspects (phonology, semantic, syntax, etc.). ...
... De Angelis & Selinker, 2001;De Bot, 2004;Dewaele, 1998;Hall & Ecke, 2003). On these grounds it is reasonable to suppose that CLI may originate at the lemma level, strengthening claims from previous studies (Cenoz et al., 2001(Cenoz et al., , 2003Dewaele, 1998;Hammarberg, 2001Hammarberg, , 2009Müller-Lancé, 2003;Wei, 2006). Further support for this argument is the high incidence of transferred OV orders also attested in this study, which were found in clauses where the verb shows L2/L3 blending. ...
Article
This paper reports the findings of a four-year longitudinal study that examined the role of prior linguistic knowledge on the written L3 production of 93 Spanish/Catalan learners. Two research questions guided the study: the first asked whether a background language (L1s Spanish/Catalan, L2 German) would activate in parallel with L3 English during word construction attempts involving verbal forms, and if so, which would be the source language of blending. The second addressed the progressive readjustments of L2 activation and blending in the course of the first 200 hours of instruction. The elicitation technique was a written narrative based on a story telling task. Data were collected first when the learners were on average 9.9 years old (T1), and again at the ages of 10.9 (T2), 11.9 (T3) and 12.9 (T4). The focus of analysis was on word construction attempts that involved verbal forms. The results suggest that a background language, the L2, did indeed activate, especially at early stages of L3 acquisition.
... In inferencing (inferring the meanings of unknown or incompletely known words, cf. Müller-Lancé, 2003), the subjects generally tried to find a relevant interpretation, but their reactions largely depended on their motivation. Some subjects kept their initial interpretations, inventing contexts in which they could be relevant (as the context is not given, recipients may have to look for a context in which a particular assumption will be relevant, Sperber and Wilson, 1986, p. 142), as in Example 1: ...
Article
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The purpose of the present paper is to analyze L2 and L3 production and comprehension from a cognitive-pragmatic point of view, taking into account Relevance Theory (Sperber and Wilson, 1986; Wilson and Sperber, 2006), Mental Models Theory (Johnson-Laird, 1983) and the Graded Salience Hypothesis (Giora, 1997). Special attention is paid to error analysis and to the detection of error sources, especially in the case of errors not attributable to transfer, interference or overgeneralization. The paper is based on three studies involving, first, L2 and L3 production (Study 1), both production and comprehension (Study 2) and L3 comprehension (Study 3). In general, the phenomena observed can be explained by a combination of Relevance Theory, Mental Models Theory and the Graded Salience Hypothesis. In fact, even when transfer is used as a strategy, its use is relevant to the learner, who assumes that it will be relevant to the recipient as well. The results also shed some light on the multilingual mental lexicon and multiple language processing.
... SLA research emphasise the role of awareness, and assume that learners can benefit from cognates only when they realise that the L2 word is similar to a known word (Jarvis and Pavlenko 2008;Jessner 2006;Ringbom 2007). Only then can learners guess that the word is cognate, and infer its meaning (eg Berthele 2011;Müller-Lancé 2003;Vanhove and Berthele 2015). Since lexical inferencing is regarded as a beneficial vocabulary learning strategy, this should help learners acquire the cognate (Wesche and Paribakht 2010). ...
Article
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In this study we explored factors that determine the knowledge of L2 words with orthographic neighbours in L1 (cognates and false cognates). We asked 150 Polish learners of English to translate 105 English non-cognate words, cognates, and false-cognates into Polish, and to assess the confidence of each translation. Confidence ratings allows us to employ a novel analytic procedure which disentangles knowing cognates and false cognates from strategic guessing. Mixed-effects logistic regression models revealed that cognates were known better, whereas false cognates were known worse, relative to non-cognate controls. The advantage of knowing cognates, but not false cognates, was modulated by the degree of similarity to their L1 equivalents. The knowledge of cognates and false cognates was not affected by the frequency of their formal equivalent in L1. Based on these findings we conclude how cross-linguistic formal similarity affects L2 word learnability, proposing a mechanism by which cognates and false cognates are acquired.
... When it comes to typology in genealogical terms, the general finding is that the amount of transfer is considerably higher between two languages that are, as systems, more similar 20 to each other than between two languages that are less similar (e.g., Angelis, 2005;Cenoz et al., 2001;Lindqvist & Bardel, 2014;Müller-Lancé, 2003;Odlin & Jarvis, 2004;Ringbom, 2001Ringbom, , 2007. Bardel and Lindqvist (2007), for example, found their learners to use mainly L2 French and L2 Spanish for transfer, but less so L2 English and L1 Swedish, during production in L3 Italian. ...
... This idea of partial competence in different languages is related to a kind of "functional competence with respect to a specific limited objective" (Coste, 1997: 91, emphasis in the original), and it is consonant with the claim that development and competence in each language of a multilingual are uneven (e .g . Cenoz, 2001;Müller-Lancé, 2003). Moreover, proficiency in at least one language is greater in comparison with the other languages, and each language has a "different profile of competences" (Coste, 1997: 90) . ...
Article
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With the rise of multilingualism, studies have proliferated that investigate the interaction of the different languages. The study presented here sets out to examine the role that proficiency plays on the occurrence of a specific interaction, namely interlanguage transfer from a prior non–native language (L2 German) upon another non–native language (L3 English) at the level of syntax in Spanish/ Catalan bilinguals. Data were collected from 80 learners of L3 English who were at different proficiency levels (as indicated by a 30-item cloze test), while data for the analysis of transfer was elicited using a story telling task. Statistical tests revealed significant differences across proficiency levels, i.e. low and pre–intermediate (p= .032), low and intermediate levels (p= .000), and pre–intermediate and intermediate levels (p= .018). Título en español: “Una indagación sobre el papel de la proficiencia en L3 sobre la influencia transversal en la adquisición de terceras lenguas” Resumen: Con el crecimiento del multilingüismo, han proliferado los estudios que investigan la interacción entre diferentes lenguas. El presente estudio se plantea examinar el rol que desempeña la proficiencia en la ocurrencia de un tipo específico de interacción, a saber, transferencia entre interlenguas de una lengua no nativa (L2 Alemán) a otra lengua no nativa (L3 Inglés) a nivel sintáctico en bilingües Castellano/ Catalán. Se recogieron datos de 80 aprendices de L3 Inglés que estaban en diferentes niveles de proficiencia (como indicó un cloze test de 30 ítems), mientras que los datos para el análisis de la transferencia se elicitaron empleando una tarea narrativa. Los tests estadísticos realizados revelaron diferencias significativas entre niveles bajo y pre–intermedio (p= .032), bajo e intermedio (p= .000) y pre–intermedio e intermedio (p= .018).
... Indeed, language awareness can facilitate learning, for example, noticing the similarities between English, German, and Swedish facilitates learning Swedish a great deal (Hufeisen & Marx, 2004;Włosowicz, 2018). In the area of vocabulary, the use of cognates for developing learners' cross-linguistic language awareness was studied by Müller-Lancé (2003) and Otwinowska-Kasztelanic (2011) intercomprehension-the comprehension of related languages, even ones the learner has not studied; Müller-Lancé, 2003) and vocabulary learning. However, in the present study, the awareness of similarities and differences is not limited to vocabulary, but includes grammar structures and language chunks used in particular situations (e.g., ¿Qué le pongo?) as well. ...
Article
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The purpose of the paper is an analysis of the advantages and limitations of the use of translanguaging, or the mobilisation of students’ whole multilingual repertoires to facilitate understanding and learning (Lewis, Jones, Baker, 2012, p. 655), in the teaching of third or additional languages (De Angelis’s (2007) term) at the university level. The paper is based on two studies by the [name deleted to maintain the integrity of the review process], on the use of translanguaging in the teaching of Spanish [name deleted to maintain the integrity of the review process] and French [name deleted to maintain the integrity of the review process]. It analyses the use of translanguaging for the purposes of explanation and awareness-raising, taking into consideration the increased language learning experience and awareness of multilingual students (cf. Hufeisen, 2018), and its perception by the students. However, despite its advantages, it also has limitations related to students’ lack of experience with translanguaging and unwillingness to use their multilingual repertoires in learning particular languages.
... The idea of partial competence in different languages is consistent with increasingly accepted views in TLL (e.g. Cenoz, 2001;Müller-Lancé, 2003) that development in each language of a multilingual are uneven. These considerations find corroboration in the fact that "proficiency in at least one language tends to be higher in comparison with the other languages" (Coste, 1997, p. 90). ...
... The idea of partial competence in different languages is consistent with increasingly accepted views in TLL (e.g. Cenoz, 2001;Müller-Lancé, 2003) that development in each language of a multilingual are uneven. These considerations find corroboration in the fact that "proficiency in at least one language tends to be higher in comparison with the other languages" (Coste, 1997, p. 90). ...
Article
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Dutch is a typical 'third language'. Most learners have knowledge of other languages before they start to learn Dutch. One or two of these languages are closely related to Dutch, English and/or German. When L3-learners come across a new language for the first time, it can be observed that they try to make use of languages they learned before. Experienced language learners often perform better than less experienced subjects. Furthermore, prior research shows that related languages will contribute more to intelligibility than less related languages do. The objects of this study were 42 German multilinguals reading a Dutch text without knowledge of this language. They mainly differ according to their language background and language learning experience. The results indicate that the experienced learners use more inferring strategies than the less experienced learners and that German is indeed the preferred source of transfer. However, the experienced multilinguals do not show a significantly different metalinguistic strategy pattern, and some regard Scandinavian words as being much more transferable than one might expect. This leads to the assumption that their explicit knowledge about language relatedness and their linguistic knowledge is not fully available in reading comprehension. Finally, the author offers some suggestions as to the direction explanations might take.
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CROSS-LINGUISTIC INFLUENCE IN THE THIRD LANGUAGE ACQUISITION PROCESS The aim of this study is to investigate attitudes towards personal bilingualism and multilingualism and to determine if there is a cross-linguistic influence in the third language acquisition process, how and how often it occurs, according to a personal perception of the phenomenon of the individual multilingualism among students at the Faculty of Philosophy, University of Novi Sad. In Vojvodina, the officially used languages are: Serbian, Hungarian, Slovak, Croatian, Romanian and Ruthenian (AP of Vojvodina Statute („Službeni list APV” br.17/09)). At the Faculty of Philosophy in Novi Sad bilingualism, multilingualism and the majority language has been traditionally studied since its foundation (Mikeš 1961, 1964, 1965, 1991; 1998; Mikeš i Vlahović 1966; 1967; Mikeš i Savić 1972, 1973, 1974; Genc 1973, 1979, 1981, 1985, 1991; Međeši 2009; Tir 2002; Horakova 2002; Puja-Badesku 2009). The empirical data include two groups of answers: answers that the first year (2011/12) bilingual female (74) and male (26) students (mean age 21;8) gave to questions about their mother tongue, second and third language and cross-linguistic influence in a questionnaire and answers that the trilingual alumni of the same faculty (44 years old) gave in their oral history. The questionnaire includes questions about mother tongue, second and third language, as well as about cross-linguistic influences. The questions in the semi-structured interview for the oral history are about the same topics. The obtained data are analyzed according to the combination of Hungarian as Finno-Ugric language and Slavic (Serbian/Croatian, Ruthenian, Slovak, Ukrainian, Polish, Russian), Germanic (German, English), and Romance languages (Romanian, French, Italian, Spanish) as Indo-European languages. The obtained results confirm the contemporary findings in bilingualism and multilingualism research and show the following: 1. bilingualism has a positive influence on third language acquisition regardless of their typological characteristics (Cenoz 2001; Jessner 2007) and in this research it is confirmed for combination of languages: Hungarian as Finno-Ugric language and Slavic (Serbian/Croatian, Ruthenian, Slovak, Ukrainian, Polish, Russian), Germanic (German, English) and Romance languages (Romanian, French, Italian, Spanish) as Indo-European languages; the second language has a greater influence on the third language acquisition process than the first one (Williams and Hammarberg 1998; Bardel and Falk 2007), if the competence is on the high level, the second language exposure frequent and long, and if the second and the third language are typologically similar; the linguistic knowledge is transferred subconsciously, more often in informal than in formal situations, as it is confirmed in other studies (Hoffmann 2007); description as a communicational strategy is more often used than creation of hybrid forms; qualitative analysis of the obtained answers in oral histories confirm results obtained by the questionnaire, but it also reveals various nuances that cannot be found using questionnaire, about the context, personal experiences and abilities to use metalinguistic awareness in the language learning process. In spite of the fact that trilingualism is the future in the civilization evolution and in the educational system, even starting at the preschool level, there is not enough literature about the phenomenon. According to the results obtained in this research, although they are not absolutely reliable, since they depend on a personal judgment of the phenomenon, it is possible to redefine existing theories and to describe metalinguistic abilities again when typologically similar and different languages spoken in Vojvodina are in question. Keywords: individual bilingualism, institutional bilingualism, trilingualism, multilingualism, cross-linguistic influence
Article
Although many advances have been made in recent years concerning the theoretical dimensions of content and language integrated learning (CLIL), research still has to meet the necessity to come up with integrative models that adequately map the interrelation between content and language learning in CLIL contexts. This article will suggest that recent models of the bilingual lexicon make a fruitful starting point for this purpose, because they stress the close interrelation between conceptual and linguistic strata. Besides a language-specific conceptual dimension, these models cater for developmental aspects of extension and restructuring of cognitive concepts, including a reciprocal relationship between L1, L2 and the conceptual dimension. Such a differentiated understanding of the cognitive structures underlying student performances is suggested as an appropriate basis for pedagogically appropriate intervention.
Chapter
The aim of this paper is to present how Oxford’s taxonomy of language learning strategies (LLS), published in 1990, was extended by the author for multilingual learners. The impetus for this research is the assumption that L3 acquisition is different form L2 acquisition and that multilinguals reach heightened degrees of language learning awareness. It is hypothesised that multilingual learners, as a particular learner group, tend to develop specific strategies that monolingual L2 learners could not apply. The multilingual strategies integrated into the taxonomy stem from the author’s empirical studies and the literature review in three areas: strategy research, research on multilingualism (TLA), and didactics of plurilingualism. In language teaching methodologies that foster multilingualism in learners, the strategy choice may depend not only on didactic goals but also on the languages and contents involved as well as the treatment of such. The three latter features are used as criteria for classifying these methodologies so as to analyse the LLS they exploit. The extended version of Oxford’s taxonomy and the new strategy questionnaire for multilinguals Multilingual Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (M-SILL) are sought to contribute to the continuity in strategy research from SLA to TLA.
Article
The main goal consisted in identifying and bringing together strategies of multilinguals as a particular learner group. Therefore, research was placed in the intersection of the three fields: language learning strategies (LLS), third language acquisition (TLA), and the didactics of plurilingualism. First, the paper synthesises the major findings of research on LLS applied by multilinguals learning additional (European) languages. Then two interrelated empirical studies combining quantitative and qualitative research methods are reported. The strategies identified in the literature and in the mixed-method study 1 (n = 18) were integrated into Oxford’s[(1990). Language learning strategies: What every teacher should know. Boston, MA: Heinle and Heinle] taxonomy and into a new strategy questionnaire for multilingual learners Multilingual Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (M-SILL). Almost 90% of the strategies tested in the large-scale survey study 2 (n = 271) were reported by the multilingual participants as applied with a high or moderate frequency. A significant correlation was detected between the learners’ degree of multilingualism and the use of the M-SILL strategies, with a major increase in L3 learning. This finding provided an additional support to the claims that there is a ‘threshold’ effect in L3 learning and that TLA is different from SLA.
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This study presents the architecture of the mental lexicon of third language learners by focusing on three representation levels: letter, word and language. In particular, this analysis attempts to examine the extent of the influence of the first and second languages known by bilingual learners of English. The study is guided by Dijkstra’s (2003) Multilingual Interactive Activation (MIA) model, and the hypothesis of the language selective or language nonselective access of third language learners is tested. The method involved in this analysis is the word translation task as a tool for investigating the organization of the mental lexicon. The results obtained as a result of the translation task claim that trilingual speakers can operate with three languages during the process of learning.Keywords: multilingual processing, mental lexicon, language typology.
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The ever-changing translation market requires translation degree programmes to prepare students for a flexible adaptation to unpredictable changes in demand for language services. A maximum of demand-oriented flexibility entails translators capability to add new working languages in a timely manner as need arises. Against this background, this thesis proposes a methodology for language instruction in translator training based on intercomprehension, which refers to the innate ability to (partially) comprehend unfamiliar languages without having them acquired previously. Research into third or additional language acquisition has repeatedly shown that intercomprehension may serve as the point of departure for the time-saving acquisition of receptive skills across closely related languages. In application to translator training, intercomprehension-based language instruction yields great potential for the design of modular elective language courses that enable would-be translators to efficiently exploit their existing linguistic knowledge and skills for the addition of passive working languages. Centring around the assumption that translation competence involves a series of metalinguistic skills that are transferrable to any language combination, the theoretical part of this thesis elaborates on the cognitive foundations of the integration of intercomprehension-based language instruction with translator training and presents the methodology with reference to two courses of this type held within the MA programme in Translation Studies at the University of Innsbruck. In the empirical part, data from these two courses are provided in support of the feasibility of this didactic approach. Furthermore, an exploratory analysis of intercomprehension-based translation processes is presented.
Chapter
The paper discusses the role of pluralistic approaches in Austrian curricula and textbooks and provides a short overview of their theoretical underpinnings in order to present the empirical design of a quasi-experimental study carried out in 16 Austrian school classes, with the aim to investigate the potential of textbooks to promote proficiency in the target language as well as language awareness and language learning competence as a basis for the development of individual plurilingual profiles. The mixed methods approach analyses predispositions of the pupils involved as well as classroom routines and attitudes of their teachers. Hence, the study refers to classroom reality, a field for which empirical data is still rare, and intends to produce multiple pieces of evidence for factors that influence the effects of textbooks, in order to learn from as many data points as possible. The exemplary results presented in this paper refer to the use of interlingual comparison (InCo) as a learning strategy.
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In recent discussion of sources of cross-linguistic influence, two perspectives have come to the fore : the psychotypological perspective and the ‘L2 factor’ perspective. The former posits that learners draw primarily on those of their languages which they perceive as closer to the target language, while the latter suggests that the transfer sources privileged by learners are languages other than their Ll. The present study examines the respective roles of Irish (L2) and English (Ll) as sources of lexical transfer in French (L3) (English being much closer to French than Irish — especially in lexical terms). The subjects were L3 learners of French in English-medium and Irish-medium second-level schools in Ireland from whom both productive French data and introspective data were collected. The article presents an analysis of the data in question, which indicates that English predominates both as the initial reference point in the processing of the lexical items involved in the productive task and as the source of actual lexical borrowings into French.
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In this article a description is given of a model of the bilingual speaker. The model presented is based on Levelt's (1989) 'Speaking' model, which sketches a framework in which a number of (highly autonomous) information processing components are postulated. The main characteristics of the model are that it is incremental and parallel, and that lower level processing is more automatized than higher level processing. An attempt is made to adapt the Levelt model for bilingual processing. Given the firm empirical basis of the (monolingual) version of the model, it was intended to change the model as little as possible. It is concluded that the first component, the conceptualize is probably partly language-specific and partly language-independent. Further it is hypothesized that there are different formulators for each language, while there is one lexicon where lexical elements from different languages are stored together. The output of the formulators is sent to the articulator which makes use of a large set of non-language specific speech motor plans. The adapted version of Levelt's model appears to provide a good explanation of various aspects of language production, especially with respect to codeswitching and the storage and retrieval of lexical elements, and it may suggest a useful direction to take in future research on language processing in bilinguals.
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attends to the literature concentrated on the compound vs coordinate systems [of bilingual lexical organizations] / [considers] studies contrasting the compound and subordinative organizations / consider the possibility of a mixed-structure within the bilingual memory [where] different types of representational structures coexist (e.g., coordinate and compound structures, but other hybrids are also possible) / word-type effects in bilingual processing tasks will be reviewed and their implications for bilingual word representation discussed / [concentrates] on the effects of word concreteness [and highlights] the effects of the cognate status of translation equivalents / [argues] that these effects strongly indicate a mixture of different representational forms [in the lexical memory of bilinguals] (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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In general, discussion of cross-linguistic influence has focussed almost exclusively on the role of L1 in L2 production, both in the form of cross-linguistic influence on the learner's interlanguage and in the form of language switches to the L1 during L2 production. As yet, there has been little work done on the influence of a learner's other previously learned L2s in the acquisition of a new language (L3). The few studies that have been been carried out on the role of L2 in L3 production however show that L2 does play an important role in L3 acquisition. This paper presents the results of ongoing research on non-adapted language switches, using data from a two-year longitudinal case study of an adult learner of L3 Swedish with L1 English and L2 German. Our study is based on 844 non-adapted language switches. We identified four main types of switch, three of which had pragmatic purpose, namely: (i) EDIT (marking self-repair, beginning of turntake etc.), (ii) META (used for asides, to comment on L3 performance or ask for help) and (iii) INSERT (use of non-L3 items to overcome lexical problems in L3), and the last of which we refer to as Without Identified Pragmatic Purpose (WIPP switch; cf. 'non-intentional switches', Poulisse and Bongaerts 1994). We found that while L1 English prevailed in EDIT, META and INSERT functions, almost only L2 German occurred in WIPP switches. Most of these WIPP switches were function words. We also noticed that a number of the English utterances used in INSERT function appeared to show German influence, although this was not the case when English was used in META function. Our results show that in this case study of L3 acquisition, L1 and L2 play different roles. We suggest that L2 German, which was shown to be the non-L3 language predominantly used to supply material for lexical construction attempts in the L3 (Williams and Hammarberg 1994), is activated in parallel to the L3 interlanguage, underlying L3 production and even L1 production. We refer to this as the DEFAULT SUPPLIER role. L1 English, on the other hand, is more seldom used in lexical construction attempts in the L3 or activated in parallel but rather is kept separate from the L3 and used largely with a metalinguistic function. We refer to this as the INSTRUMENTAL role. We propose a developmental model of L3 production based on de Bot's (1992) model of bilingual speech production but involving role assignment to the background languages, such that only the language which has been assigned the role of DEFAULT SUPPLIER is regularly activated in parallel to the L3 interlanguage. Over time, these two roles are largely taken over by the L3 itself. We suggest that these roles also exist in L2 acquisition but since there is only one background language, this takes over both roles and overt distinctions between them collapse.
Article
Three experiments are reported in which picture naming and bilingual translation were performed in the context of semantically categorized or randomized lists. In Experiments 1 and 3 picture naming and bilingual translation were slower in the categorized than randomized conditions. In Experiment 2 this category interference effect in picture naming was eliminated when picture naming alternated with word naming. Taken together, the results of the three experiments suggest that in both picture naming and bilingual translation a conceptual representation of the word or picture is used to retrieve a lexical entry in one of the speaker's languages. When conceptual activity is sufficiently great to activate a multiple set of corresponding lexical representations, interference is produced in the process of retrieving a single best lexical candidate as the name or translation. The results of Experiment 3 showed further that category interference in bilingual translation occurred only when translation was performed from the first language to the second language, suggesting that the two directions of translation engage different interlanguage connections. A model to account for the asymmetric mappings of words to concepts in bilingual memory is described. (C) 1994 Academic Press, Inc.
Article
An examination of tapes of German-English and Dutch-English bilinguals in Australia revealed that code-switching occurs in anticipation or as a consequence of trigger words at the intersection of 2 languages. Such trigger words include lexical transfers, bilingual homophones, proper nouns, and compromise words. Anticipational switching was observed at the beginning of a prepositional phrase or noun phrase. Code-switching often coincided with syntactic transference. Data indicate that speech planning is neutral and that translation into a specific language can take place at various points. (French summary) (26 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
proposals are presented for lexical processing in bilingual language production / [argues] that the mechanisms for bilingual production are not fundamentally different from those for monolingual production / [applies] some of the basic tenets from recent speech production models . . . to bilingual production present a psycholinguistic model of language production and discuss] what the consequences of such a model are for more than 1 language represented in the lexicon (or lexica) / investigate the consequences of having 2 languages [L2] available within such a model / concerned with the following questions / how are different lexicalization patterns for different languages dealt with / given non-perfect semantic knowledge of L2, how is the matching between the intended message and the available lexical elements in L2 accomplished / assuming that preverbal messages are not language-specific, what are the consequences for the above questions / report on a few experimental studies but concentrate largely on available code-switching data (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This article reports a selection of the findings of an extensive research project on the occurrence of slips of the tongue in L2 learners' speech. The findings confirm most of the claims based on L1 speech error research. In particular, they support the frame-and-slot mechanism and the notion of a spreading activation network adopted in current monolingual models of speech production (Dell 1986, Levelt 1989). With respect to bilingual models of speech production, the data suggest that both L1 and L2 lemmas and L1 and L2 wordforms can be simultaneously activated. Finally, it was found that the process of second language acquisition not only consists of accumulating knowledge and automatizing the procedures used in accessing and processing this knowledge, but also of developing the ability to suppress automatized procedures when they are irrelevant.
Article
Preparing words in speech production is normally a fast and accurate process. We generate them two or three per second in fluent conversation; and overtly naming a clear picture of an object can easily be initiated within 600 msec after picture onset. The underlying process, however, is exceedingly complex. The theory reviewed in this target article analyzes this process as staged and feedforward. After a first stage of conceptual preparation, word generation proceeds through lexical selection, morphological and phonological encoding, phonetic encoding, and articulation itself. In addition, the speaker exerts some degree of output control, by monitoring of self-produced internal and overt speech. The core of the theory, ranging from lexical selection to the initiation of phonetic encoding, is captured in a computational model, called WEAVER++. Both the theory and the computational model have been developed in interaction with reaction time experiments, particularly in picture naming or related word production paradigms, with the aim of accounting for the real-time processing in normal word production. A comprehensive review of theory, model, and experiments is presented. The model can handle some of the main observations in the domain of speech errors (the major empirical domain for most other theories of lexical access), and the theory opens new ways of approaching the cerebral organization of speech production by way of high-temporal-resolution imaging.
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This paper proposes a framework for examining the way in which bilinguals control the use of their two languages. In so doing it seeks to extend current functional descriptions of language production and to provide a single scheme in which both normal and pathological performance can be understood. Within the overall framework a specific model is developed. It is compatible with current findings, makes predictions about the performance of normal as well as brain-damaged bilinguals, and explains some previously puzzling findings.
  • R Albert
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Inferencing: a process in using and learning language
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