Article

Sex Pheromone Traps for Monitoring the European Vine Moth, Lobesia botrana : Effect of Dispenser Type, Pheromone Dose, Field Aging of Dispenser, and Type of Trap on Male Captures

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

The effects of dispenser type, pheromone dose in the dispenser, aging of dispenser in the field, and trap type on trapping efficiency of males of the European vine moth,Lobesia botrana Den. et Schiff. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), were investigated. LB Pherocon caps and locally manufactured septa were equally effective in attracting males to traps. Within the range of 0.1 to 100 μg pheromone/dispenser, response of males increased positively with the pheromone dose. Within the first 7 days tested, pheromone loads of 1 or 10 mg/dispenser were significantly less attractive to males than 0.1 mg/dispenser. The effect of aging of the dispenser (loaded with 1 mg pheromone) in the field on trapping efficiency was significant. Captures in traps baited with 4- and 5-week-old septa were significantly lower (by 24%) than those in traps baited with 1-week-old septa. The fairly slow loss of attractancy exhibited by rubber septa indicates that septa may be kept in traps for at least 5 weeks. The release rate of the pheromone from the Israeli dispensers (1 mg loaded) was measured in a flow system. The emission of the pheromone decreased gradually as a function of age, correlating well with the lower trap catches of field-aged septa. Release rates were reduced by 56%, 70% and 84% after 4, 5 and 6 weeks, repectively. The nonsticky IPS trap was as effective in capturing the European vine moth males as the sticky Pherocon 1C trap. The possibility of using the non-sticky, nonsaturating and easy-to-handle IPS traps may lead to better and easier monitoring of the European vine moth populations.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... The European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana Denis & Schiffermüller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a key pest of grapes in Central Europe and most Mediterranean countries (Anshelevich et al., 1994). Pest damage is mainly caused by larvae feeding on grapes, which leads to fungal colonization of wounds and fruit rot. ...
... To improve control methods based on pheromones as attractants (monitoring, mass trapping, or 'attract and kill'), the key factor is to know the optimum emission interval, because release rates will strongly affect the attractiveness of the lure, and catches could decrease below and above this interval (Jacobson & Beroza, 1964; Anshelevich et al., 1994; Zhang & Amalin, 2005). There are some reports of responses of L. botrana to different pheromone loads of dispensers (Roehrich et al., 1983; Anshelevich et al., 1994). However, emission rates were not assessed, so trap catches were not correlated with emission values and optimal release rates were not proposed. ...
... An optimum pheromone load for L. botrana monitoring dispensers has been suggested by Roehrich et al. (1983), who found that pheromone loads between 1 lg and 10 mg allowed the detection of moths. Anshelevich et al. (1994) reported that L. botrana males responded positively to sticky traps baited with rubber Figure 3 Scatter plot and fitted regression model (equation 7) of ffiffiffiffiffiffi Nc p À ASB vs. square root of emission (SRE). The dependent variable is the square root of numbers caught minus the average square root of catches collected at blocks A and C, or B and D (ASB). ...
Article
Since the discovery of Lobesia botrana Denis & Schiffermüller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) sex pheromone, it has played an important role in the control and detection of this pest, for example, through the use of pheromone-baited traps and mating disruption techniques. Rubber septa are the most common pheromone dispensers used in monitoring traps, but often dispenser performance is not optimized. The key to improve methods based on pheromones as attractants (monitoring, mass trapping, or ‘attract and kill’) is to know the optimum emission interval, because release rates can strongly affect the attraction. In this work, five levels of pheromone load with different release rates were compared in traps using mesoporous pheromone dispensers to investigate the optimum release rate maximizing L. botrana catches. Residual pheromone loads of the dispensers were extracted and quantified by gas chromatography, to study release profiles and to estimate the various emission levels. The efficacy of pheromone emission was measured in field trials as number of moths caught. A quadratic model was fitted to relate the numbers caught vs. the daily emission rates. The resulting quadratic term was statistically significant, confirming the existence of a relative maximum for L. botrana catches. Taking into account that the trial was carried out only in one location, an optimum emission value of ca. 400 μg per day could be considered to enhance the attraction of L. botrana under West-Mediterranean weather conditions.
... The success of this environmental friendly method has led to the reduced use of toxic insecticides, and application of integrated pest management programs to cut the damage inXicted by vineyard pests (Gordon et al. 2005;Harari et al. 2007). L. botrana is commonly monitored by using traps baited with the species-speciWc female sex pheromone (Anshelevich et al. 1994). However, the use of sex pheromone traps under mating-disruption conditions is problematic (Cardé and Minks 1995). ...
... The beginning of a fourth generation was detected in 2003, before harvest. This is consistent with previous studies of the moth population dynamics in Israel (Anshelevich et al. 1994). The population size, as indicated by male trapping numbers, diVered signiWcantly between years; sig-niWcantly more males were Here we have demonstrated that the variation of cultivars within the vineyards can aVect the distribution pattern of the pest. ...
Article
Full-text available
The European vine moth Lobesia botrana Denis & Schiff. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is a key pest in the vineyards of Israel and Europe. Traps baited with the female sex pheromone are commonly used to monitor the pest population. However, the role of the vine cultivars on monitoring the moth population using pheromone-baited traps was not yet studied. The present study aimed to identify the effect of grape cultivars on L. botrana adult distribution patterns in the field, in order to achieve a better understanding of the monitored data in respect to male and female’s host preference. The 3-year study in commercial vineyards used four cultivars: Carignan, Emerald Riesling, French Colombard, and Cabernet Sauvignon. The moth population of each generation was estimated from male counts in pheromone traps; three generations were observed in all experimental orchards, each year. Female host choice was studied by monitoring freshly deposited eggs and newly hatched larvae on vines. The study showed a significant effect of cultivar on numbers of trapped males in most years, and a cultivar effect on female host choice. For both males and females and for all phenological stages of the grapes, Carignan and French Colombard attracted the most and Cabernet Sauvignon the fewest specimens. The results show that cultivar blend within the vineyard can affect the distribution pattern of the pest. Knowledge of the expected choice of the female moth, and of the timing of its decision could lead to an improved monitoring system, with the preferred cultivar as an indicator.
... Furthermore, to optimize the efficacy of monitoring trap and in consideration that, several factors (e.g. dispenser type, field aging of the dispenser, the attractant dose in the releaser, etc.) can affect trap attractiveness (Anshelevich et al., 1994;, we evaluated also different attractant doses loaded in two different releasers, estimating the rate of emission of the chemicals during the weeks of utilization. ...
Article
The cigarette beetle, Lasioderma serricorne (F.) (Coleoptera: Anobiidae), is an important stored product pest increasingly impacting museums and herbaria. Monitoring methods make use of pheromone traps which can be implemented using chili fruit powder as food attractant. Further laboratory studies evidenced that the main cues involved in this attraction are the terpenoids α-ionone and β-ionone. In this study a trap bioassay was carried out in a bread plant with pheromone traps added with α-ionone or β-ionone at different doses to evaluate the possible enhance of captures determined by such odorants in comparison with traps loaded with the synthetic pheromone alone. Furthermore, in order to optimize the type of device used, the chemical that elicited the highest performance was tested using two types of dispenser: a polyethylene and a silicone one. The results indicated that pheromone traps with the addition of β-ionone at the dose of 10 mg captured the highest amount of L. serricorne adults and significantly more than traps loaded with pheromone alone or with pheromone plus α-ionone. Differently, captures of pheromone traps supplemented with α-ionone didn’t differ statistically from those baited solely with the synthetic pheromone. Moreover, the traps baited with β-ionone loaded in polyethylene dispenser allowed a higher number of catches of the adults of the beetle in comparison with those obtained using silicone dispenser. Data indicate that this co-attractant can be exploited to increase sensitivity for monitoring, and/or for mass trapping L. serricorne adults.
... For example, the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, feeds, rests, and mates in grassy vegetation adjacent to corn fields; therefore, pheromone traps should be placed on the grassy edges of sweet corn fields (Knodel et al. 1995). Traps developed to attract the leopard moth (Zeuzera pyrina) a serious pest of apple (Haniotakis et al. 1999) and olive (Hegazi et al. 2015) trees, should be placed above the canopy (Hegazi et al. 2015) as the nonflying females climb to the top branches and call for males, whereas traps for the codling moth (Cydia pomonella) or the European berry moth (Lobesia botrana) should be placed in the upper third of the canopy (Anshelevich et al. 1994; Witzgall et al. 2008 ). The stored products pests may particularly illustrate the need of proper monitoring schemes. ...
Chapter
Insect pests must reproduce in order to exist. In sexual organisms, sperm and ova need to synchronically meet in a specific environment under conditions that may include temperature, time, food, day length, and many others. Mating events can therefore be predicted and as such open for manipulation.
... Since monitoring of developmental progression in the field is pivotal for optimum timing of control strategies against grape berry moths, sex pheromone delta traps are widely used to monitor flight of males in each generation (Anshelevich et al. 1994;Ortega-Lopez et al. 2014) which may be complemented by food traps for females . As a result, data of emergence of the first moths in spring have been recorded for a given region over a long period of time, and provide a clear fingerprint of the effects of climate change on phenology of grape berry moths. ...
Article
Full-text available
We review direct and indirect effects of climate change on both the grapevine plant as a host for phytophagous insects, as well as on grape insect pests, their natural enemies and corresponding future grape plant protection strategies. Phenology, voltinism and distribution ranges are well known traits of many arthropods influenced by temperature as the key abiotic factor and thus by current and future climate change scenarios. Case studies of grapevine pests based on data from three decades point to clear changes in phenology of grape berry moths, shifts in distribution ranges of leafhoppers as vectors of grapevine diseases and range expansion of grapevine mealybugs. These case studies also illustrate the need to include data on putatively changed tri-trophic interactions in vineyards when predicting impacts of climate change on grapevine pest insects. Hence, future pest management strategies should be based on a sound set of field data obtained for both pests and antagonists under changed abiotic conditions, which can also build the basis for refining and extending currently existing models for forecasting population levels of respective insect pests.
... Trap design is an important factor in sex pheromone monitoring systems and differences among capture rates are described for many species and trap designs (e.g.: SUBCHEV et al., 2004;DOWNHAM et al., 2003;ATHANASSIOU et al., 2002;AMELINE and FRÉROT, 2001;BARTELS and HUTCHINSON, 1998;LOPEZ, 1998;LOPEZ et al., 1994;KEHAT et al., 1994 a,b;ANSHELEVICH et al., 1993ANSHELEVICH et al., , 1994GRAY et al., 1991;KEHAT et al., 1991;VALLES et al., 1991;ADAMS et al., 1989;MITCHELL et al., 1985;STRUBLE, 1983). ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Abstract Different aspects of the biology and ecology of Hellula undalis F. were studied in the lowlands of Central Luzon, Philippines, in the province of Nueva Ecija. Special emphasis was put on E,E-11,13-Hexadecadienal, the identified sex pheromone of H. undalis. H. undalis is a major insect pest on cultivated crops of the plant family Brassicaceae (Cruciferae). Field trials were conducted to determine possible practical use of the synthetic pheromone in integrated pest management (IPM) with the overall goal to reduce insecticide overuse. These trials were divided in: (i) handling of the pheromone, i.e. determinations of the best trap height, trap design, intertrap distance, pheromone dosage, active substance longevity in the field with new prepared and freezer stored lures, (ii) biology and ecology of H. undalis, with determination of natural host plants with analysis of secondary plant metabolites, comparison between E,E- 11,13-Hexadecadienal and the virgin female emitted pheromone, influence of virgin females next to synthetic pheromone sources, female sexual maturity, calling time of virgin females and flight activity of males in the field and in the laboratory, (iii) studies regarding the usefulness of the synthetic pheromone in pest control were conducted by comparing E,E- 11,13-Hexadecadienal with added Z-11-Hexadecenal in different concentrations, the possible use of E,E-11,13-Hexadecadienal for monitoring and attempts to confuse male H. undalis to find females. The population fluctuations were recorded in different areas of Nueva Ecija partially from October 2001 to November 2003. The used compound E,E-11,13-Hexadecadienal was specific and attractive for male H. undalis. The trap height is best 0.5m above ground, with wing traps and an intertrap distance more than 15 m, when traps are placed crosswind and between 20-30m apart when placed in lines with the wind direction. The best cost/benefit of the pheromone dosage resulted in the use of 10μg impregnated red rubber septa. Lures with 10μg remain highly attractive for two weeks, although males were caught for six weeks in areas with high H. undalis density. Lures attracted equal numbers of males when stored for almost a year in a freezer (-7°C) compared to newer prepared ones. Cleome species are natural host plants. The species Cleome viscosa and Cleome rutidosperma reached infestations up to 60%. Both species are widespread and play a possible key role as food plant for the larvae at times Brassicaceae are not or only little cultivated. Glucosinolates (GSL) are metabolites of both Cleome species with glucocapparin (methylglucosinolate) as the predominant GSL compound (>90%). Glucocleomin was found in both species as well as traces of Indolyl-GSL such as 4-OH (4-hydroxyglucobrassicin) and glucobrassicin (GBC). The total GSL content of the aliphatic compounds was much higher in C. viscosa than in C. rutidosperma. Glucosinolates are known to be host plant attractants for H. undalis. The sex pheromone emitted by virgin females lured up to 25 times more males than E,E- 11,13-Hexadecadienal. It is assumed that the sex pheromone might be a blend of chemicals, not only a single compound, or local differences occur in the biochemistry in pheromone production by females of Japan and the Philippines and that might be true for male perception. The catch rate is not influenced when virgin female baited traps were placed in direct vicinity to traps with the synthetic pheromone. The ratios of catches between both types of baits were in a constant range, which makes E,E-11,13-Hexadecadienal useful as monitoring tool. Females are sexual mature right after eclosion, i.e. when they emerge from the pupa. No significant differences in the number of males caught were detected between 1 to 5 day old virgin females. The time females start to call and lure males was determined in the field between four and eight o’clock in the morning with most males recorded at six o’clock. This time span could be verified in the laboratory. Males are active in the same phase of the night and do not react when synthetic pheromone is offered outside this period. Already calling females probably influence other females to start calling. Results of pheromone research in Japan suggested that added Z-11-Hexadecenal to E,E- 11,13-Hexadecadienal enhanced the number of males caught. This was not confirmed for the Philippines. Reasons to explain this discrepancy may be in differences in the composition of the pheromone for Japanese and Philippine H. undalis strains. Despite the lesser attractiveness of the synthetic pheromone compared to the natural pheromone emitted by female H. undalis seems monitoring feasible. Good correlations existed between trap catches and subsequent larval infestation by monitoring the presence of adult H. undalis and larval counts. It was also found that rainfall has no effect on males caught in traps, whereas a significant negative correlation existed between rainfall and larval infestation. A first attempt was made for the use of the synthetic pheromone to confuse males to locate their mating partners. Although mating was not possible due to the set up of the trial, it was clear that males were able to locate females in the area covered with lures containing 1 μg of the synthetic pheromone and therefore mating was likely to happen. However, an effect might be possible regarding the great differences of males caught in- and outside the treated area. It seems worthwhile to continue the research with this method. Monitoring the population fluctuations over periods up to 2 years proved H. undalis a major pest in crucifer cropping systems throughout the year in Nueva Ecija. Population peaks were found mainly in the dry season with infestation rates higher than 70%. The older the crop grew the higher were the infestation and the damage.
... The optimal trap design to choose for pest management will mainly depend on the species, the aim of the monitoring programme, and sometimes even on the test region. In some cases sticky traps are as effective as non-sticky ones -for example Anshelevich et al. (1994) found that non-sticky Uni-traps (International Pheromone Systems, UK) were as effective as the sticky Pherocon 1C traps (Zoecon Corporation, USA) for Lobesia botrana (Denis and Schiffermu¨ller). In other spp. ...
Article
Pure (2R)-butyl (7Z)-tetradecenoate, as well as racemic 2-butyl (7Z)-tetradecenoate, in a dose of 100 μg (calculated for the active (2R)-enantiomer) applied onto serum bottle caps of grey rubber, were an effective pheromone bait for Theresimima ampellophaga (Bayle-Barelle, 1808) (Lepidoptera: Zygaenidae: Procridinae). This bait remained active for longer than one full flight of the pest in the regions with one generation per year. Colourless transparent as well as red and yellow sticky traps were the cheapest and most simple design for trapping T. ampellophaga, while green and blue traps performed worse. Among the traps tested, VARL (CSALOMON®) funnel traps had the highest capture ability for the pest. Traps had to be mounted at least 1.0–2.0 m above ground level. T. ampellophaga males flew to a source of sex pheromone all day long with a main peak between 07.00 and 09.00 hours and a much smaller one between 19.00 and 21.00 hours.
... & Schiff. as the septum age increased (2,14,17), whereas others found no relationship between septa age and moth capture (15). ...
Article
Full-text available
The effects of field aging (0–28 days) and pheromone loading rate on the longevity of red rubber septa loaded with the sex pheromone blend of the oriental fruit mothGrapholita molesta (Busck), were evaluated in North Carolina apple orchards in 2002. Separate field tests examined the influence of trap height and pheromone loading rate of rubber septa on trap catches of adultG. molesta males in an abandoned orchard. The loss of the major pheromone component, (Z)-8-dodecenyl acetate (Z8–12:OAc), from red rubber septa over a 4-week period exhibited a relatively constant release rate with 30, 100 and 300 µg pheromone. Trap catch was significantly higher in pheromone traps placed in the upper canopy than in those in the lower canopy. Pheromone traps baited with 100µg lures caught more moths compared with those loaded with 300 µg. There was no apparent relationship between pheromone trap catch and septa age, with trap catch appearing to be primarily a function ofG. molesta population density.
Article
This datasheet on Lobesia botrana covers Identity, Overview, Distribution, Dispersal, Hosts/Species Affected, Diagnosis, Biology & Ecology, Environmental Requirements, Natural Enemies, Impacts, Prevention/Control, Further Information.
Article
Attraction of California red scale males, Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell), to different release rates of the sex pheromone compound 3-methyl-6-isopropenyl-9-decen-1-yl acetate was evaluated in field trials. This study was aimed to study pheromone emission-response correlations and the existence of an optimum release rate that maximizes trapping efficacy. Release profiles of the pheromone dispensers deployed were determined by gas chromatography to estimate the various emission rates tested. The results reveal that the mean number of A. aurantii males caught correlates with the daily pheromone release rates by means of a quadratic model. The obtained model indicates the existence of a relative maximum of the captures corresponding to an optimum release rate of ca. 300 μg/day. Higher emission rates (up to 1 g/day) resulted in lower captures. Implications for the mating disruption technique are discussed.
Article
Background: The optimization of the lure is essential for the implementation of trapping systems to control insect pests. In this work, the response of the red palm weevil (RPW), Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier, to increasing emission rates of its aggregation pheromone (ferrugineol) and the efficacy of a convenient synthetic kairomone based on fermentation odors (ethyl acetate and ethanol) have been evaluated in different years and locations along the Mediterranean basin. Results: In general, although capture data and emission had noticeable variability among locations, significantly less RPW were captured in pyramidal Picusan(®) traps with the lowest ferrugineol emission rates tested (0.6-3.8 mg/day(-1) ). Captures increase rapidly with ferrugineol emission up to 4-5 mg day(-1) ; then, higher emission rates did not improve nor decrease captures, up to the highest emission rate tested of 50.9 mg day(-1) . Thus, there is no evidence of an optimum release rate corresponding with a maximum of RPW catches. Traps baited with the synthetic kairomone (1:3 ethyl acetate/ethanol) captured from 1.4 to 2.2 times more total weevils than traps baited only with ferrugineol. Moreover, in most of the locations, the synthetic blend was at least as effective as the local co-attractants used (plant material + molasses). Conclusions: Ferrugineol emission rate can vary in a wide range without affecting significantly RPW response. Co-attractants based on fermenting compounds, ethyl acetate and ethanol, are able to improve the attractant level of ferrugineol and could be employed to replace non-standardized natural kairomones in RPW trapping systems after further optimization of their proportions and doses.
Article
Full-text available
Lobesia botrana is the most significant pest of grape berries in Spain. Further knowledge of its phenology would enable wine growers to decide on an optimal treatment schedule. The aim of this study is, therefore, to predict the flight peaks of L. botrana in seven wine-growing regions of Spain. The main goal is to provide a prediction model based on meteorological data records. A logistic function model, based on temperature and humidity records, together with an exhaustive statistical analysis, were used to compare the wine-growing regions in which the male flight phenology of L. botrana displays similar patterns and to sort them into groups. By doing so, a joint study of the dynamics of the moth is possible in the regions within each group. A comparison of the prediction errors before and after applying the Touzeau model confirmed that the fit of the latter model is not sufficiently accurate for the regions under study. Moth flight predictions with the logistic function model are good, but accuracy may still be improved by evaluating other non-biotic and biotic factors.
Article
The response of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) to different emission rates of its pheromone, (3E, 8Z, 11Z)-tetradecatrienyl acetate, was measured in two greenhouse trials with traps baited with mesoporous dispensers. For this purpose, weekly moth trap catches were correlated with increasing pheromone emission levels by multiple regression analysis. Pheromone release profiles of the dispensers were obtained by residual pheromone extraction and gas chromatography quantification. In the first trial carried out in summer 2010, effect of pheromone emission was significant as catches increased linearly with pheromone release rates up to the highest studied level of 46.8 μg/d. A new trial was carried out in spring 2011 to measure the effect of the emission factor when pheromone release rates were higher. Results demonstrated that trap catches and pheromone emission fitted to a quadratic model, with maximum catches obtained with a release level of 150.3 μg/d of (3E, 8Z, 11Z)-tetradecatrienyl acetate. This emission value should provide enhanced attraction of T. absoluta and improve mass trapping, attract-and-kill, or monitoring techniques under greenhouse conditions in the Mediterranean area.
Article
Full-text available
The response of the codling moth (Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)) to different emission values of its main pheromone component, 8E,10E-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone), was investigated in three field trials conducted in plots without mating disruption treatments. Moth catches obtained in traps baited with pheromone dispensers were correlated with the corresponding codlemone release rates by multiple regression analysis. In a preliminary trial conducted in Lleida (NE Spain), a decreasing trend of captures was observed based on increasing pheromone levels. After this, the pheromone release profiles of the pheromone dispensers were studied, in parallel with the field trials, by residual codlemone extraction and gas chromatography quantification. In the trials carried out in Asturias (NW Spain), a correlation between trap catches and emission levels (within the range from 11 to 1,078 μg/d) was found and fitted a logarithmic model. Captures followed a decreasing linear trend in the range of emission rates from 11 to 134 μg/d. Given that release values comprised between 11 and 67 μg/d did not lead to significantly different catches in traps, this emission range could be considered to develop effective formulations for attraction purposes when mating disruption is not acting in the environment.
Article
The effects of ratio between sex pheromone components, pheromone dose in the dispenser, aging of dispenser in the field, and trap type on trapping efficiency of males of the peach twig borer,Anarsia lineatella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), were investigated. To attract males, the optimal ratio between pheromonal components in a binary blend containing (E)-5-decenyl acetate (E5-10:Ac): (E)-5-decenol (E5-10:OH) was 72:28 or 83:17. Dosages of 7 or 0.7 mg of the binary blend containing E5-10:Ac: E5-10:OH (72:28) were equally effective in attracting males. The effect of aging of dispenser (Israeli dispensers, loaded with 7 mg pheromone) in the field on trapping efficiency was moderate. Captures in traps baited with 4-week-old septa did not differ from those in traps baited with 1-week-old septa. The fairly slow loss of attractancy exhibited by rubber septa indicates that septa may be used for at least 4–5 weeks. At high population levels, the nonsticky IPS trap was significantly more effective in capturing males than the sticky Pherocon 1C trap; at low populations, however, the Pherocon 1C trap was better.
Article
Supervised control programs were initiated by the Extension Service in the deciduous orchards of Upper Galilee and the Golan almost 20 years ago. The integrated pest management (IPM) project on fruit crops and vines, launched as a systematic state-wide program in 1991, covered 23% of the total acreage at the end of 1996. The program has reached a critical mass and generates a steady demand for this new kind of advisory service. The project has set the right pattern for intensive and continuous collaboration among research, extension and grower. The program has been successful in reaching out to growers with the help of a newly formed group of local and regional pest scouts; the field-level implementation is the responsibility of the extension system. A reduction of approximately 30% in the use of pesticides has been achieved. The project prepares the ground for environment-friendly and sustainable cropping systems, generating produce competitive on both the local as well as foreign markets. The program on indoor vegetables, flowers, herbs and spices initiated in 1992, had to address first the problem of the sweetpotato whitefly. The field program methodology relies on the establishment of model farms and plots. The model plots are used to examine supervised control scenarios which could, in turn, be diffused to all growers. A 30-50% reduction in the use of pesticides was achieved on the model farms. The program represents an integration of supervised control, fully fledged IPM, and biological control practices. The program on corn and cotton covers the entire acreage under these two crops. The cotton program is supported by an integrated resistance management component. Three area-wide pest management programs were initiated: in the Arava and Bet She’ an valleys, and in the Golan.
Article
The tomato leafminer (Tuta absoluta Povolny) has rapidly colonised the whole Mediterranean and South-Atlantic coasts of Spain, and it has become a key problem in both outdoor and greenhouse crops. New control methods compatible with biological control are required, and mating disruption appears to be a perfect method in current agriculture, as it is an environmentally friendly and residue-free technique. IPM packages tested have included the use of pheromones to detect populations, but there has not been much previous research on mating disruption of T. absoluta. In this work, pheromone doses varying from 10 to 40 g ha(-1), emitted at a constant rate over 4 months, were tested in greenhouses with different levels of containment in order to evaluate the efficacy of mating disruption on T. absoluta. Trials on containment level revealed that the flight of T. absoluta was satisfactorily disrupted with an initial pheromone dose of 30 g ha(-1), and levels of damage did not significantly differ from those in reference plots with insecticide treatments. Later efficacy trials confirmed previous experiences, and release studies showed that control of damage and flight disruption were taking place when releasing at least 85 mg pheromone per ha per day. Effective control using pheromone application against T. absoluta can be achieved, in greenhouses with high containment levels, for 4 months, with initial doses of 30 g ha(-1). Further research must be conducted in order to evaluate the prospect of outdoor application of mating disruption systems.
Article
Full-text available
The reluctance of Israeli vine growers to adopt the mating disruption technique to control the moth Lobesia botrana Den. & Schiff. has been attributed to the high cost of this method compared with that of traditional insecticide control. In this study, we tested the possibility of reducing the cost, first by testing different pheromone formulations (and thus open the market for competition) and second by reducing the pheromone concentration used in vineyards. Comparisons were made between two pheromone formulations--Shin-Etsu (Tokyo, Japan) at 165 g/ha and Concep (Sutera, Bend, OR) at 150 g/ha--and between two concentrations of Shin-Etsu, 165 and 110 g/ha. Pheromone dispensers were placed at the onset of the second moth generation. Comparison of the numbers of clusters infested with eggs and larvae of L. botrana showed no significant differences in the performance, either between the two formulations, or between the two tested concentrations. The results suggest that 1) the two formulations are equally effective, and 2) a low pheromone concentration is sufficient to maintain good control of small populations of L. botrana. However, when the population is high, pest control efficacy is not improved by increasing the pheromone concentration. Therefore, in the interest of reducing the relatively high cost of mating disruption, we emphasize that increasing the pheromone concentration does not provide improved control of high populations of L. botrana. The cost of mating disruption can be diminished by reducing the applied pheromone concentration and by using the least expensive pheromone formulations
Article
Full-text available
Israeli vine growers have been reluctant to adopt the mating disruption technique for control of the European vine moth, Lobesia botrana Den. & Schiff. Since the chemically controlled honeydew moth, Cryptoblabes gnidiella Mill., coexists with the European vine moth, growers have maintained that the use of mating disruption would fail to bring about a significant reduction in pesticide use. In this study, the efficacy of mating disruption techniques against C. gnidiella was tested, as well as the effect of these methods on pesticide use and damage to clusters when the method was employed against both of the pests in wine grapes. Comparisons were made between plots treated with (1) L. botrana mating disruption pheromone, (2) L. botrana and C. gnidiella mating disruption pheromones and (3) control plots. A significant difference in the number of clusters infested with the developmental stages of the moths was seen between pheromone-treated plots and controls, while no such difference was observed between plots treated with one versus two pheromones. A similar pattern was observed in the number of insecticide applications; the greatest number of applications was used in control plots, followed by plots treated with L. botrana mating disruption pheromone and by plots treated with pheromones against both pests, in which no pesticides were applied.
Article
Full-text available
Release rate and degree of isomerization of pheromones with conjugated double bonds were studied in dispensers prepared from several rubber substrates. The substrates compared were made of rubber, cured with elemental sulfur or accelerators based on organic sulfur compounds or organic peroxides. Isomerization of the double bonds occurs immediately after impregnation of the substrate, and the degree of isomerization increases during field use and/or storage. The propensity of the isomers to isomerize corresponds to their proportion in the equilibrium mixture. AnE,Z isomer is isomerized faster than theE,E isomer, and finally a near-equilibrium mixture of the four isomers is present. Minimal isomerization was found in non-sulfur-cured substrates which are the material of choice.
Article
Full-text available
Mass spectrometry in combination with high resolution gas chromatography were used to demonstrate the presence of (E,Z) -7,9-dodecadienyl acetate in Lobesia botrana females. The data indicate that this male attractant is a natural sex pheromone of the grapevine moth.
Article
A system is described for the collection of volatiles produced by plants and insects that minimizes stresses on the plant or insect in an environment that is free from chemical impurities. Air entering a volatile collection chamber containing insects and/or plants was purified using a nonwoven fabric medium infused with charcoal. When three layers of this material were used, the total amount of impurities detected by gas chromatography was less than 40 ng/hr at a collection rate of 1 L/min. The air filtration system can maintain this level of air purification for 96 hr at an air flow of 0.43 m/sec, or a total volume of approximately 750,000 L of air. The air filtration system did not alter the relative humidity of the purified air compared to the relative humidity of ambient air. A multiport collector system was developed for use with the insect volatile collection system and enabled up to three samples to be collected without disturbing the system.
Article
A short synthesis of (E, Z)-7,9-dodecadien-1-yl acetate from propargyl alcohol and 6-bromohexanol via acetylenic-allenic isomerization of the resulting bis-THP-1,9-non-2-yn-diol is described. The field test of several preparations showed that theE,E isomer does not interfere with the biological activity of the pheromone. It was found that the “crude” preparation has higher activity than purified pheromone or virgin females.
Article
The effects of dispenser type, dispenser aging in the field, pheromone dose in the dispenser and trap type on trapping efficiency of codling moth,Cydia pomonella (L.), males were investigated in Israel. An Israeli-manufactured rubber septum was significantly better than the CM Pherocon cap in attracting males to a Pherocon 1C cap trap or an IPS trap. The effect of aging of the dispenser in the field on trapping efficiency was significant in CM Pherocon caps and the Israeli septa. Captures in traps were negatively correlated with aging of septa. The effect of aging of dispensers was more marked during summer than during spring. The fairly rapid loss of attractancy indicates that the lures should be replaced after 2 weeks at the most. The release rate of the pheromone from the dispensers was measured in a flow system. The emission from the Israeli septa and Pherocon caps decreased sharply after 2 weeks and then was almost constant, which explains the lower attractancy of aged septa. However, there was a marked difference in the release profiles of the pheromone from the two types of dispensers, which may explain the different performance of the two dispensers. Within the range of 0.1 to 100 μg pheromone per dispenser, male response increased positively with the pheromone dose. Pheromone loadings of 100 or 1000 μg per dispenser did not differ significantly in their attractiveness for males. A load of 5000 μg per dispenser was significantly less attractive to males than was 100 or 1000 μg per dispenser. The non-sticky IPS trap was significantly better in capturing codling moth males than was the sticky, commonly used Pherocon 1C trap, provided it was baited with the Israeli dispenser. The two traps were equally effective when baited with the CM Pherocon caps. The possibility of using the non-sticky, nonsaturating and easy-to-handle IPS traps for monitoring codling moth is of great importance.
Article
The effects of pheromone components, pheromone dose in the dispenser, aging of dispenser in the field, and trap type on trapping efficiency of males of the honeydew moth,Cryptoblabes gnidiella (Mill.) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), were investigated. At dosages of 2 or 0.2 mg, a binary blend containing (Z)-11-hexadecenal (Z11–16: Aid) and (Z)-13-octadecenal (Z13–18:Ald) (1:1) was as effective in attracting males as a quaternary blend containing Zll-16:Ald, (E)-11-hexadecenal (Ell-16:Ald), Z13–18:Ald and (E)-13-octadecenal (E13–18:Ald), (10:1:10:1). Within the range of 20 to 2000 μg pheromone/dispenser, response of males increased positively with the pheromone dose; however, a load of 10 or 20 mg/dispenser was significantly less attractive to males than 2 mg/dispenser. The effect of aging of the dispenser in the field on trapping efficiency was significant. Captures in traps baited with 3- and 4-week-old septa were lower than those in traps baited with 1- or 2-week-old septa. The gradual loss of attractancy exhibited by rubber septa indicates that septa should be renewed within 2-3 weeks. The release rate of the pheromone was measured in a flow system and monitored with Zl1– 16:Ald only. The emission was almost constant for 18 days and then decreased gradually until the 34th day. The nonsticky IPS trap was as effective in capturing honeydew moth males as the sticky Pherocon 1C trap. The possibility of using the nonsticky, non-saturating and easy-to-handle IPS traps may lead to better and easier monitoring of honeydew moth populations.
Effects of design of pheromone traps in monitoring the grape vine moth,Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae)
  • B Gabel
  • V Renczes
  • B. Gabel
Field studies in vineyards with sex pheromones ofLobesia botrana Schiff. andCryptoblabes gnidiella Mill
  • E Gurevitz
  • S Gothilf
Use of synthetic pheromone traps and evaluation of infestation levels ofLobesia botrana (Schiff.) (Lep., Tortricidae) on the island of Ischia in 1976
  • A Tranfaglia
  • M Malatesta
  • A. Tranfaglia
Lepidoptera: Torticidae): Synthesis and effect of isomeric purity on biological activity
  • R Idesis
  • J T Klug
  • A Shani
  • S Gothilf
  • E Gurewitz
  • R. Idesis
Sex attractant of the grape vine moth,Lobesia botrana
  • W Roelofs
  • J Kochansky
  • R Carde
  • H Arn
  • W. Roelofs