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Where practice and theory intersect in the chemistry classroom: Using cogenerative dialogue to identify the critical point in science education

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Abstract

This paper argues for an inclusive model of science education practice that attempts to facilitate a relationship between “science and all” by paying particular attention to the development of the relationship between the teacher, students and science. This model hinges on the implementation of cogenerative dialogues between students and teachers. Cogenerative dialogues are a form of structured discourse in which teachers and students engage in a collaborative effort to help identify and implement positive changes in classroom teaching and learning practices. A primary goal of this paper is to introduce a methodological and theoretical framework for conducting cogenerative dialogue that is accessible to classroom teachers and their students. I propose that researchers must learn to disseminate their findings to teachers in ways that are practical, in that they provide teachers with information needed to make concrete connections between the research and their teaching, while continuing to make available the theories that support their findings. Using an integration research framework in conjunction with a temporality of learning model, I introduce a method of disseminating research findings that provides both classroom teachers and researchers with access to different forms of knowledge about cogenerative dialogues in the same paper. In doing so, this article examines the relationships between teacher knowledge and researcher knowledge by exploring the practical application of cogenerative dialogues for classrooms teachers and the theoretical implications of using cogenerative dialogues for researchers.

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... This is done by analyzing videotaped lessons individually or collectively and selecting vignettes from the recorded lessons for further discussion. The chosen vignettes may depict pertinent issues such as teacher's instructional practices (Siry & Martin, 2014), students' learning difficulties (Im & Martin, 2015), and desired learning behavior (Martin, 2006;Tobin, 2006). The second stage requires the collaborative effort of the stakeholders to cogenerate a workable solution to address the pertinent issue(s) identified in stage one. ...
... The second stage requires the collaborative effort of the stakeholders to cogenerate a workable solution to address the pertinent issue(s) identified in stage one. The cogenerated solution is a shared consensus and all stakeholders are responsible for the transformative change in the classroom and sustaining it (Martin, 2006). ...
... The participatory feature of PAR is visible in the cogen study by Martin (2006). The study involved the researcher as the teacher, and a student named Jamie. ...
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Participatory action research is an empowering approach to advance research with participants. This paper describes and discusses the process and outcomes in engaging cogenerative dialogue (cogen) and coteaching in participatory action research (PAR) to support science curriculum change in a Singapore lower track classroom. The intervention was introduced after researching in a science teacher’s two lower tracker classrooms for about 18 months and observing that his lessons were teacher-centered and he experienced difficulty engaging the students. Using the empirical findings to inform teaching practice, the researchers engaged the science teacher and two selected students in two cogen sessions to identify issues with the science lessons. The students suggested solutions which were taken up and used to plan and design revised lessons co-taught by the science teacher and one researcher. This paper describes changes to the teacher’s and researcher’s teaching, learning, and research experiences through the lens of cogen and PAR. Transcripts from one cogen session, one cotaught lesson, one teacher interview, and one researcher’s written reflections were analyzed to distil affordances of PAR that led to changes in the classroom practices, views about science teaching and ways to carry out science research. The study illuminates the potentially transformative role of cogen, when coupled with action research, in Singapore and other classrooms.
... Research has shown that through repeated cogenerative dialogues, teachers and students learn how to explain their perspectives and choices. These conversations among participants are crucial in raising consciousness about different participant perspectives, providing a means of addressing social reproduction by examining sites for both successful and failed interactions which can then be transformed to improve teaching and learning (Martin, 2006). Shared perspectives can be used to inform the emerging understandings of classroom interactions, the quality of these interactions, participant practices and how these patterns of interactions contribute to the accomplishment of the collective activity of teaching and learning science. ...
... Guba and Lincoln's (1989) authenticity criteria provide the theoretical underpinning for cogenerative dialogues. Table 1 introduces each of the four criteria as characterized by previous research (Martin, 2006). These criteria are used to ensure that research be ethical and beneficial to all participants. ...
... Through cogenerative dialogue, students and teachers can discuss power relationships and the roles of participants (Seiler, 2002) as well as consider individual and collective activity, goals, roles, equity issues, curriculum, and responsibility. The notion of shared responsibility is central to these discussions, as participants reflect on shared experiences, power relationships, and the differing roles and perspectives of all those involved (Martin, 2006). These small changes provided her more opportunities to engage students in science discourse which could allow her more insights into how students understood the concepts they were discussing. ...
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Conducted within the methodological framework of action research, this study examines the ways in which a beginning science teacher in a Korean elementary classroom engaged in collaborative research with her own students to resolve problems preventing effective science teaching and learning. Specifically, this study uses cogenerative dialogue between teachers and students to develop new teachers’ knowledge of how to manage the classroom to be able to more effectively implement inquiry instructional strategies and knowledge of students as learners. Findings from this research suggest that by involving students in cogenerative dialogues, beginning teachers are provided with valuable insights into how elementary students think about school, science, and teaching and learning, which can help expand a beginning teacher’s capacity to be an effective science teacher of science for all learners, especially diverse learners. These findings suggest that teacher education programs could better support beginning teachers by placing greater emphasis on how to conduct action research, including how to implement cogenerative dialogues to catalyze positive changes in their own classrooms. We conclude by discussing the important implications this research has for supporting new teachers struggle to effectively teach science and who would benefit from using strategies to foster improved relationships with their students and improved understanding about the challenges faced by diverse learners in their classroom.
... Co-teaching has been introduced in different contexts including pre-service-teachers, special education, and elementary, secondary and higher education. Innovative work by Roth and Tobin on integrating co-teaching with cogenerative dialogue has been used for teacher evaluation (Roth & Tobin, 2001), classroom praxis (Roth & Tobin, & Zimmermahn, 2002;Martin, 2006), transforming classroom culture (Lehner, 2007), and transforming teachers' beliefs and practices (Carambo & Stickney, 2009). Because co-teaching and co-generative dialogue provides opportunities for sustaining the transformation process (Martin, 2006), I found it to be powerful for transforming myself as a science educator. ...
... Innovative work by Roth and Tobin on integrating co-teaching with cogenerative dialogue has been used for teacher evaluation (Roth & Tobin, 2001), classroom praxis (Roth & Tobin, & Zimmermahn, 2002;Martin, 2006), transforming classroom culture (Lehner, 2007), and transforming teachers' beliefs and practices (Carambo & Stickney, 2009). Because co-teaching and co-generative dialogue provides opportunities for sustaining the transformation process (Martin, 2006), I found it to be powerful for transforming myself as a science educator. ...
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This article focuses on critical reflections on my teaching identity when I engaged as a co-teacher with three science teachers and their students from different social and cultural backgrounds. I am a university based chemistry teacher educator from Indonesia who worked in a 3-year longitudinal co-teaching project in lower secondary schools in Western Australia. As the research involved critical reflection on my own professional praxis, I adopted a multi-paradigmatic research approach with critical auto/ethnography as the research methodology. Over time, critical reflection enabled me to develop difference awareness, empathy and rapport, sharing of control and power, mutual understanding and negotiation. However, I found myself struggling to engage deeply with the science teachers and their students, due in part to socio-cultural factors. In this article, I investigate my autobiographical self as a science teacher educator facing the dilemma of aspiring to become increasingly empowered whilst simultaneously being controlled by external socio-cultural forces. As I worked with the 3 science teachers I found within their characters a mirror of my own history as a science teacher. I came to realise the power of meaning making for students’ learning and also that in my own teaching history I had ignored it when the power of the technical interest strongly controlled the science classroom. The journey of working closely with the three science teachers invoked in me continuous reflection on my own evolving teaching identity as a science educator who is committed to transformative learning theory, who has faith in constructivism as a pedagogical referent, who envisions better teacher-student relationships, and who is trying to establish the wisdom of dialectical thinking; a set of beliefs that I hope will help me to stay on the pathway of increasing empowerment for better education. Key Words: Co-teaching, teaching identity, auto/ethnography, transformative learning
... These small groups exist to bring to the forefront unconscious teaching practices, to bring a collectively responsible voice and reflection in the classroom, and to allow students to experience an equal playing field in the teacher-student relationship. The expectations of the co-generative participants are voluntary input, equal voice, and (Martin, 2006). Furthermore, the co-generative dialogue "offers teachers and students a pathway for sharing current understandings to describe what has happened, identify problems, articulate problems in terms of contradictions, and frame options that provide new and increased choices for enacting teaching and learning" (Martin 2006). ...
... The expectations of the co-generative participants are voluntary input, equal voice, and (Martin, 2006). Furthermore, the co-generative dialogue "offers teachers and students a pathway for sharing current understandings to describe what has happened, identify problems, articulate problems in terms of contradictions, and frame options that provide new and increased choices for enacting teaching and learning" (Martin 2006). Not only do co-generative dialogues foster communication within the classroom, but also provide an excellent forum for research. ...
... In addition, it helps students proactively identify and develop strategies to address hindrances to their learning and development. Over the course of the semester, students' self-transformation is facilitated through their weekly engagement in self-reflection (D. A. Kolb, 1984;Schön, 1983), self-reflexivity (Cunliffe, 2004;Cunliffe & Easterby-Smith, 2004), peer coaching, and a cogenerative dialogue (Martin, 2006;Stith & Roth, 2006). Cogenerative dialogue allows students to learn from their classmates' experiences, as well as their own direct experience. ...
... Over the course of a number of semesters of being employed, the process was continually developed based on student feedback and instructor learning. After engaging in self-reflexivity alongside his students (Cunliffe, 2004;Eriksen, 2012), reflecting on their reflection in action (Schön, 1983), taking part in cogenerative dialogue with them, (Martin, 2006;Tobin & Roth, 2006) and being a part of partnership learning, Matthew realized that the process could be used as a form of case-inpoint learning relevant to the leadership and team development courses in which it was used. More recently, the shared purpose developed by students has been used as a framework for additional partnership and casein-point learning opportunities (e.g., developing course-grading criteria and assigning grades). ...
Article
This article presents a student-established, shared-purpose process used to increase student engagement with, commitment to, and responsibility for their learning. In addition to establishing a shared purpose for their course, the students establish and commit to ways of being, doing, and interacting with one another necessary to intentionally and mutually achieve the shared purpose and other meaningful learning outcomes. They also commit to an individual practice that they believe will increase the likelihood of achieving the shared purpose, as well as identify personal inhibitors to achieving it. This process represents a form of experiential/case-in-point, student-centered, transformative, and partnership learning that is relevant to leadership, team, and organizational development courses. Based on the established shared purpose, we share how to effectively facilitate additional partnership and in-class experiential learning opportunities over the course of the semester.
... According to Stith and Roth (2008), involving students in co-generative dialogue will help them to engage and contribute to their learning which leads to classroom transformation. Rahmawati, Koul and Fisher (2015) stated co-teaching and co-generative dialogue have been used for teacher evaluation (Roth & Tobin, 2001), for classroom praxis (Roth, Tobin & Zimmermahn, 2002;Martin, 2006), for transforming classroom culture (Lehner, 2007), and for transforming teachers' beliefs and practices (Carambo & Stickney, 2009) because co-teaching and co-generative dialogue provides opportunities for sustaining the transformation process (Martin, 2006). In our study co-teaching and co-generative dialogue transformed teacher interpersonal behaviour and pedagogical praxis which led to student engagement in science learning (Rahmawati, Koul, & Fisher, 2015) and development of the teacher's identity (Rahmawati & Taylor, 2015). ...
... According to Stith and Roth (2008), involving students in co-generative dialogue will help them to engage and contribute to their learning which leads to classroom transformation. Rahmawati, Koul and Fisher (2015) stated co-teaching and co-generative dialogue have been used for teacher evaluation (Roth & Tobin, 2001), for classroom praxis (Roth, Tobin & Zimmermahn, 2002;Martin, 2006), for transforming classroom culture (Lehner, 2007), and for transforming teachers' beliefs and practices (Carambo & Stickney, 2009) because co-teaching and co-generative dialogue provides opportunities for sustaining the transformation process (Martin, 2006). In our study co-teaching and co-generative dialogue transformed teacher interpersonal behaviour and pedagogical praxis which led to student engagement in science learning (Rahmawati, Koul, & Fisher, 2015) and development of the teacher's identity (Rahmawati & Taylor, 2015). ...
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This article reports one of the case studies in a 3-year longitudinal study in environmental science education. This case explores the process of teaching about ecosystems through co-teaching and co-generative dialogue in a Year-9 science classroom in Western Australia. Combining with co-teaching and co-generative dialogue aimed at transforming classroom practices and stimulating students’ awareness of ecosystems and bio-diversity. The research employed mixed-methods methodology with multiple research methods. The results show that the teachers and the students were engaged and enjoyed the activities. The fieldwork experiences stimulated student critical voice, group cohesiveness, and student involvement. © 2016, Western Australian Institute for Educational Research Inc. All rights reserved.
... As previously mentioned in the beginning of this article, the definition of cogenerative dialogues stresses the role of dialogue: it is defined as (a) the "effective negotiation of the systems they navigate each day" (Stith and Roth, 2010); (b) "open discussions in which all participants' opinions and voices have equal value, and the participants co-generate a product" (Martin, 2006;Scantlebury et al., 2008); (c) a 'radically democratic' discussion among collaborator with varying experience and expertise (Roth, 2001) in the "democratic construction of (open) theory" (Roth et al., 2004) for a "collectively engagement in building theory" (Roth et al., 2004) in "a form of structured discourse" (Martin, 2006), which thus results in the "co-generation of solutions" and local theory (Martin and Scantlebury, 2009). Therefore, from my standpoint, an epistemological theory based on dialogue and the social relations individuals share could not avoid a critical look into the language used in this context because linguistic structures are used as ways of acting, interacting, representing and being in the world and with people (Resende and Ramalho, 2006). ...
... As previously mentioned in the beginning of this article, the definition of cogenerative dialogues stresses the role of dialogue: it is defined as (a) the "effective negotiation of the systems they navigate each day" (Stith and Roth, 2010); (b) "open discussions in which all participants' opinions and voices have equal value, and the participants co-generate a product" (Martin, 2006;Scantlebury et al., 2008); (c) a 'radically democratic' discussion among collaborator with varying experience and expertise (Roth, 2001) in the "democratic construction of (open) theory" (Roth et al., 2004) for a "collectively engagement in building theory" (Roth et al., 2004) in "a form of structured discourse" (Martin, 2006), which thus results in the "co-generation of solutions" and local theory (Martin and Scantlebury, 2009). Therefore, from my standpoint, an epistemological theory based on dialogue and the social relations individuals share could not avoid a critical look into the language used in this context because linguistic structures are used as ways of acting, interacting, representing and being in the world and with people (Resende and Ramalho, 2006). ...
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This paper aims at discussing the need to formulate a bridge between a theory of language (Critical Discourse Analysis, for example) and research on {coteaching|cogenerative dialogue} as a means to not only understand participants identity transformation but also the power relations fostered in {coteaching|cogenerative dialogue} contexts. It is grounded in a socio-historical-cultural perspective of learning and critical discourse analysis. The results of such alignment, in this paper, are presented as a proposal for investigating the ways of exercising control in the ways of acting and interacting in {coteaching|cogenerative dialogues} or other collaborative and democratic environments.Key-Words: critical discourse analysis, interaction, power, socio-historical-cultural perspective.
... Both of them provide perspective on how they feel during the class process. The parties participating in the dialogue have the opportunity to improve each other (Martin, 2006). ...
... Cogenerative dialogue is an open discussion where all the opinions and voices of participants have the same outstanding value, and the participants together produce a product (e.g. solving a problem in chemistry teaching and learning) (Martin, 2006). The discussion in this study is not only limited to face-to-face meetings but also discussions through long conversations via email, written reports, and chat via WhatsApp. ...
... According to Stith and Roth (2008), involving students in co-generative dialogue helps them to engage and contribute to their learning which, in turn, leads to classroom transformation. Co-teaching and co-generative dialogue have been used for teacher evaluation (Roth and Tobin 2001), for classroom praxis (Martin 2006;Roth et al. 2002), for transforming classroom culture (Lehner 2007) and for transforming teachers' beliefs and practices (Carambo and Stickney 2009). In addition, co-teaching and co-generative dialogue provide opportunities for teachers to sustain the transformation process (Martin 2006). ...
... Co-teaching and co-generative dialogue have been used for teacher evaluation (Roth and Tobin 2001), for classroom praxis (Martin 2006;Roth et al. 2002), for transforming classroom culture (Lehner 2007) and for transforming teachers' beliefs and practices (Carambo and Stickney 2009). In addition, co-teaching and co-generative dialogue provide opportunities for teachers to sustain the transformation process (Martin 2006). In this study, the science teachers, the researcher (first author) and the students were engaged in the process of dialogue, collaboration and reflection. ...
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The paper reports a study of the effectiveness of co-teaching and co-generative dialogue in science learning and teaching in lower secondary science classes. The idea of co-teaching and co-generative dialogue—first proposed by two leading educationists, Roth and Tobin, in early 2000—made an international impact in educational research. In the context of the research, co-teaching and co-generative dialogue were applied for transforming teacher interpersonal behaviour. The pre-validated Questionnaire on Teacher Interaction (QTI) was administered to all the year nine classes at three selected secondary schools to investigate existing teacher interpersonal behaviours and to further validate the QTI. This was followed by the implementation of co-teaching and co-generative dialogue in three selected science classrooms, one from each school. Multiple research methods (interview, students’ reflective journals, and questionnaire) were used to develop in-depth understanding of the participants. Co-teaching and co-generative dialogue helped in transforming teacher interpersonal behaviour and teachers’ pedagogical praxis. This process also had implications for improving students’ engagement, achievement and behaviour.
... Often, the most pressing problem in teaching science in urban areas is making the curriculum and the associated practices accessible to all learners. Martin (2006) writes that in many public schools the daily science education persists to accommodate only a small group of students who may in fact already have some natural aptitude in the related scientific disciplines. Often this form of teaching leaves the majority of school learners excluded from meaningful instruction and may do more to alienat ...
... Creating ways to include all students in science instruction Often, the most pressing problem in teaching science in urban areas is making the curriculum and the associated practices accessible to all learners. Martin (2006) writes that in many public schools the daily science education persists to accommodate only a small group of students who may in fact already have some natural aptitude in the related scientific disciplines. Often this form of teaching leaves the majority of school learners excluded from meaningful instruction and may do more to alienate students from engaging in the learning of science. ...
Article
In much of the educational literature, researchers make little distinction between African-American students and students of the African Diaspora who immigrated to the United States. Failing to describe these salient student differences serves to perpetuate an inaccurate view of African-American school life. In today’s large cities, students of the African Diaspora are frequently learning science in settings that are devoid of the resources and tools to fully support their success. While much of the scholarship unites these disparate groups, this article details the distinctive learning culture created when students from several groups of the African Diaspora learn biology together in a Brooklyn Suspension Center. Specifically this work explains how one student, Gabriel, functions in a biology class. A self-described black-Panamanian, Gabriel had tacitly resigned to not learning science, which then, in effect, precluded him from any further associated courses of study in science, and may have excluded him from the possibility of a science related career. This ethnography follows Gabriel’s science learning as he engaged in cogenerative dialogue with teachers to create aligned learning and teaching practices. During the 5months of this research, Gabriel drew upon his unique lifeworld and the depth of his hybridized cultural identity to produce limited, but nonetheless important demonstrations of science. Coexistent with his involvement in cogenerative dialogue, Gabriel helped to construct many classroom practices that supported a dynamic learning environment which produced small yet concrete examples of standards based biology. This study supports further investigation by the science education community to consider ways that students’ lifeworld experiences can serve to structure and transform the urban science classroom.
... During the last decade, more than 45 university, teacher, and student researchers have written over fifty journal publications, eleven unpublished doctoral dissertations, seven on-going doctoral studies, and four books, all focusing on differing aspects of coteaching and cogenerative dialogues (Martin, in press). Numerous studies are testament to the benefits of cogenerative dialogues as a methodology for learning to teach (Tobin 2006;Scantlebury et al. 2008), for improving the quality of teaching and learning (Geelan et al. 2006;Martin 2006;Martin et al. 2006;Wassell and Stith 2006;Lehner 2007), and as a research method for examining social interactions between students and teachers (Seiler and Elmesky 2005;Martin 2006;Olitsky 2006;Scantlebury and LaVan 2006;Emdin 2007). These studies detail the theoretical and methodological frameworks supporting cogenerative dialogues, and provide useful insights into how teachers and researchers can use cogenerative dialogues to catalyze positive change in the classroom, and transform social interactions between teachers and students. ...
... During the last decade, more than 45 university, teacher, and student researchers have written over fifty journal publications, eleven unpublished doctoral dissertations, seven on-going doctoral studies, and four books, all focusing on differing aspects of coteaching and cogenerative dialogues (Martin, in press). Numerous studies are testament to the benefits of cogenerative dialogues as a methodology for learning to teach (Tobin 2006;Scantlebury et al. 2008), for improving the quality of teaching and learning (Geelan et al. 2006;Martin 2006;Martin et al. 2006;Wassell and Stith 2006;Lehner 2007), and as a research method for examining social interactions between students and teachers (Seiler and Elmesky 2005;Martin 2006;Olitsky 2006;Scantlebury and LaVan 2006;Emdin 2007). These studies detail the theoretical and methodological frameworks supporting cogenerative dialogues, and provide useful insights into how teachers and researchers can use cogenerative dialogues to catalyze positive change in the classroom, and transform social interactions between teachers and students. ...
Article
This paper focuses on content-based and pedagogical instructors’ use of cogenerative dialogues to improve instructional practice and to evaluate program effectiveness in a professional development program for high school chemistry teachers. We share our research findings from using cogenerative dialogues as an evaluative tool for general assessment of various program-related issues. We discuss how engaging students in cogenerative dialogues improved teaching and learning in chemistry and chemistry education courses. This research provides insights and direction for improving content-based professional development programs for science teachers and the learning experiences of high school science students. Cogenerative dialogue has the potential to expand evaluation methodologies that will position participants more centrally in not only the collection of data, but also the analysis of these data to catalyze transformative practices in educational programs.
... Students from the workshop-based course made reference to new views and attitudes about biology, while no students in the comparison course made such comments (Udovic et al, 2002). Other studies report improved student-teacher relationships with the use of non-traditional methods (Martin, 2006;Syh-Jong, 2007). Some efforts to include service learning have reported to influence career choices (Gustein, Smith, & Manahan, 2006;Kennell, 2000). ...
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The conflict between the amount of material to be addressed in high school science classes, the need to prepare students for standardized tests, and the amount of time available forces science educators to make difficult peda-gogical decisions on a daily basis. Hands-on and inquiry-based learning offer students more authentic learning experiences with benefits beyond test scores. However, these alternative teaching/learning techniques can be more time consuming than textbook use and exacerbate the conflict between pedagogy and time. The study reported in this article questioned 2712 college Biology students about their high school science experiences. Analyses indicate that the amount of time spent reading biology texts does not influence learning outcomes.
... Cogenerative dialogues are conversations between teachers, students, and researchers that are designed to support the teaching and learning that takes place in a classroom (Tobin & Roth, 2006). The purpose of these dialogues is to foster positive relationships among coteachers (Roth & Tobin, 2002) and between teachers and their students (Elmesky & Tobin, 2005;Martin, 2006) while improving instructional practices among teachers (Martin & Scantlebury, 2009;Siry, 2011) and developing students' and teachers' understandings about content and how to engage in productive teaching and learning (Bayne & Scantlebury, 2013). ...
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This paper presents findings from a study conducted in an urban elementary school in the United States with an English language learner (ELL) student and two teachers engaged in collaborative teaching in an inclusion science classroom. This study examines the efficacy of utilising cogenerative dialogues between an ELL student and his science teacher and English as second language teacher to improve instructional practices enacted during coteaching. Drawing from field notes, teacher and student interviews, and video captured during cotaught science lessons and during cogenerative dialogues between the student and his coteachers, we examined the ways in which cogenerative dialogue expands teachers’ agency to adapt curriculum and implement instructional strategies that can better meet the needs of their students. At the same time, we examined the ways in which participation in cogenerative dialogues with his teachers expanded this student’s agency as a science learner and a language learner.
... The program was undertaken as a cogenerative dialogue (Tobin, Elmesky & Seiler (2005); Martin (2006); Author 1 (2006)) between the instructor and five undergraduate students from the biochemistry class, code-named Mike, Alizee, Alice, Jane, and Moh. The professor selected the students based upon their background, interests, and quiz grades, with a mixture of different cultures and both sexes. ...
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Students entering undergraduate biochemistry courses are usually already committed to studies in biochemistry or a related field. These students have excelled, in general, in biology, organic chemistry, and physics before starting the biochemistry two-semester sequence. Most of the publications on college science teaching focus on the introductory science courses, and few and far between are the publications on upper-level science courses. We undertook this study as a collaborative learning venture whereby a small group of students, in partnership with their instructor, sought to discuss and improve upon a second-semester biochemistry course at a major American university. We present student opinions and suggestions regarding all aspects of the course from physical facilities to teaching and assessment techniques. As a part of the dialogue, we also evaluated two recently developed instructional methods- the personal response system (PRS), and a teaching tool called Chemistry Is In The News (CIITN) (Glaser & Carson, 2005).
... Cogens implemented when coteaching adhere to "rules" such as all coteachers have an equal voice and opinion when planning, implementing, and evaluating teaching, coteachers are encouraged to share their reasons for curricular and pedagogical practices and to identify issues that impact the teaching and learning in that class. Key cogen outcomes include coteachers collectively generating solutions for issues and problems, discussing real and ideal forms of practice and collectively extending knowledge of group member's buds of development (Martin, 2006;Murphy et al., this issue). Cogens are not a panacea to address all problems and challenges in teaching and curriculum planning. ...
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As a model for learning to teach, coteaching places two or more student teachers and cooperating teachers in a classroom. Effective coteaching requires coplanning, and this case study examines how six coteachers planned instruction for three environmental science classes. Using sociocultural theory, the study provides insight into the complexity and challenges in coplanning such as using collective knowledge to produce lesson plans, identification of teaching resources, the importance of communication between coteachers during planning and the enactment of lessons, and teachers’ time as a limited resource. Coplanning provided learning experiences for student and cooperating teachers through reflective discussions that proposed ideal forms of practice and the alignment of teaching to achieve that goal.
... Cogenerative dialogues are discussions involving students and teachers that foreground problems and generate strategies to improve teaching and learning (LaVan and Beers 2005). Cogenerative dialogues have been used extensively in the field of P-20 science education (e.g., Martin 2006;Roth and Tobin 2001;Stith and Roth 2008) and more recently with ELLs in science and ESL classes (Wassell, Martin, and Scantlebury 2013). The dialogues provide a space for students, teachers, and researchers to talk about classroom events, providing a venue for improving learning in the classroom and collecting data. ...
Article
Increases in the number of English language learner (ELL) students in the United States has led to a significant need for research that explores teaching and learning for ELL students in science and other content-area classrooms. This qualitative study investigated middle-school ELL students’ (N = 12) beliefs and practices surrounding science learning. We explore the instructional opportunities that are lost when teachers do not take student voice into consideration when designing and implementing curricula. We contextualize these findings by relating them to a commonly used instructional model for integrating language and content instruction. We conclude with implications for teacher education and in-service teacher professional development.
... Having experienced the power of cogen in our research in middle and high schools I immediately seized the opportunity to employ cogen in my own classes in teacher education programs and other graduate programs in which I was involved -especially in the doctoral program in Urban Education at the Graduate Center of CUNY. Furthermore, former doctoral students who undertook their doctoral research on cogen enacted the activity as a methodology in their university level teaching and often continue to undertake research on cogen (Martin, 2006). In an important way this form of generalizability addresses the problem of inclusion of voices in transforming/improving curricula -in a bottom-up process. ...
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Self-study of teaching and learning in urban high school classrooms is presented as an activity that has the potential to catalyze the transformation of science curricula in ways that take account of teachers’ and students’ voices. In this autobiographical chapter, Ken Tobin describes what he learned from undertaking research on his own teaching in urban high school science—especially how he learned from urban youth whom he was teaching. Important features are learning from difference, use of an array of theoretical frameworks to support research, willingness to acknowledge when learning environments are dysfunctional, and the need to consider the potential of others’ expertise. Dr. Tobin describes how cogenerative dialogue emerged from a program of research in urban schools and evolved to serve as a methodology for self-study research, a bridge between theory and practice, and a means of learning to teach by researching teaching and learning. Uses of self-study research and cogenerative dialogue can infuse the voices of teachers and learners into enacted curricula that are adaptive to local contexts and continuously transform to be relevant to a changing world in which sustainability is a priority and to support a literate citizenry that sustains individual and collective wellness and well-being.
... Cogens not only help students to express their voices, but can also help teachers collaborate with each other (Roth & Tobin, 2005). Moreover, cogens have been introduced in teacher education in university preservice programs to prepare future science teachers (Scantlebury, Gallo-Fox, & Wassell, 2008), train preservice teachers in informal science institutions (Gupta, 2009), facilitate in-service teachers' professional development (Martin & Scantlebury, 2009), and facilitate dialogues between researchers and teachers to integrate theory and practice (Martin, 2006). With particular relevance for the current study, cogens provide a safe space to create new forms of social capital that allow participants to interact effectively across age, ethnicity, sex, and class boundaries (Tobin, 2006). ...
... Student comments also implicated their needs to process information and to practice less comfortable social interactions (such as face-to-face discussions of content) first with familiar peers before branching out into whole-class conversations or presentations. Previous literature on cogenerative dialogues supports this finding, highlighting how teachers have used such dialogues to learn about and adapt to students' social needs by limiting cold-calling on some students (e.g., Martin, 2006) and by partnering students with familiar peers when group projects center around challenging concepts or new linguistic skills (e.g., Wassell et al., 2013). Teachers are then able to utilize this information to create more responsive, adaptive classroom environments, as when, for instance, Ellen used small-group discussions to prime her students for a whole-class conversations. ...
... In this article, we advocate using cogenerative dialogues, a promising practice for learning more about the teaching and learning needs of English language learners (ELLs) in a specific learning context. Cogenerative dialogues have been used extensively in the field of K-12 through graduate school science education (Martin, 2006;Roth & Tobin, 2001;Siry & Lang, 2010;Stith & Roth, 2008;Tobin, 2006), in teacher education (Martin, 2009;Martin & Scantlebury, 2009;Scantlebury, Gallo-Fox, & Wassell, 2008), and in urban education settings (Bayne, 2009;Carambo, 2009;Elmesky & Tobin, 2005;Emdin, 2007), yet no study to date has focused on their impact on ELL students' language or content learning. In this article, we extend the use of cogenerative dialogues to the field of TESOL and advocate its use as a promising practice. ...
Article
Given the collaborative nature of the TESOL profession, models are needed that provide opportunities for teachers and other school-based stakeholders to interact with students to understand their successes, challenges, and particular needs more clearly. In this article, the authors advocate for the use of cogenerative dialogues, a promising practice for learning more about the teaching and learning needs of English language learners (ELLs) in a specific learning context. Cogenerative dialogues are discussions involving students and teachers that foreground problems and generate strategies to improve teaching and learning. The dialogues were implemented as part of a larger, mixed-methods study in two urban middle school science classrooms in the United States. The authors discuss beneficial outcomes and tensions for both ELL students and teachers. Benefits included (1) creating opportunities for students to develop a voice, (2) assuming responsibilities for learning, (3) sharing responsibilities for language acquisition and learning, and (4) developing a sense of community. They also address two other specific concerns: the language proficiency levels of the students who are involved, and the cultural practices around critiquing teaching and learning.
... Cogenerative dialoguing are encounters in which multiple stakeholders -any suitable configuration including students, supervising teachers, teachers in training, supervising teacher trainers, department heads, or principalsequitably participate in conversations about curriculum praxis that they have enacted together. It can be understood, therefore, as a form of structured discourse in which teachers and students engage in collaborative effort to help identify and implement positive changes in classroom teaching and learning practices (Martin, 2006). The main theoretical underpinning of cogenerative dialogues is the belief that each participant brings unique understandings and experiences to the field of activity while experiencing and interacting with the field in different ways (Wassel & Lavan, 2009). ...
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Many teachers point to the theory-practice gap between university training and their school-based work. Coteaching in conjunction with cogenerative dialoguing as a means of teacher induction has been shown to overcome this gap. In this paper, we articulate teacher development in the praxis-centered {coteaching | cogenerative dialoguing} setting of one Brazilian teacher education program in terms of changing societal relations. We draw on Vygotskij, Leont'ev, and Dewey's ideas on development. The results exhibit the experience of teaching generally and the extant societal relations specifically as the condition for teacher development. Implications for teaching education programs are discussed.
... Research involving cogenerative dialogues in urban science classrooms has demonstrated that by engaging different stakeholder groups (including students, parents, other teachers, and administrators) in conversations around curriculum choices, pedagogical choices, and classroom/school policies, participants are able to create solidarity across differences associated with ethnicity, native language, social class, age, and gender. As a result, teachers and students have been supported to cogenerate a shared understanding of individual goals for learning and teaching science, enabling them to collectively transform the way school science is experienced by individuals (Martin 2006). By employing cogenerative dialogues as a pedagogical tool, teachers, like David, could empower their students, teaching peers, and community members to challenge the colonizing power of school curricula. ...
Chapter
In Pauline Chinn and David Hana’ike’s chapter exploring the role of place, culture,­ and situated learning on teacher agency in science, Pauline and David employ Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) and Actor Network Theories to examine David’s lived experiences as a middle-school science teacher in Hawaii. Through ethno- and biographic narratives, Pauline and David offer a “genealogical” examination of David’s early experiences as a learner, focusing on the ways in which his identity as a Hawaiian native has shaped his growth and development as a science teacher. Specifically, Pauline and David emphasize the intentionality of David’s establishment of activity networks with individuals within schools and the local community as being connected to his identity. They provide examples of how these activity/social networks have supported his development of a teaching practice that has enabled him to successfully connect school learning to place, culture, and science for students who, like David, identify as Hawaiian natives.
... Cogens not only help students to express their voices, but can also help teachers to collaborate with each other (Roth and Tobin 2005). Moreover, cogens have been introduced in teacher education in university preservice programs to prepare future science teachers (Scantlebury et al. 2008), train preservice teachers in informal science institutions (Gupta 2009), facilitate inservice teachers' professional development (Martin and Scantlebury 2009) and facilitate dialogues between researchers and teachers to integrate theory and practice (Martin 2006). With particular relevance for the proposed study, cogens provide a safe space for creating new forms of social capital that allow participants to interact effectively across age, ethnicity, sex and class boundaries (Tobin 2006). ...
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Working with scientists has been suggested as an effective way for high-school students to learn authentic science. However, little research has involved students’ perceptions of science learning environments in a university internship. This study drew on the theoretical framework of community of practice with cogenerative dialogues to design an internship program that aims to build a constructivist internship for students. Students who learned science in the internship program developed stronger constructivist learning perceptions than those who learned science in school. Specifically, students perceived that they had more opportunities to think independently of the instructors and other students. Three effective principles for program design are: (a) high school students conduct open-inquiry projects with the support of scientists; (b) high school students and scientists conduct cogenerative dialogues regularly to address issues and share experiences; and (c) high school students present their project proposals and scientific findings at open house events. Implications of the results are discussed.
... Cogens not only help students to express their thoughts and concerns, but can also help teachers collaborate with each other (Roth & Tobin, 2005). Cogens have been introduced in teacher education in university preservice programs to prepare future science teachers (Scantlebury, Gallo-Fox, & Wassell, 2008), train preservice teachers in informal science institutions (Gupta, 2009), facilitate in-service teachers' professional development (Martin & Scantlebury, 2009), and facilitate dialogs between researchers and teachers to integrate theory and practice (Martin, 2006). Across these applications, cogens have provided a safe space to create new forms of social capital that allowed participants to interact effectively across age, ethnicity, sex, and class boundaries (Tobin, 2006). ...
Article
Working with scientists has been suggested as an effective way for high school students to learn science more authentically. However, several challenges hinder partnerships between students and scientists, such as intimidation issues, the complexity of scientific language, and communication barriers. The purpose of this phenomenographic study was to introduce a pedagogical tool, cogenerative dialogs (cogens), to improve student–scientist partnerships and to investigate high school students’ experience of cogens with scientists. The analysis of high school students’ and scientists’ experiences of cogens in this study suggested four positive and two challenging experiences that shed light on the use of cogens by two distinctly different groups of stakeholders. This study demonstrates positive evidence that cogens can help students build a stronger bond with scientists to enhance their science learning. Suggestions to improve cogen practices between students and scientists are provided.
... отрицанием культурного многообразия. При этом исследования наглядно иллюстрируют, что в странах c разнообразным составом студентов и школьников учителя плохо относятся к инокультурным и иноязыковым учащимся из-за их низкой успеваемости (Martin, 2006). Можно выделить несколько «точек напряжения». ...
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The article presents the results of an empirical research, which objective was to study the relationship between various components of intercultural competence and self-efficacy of teachers working with students from other cultures. Inter-cultural competence is understood as a complex multi-component concept that includes four basic components: intercul-tural interest, intercultural stability, lack of ethnocentrism, and management of intercultural interaction. In a situation of direct interaction with representatives of other cultures, in addition to self-assessment of intercultural competence, it is also important to take into account the behavioral choices in a situation of inter-cultural communication. Thus, the study Работа выполнена в рамках научно-исследовательского проекта ФГБОУ ВО МГППУ «Инструменты оценки межкультурной компетентности педагога». Study was supported by the MSUPE research project "Tools for assessing the intercultural competence of a teacher".
... One way that this kind of student voice and choice can be accomplished is through the use of cogenerative dialogues (Tobin 2006). Cogenerative dialogues are activities in which a small number of students and the teacher meet regularly to review what's been happening in the class and generate collective decisions about classroom teaching and learning (Martin 2006). Chris Emdin wrote about how cogenerative dialogue can be used to "modify teaching and learning in science and to ameliorate urban students' alienation from schools" (2010, p. 1). ...
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This essay takes up a question that was left unanswered in the paper by Parsons and Morton, namely, why the African American students interviewed in the study described their best teachers as they did. The theoretical perspectives of Rogoff and Boykin are applied to show the importance of culturally resonant science classrooms that hum with the repertoires and dimensions of African American students. Examples are provided to illustrate the need for science teaching that emerges from, is situated in and relevant to the lives of African American students, as well as approaches that lead to critical, socially transformative science teaching. These examples are also used to illustrate that a small space exists within NGSS for this kind of teaching to be done in science classrooms. Lastly, although student voice is important, surveying African American students to understand how they might best be taught science must be considered in the context of the racialized nature of the students’ experiences in the oppressive educational system that they have endured.
... Over 3 years, these teachers participated in a group called Collaborative Teacher Inquiry Around Informal Science Learning and Science Teaching in Urban Classrooms, which became an important space for these teachers to talk about science teaching and learning in their contexts. A cogenerative dialogue approach was used to facilitate group discussions where the teachers shared their experiences with teaching and ISE and used this to develop new meanings and solutions in equitable science teaching (Martin, 2006). Several of the teachers identified as Afro-Caribbean, African Adams ASIA-PACIFIC SCIENCE EDUCATION (2020) 1-24 American, or Latiñes, and this showed up in discussions: being a teacher of color teaching students of color. ...
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In order to advance authentic equity in science education, it is salient to have frameworks that allow educators and researchers to design learning environments, activities, and research agendas that centers students’ strengths in order for them to achieve full participation in science. As such it is important to consider the social identities of science education stakeholders—teachers and students—in teacher education. However, as identity is complex, it requires research approaches that elucidate not only the nuances of teacher identity but also the complexities of science teaching and learning environments. This article describes a collaborative research project that aimed to unpack the relationship between teacher identity and learning to teach. It outlines the collaborative process of theory building that includes teacher participants and the research team and how the framework for teacher education emerged that considers the various aspects of designing equitable and liberatory science learning.
... Cogenerative dialogues, when conducted within the methodological and theoretical framework of the authenticity criteria, provide teachers and students a means of engaging in structured discourse in an effort to help identify and implement positive changes in classroom teaching and learning practices (Martin, 2006). This structure not only provides students an avenue to discuss their thoughts and concerns, it provides co-researchers an avenue to negotiate the power differences they experience as well. ...
... Field trips are generally considered to have the potential to simplify complex ideas and to concretize abstract concepts through direct experience for students (Bell et al., 2009;Falk & Balling, 1982;Orion & Hofstein, 1994). Outdoor learning is also a form of contextualization of learning that can foster the improvement of the quality of learning design, encourage dialogue and interaction of students, as well as enhancing the comprehension of the meaning of lifelong learning (Ash & Wells, 2006;Bamberger & Tal, 2008;Martin, 2006). The experience gained by students through field trips allows students to feel a sense of involvement with natural or social phenomena that are real and is highly relevant to abstract material obtained in classroom learning (Knapp & Barrie, 2001). ...
... On rare occasions when the coach was forced to take control of the situation, the candidate was immediately referred to the university supervisor for evaluation and feedback. 4. Co-generative Dialogue is a form of "structured discourse in which teachers and students engage in a collaborative effort to help identify and implement positive changes in a teacher's classroom teaching and learning practices" (Martin, 2006, p. 694). 4. Partnership Principles were originally developed by Knight (2007) who identified them as central to developing substantive interpersonal communication and substantive relationships to support collaboration, mentoring and other forms of collegial practice in education. ...
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In 2010, the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) called for colleges and universities to "turn teacher education upside down" (pg. 2) and focus on clinical experiences, rather than coursework. This charge resulted in major shifts in teacher education programs in the USA as colleges and universities forged new partnerships to create yearlong clinical experiences that included co-teaching and coaching. In 2018, the American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education (AACTE) Commission on Clinical Experiences recognized and described the mutual benefits of expanding these partnerships between schools and universities to include various forms of collaboration, co-teaching and coaching. While these partnerships are increasing in number, little is known about the efficacy of the specific coaching approaches and practices employed in the co-taught classroom. This self-study examined the communication and behavioral approaches of 13 co-teaching coaches who collaborated with 39 teacher candidates enrolled in yearlong, co-taught P-12 clinical experiences. The co-teaching coaches attended up to four sessions of professional learning on co-teaching and coaching. Basic statistics were used to determine the demographics, the content of the coaching conversations, and preferred coaching approaches. The main data sources were the coaches’ resumes, their reflections on goal-setting sessions, observation reports, and surveys on their daily coaching activities. Results indicated that effective coaches engaged in collaborative dialogue that moved candidates to self-directed learning. Similarly, these results described the pedagogical practices of effective coaches in terms of goal-setting with the candidates, basic mentoring, and demonstration teaching.
... Use of teaching vignettes, analysis of video taken during classroom instruction, analyzing students' work, and metacognitive analysis have all been shown effective in improving teachers' knowledge of science (Heller, Daehler, Wong, Shinohara and Miratrix 2012). In addition, co-teaching and cogenerative dialogues are useful in supporting both beginning teachers (Siry 2011) and experienced teachers (Martin 2006). These analytical tools support collaborative, focused, and deep analysis of teaching and learning; in addition, they should be used to reflect on changes or shifts in teachers' professional identities as knowledge of science teaching grows over the course of teachers' professional lives. ...
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This review explores Lucy Avraamidou’s “Stories we live, identities we build: how are elementary teachers’ science identities shaped by their lived experiences?” which is a multiple case study of the lived experiences of four beginning elementary teachers and the influence of these experiences on their identities as teachers of science. The strength of Avraamidou’s work lies in the way she characterizes participants’ experiences in terms of Figured Worlds. Her work elucidates the multiple, complex influences of personal and professional experiences on professional identity. I extend this conversation by arguing for professional learning that attends to identity work throughout the professional lives of science teachers so as to support professional growth and sustainable change to classroom practice. In this essay, I provide a set of recommendations for professional learning, which includes elucidating the multiple identities that comprise teachers’ professional identities, leveraging knowledge of teachers’ professional identities in professional learning, and blurring the boundaries between public–private and individual-collective forms of professional knowledge that influence teachers’ professional identities.
... In addition to K-12 classrooms, educators have also cogens in various other educational settings for different purposes. Cogens have been introduced in teacher education in university preservice programs to prepare future science teachers (Scantlebury et al. 2008;Siry and Martin 2014), train preservice teachers in informal science institutions (Gupta 2009), facilitate in-service teachers' professional development and evaluate program effectiveness (Martin and Scantlebury 2009), and facilitate dialogs between researchers and teachers to integrate theory and practice (Martin 2006). In an example of Bcogenerative mentoring^ (Harris et al. 2009), cogens were used to help doctoral students experience methodological learning in more authentic and effective ways. ...
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Internships in science research settings have received increasing attention as a means of helping students construct appropriate understandings, practices, tools, and language in scientific activities. To advance student–scientist partnerships beyond the status quo, the study aimed to investigate how cogenerative dialogs (cogens) may help high school students and scientists identify and address challenges collectively. The analysis identified nine major challenges discussed during cogens: (1) the quality and progress of scientific practice in laboratories, (2) the quality of scientists’/assistants’ instructions in classrooms, (3) the quality of student participation in classrooms and homework, (4) students’ absences, including arriving late or leaving early, (5) the quality of administrative support, (6) preparation for scientific presentations, (7) the process of deciding project topics, (8) students’ peer interactions and communication, and (9) students’ physiological needs. The three most salient challenges were “the quality and progress of scientific practice in laboratories” (39%), “the quality of scientists’/assistants’ instructions in classrooms” (20%), and “the quality of student participation in classrooms and homework” (17%). The study shows that cogens allowed students and scientists to agree on teaching modifications that positively influenced teaching and learning processes during the internship, such that issues were reduced from the beginning to the closing stages. Importantly, the challenges and solutions identified by students and scientists in this study provide accounts of first-hand experience as well as insights to aid program directors or coordinators in designing a learning environment that can foster effective practice for internships by avoiding the issues identified in the study.
... However, because the capacity for a teacher to be agentic within the classroom is dependent upon structures, existing both in the classroom field and the other fields in which the classroom is nested, we must also consider how schemas and resources that exist at the individual teacher level (micro), the classroom/school level (meso), and governmental/policy level (macro) all serve to constrain or afford science learning for CLD students. Identifying and understanding these structures at the micro and meso levels allows for the potential to transform them (Martin, 2006;Park, Martin, & Chu, 2015) through changes to structures at the macro level such as changes in governmental and educational policy and teacher education and professional development programs. This is because the structures in any field exist in a dialectical relationship with agency. ...
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This study employs sociocultural theory to describe organizational structures limiting or affording Korean teachers’ agency to effectively support culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) students to learn science. We draw from teachers’ responses (N = 336) to a previously developed and validated questionnaire called Korean Teachers’ Attitudes and Self-Efficacy for Inquiry and Language-based Teaching (K-TASILT) and excerpts from interviews with science teachers (N =4) to highlight structural factors affecting teachers’ ability to create inclusive science learning environments. Data was collected for one-year as part of a large mixed-methods study involving teachers, students, and parents from schools across Korea. Several factors, including language and cultural differences, affect on CLD students’ academic and social learning experiences. Although teachers have positive attitudes toward diversity and positive beliefs about CLD students, they have limited teaching efficacy for using language-based teaching strategies in science classrooms. They also had limited expectations for parental involvement and lacked professional development experiences. Reforms in policy and teacher education are needed to help teachers to access and appropriate resources (internal and external) for improving science teaching for CLD students.
... In the coevaluation and coplanning meetings, the participants exchange ideas and experiences through cogenerative dialogues, a form of a structured discourse where, in our case, the coteachers engage in identifying and implementing positive changes in classroom teaching and learning practices (Martin, 2007). Coteaching requires that teachers and coteachers with different personalities work closely as a team, and it is a demanding task to create successful coteaching partnerships. ...
Article
During the last decade there has been on-going discussions about students’ declining interest and low achievement in science. One of the reasons suggested for this decline is that teachers and students have different frames of reference, whereby teachers sometimes communicate science in the classroom in a way that is not accessible to the students. There is a lack of research investigating the effects of coteaching with senior students in science in upper secondary schools. To improve teaching and to narrow the gap between teachers’ and students’ different frames of references, this study investigates how an experienced chemistry teacher gains and refines her pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) by cooperating with two grade 12 students (age 18) as coteachers. The teacher and the two coteachers coplanned, cotaught and coevaluated lessons in chemical bonding in a grade 10 upper secondary class. Findings indicate that the coteachers contributed with their own learning experiences to help the teacher understand how students perceive difficult concepts. In such way, the coteachers were mediating between the teacher and the students, thus bridging the gap between the teacher and the students’ frames of references. The teachers’ PCK was refined which in turn lead to improved teaching strategies.
... Using the model researchers assessed science and English as Second Language (ESL) teachers' classroom practices and then supported teachers to reflect on these observations in conjunction with meetings between researchers and teachers in which video captured during science classrooms were viewed as participants discussed different components of the SIOP and RTOP protocols. Teachers and students were engaged in cogenerative dialogues, structured discussions (Martin, 2006) in which participants reflect on events shared in the classroom, often with a focus on replaying video clips from the classroom. The intent of these discussions was to improve science teaching and learning practices through collaborative reflection. ...
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We bring to the academic debate on place-based education (PBE – science), ecojustice, and indigenous knowledge a distinctly different perspective on the relationship between humans and their world. While contemporary conceptions of place tend to reinforce modern distinctions between subject and object, our conception of place, founded upon being, attempts to ameliorate these binary distinctions. Within the literature on PBE a variety of conceptions of place extend influence over the movement. The natural realm, that is, a physical location, orients early conceptions of place. Gradually, the veneer of the cultural realm has extended influence over place to include community. Presently, a sophisticated cultural realm considering complex social and political factors has extended place meaning. The literature review indicates little consideration of place from the ontological perspective. Our work explores the ontological realm through the philosophy of hermeneutic phenomenology – a philosophy premised upon human relationship with the world. Place conceptions inclusive of the ontological and the resulting influence they have on PBE movements have the potential to replace a traditional and prevailing form of knowledge as representation with a view of knowledge as a subspecies of a kind of thoughtful dealing with the world capitalizing on transcendent experiences with nature and our primordial capacity for care.
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In classrooms from kindergarten to graduate school, researchers have identified target students as students who monopolize material and human resources. Classroom structures that privilege the voice and actions of target students can cause divisive social dynamics that may generate cliques. This study focuses on the emergence of target students, the formation of cliques, and professors' efforts to mediate teacher learning in a Master of Science in Chemistry Education (MSCE) program by structuring the classroom environment to enhance nontarget students' agency. Specifically, we sought to answer the following question: What strategies could help college science professors enact more equitable teaching structures in their classrooms so that target students and cliques become less of an issue in classroom interactions? The implications for professional education programs in science and mathematics include the need for professors to consider the role and contribution of target students to the learning environment, the need to structure an equitable learning environment, and the need to foster critical reflection upon classroom interactions between students and instructors. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Res Sci Teach 43: 819–851, 2006
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Science education research has examined the benefits of coteaching for learning to teach in elementary and secondary school contexts where coteachers bring variable levels of experience to the work of coteaching. Coteaching as a pedagogical strategy is being implemented at the university level but with limited research. Drawing from the field of activity theory and our emic experience as coteachers, we examine the enactment of coteaching in university science education courses. One of the tools central to our examination of coteaching included the analysis of disturbances in the work and object of preparing science teachers. This analysis highlighted the role, during discursive interactions, of problem posing and problem solving for addressing observed disturbances. The presence of an extra instructor provided increased opportunities in the system for recognizing and valuing disturbances as indicators of underlying contradictions or tensions in elements of the activity system of the learning and teaching of science teachers. Our analysis suggests that coteaching offers expanded opportunities for the evolution of the activity system of preparing science teachers. KeywordsActivity theory–Coteaching–Science teacher education–Preservice science education
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In this chapter, we argue that intersectionality and cultural sociology can be used as complementary theoretical frameworks to gain multifaceted understandings about the learning needs of language minority (LM) and English language learner (ELL) students in science classrooms. By employing these frameworks, researchers can better understand the complex relationship between globalization and e|im|migration at global levels and the resulting impacts on school environments at local levels. We draw connections between international migration patterns and the impact on individual teachers, students, and communities in local contexts to illustrate some of the challenges facing teachers and students in linguistically and ethnically diverse science classrooms in two urban K-8 schools. We conclude this chapter by raising some questions related to policy, teacher practice, and science teacher education, which we feel are critical for promoting the academic success of LM/ELL students in K-12 science classrooms in the USA.
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Project-based learning has been suggested as an effective student-centered practice to teach science. However, how to assess students’ learning in project-based learning activities remains challenging because of its open-ended nature. In this study of high school students’ science internships, we demonstrated that cogenerative dialogs can serve as a formative assessment to improve teaching and learning in project-based learning activities. Cogenerative dialogs provided a safe and supportive space for respectful and equitable dialogs. In cogenerative dialogs, both instructors and students identified areas for improvements and brainstormed solutions as a team. As a result, students were empowered to speak up their voices and willing to take on the responsibility for their learning. The regular cogenerative dialogs became an effective form of formative assessments to improve both the teaching and learning involved in the science internships. By analyzing these cogenerative dialogs, we identified eight key strategies used by participants in cogenerative dialogs to justify and assess the internship teaching and learning. These key strategies may serve as a framework to observe how instruction revolutions and feedback are intertwined and how students become engaged in assessing themselves and their peers in formative assessments.
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In this paper, the pulse with modulation as switching strategy for neutral point type buck-boost converter is introduced. The proposed control strategy is implemented and applied to electronic ballast by using neutral point type buck boost converter. The circuit is composed from two ideal switches and Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor which in its common source configurations used as switching technique. Switching model is developed in Matlab/Simulink on order to control neutral point type buck boost converter. This has resulted to reduction in harmonics current. In realizing its effectiveness and performance, the proposed switching technique has been applied to electronics ballast and lamp. Results obtained from the study indicate that the proposed switching technique is feasible for further applications.
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This article presents the findings of a 3-year case study that examines the lasting effects of having participated in cogenerative dialogues during a 9th grade science experience. Theo, a high school student researcher of more than three years, affords insights into the expansion of human agency, attributing it to his consistent participation in and the ripple effects of cogenerative dialogues. Three vignettes that underscore the value created by (a) coteaching with a high school science teacher, (b) being a peer tutor and (c) creating an inter-grade school wide curriculum project are examined as Theo moves through 10th and 11th grades. This study provides insights into how students who have traditionally participated in science peripherally can access structures that enable them to contribute to their own learning and the learning of others centrally and in substantive ways. Educators can learn and take away from this study feasible means by which students and teachers can work together to transform students’ science identities and teachers’ perceptions of what students can do with their newfound science agency.
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This paper presents an approach to preservice science teacher education coupling video analysis with dialogue as tools for fostering teachers. ability to notice and reflexively interpret events captured during teaching practicum with the intent of transforming classroom practice. In this approach, video becomes a tool with which teachers connect theory and practice, and through dialogue, develop an appreciation for how one can inform the other. Specifically, we explore the role of cogenerative dialogue in structuring individual reflection and ongoing dialogue that help facilitate reflexivity. In doing so, we elaborate on the construct of reflexivity as a potential foundation for changing practices in the science classroom and we illustrate the ways in which reflexivity and action emerged from dialogic encounters around video analysis. We draw implications about the need for innovative teaching strategies, research initiatives, and changes in science teacher education
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Gender differences in science achievement and participation have decreased in the past three decades. Despite calls from science educators for a more refined analysis of gender differences that include other social categories such as race, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, religion and sexuality, there is little information on how these factors, along with a student’s gender, impact her/his learning, attitudes toward science, achievement, and/or participation in science. Further, although previous research has documented how teachers’ practices and instruction can mediate students’ learning, we have yet to examine in detail how teachers’ expectations for students and pedagogical practices are nuanced by gender. Black feminists have challenged researchers to utilize intersectionality to explore how power, identity, and ideology across time and space impact gendered experiences and circumstances. In this chapter, I present a review of recent studies in gender and science education and propose future directions for gender research in science education.
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In this chapter we highlight the use of cogenerative dialogue (cogen) as a collaborative instructional approach to teaching and learning science in a tenth grade high school chemistry course and a community college introductory level biology course. Both courses take place within the context of different public urban institutions in New York City.
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The purpose of this study is to explore secondary students` progression in group norms and argumentation competency through collaborative reflection about small group argumentation. The progression is identified as the development of group norms and an epistemic understanding of argumentation with the enhancement of group argumentation competency during collaborative reflection and argumentation lessons. Participants were four first grade middle school students who have different academic achievements and learning approaches. They participated in ten argumentation lessons related to photosynthesis and in seven collaborative reflections. As a result, the students` group norms related to participation were developed, and the students` epistemic understanding of argumentation was enhanced. Furthermore, the students` group argumentation competencies, identified as argumentation product and argumentation process, were advanced. As the collaborative reflection and argumentation lessons progressed, statements related to rebuttal increased and different students suggested a range of evidence with which to justify their claims or to rebut others` arguments. These findings will give a better idea of how to present an apt application of argumentation to science teachers and science education researchers.
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The Authenticity Criteria (AC) were established by Egon Guba and Yvonne Lincoln in 1989 in order to judge the authenticity of qualitative research and in this chapter, we discuss how we enact the AC in our science education research. These criteria were developed in response to the positivistic assumptions of internal and external validity, reliability, and generalizability that guide quantitative research and often extend to the assessment of qualitative research. The AC are responsive to research paradigms that recognize subjectivity and context-dependent structures that mediate research outcomes. Such research requires a hermeneutic/dialogic approach to place the researcher in the context and in doing so, requires her to be aware and reflective of how stakeholders are experiencing and interpreting their lived experiences in relation to the research context. Keeping true to the dialogic spirit of the AC, in this chapter we weave theoretical perspectives together with dialogic exchanges between the co-authors that aim at building a collective understanding of the AC enacted in science education research as well as offer spaces for extending existing AC, to mirror the needs of emergent research spaces and practices.
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Central to criticisms of teacher professional development is an insufficient focus on its impact including minimal evidence of changes to practice coupled with inadequate emphasis on student outcomes. This year-long study of one case study school investigates the impact of a seven-month professional development initiative designed to support teachers in implementing a reform approach to mathematics teaching. Data sources include teacher interviews, lesson observations, student focus group interviews, and document reviews. Findings suggest initially impoverished mathematics experiences that later begin to show signs of enrichment. Students’ insights into changing practice indicate that students want to be challenged more in mathematics and experience this challenge in inclusive learning environments where all students are valued and supported. A key finding is the effectiveness of student insights in increasing teachers’ engagement with the professional development initiative and in motivating teachers’ engagement in, and commitment to, the reform process. These findings highlight the complexity of the teacher change process, in particular, how cognitive dissonance plays a key role in changing practice. Central to creating this cognitive dissonance were students’ insightful perspectives about learning mathematics. This research contends that student voice can provide unique context-specific insights yet is under-utilised in professional development theory and practice.
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This paper focuses on an in-service senior high school Japanese teacher of English (JTE) with limited teaching experience and her struggle to teach English through English (TETE) as outlined by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) in the current Course of Study. The steps taken as a more experienced teacher (the author), assuming the role of mentor, guided her through the rigorous process of self-reflection are presented. This case study takes an interpretive and exploratory approach by collecting data through the use of action research (AR) a teacher development framework which is interventionist in principle. It is focused on providing a deeper understanding of the realities of in-service JTEs who are actively trying to pursue their professional development through such things as on-site teacher development projects, co-generative dialogue, and volunteering to participate in research studies like this one. One of the major goals of this study was to empower the JTE by guiding her through the cyclical process of self-reflection and revision.
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In the course of our collaborative research we had evolved cogenerative dialoguing and metaloguing as forms of doing and writing research. In this contribution, we exemplify these ways of being in the world of qualitative research, drawing on these forms as processes to construct our text and, reflexively, as forms of representing the products of these processes. They therefore also constitute a form of collective remembering in which the voices of participants endure on their own rather than disappearing in the voice of a collective author.
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In education research, a polar distinction is frequently made to describe and produce different kinds of research: quantitative versus qualitative. In this article, the authors argue against that polarization and the associated polarization of the “subjective” and the “objective,” and they question the attribution of generalizability to only one of the poles. The purpose of the article is twofold: (a) to demonstrate that this polarization is not meaningful or productive for education research, and (b) to propose an integrated approach to education research inquiry. The authors sketch how such integration might occur by adopting a continuum instead of a dichotomy of generalizability. They then consider how that continuum might be related to the types of research questions asked, and they argue that the questions asked should determine the modes of inquiry that are used to answer them.
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This critical ethnographic study employed the use of cogenerative dialogue (Roth & Tobin, 2002) as a means to allow participants of a science classroom to reflect on and transform classroom structures while at the same time create opportunities for all stakeholders to develop collective responsibility for teaching and learning. The research was situated in a science classroom in an inner city charter high school that was both a challenging place for the teacher (Jen Beers) and an oppressive place for the students as all struggled to reconcile issues related to power hierarchies and significant differences in social and cultural histories. As a result, cultural misinterpretations and the undervaluing of students' cultural capital served as a foundation for learning. This study examined the various fields and forms of practice that created opportunities for refining teaching practices and at the same time afforded the development of collective responsibility by addressing the roles, identities and agency of all classroom participants. Specifically, I asked the following questions: (1) How can co-generative dialogue can be used to involve all classroom participants in creating a learning community? (2) How does this shape the identities and roles of the participants who were involved? and (3) How do the changed roles and practices lead toward science fluency? The framework of cultural sociology, specifically the dialectical relationship of structure and agency, interaction ritual theory (Collins, 2003) and research on dispositions (Boykin, 1986), provided analytic tools to investigate the practices of the various stakeholders and the classroom structures as well as the historical and cultural contexts surrounding them. Multiple data resources such as field notes, videotape, interviews and artifacts were drawn on from two fields (the science classroom and cogenerative dialogues) to elicit and support findings at micro, meso and macroscopic levels. The major findings of the study reveal that the transformation of the classroom, and consequently teacher and student practices, were recursively tied to the conversations members held in the cogenerative dialogues. The evolving classroom structures afforded individuals and community members a variety of dispositions (e.g., orality, affect, communalism, verve, movement, and expressive individualism) from which to access and employ in producing, reproducing, and transforming culture in and out of the science classroom.
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Coteaching/cogenerative dialoguing: Learning environments research as classroom praxis Cogenerative dialoguing and metaloguing: Reflexivity of processes and genres [35 paragraphs]
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The who, what, where, and how of our ethnographic research
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Coteaching/cogenerative dialoguing: Learning environments research as classroom praxis
  • W.-M Roth
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National science education standards
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