Article

Community based natural resource Management in zimbabwe: The experience of CAMPFIRE

WWF Southern Africa Regional Programme Office 10 Lanark Road Belgravia Harare Zimbabwe
Biodiversity and Conservation (Impact Factor: 2.37). 09/2009; 18(10):2563-2583. DOI: 10.1007/s10531-009-9612-8

ABSTRACT

Communal Areas Management Programme for Indigenous Resources (CAMPFIRE) is a long-term programmatic approach to rural development
that uses wildlife and other natural resources as a mechanism for promoting devolved rural institutions and improved governance
and livelihoods. The cornerstone of CAMPFIRE is the right to manage, use, dispose of, and benefit from these resources. Between
1989 and 2006, CAMPFIRE income, mostly from high valued safari hunting, totalled nearly USD

30 million, of which 52 allocated to sub-district wards and villages for community projects and household benefits. Whilst a number of assumptions underlying the success of CAMPFIRE as an innovative model for CBNRM have yet to be met, CAMPFIRE confirms the concept that devolving responsibility and accountability for natural resource management can be highly effective for the collective and participatory management of such resources. Elephant numbers in CAMPFIRE areas have increased and buffalo numbers are either stable or decreased slightly during the life of the programme. However, offtake quotas for these two species have increased with a concomitant decline in trophy quality. Although the amount of wildlife habitat diminished after 1980, following the commencement of CAMPFIRE the rate of habitat loss slowed down and in some specific instances was even reversed. More recently there has been increased pressure on habitats and other natural resources as a consequence of deteriora����»���

30 million, of which 52% was
allocated to sub-district wards and villages for community projects and household benefits. Whilst a number of assumptions
underlying the success of CAMPFIRE as an innovative model for CBNRM have yet to be met, CAMPFIRE confirms the concept that
devolving responsibility and accountability for natural resource management can be highly effective for the collective and
participatory management of such resources. Elephant numbers in CAMPFIRE areas have increased and buffalo numbers are either
stable or decreased slightly during the life of the programme. However, offtake quotas for these two species have increased
with a concomitant decline in trophy quality. Although the amount of wildlife habitat diminished after 1980, following the
commencement of CAMPFIRE the rate of habitat loss slowed down and in some specific instances was even reversed. More recently
there has been increased pressure on habitats and other natural resources as a consequence of deteriorating socio-economic
conditions in the country. Where devolution has been successful, promising results have been achieved and the recent acceptance
and implementation of direct payments to communities is probably the most significant development since 2000. That this has
happened can be attributed to CAMPFIRE enabling communities to maximize their roles within the existing set of rules, and
by so doing, allowing these rules to be challenged. Donor (73%) and government (27%) investments into the programme amounted
to 35 million during the period 1989 to 2003. Since 2003 however, donor funding has been reduced to <$600,000 over the past
5years.

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    • "The communities now manage the land under a contractual agreement with the government, and retain the rights to commercial development such as tourist lodges (Grossman & Holden, 2009). Raising funds to allow communities to buy shareholdings in SVC would enhance community participation in the conservancy and allow them to benefit either through paying dividends to community members or by funding community projects such as schools, clinics or irrigation projects (Taylor, 2009a). Another option is to expand private reserves to include community land. "
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    ABSTRACT: Large carnivores are decreasing in number due to growing pressure from an expanding human population. It is increasingly recognised that state-protected conservation areas are unlikely to be sufficient to protect viable populations of large carnivores, and that private land will be central to conservation efforts. In 2000, a fast-track land reform programme (FTLRP) was initiated in Zimbabwe, ostensibly to redress the racial imbalance in land ownership, but which also had the potential to break up large areas of carnivore habitat on private land. To date, research has focused on the impact of the FTLRP process on the different human communities, while impacts on wildlife have been overlooked. Here we provide the first systematic assessment of the impact of the FTLRP on the status of large carnivores. Spoor counts were conducted across private, resettled and communal land use types in order to estimate the abundance of large carnivores, and to determine how this had been affected by land reform. The density of carnivore spoor differed significantly between land use types, and was lower on resettlement land than on private land, suggesting that the resettlement process has resulted in a substantial decline in carnivore abundance. Habitat loss and high levels of poaching in and around resettlement areas are the most likely causes. The FTLRP resulted in the large-scale conversion of land that was used sustainably and productively for wildlife into unsustainable, unproductive agricultural land uses. We recommended that models of land reform should consider the type of land available, that existing expertise in land management should be retained where possible, and that resettlement programmes should be carefully planned in order to minimise the impacts on wildlife and on people.
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    • ") and also the year in which CAMPFIRE was implemented in Zimbabwe (Child 1996; Taylor 2009). More detailed description of the CAMPFIRE programme are provided elsewhere (Child 2000; Gandiwa et al. 2013a; Martin 1986). "
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    ABSTRACT: Myths and metaphors that occur in media frames play an important role in influencing public perceptions of an issue in times of war, political conflict, crisis and disaster. This, in turn, influences policy makers and (inter)national assistance and aid programmes. We investigated whether a metaphoric spill-over of frames used in connection with political events could explain the misrepresentation in the framing of wildlife conservation. Zimbabwe experienced a severe political conflict and economic downturn in 2000 when land reforms took place. We analysed newspaper articles on Zimbabwe's wildlife conservation published between 1989 and 2010 from newspapers in Zimbabwe, the United Kingdom and the United States of America. We selected three issues about wildlife conservation in Zimbabwe in the local and international media, namely, the ivory ban, rhino protection, and Communal Areas Management Programme for Indigenous Resources to investigate the spill-over effect. Our results show that in the 1990s, the majority of newspaper articles highlighted that wildlife conservation in Zimbabwe was largely successful. However, two major changes occurred after 2000 following the land reforms in Zimbabwe. First, the international media showed little interest in wildlife conservation in Zimbabwe as evidenced by a sharp decline in published articles and second, the frames changed in the international media with the "political unrest and land reform" blame frame becoming more dominant. This transition in reporting, frames, and low frame parity shows that there was a spill-over effect of political frames into wildlife conservation following Zimbabwe's land reforms in 2000. Metaphoric spill-over effects may thus create myths in the readership, in turn influencing policy-derived actions in a sector that is not or poorly related to the actual disaster.
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    • "Consequently, integrated approaches that recognize the interconnectedness of social and ecological systems and attempts to link science, policy and societal goals through interdisciplinary methods of problem solving and multi-stakeholder decision making have been suggested to be important in promoting conservation and development (Mishra et al. 2009). For example, it has been reported that the rate of illegal hunting has decreased since the inception of the CAMPFIRE programmes in some areas in Zimbabwe as a result of direct benefits from wildlife resources and an increase in antipoaching activities in the areas with CAMPFIRE programmes (Child 1996; Taylor 2009). Animal abundance data in GNP support the perception that animal populations have been increasing and/or maintaining their populations in recent years (Dunham et al. 2010; Gandiwa 2012; Gandiwa et al. 2013b; Zisadza et al. 2010). "
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